This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Meaning and Definition of Leadership
Leadership is the factor that helps individuals and groups to achieve the goal. It is the process of influencing and supporting employees or others to work enthusiastically toward achieving the objectives. “Leadership is a process of influencing people to direct their efforts towards the attainment of some particular goal or goals.” According to Harry Truman, “Leadership is the ability to get other people to do what they don’t want to do and like it.” According to Chester Barnard, “Leadership is the ability of a superior to influence the behavior of his subordinates and persuade them to follow a particular course of action.” According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.” According to George R. Terry, “Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives.” Thus, leadership is the process of influencing the activities of an individual or group for goal achievement in a given situation.
Characteristics of Leadership
An analysis of the above definitions of leadership reveals that it has the following characteristics: i) Leadership is a Process of Influence: Leadership is a process whose important ingredient is the influence exercised by the leader on group members. A person is said to have an influence over others when they are willing to carry out his wishes and accept his advice, guidance and direction. Successful leaders are able to influence the behavior, attitudes and beliefs of their followers. ii) Leadership is Related to a Situation: When we talk of leadership, it is always related to a particular situation, at a given point of time and under a specific set of circumstances. That means leadership styles will be different under different circumstances. iii) Leadership is the Function of Stimulation: Leadership is the function of motivating people to strive willingly to attain organizational objectives. Leaders are considered successful when they are able to subordinate the individual interests of the employees to the general interests of the organization. iv) Leadership Gives an Experience of Helping Attain the Common Objectives: Under successful leadership, every person in the organization feels that his operation, however minor it may be, is vital to the attainment of organizational objectives. It happens when the manager feels the importance of individuals gives them recognition and tells them about the importance of activities performed by them. v) Employees Must be Satisfied with the Type of Leadership Provided: Only short-term productivity of employees can be increased by pressure and punishment. This approach is not in the long-term interests of the organization. Force generates counter-force which results in a decreased long-term productivity. Longterm interests of the organization are best served when managers allow subordinates to influence their behavior, particularly when subordinates are knowledgeable and competent. The above characteristics of leadership functions hold good in any organization whether it be a political, religious, business or any other organization.
B - 130
Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior)
Nature of Leadership
i) Performance: The performance of a leader directly influences the leader also. If he asks his employees to come on time, he himself has to reach the workplace on time. The workers follow his behavior and functions automatically. The leader's performance itself guides and motivates the employees. Communication: Leadership starts with communication either by deeds or words. The followers can develop themselves by observing and accepting the work or verbal communication of a leader. Although work communication is more effective, verbal communication is also influential. Formal and informal communication, written and oral communication and personal and impersonal communications have their respective influences. So, a leader must use the communication appropriate to a particular situation.
iii) Influence: A leader must have the capacity to influence others. Without influencing others, a leader cannot function at all. He influences others morally and socially by using strong communication. The outcome of a communication is influence. iv) Power Base: The influence depends on the power base enjoyed by the leaders. There are five bases of power, viz. coercion, reward, legitimate, expert and reference. When a person threatens others to work it is coercion. But, coercive power has no permanent influence. It gives rise to negative feelings, and hostility is developed between the leader and his followers. Reward power as against coercive power impels to motivate and award employees who have done some commendable tasks. Legitimate power is derived from the position. Since the leader is a manager, he can influence the employees. His position has the power. Expert power is possessed by expert and technically qualified persons. The knowledge, skill and behavioral command are the given power base to influence others. Referent power is possessed by a person because of his exceptional qualities. v) Interaction: The relationship between two persons is essentially desired in the management. In public and politics, leadership does not require a relationship. It is merely the interaction between two parties. Without interaction, no one is a leader or a follower. vi) Acceptance: The power base and interaction are accepted by followers. If the influence is not recognized and not accepted by the follower, leadership does not take place in an organization. The behavior of the follower is changed and developed by the acceptance of the power of leadership. vii) Followers: Leadership has followers. The link between a leader and his followers is communication. Influencing others is leadership. So, there must be others who are being influenced to attain the objectives of the organization. Followers are the end-users of the leadership through interaction and communication. viii) Situation: Leadership is visible in a situation. In routine and regular functions, leadership is not required. In some situations and specific environment leadership is a must to guide the people to attain certain objectives. New ideas and motivational attitudes are developed by the leaders who inspire people to solve their problems. In a particular situation, people or workers may face certain acute problems and are unable to find a solution. ix) Attributes: Leadership is the attribute of a leader. The qualities of a leader are specific. The main quality of a leader is to influence others. In a situation, a leader can influence others. But the qualities needed for influencing others are personality, skills and charismatic influence. Leadership has its own personality.
Importance/ Function of Leadership
The significance of leadership in management will be clear if we study the functions which are performed by a leader. The functions are as follows: 1) Determination of Goals: A leader performs the creative function of laying down goals and policies for the group he is leading. He also acts as a guide in interpreting the goals and policies. 2) Organization of Activities: A good leader divides organization activities among the employees in a systematic manner. The relationships between them are clearly laid down. This reduces the chances of conflict between them. 3) Achieving Coordination: A leader integrates the goals of the individuals with the organizational goals and creates a community of interests. He keeps himself informed about the working of the group. He shares information with pthe group for the coordination of its efforts. 4) Representation of Workers: A leader is a representative of his group. He takes initiative in all matters of interest to the group. He also attempts to fulfil the psychological needs of his followers. 5) Providing Guidance: A leader guides the subordinates towards the achievement of organizational objectives. He is available for advice whenever a subordinate faces any problem.
Numerous extraneous activities and affiliations take up the bulk of his time and satiate his needs. He maintains voluntary cooperation and discipline among followers. or take up production of alternative goods and services. The leader shapes the thinking and attitudes of the group. Leadership operates in both organized and unorganized groups. These extraorganizational activities influence human behavior at work and changes in these activities necessitate changes in work settings. Reverse to this. Dynamic leadership is the corner-stone of organizational change. Further. 2) Technological. introducing unique experience and personality in the organization. Leadership functions come under directing through which behavior is directed to get maximum use of subordinate’s ability. there arises an urgent need to make some change within the organization itself. Thus. causes changes in members’ nature and level of needs and motives. 4) Nature of Human Memberships: The significance of leadership also stems from the nature of human membership in organizational settings. a manager is more than a leader Process of managing group (organized) for specific reason. coordination and control work at all levels. An effective leader is able to overcome resistance to change on the part of workers and thus facilitates change. the organization is required to effect suitable changes in its operations and style. staffing. This implies that a strong leader can be a weak manager because he is weak in planning or some other managerial duty. A leader exercises his influence over the followers through the use of informal authority or power.Leadership (Chapter 2. A manager makes use of formal (or official) authority to direct the subordinates. Moreover. Economic and Social Changes: In the face of rapid technological. Thus. If these changes come into conflict with the desired behavior in an organization. economic and social changes.131 6) Inspiration of Employees: A good leader inspires the subordinates for better performance. Only an effective leadership can steer the organization through such situations. Management operates in a formal structure of organization. All these changes demand adaptation on the part of the organization which is accomplished with the aid of people in leadership roles. Leadership is only a part of the manager’s jobs.4) B . 3) Internal Imbalance Inspired by Growth: As an organization grows in size and complexity. He develops good human relations and facilitates interactions among the members of the group. but not all of it. leadership is a part of management. thus adding to complexity of the organization structure. This explains the existence of informal groups within the framework of a formal organization. there is individual change and development stemming from maturity. directing and controlling. in the event of a fall in demand. organizing. Human membership in an organization involves only a part of the individual. 8) Facilitating Change: Leadership is the mechanism to convince workers about the need for change. Manager performs all five functions of management – planning. it may discontinue production of certain goods and services. For example. manager can be a weak leader and still be an acceptable manager. Only an effective leadership can enable it to meet the challenges posed by environmental factors. Need for Leadership 1) Imperfect Organization Structure: It is not possible for any organization structure to provide for all kinds of relationships. there is turnover and replacement. and problems of command. Formal and informal leaders can coexist in an organization. . Motivation is necessary for getting the desired work from the subordinates. especially if he happens to be managing people who have strong inner achievement drives. Leadership Leadership is a part of management and not all of it. There is no concept of informal manager. The leader motivates the employees by providing them economic and non-economic rewards. age and assimilation of experience which. in turn. For example. 7) Building Employees’ Morale: Good leadership is indispensable for high employee morale. People forming an organization are members of several organizations. 2) 3) 4) Definition Authority Structure 5) Function Process of influencing behavior of individual or group regardless of reason. Difference between Management and Leadership Basis 1) Scope Management Management is a wider term. increase in organizational activities may lead to increase in the levels of management. it may develop certain imbalances.
For Example: A new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. Situation Follower Leader Communication 3) Communication: He leads through two-way communication. Informal and Formal Leaders Formal Leader: Formal leader is a member of organization who has given authority by virtue of his position to influence other members of organization to achieve organizational goals. directors are formal leaders in a typical organization.B . desires and behavior of his subordinates and show respect for such desires. Some of these characteristics are: i) ii) Ability to Inspire Others: This ability may be due to an internal "charisma" that is an inborn trait and may not be a learnable factor. leader have to convince his followers. To be successful. The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature. such as needs. possess positive attitude. some of the factors such as education and socio-economic status are poor indicators of judgments of successful leaders. Examples of forces are leader relationship with his seniors. has formal job description. Formal leader has official responsibility towards organizational goals. motivates others and puts effort to drive organizational goals. calm. It pertains to good adjustment to life. Also. Much of it is nonverbal. They must use their judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. Even though. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader. . too harsh or too weak. Informal leaders possess strong self-motivation. Leader must know his people. Formal leader is officially bind to drive members towards organizational goal and is responsible for results or outcome of efforts at the end. the skill of his people. Informal leaders are best candidates for future formal leaders. Various forces will affect these factors. For instance. Problem Solving Skills: An effective leader has developed the patience and ability to look at the problem from various angles and get down to the cause of the problem and he tries to solve the problem from its roots rather than the symptoms of the problem. For Example: Leader may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior. note that it is the followers. some behavioral characteristics may be common to most of the successful and effective leaders. What they do in one situation will not always work in another. What and how he communicates either builds or harms the relationship between leader and his employees. Informal leader do not have official commitment towards group’s goal or organization goal and may not be directly responsible for final results and may not be accountable for it. They are also called Natural leaders. cool and calculated reaction to undesirable situations and obstacles and normal acceptance of success as well as failure. However. and what you can do. that they are worthy of being followed. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. then the results may prove ineffective. and how Leader Company is organized. iii) Emotional Maturity: Emotional stability and maturity is a major ingredient for effective leadership. He must give credit to subordinates when their efforts are successful. He is emotionally supportive and is careful enough to avoid ego threatening behavior. not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. Quality of a Successful Leader/ Skills of a Successful Leader Leadership is an intangible quality and its effectiveness can best be judged by the behavior and attitudes of followers. emotions.132 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Components of Leadership 1) Follower: Different people require different styles of leadership. Informal Leader: An informal leader has no formal organizational authority to influence others but possesses special skills and talent to influence and lead other members of organization. and motivation. 4) Situation: All are different. Managers. but if the confrontation is too late or too early. iv) Ability to Understand Human Behavior: A leader must understand the needs. 2) Leader: There must be an honest understanding of who you are. personal backgrounds and personalities differ widely. when he set the example that communicates to his people that would not ask them to perform anything. Informal leader might not have formal job description to lead and motivate others and job description might be limited to certain task. the informal leaders within his organization. what you know. then they will be uninspired.
x) Responsibility: A leader should be a responsible person and must be willing to assume responsibility for the consequences. iii) Human Resource Management: This activity contains the most behavioral categories. even though they may be operative factors. Its observed behaviors include answering procedural questions. routine financial reporting and bookkeeping. They must accept and seek new challenges. and manufacturing plants. resolving conflict between work group members. the risks must be calculated ones and outcomes of actions be reasonably predicted. ix) Foresight and Vision: He should have the capability to look forward and anticipate the events. and walking work group members through a task. Activities of Successful and Effective Leaders/Managers Fred (Luthans) and his colleagues conducted a comprehensive study to answer three major questions: 1) What do managers do? 2) What do successful managers do? and 3) What do effective managers do? Answers to these questions can provide insights and specific descriptions of the daily activities of successful (those promoted relatively rapidly in their organizations) and effective (those with satisfied and committed subordinates and high-performing units) managers or leaders. never makes a leader. defining problems. conveying the results of meetings. a newspaper office. conveying appreciation. appealing to higher authorities or third parties to resolve a dispute. moral courage. clarifying roles. He must be willing to tolerate frustration and defeat and learn from these failures. goals and objectives by hard work and self-sacrifice. Its observed behaviors include setting goals and objectives. no matter how well-done. staffing. Briefly summarized. giving or receiving routine information over the phone. managing conflict. interprets clearly and concisely are necessary to consider the problems in the right perspective. reading reports. Successful leaders always charter the unknown. breadth and determination. The observed behaviors for this activity include allocating formal rewards. and training/developing. these activities are as follows: i) Communication: This activity consists of exchanging routine information and processing paperwork.133 v) Willingness to Take Risks: Routine work. and controlling.4) B . developing new procedures. hospitals. . He should have a high degree of imagination. Sound physique includes physical stamina. scheduling employees. listening to suggestions. financial institutions. and general desk work. disciplining/punishing. providing group support. monitoring performance data. Because it was not generally permitted to be observed. Should these risks result in failure. decision making. providing routine instructions. arranging for training. analyzes accurately. inspecting work. viii) Sound Physique: Sound physical and mental health is essential to bear the burden of leadership. These included retail stores. walking around inspecting the work. developing job descriptions. and doing preventive maintenance. assigning tasks. processing mail. ii) Traditional Management: This activity consists of planning. vi) Dedication to Organizational Goals: A leader must demonstrate his dedication and commitment to the organization's mission.Leadership (Chapter 2. mentoring. corporate headquarters. interviewing applicants. motivating/reinforcing. coaching. giving credit where due. asking for input. Mental ability to think precisely. mental vigor and important leadership qualities. the disciplining/punishing category was subsequently dropped from the analysis. defining tasks needed to accomplish goals. a leader must take full blame and responsibility and not shift blame on others. reviewing applications. filling in where needed. However. nervous energy. giving positive feedback. What Do Managers Do? The so-called “Real Managers Study” first used trained observers to freely observe and record for one varied hour per day over a two-week period the behaviors and activities of 44 managers from all levels and types of Midwest organizations. orienting employees. writing reports/memos/letters. He must make sure that his followers fully understand the organizational objectives and are equally dedicated and willing to work for these objectives. vii) Intelligence: A successful leader must have above average knowledge and intelligence. a railroad. receiving and disseminating requested information. insurance companies. handling day-to-day operational crises deciding what to do. government agencies.
In all Of the four major it was clear that human resource Human Resources (20%) Routine Communication (29%) Figure: Relative Distribution of Managers Activities What does this mean? It means that in this study of real managers. and controlling or to the human resource management activities of motivating/reinforcing. politicking and gamesmanship. training/developing. griping. although being successful as opposed to effective may seem less desirable to the organization. and vendors. a manager at the fourth level of management who had been with the organization for five years would be rated more successful than a manager at the third level who had been at that level for 25 years. only networking had a statistically significant relationship with success. decision making. networking seems to be the key to success (as defined by rapid promotion). and managing conflict. and ii) Getting the job done through people. management activities made the least relative contribution. Networking (19%) Traditional Management (32%) conducted. and putting others down. the successful managers did not give relatively as much time or attention to the traditional management activities of planning. for the managers in this study. requiring their satisfaction and commitment. What does Successful Managers Do? Important though it is to get an empirical answer to the basic question of what leaders/managers do. Bedeian and Armenakis note what they call the “cesspool syndrome. importantly.134 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) iv) Networking: This activity consists of socializing/politicking and interacting with outsiders. To overcome as many of the obstacles and disagreements as possible. this was an objective and useful measure. it may be part of an effective career strategy.” in which organizations in decline lose their best employees first. complaining. networking made the biggest relative contribution to manager success and. Perhaps equally important. from an individual manager’s perspective. informal joking around. attending external meetings.” which then floats to the top. for a sample of the managers. suppliers. and the grapevine. It should be noted that many managers aspire to success rather than being effective. politicking. Thus. In other words. a standardized organizational effectiveness questionnaire that measures the unit’s quality and quantity of performance. the study used a combined effectiveness index that represented the two major—and generally agreed upon—criteria of both leadership theory/research and practice: i) Getting the job done through high quantity and quality standards of performance. Overall. hearsay.B . The observed behaviors associated with this activity include non-work-related chitchat. Success was defined in terms of the speed of promotion within an organization. This multiple-measures index was employed in the study to answer the most important question of what effective managers do. staffing. To answer the question of what successful managers do. of even greater interest is determining what successful and effective leaders/managers do. It was found that communication and human resource management activities made by . the importance of networking in real manager’s success was very apparent. In particular. discussing rumors. it was found that successful managers spend relatively more time and effort socializing. What Do Effective Managers Do? Although the operational measure of success used in the study was empirical and direct. several types of analyses were these analyses. dealing with customers. Obviously. and interacting with outsiders than did their less-successful counterparts. but for the large sample of managers. there are some potential problems with such a measure of success. and organizational commitment questionnaire were used. and doing/attending community service events. using speed of promotion as the measure of success. job satisfaction questionnaire. the definition and measurement of effectiveness offers little agreement on criteria or measures. One reason is that personal pride and mobility is at stake. activities. Consequently. A success index on the sample in the study was calculated by dividing the managers’ levels in their respective organizations by their tenure (length of service) there. leaving behind the “dreck.
On the other hand. That means a strong leader can be a weak manager because he is weak in planning or some other managerial duty. usually. Cornerstones of Effective Leaders The seven cornerstones of effective leadership: 1) Goals and Vision: Leadership consists of three pillars—leaders. It is the process of stimulating members of the group towards a particular I direction. Networking activity had by far the strongest relative relationship to success. Once the overall vision is defined and the goals are understood—the goals need to be broken down into sub-goals for each section and each level of the group. With clearly understood goals and an overall vision to work for. to keep quiet so that others may talk. but the weakest to effectiveness. He consults and seeks advice.6 An individual is a leader in the true sense if he is accepted as a leader by the group and there is communication between the leader and the followers. He depends on his authority. it should not be confused with a mere activity. He believes in “We” and “You”. Aggressiveness and constant interaction with others do not necessarily develop leadership. but all we ask of a leader is that he gets others to follow. Many organizations today employ the balanced scorecard as an effective tool to cascade top level goals. He fixes blames and finds faults. of course. Effective leaders are known for their capability to articulate the organization’s vision and goals in a manner which is understood by the followers. The reverse is also possible. But. especially if he happens to manage people who have strong inner achievement drives. In other words. He solves problems. A manager is required to plan and organize. leadership action has to stay in the background keeping pressures off the group. but not all of it. A manager can be a weak leader and still be an acceptable manager. Another interesting finding from this part of the study alluded to earlier. many outstanding loaders have. An effective leader knows how to enable and empower the team so that the team can work independently. is in stark contrast to the results of the successful manager analysis. Strong is of the opinion that leadership in business is not synonym of the boss. if effectiveness is defined as the perceived quantity and quality of the performance of a manager’s unit and his or her work group members’ satisfaction and commitment. He makes the following distinctions between the two terms as given in Exhibit Manager vs. He knows all the answers He makes the work drudgery He believes in “I” The Leader He coaches and advises. was that the least relative contribution to the managers’ measured effectiveness came from the networking activity. the successful managers in this study did not perform the same activities as the effective managers (in fact. been exceedingly poor managers. Earl P. human resource management activities had a strong relationship to effectiveness (second only to human-oriented communication activities) but had the weakest relative relationship to success. However. it is essential that a person to be an effective manager must also be an effective leader. then the biggest relative contribution to leadership effectiveness comes from the human-oriented activities—communication and human resource management.135 far the largest relative contribution to the managers’ effectiveness and that the traditional management activities. for example. A person lacking in one of these factors cannot be called a leader as he cannot lead the people. He inspires enthusiasm. because sometimes. In other words. This is also the first step towards effective leadership. Leader 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) The Boss (Manager) He drives and orders. This. Leadership is something a person does.Leadership (Chapter 2. Leaders vs. followers and goals. He depends on his confidence and goodwill. He engenders fear. This explains why although a good manager must be an effective leader. The fact that he can get others to follow him is no guarantee that he is going in the right direction. in fact.4) B . and especially the networking activities. to hesitate and to delay decisions. Leadership exists when both these factors are present in a particular situation. the team’s ability to deliver increases if they feel empowered to act. be calm in times of uproar. Leadership is a part of management. These contrasting profiles may have significant implications for understanding the performance problems facing today’s organizations. 2) Empowerment: The team is an extension of the leadership. All work performed by a leader may not be management work. . He makes the work a game. Manager Leadership is the ability to enthuse the followers towards a definite goal. made by far the least relative contribution. they did almost the opposite).
capable of taking the organization to greater heights when the leader will not be around. which a leader adopts in influencing the behavior of his followers (subordinates) in the organizational context. This is how to differentiate between a ‘good’ and a ‘great’ leader. 2) Styles based on the relative emphasis placed on the task to be performed versus that placed on people. Any major project takes years to execute and unfortunately. Defining and rewarding stretch goals is a good way of finding and rewarding excellence within the team. An effective leader knows that by continuing to do what has been done so far. The effective leader does not play safe but is always looking for new ways to do old things. the humility to explore our self. Leadership Styles and Their Application Leadership style refers to a leader’s behavior.136 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) A good way of ensuring this is to make sure that individual goals are understood and reviewed periodically— the “why” and the “when” of each goal should be understood. Leadership styles are the pattern of behavior. 7) Building Leadership: The lasting contribution of an effective leader is to build a team of good leaders. the “how” should be left to individual enterprise. . Conclusion Effective commonsense leadership is exactly what it reads — a common sense approach to leading people.B . This push for excellence enables the effective leader to build the next set of leaders—a group of people who are willing to push the boundaries and explore horizons. it is inspiring to think about all the great achievers in history had actually the same number of hours per day that you have. It is important to understand that though the style of leadership varies across individuals. The effective leader spends time and energy in building up leaders to carry on. Jesus did not select a set of people who behaved like him. This push is to explore what lies beyond the obvious. The effective leader of today focuses on ‘flexibility’ instead. and finally. and 5) Entrepreneurial leadership styles. Today’s effective leader has to follow the same principles to define the vision for the group and then build a team whose collective strength can address the primary goals of the organization. many corporations lose out in the long run because they define ‘rigor’ as one of the most important cornerstones of the organization. In this context it is important to see that a priority is defined and followed. 5) Learning and Flexibility: While most people in the corporate world talk about rigor. it requires an appreciation of the very diversity they operate in. 4) Push for Excellence: An effective leader always pushes a bit harder to explore the boundaries of what is deemed possible. Any project manager you talk to will assert that requirements need to be defined well before the project is taken to execution. A simple way to manage time properly would be to first spend a few days in documenting all the communication flows. Leadership style is divided into five types: 1) Styles based on the amount of authority retained by the leader. The desire of a truly great leader is to build other leaders who will outperform him/her. trying new things and finally. with one unifying message and belief in their faith they were able to lay the basic foundation of what today is the world’s largest religion. 4) Likert’s four styles. In today’s global corporate world. we continue to achieve whatever we have achieved so far. the world will not stand still in the meantime! 6) Complementating Team: Each of the followers had very different characters and different approaches to achieving the same goals however. 3) Styles based on the assumptions about people made by the leader. In the corporate environment. the basic principles remain the same. rather he understood that each of his chosen team had specific roles to play and could leverage their strengths. one good way of addressing this would be to define stretch goals. In this context. In today’s dynamic change-driven world. focus on what we want to achieve. This emphasis on ‘rigor’ enervates the older corporations. flexibility and versatility will be the key critical success factors. flexibility should be the main focus. pushing the team to do the same. This is not to assert that process maturity and rigor are not important rather. a willingness to learn. Following this method for a few weeks will help the leader in setting up a process to identify the most important activities for him. The most important things to do are those that have the maximum impact in achieving the goals. think about and act upon and finally how many of these actually lead to a positive outcome of goals. creating space for newer and more flexible ones to fill in the gap. 3) Prioritization: Many times people encounter the common excuse that ‘we do not have time’. Spend as much time as required in defining and explaining the goals and then be available for broad directions and advice without defining the steps—in management terms. it is called ‘managing by outcomes’.
Thus. It permits quick decision-making as only one person decides for the whole group. Participative manager decentralizes managerial authority. all decision-making power is centralized in the leader as shown in figure below . He sees to it that policies are worked out in group discussions and with the acceptance of the group. who makes the subordinates feel that they are participating in decision-making process even though he has already taken the decision.Leadership (Chapter 2. A B B E A C D B D C (a) Autocratic D (b) Participative Types of Leadership Styles (A is the Leader) (c) Free Rein E A C Autocratic leadership may be negative because followers are uninformed. In future. ii) Participative or Democratic Leader: A democratic leader is one who gives instructions only after consulting the group. The benevolent autocrat is effective in getting high productivity in many situations and he can develop effective human relationships.137 1) Styles Based on Authority Retained: This is the classical approach to classifying the leadership styles and is useful even today. Different types of Leadership styles are: i) Autocratic leadership ii) Participative leadership iii) Free rein leadership i) Autocratic or Authoritarian Leader: The autocratic leader gives orders. Such a leader may be called strict autocrat who relies on negative influences and gives orders. Participative leadership style favors decision-making by the group as shown in figure above. but simply tells the group what immediate steps they must take. Unlike an autocratic manager who controls through the authority he possesses. He gives personal praise or criticism to each member on his own initiative and remains aloof from the group for the major part of the time.4) B . He makes it clear that praise or blame is a matter for the group and participates in the group as a member. this style is quite common and has often succeeded. under this style. He does not give subordinates the freedom to influence his behavior. insecure and afraid of leader’s authority. His decisions are not unilateral like that of the autocrat because they arise from consultation with the group members and participation by them. a participative manager exercises control mostly by using forces within the group. which must be obeyed by the subordinates. . It has also been successful in such situations where subordinates are reluctant to take initiative. Styles in this approach are classified depending on how much authority is retained by the leader versus how much is delegated to the subordinate employees. which the subordinates must accept. and does not give detailed information about future plans. He determines policies for the group without consulting them. There is another type of autocratic leader. sharing of power by allowing the group to make decisions and to let decisions emerge from the group. Leader adopting this style stresses his prerogative to decide and order a subordinates’ obligation to do what they are told to carry out. they look for social and egoistic satisfaction from their jobs. When his motivational style is positive he is often called a benevolent autocrat. it is less likely to be effective because: a) The coming generation is less amenable to rigid direction and control b) The standard of living of people is rising c) There is now social awareness among the people. The autocratic management has been successful because it provides strong motivation to the manger. Leadership can be positive also because the leader may use his power to disperse rewards to his group. known as manipulative autocrat. In industry. Some of the advantages of participative leadership are: a) It increases the acceptance of management’s ideas. b) It improves the attitude of employees’ towards their jobs and the organization.
where there is least intervention by the leader. Quick decisions can not be taken. This mode of direction can produce good and quick results if the subordinates are highly educated and brilliant people who have a sincere desire to go ahead and perform their responsibilities. This style may be effective where the employees are inexperienced with the work to be performed. ii) . He depends largely upon the group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems. 2) Styles Based on Task Versus People Emphasis: Another standard way of classifying leadership styles is based on the relative concern the leader places on the task to be performed vis-à-vis. c) Participative leadership is time consuming. The free rein leader avoids power. This is also known as permissive style of leadership. where and how tasks are to be accomplished. Seasonal employees may be unfamiliar with the task and these require direct guidance on performing the work properly.B . The leader completely handle over his leadership position. iii) Free Rein or Laissez Faire Leader: A free rein leader does not lead. The leader exists as a contact person with outsiders to bring for his group the information and resources it needs to accomplish its job. gives all responsibility and most of the work entrusted to him to the group which he is supposed to lead. limiting his authority to maintain the contact of the group with persons outside the group. He is represented by the chairman of the board who does not manage. Free rein leadership ignores the manager’s contribution approximately in the same way as the autocratic leadership ignores that of the group. This style has following limitations as: a) Participation may be interpreted as a sign of inefficiency on the part of the leader. iii) Establishing well-defined patterns of organization. channels of communication and ways of task accomplishment. A leader who places greater emphasis on task performance tends to exhibit the following behaviors: i) Organizing and defining the roles of the group members. b) Sometimes participation equivalent to the passing the back to subordinates by the leader. Group members work themselves and provide their own motivation. ii) Explaining what activities each has to do and when. the high-task and high relationship style is particularly effective. four combinations are possible as shown in figure below: i) High-Task and Low-Relationship: A high-task and low-relationship leader emphasizes showing employees how to get the tasks accomplished and spends minimum time giving psychological support. The high-task and high-relationship style is considered generally useful because it results in high productivity and personal satisfaction. High-Task and High Relationship: This leader spends considerable time showing people how to get the work accomplished and providing them psychological support. It fails to give the group the advantages of leader’s inspired motivation. d) It leads to reduction in the number of complaints and grievances. but leaves the group entirely to itself as shown in figure above.138 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) c) It increases the cooperation between management and employees. The high-task and low-relationship style may also be well suited to situations where seasonal help is involved. e) It increases the morale of the employees. When employees are lacking in self-confidence and technical skill. A high-task and low-relationship leader is not necessarily rude or discourteous. A more critical look at this style would suggest that it works best in situations where people need an active and involved leader. The leader simply takes the expedient route of focusing on work rather than people. A leader who places greater emphasis on people tries to gain their relationships by exhibiting such behaviors as: i) Establishing channels of communication ii) Extending psychological support to them iii) Developing mutual trust iv) Developing empathy for them. but leaves all responsibility for most of the work to his subordinates. Subordinates may view the leader as incompetent to handle crisis independently. the people performing the task. Depending on task emphasis or people emphasis. handing over the authority and letting the group to operate entirely on its own.
superiors and subordinates are psychologically distant. many entrepreneurs use a similar leadership style. and iv) Participative. this style can be effective. 4) Likert's Four Styles: Developing on the notion that leadership style consists of two extreme positions—autocratic and democratic. they trust subordinates and allow them to participate in decision-making. communication is cautious and limited.Leadership (Chapter 2. An entrepreneurship leadership style is based on both their personality characteristics and the circumstances of operating a business. The word entrepreneur is generally associated with small-scale industry. subservience to boss is widespread. vi) Anxiety to consolidate business gains as quickly as possible. iv) Participative: The leader disperses economic rewards and makes full use of group participation and involvement in setting performance standards and improving methods and procedures. communication is two-way although upward. The high-relationship and low-task style is suitable for such situations. the leader uses sanctions. Likert develops four styles of leadership to capture the management culture of an organization: i) Exploitative authoritative. and there is some delegation in decision making. 5) Entrepreneurship Leadership Style: An entrepreneur is a person who coverts an innovative idea into business. upward communication is permitted but to the extent the boss wants. 3) Styles Based on Assumptions about People: Depending on what assumptions a leader makes about his or her followers. iii) A charismatic personality that inspires others to want to do business with him or her despite the impatience. It is essentially Task Emphasis a free-rein style. They distrust people and believe in close supervision and tight-control over the subordinates. ii) iii) Consultative: Here the leader uses rewards. Subordinates are given Four Key Leader Behaviors considerable latitude in performing their work. In the meantime it may be stated that Theory X leaders are autocratic. Subordinates and superiors are psychologically close. i) Exploitative Authoritative: As an exploitative authoritarian.139 High-Relationship and Low-Task (Supporting Style) High-Task and High-Relationship (Participative Style) iii) High-Relationship and Low-Task: A leader using the high-relationship and low-task style gives employees much encouragement and support but a minimum of guidance about the task accomplishment. v) A strong dislike for bureaucratic rules and regulations. This two-way classification is based on McGregor's famous Theory X and Theory Y assumptions about people. Benevolent Authoritarian: Here the leader uses rewards to encourage performance. communication is downward. free to run their own show. iii) Consultative. encouragement and praise. iv) A much stronger interest in dealing with customers than employees. ii) Benevolent authoritative. . ii) A heavy task orientation combined with a very direct-approach to giving instructions to employees. Low-Task and Low-Relationship (Free-Rein Style) High-Task and Low-Relationship (Autocratic Style) iv) Low-Relationship and Low-Task: A leader using Low High this style is neither here nor there. They are also given very little psychological support. some involvement is sought from employees and as in the benevolent authoritarian style. When subordinates are highly skilled and psychologically mature. though major decisions are made by the people at the top of the hierarchy. The most notable features of this style are: i) Impatience and rudeness towards employees because the entrepreneur is always busy. two styles may be distinguished. and group decision-making is widespread in the organization. In some situations employees need more psychological support rather than technical instructions. and the decisions are generally made at the top of the organization. There is a tendency among a number of individuals to belong to more than workgroup in order to promote intergroup links and understanding. subordinates are involved in decision-making in a limited way. Theory Y leaders are participative. therefore.4) People Emphasis High Low B . They are.
. ii) Physical Features: Physical characteristics and level of maturity determine personality of an individual. vi) Acceptance of Responsibility: A reliable leader is one who is prepared to shoulder the responsibility for the consequences of any steps he contemplates or takes. a successful leader possesses the human relations attitude. So he should imaginatively visualize tends and devise his polices and programmes with foresight based on logical programmes. He is prepared to accommodate others’ viewpoints and modify his decision. He also found traits such as sociability. justice and integrity of character are expected of any good leader. popularity. persistence. activity and social participation and socioeconomic status.140 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Theories/Approaches of Leadership There are several approaches to the study of leadership. Ralph Stogdill reported on the basis of at least fifteen studies that leaders possess intelligence. adaptability and verbal facility in ten leadership studies. Traits Approach It is a traditional approach to the theory of leadership. The study of the lives of successful leaders reveals that they possessed many of these traits. These special qualities of head and heart generally include mental capacities and morale qualities. Thus. According to this theory. alertness. He must be free from bias and prejudice while becoming emotionally involved with the followers. ix) Human Relations Attitude: A good leader is considerate of the followers as his success as a leader largely depends on the cooperation of the people. He is not critical of others. Honesty. The trait theory holds the view that successful leader possess these basic qualities and these are inherited rather than acquired. iv) Maturity: Leaders generally have broad interests and activities. x) Fairness of Objectivity: A good leader is fair and objective in dealing with subordinates. but we will classify our discussion into three categories: 1) Trait. Stogdill’s Trait Factors In the late 1940s. He works hard more for the satisfaction of inner drives than for extrinsic material rewards. knowing how to get things done. Leaders generally have some what higher level of intelligence than the average of their followers. Flexibility is another name for open-mindedness. He has confidence in himself whenever he initiates any course of action. came the popular belief that “Leaders are Born and not Made”.B . They have the inner urge to keep accomplishing something. They possess the ability to think scientifically. weight. physique. cooperativeness. To initiate suitable activities at proper time is the habit of a leader. He is always aware of the duties and obligations associated with the position he holds. They are emotionally mature and have balanced temperaments avoiding menacing extremes so that they may not become thoughtless victims of the circumstances. and 3) Situational theories. which is an important factor in determining success of leadership. it is thought that a leader has specific trait of mind and intelligence. Some of the important traits of an effective leader are discussed below: i) Intelligence: This trait seems to hold up better than any other. Self-confidence is essential to motivate the followers and boost up their morale. Out of this approach. health and appearance of an individual are important for leadership to some extent. They also have high frustration tolerance v) Vision and Foresight: A leader cannot maintain his influence unless he exhibits his trait of looking forward well in advice and imagination for handling his followers. analyze accurately and interpret clearly and precisely the problems before them in terms of different aspects and perspectives. fairplay. scholarship. He always tries to develop social understanding with other people. Persons who are leaders are presumed to display better judgment and engage themselves in social activities. 2) Behavioral. vii) Open-mind and Adaptability: A leader is ready to absorb and adopt new ideas and views of others as may be demanded by the situation. He is constantly busy in achieving the voluntary cooperation of the followers. which makes the leader more identified with the group. if need be. iii) Inner Motivation Drive: Leaders have relatively intense achievement type motivational drives. insight. initiative. self-confidence. dependability in exercising responsibilities. Height. viii) Self-Confidence: A good leader has conceptual clarity about the things he is going to do. He approaches various problems in terms of people involved more than in terms of technical aspects involved.
and exercising close management control. ii) Drive and initiative. or styles. of leaders with respect to their interaction with group members. . 3) Almost no Importance. Some of the limitations of the theory are the following: i) The list of personality traits of successful leaders is too long and there seems to be no finality about it.4) B . evaluating performance. The behavioral theorists contend that a leader’s style is oriented toward either an employee-centered or a jobcentered emphasis. iii) The theory assumes that a leader is born and not trained. His findings suggest that the following personality traits range from being very important to unimportant in relation to leadership success. iii) Need for a lot of money. This assumption is not acceptable to the contemporary thinkers on the subject. Thus. a trait associated with effective leadership. vi) Management ability—team builder.141 Ghiselli’s Personal Traits Edwin Ghiselli has conducted extensive research on the relationship between personality and motivational traits and leadership effectiveness. iii) Job achievement orientation. Although hundreds of traits have been identified. particularly psychological. 1) Employee-centered: In the employee-centered orientation. i) Masculinity versus femininity. open relationships with employees and is very sensitive to their personal and social needs. 25 different definitions remained. leadership effectiveness does not depend upon the personality of the leader alone. although taller people may generally be more successful as leaders. the leader emphasizes developing friendly. Furthermore. At the same time. making decisions. many tall people have neither the inclination nor the capabilities to be leaders. ii) How much of which trait a successful leader must have is not clear. iv) Self-actualization feelings. iv) Contrary to what the theory assumes. certain traits. research continued and focused on the behavioral patterns. 2) Job-centered: A job-centered orientation is one in which the leader emphasizes getting the job done by planning. v) Self-confidence. many short people have risen to positions of leadership. Other variables like the situation. In a study of extensive leadership qualities a researcher demonstrated the magnitude of this problem when he asked 75 top executives to define the term "dependability". Behavioral Theories Because of the widespread inconsistencies of trait studies of leadership effectiveness. 1) Very Important i) Decisiveness. 2) Moderately Important. vi) There is little consensus on the meaning of words used to label traits. The executives defined this trait in 147 different ways.Leadership (Chapter 2. Criticism of the Trait Theory The trait approach to leadership has been severely criticized by many. the problem with Ghiselli’s research is that several of the traits are interdependent and there is no indication of how much of any trait a person should have to be an effective leader. Again. the task. Even after similar definitions had been combined. cannot be quantified. no consistent pattern has emerged. v) It is well known that people who fail as leaders and people who never achieve positions of leadership often possess some of the same traits as successful leaders. the organization and the characteristics of followers will equally determine the effectiveness of leaders. iv) Need for job security. i) Affinity for working class. for example. ii) Intellectual capacity. v) Personal maturity. delegating. organizing.
and improved quality and quantity of work. which refers to leader behavior that defines and organizes the group tasks. Relies on work standards. From a list of leader behaviors in a wide variety of situations. Autocrat Democratic Laissez-faire Benevolent autocrat Leader Continuum i) Autocrat: At one end of the spectrum is the autocrat. Emphasizes technical aspect of job. prestigious. and White suggested a continuum theory of leadership that identified three basic styles of leadership. sets no goal for the group. iv) Benevolent Autocrat: Robert McMurry described the benevolent autocrat as a leader who listens carefully to followers. and issues orders to be fulfilled with no questions asked. but always makes his or her own personal decision. High ‘Human Relations’ ‘Democratic’ Consideration Behavior ‘Laissez Faire Low ‘Autocratic’ Low Initiating Structure Behavior High Leader Behaviors and Popularized Leadership Styles . explains to the group reasons for personal decisions when necessary. two leadership dimensions were identified. ii) iii) Democratic: The democratic leader decision making with the group members. Employees are seen as a implementing goals. The main objective of the studies was to identify the major dimensions of leadership and to investigate the effect of leader behavior on employee performance and satisfaction. an individual who has little trust in group members. gives the impression of being democratic. as illustrated in figure below.B . supportiveness.142 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Employee-Centered Leader Job-Centered Leader i) Treats subordinates as human beings. and objectively communicates criticism and praise to subordinates. believes that money is the only reward that will motivate workers. ii) Shows concern for the well-being of employees. The research suggested that the democratic leadership style is most effective and productive. a sense of group responsibility. iii) Encourages and involves the employees in setting and Exercises close supervision. The main point in the study is that both consideration and initiating structure are not seen as being placed on a continuum. A benevolent autocrat is powerful. the leader could be high on both. assigns the tasks to employees and supervises their activities. trust and concern for the welfare of the employees. Lippitt. tool in the production process. and minimizes communication and group interaction. who has little or no self-confidence in his or her leadership ability. procedures and rules. 1) Leader Continuum: Early research by Lewin. 2) Ohio State University Studies: These well publicized studies were started shortly after World War II. It results in a continuous flow of new ideas and positive changes. That's. He argues that the democratic leadership style is too slow and unworkable in our fast moving business world. Several research efforts have focused on these two extremes and in-between levels of leadership behavior. rather than a leader necessarily being low on one dimension when high on the other. openness. Laissez-Faire: Leader at the other end of the continuum is the laissez-faire leader. i) Initiating structure. respect. and respected and therefore able to move faster and more effectively in a firm. low on both. ii) Consideration refers to leader behavior that can be characterized by friendliness. or high on one and low on the other as seen in the quadrants shown in figure below.
9 8 Concern for People 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Low 1. responsibility and conductibility based on trust rather than on force and satisfying inter-personal relations. but it was negatively or neutrally related to performance. but the focus usually centres around five basic styles. a) The 9. 1 Managerial Style (Impoverished): 1. Each axis is expressed as a nine point scale of concern. The 1. Mouton of USA. 5. The horizontal axis represents concern for production and the vertical axis indicates concern for people. 1 Managerial Style (Task): 9. 3) Managerial Grid: The concept of managerial grid was created by R. maintaining the self esteem of workers.R.Leadership (Chapter 2. ii) Concern for People: Concern for people includes degree of personal commitment towards goal achievement. processes. 9 Country Club Management Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable friendly organization atmosphere and work temp. 9 scale point indicates the thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships which leads to a comfortable. 5 Middle of Road Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. 9. They have used two phrases: i) Concern for Production: Concern for production means the attitude of the superiors towards a variety of factors concerning production. procedures. 5 scale point indicates that adequate performance is possible through balancing the work requirements with maintaining morale of people at satisfactory level.143 The findings of the Ohio State studies can be summarized as follows: i) Consideration was positively related to low absenteeism and grievance. work load.1 in each case represents the minimum concern and No.9 represents the maximum concern in ascending order. The 9. Figure below shows the degree of concern for production and for people and possible interactions (combinations) between them. 9 style reflects a minimum concern for production and maximum concern for people. b) The 1. ii) Initiating structure was positively related to employee performance but was also associated with such negative consequences as absenteeism and grievances. They emphasized that leadership style consists of facts of both task oriented and relation oriented behavior in varying degrees. 1 scale point indicates efficiency results from arranging work in such a way that human elements have little effect. c) The 1. 1 Autocratic/Task Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. efficiency and quantity of production. e) The 9. Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 High Concern for Production Managerial Grid d) The 5. 1 leader is mainly concerned with production and little concern for people. The leader wants to meet production schedule and get the task done at all cost. such as products. . 9 scale point indicates that work accomplishment from committed people and interdependence through a common stake in organization leads to relationship of trust and respect. But in some cases. 9. 1.4) B . performance and satisfaction tended to be high. interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. 1 Impoverished Management exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership. 9 Team Management Work accomplishment is from committed people. 9 Managerial Style (Country Club): 1. 9 Managerial Style (Team): 9. high productivity was accompanied by absenteeism and grievances. 5 Managerial Style (Middle Road): 5. friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo. Blake and Jane S. quality of staff service. iii) When both consideration and structure were high. 1 scale point indicates that exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization relationship. No. Here we have 81 possible positions on the grid reflecting as many leadership styles.
In other words. In other words. Thus. This theory suffers from two basic limitations: 1) A particular behavior may be functional at a point of time but it may be dysfunctional at another point of time. It serves as a useful framework for the leaders to understand behavior and reactions of people at work. These factors have not been given adequate consideration.1 Little concern for either production or people 1. psychological “strokes. The focus in the situational approach to leadership is on observed behavior and not on any hypothetical inborn or acquired ability or potential for leadership. instructive and has a common sense appeal. They can shape their behavior which appears to be functional and discard the behavior which appears to be dysfunctional. Leadership process is thus a function of the leader. it is impossible to calculate 81 combinations to determine leadership behavior. a person becomes a leader not only because of his personal attributes. 1) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership (Life Cycle Theory): Paul Hersey and Kenneth C Blanchard have developed a leadership theory and an accompanying training program that are taught in many major corporations through out the country. Further.5 Comfortable concern for both production and people 9. managerial grid fails to take cognizance of environmental factors. and where and how the tasks are to be accomplished. the time element will be a decider of the effectiveness of the behavior and not the behavior itself. Evaluation of Behavioral Theory Behavioral theory of leadership has some important implications for managers.B . 2) Effectiveness of leadership behavior depends on various factors which are not in the leader but external to him like nature of followers (subordinates) and the situations under which the leader’s behavior takes place. Task behavior is the extent to which leaders engage in one way communication with subordinates by explaining what each follower is to do. leader is a means of achieving the goals of the group and the members. we will examine some of the most popular situational theories that attempt to fulfill this goal. those being led and the nature of situation in which they operate. Their basic thesis is that the most effective leadership style should vary with the “maturity level” of the subordinates. the theory does not explain leadership phenomenon fully. They identify the two major dimensions of leader concern as task behavior and relationship behavior. but also because of various situational factors and the interaction between the leader and the group members. . Thus. nature of subordinates and nature of task.” and facilitating behavior. Situational Approach This theory advocates that leadership is strongly affected by the situation from which a leader emerges and in which he works. in which leaders engage in two way communication with subordinates by providing socio emotional support. when to do it. the followers and the situation.1 Highest concern for production lowest for people 5. To that extent. He recognizes the needs of the situation and then acts accordingly. 1. Researchers who have taken behavioral theory for analyzing leadership behavior (known as leadership style) have prescribed various leadership styles which may be applied in managing the people in organizations. Relationship behavior refers to the manner. the emphasis is on the behavior of leaders and their followers and the type of situation. It is based on the assumptions that there exists an interaction between a group and its leader and that people tend to follow the person (known as leader) who is capable of fulfilling their aspirations.144 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Managerial grid approach is attractive. 9 Highest concern for both production and people Style of Leader The impoverished type The country-club type The autocrat type The middle-of-the-road type The team type Effectiveness Worst leadership style People-oriented style Production-oriented style Maintain present balance style Peak of leadership style Difference between Trait and Behavior Theories Theories Trait theories Leader behavior theories Emphasis Study personal characteristics Study how a leader behaves End Result Separate leaders from non-leaders Follower’s performance and satisfaction. However. It can best be explained in terms of the interaction between the leader. The grid helps the manager to identify his own leadership style.9 Lowest concern for production highest for people 9.
the manager will continue to be supportive and considerate in order to strengthen the subordinates' resolve for greater responsibility. Human relations style is oriented primarily towards achieving good interpersonal relations and towards achieving a position of personal prominence.’ . This style is called “selling” or “coaching” approach to leadership. their desire and capacity to set high but attainable goals. Subordinates must be instructed in their tasks and familiarized with the organization’s rules and procedures. In the initial phase. To approach his study. close direction might be resented). task-oriented management remains essential. In the third phase (here it is the “participating” or “supporting” style). Fiedler postulated two major styles of leadership: human relations or lenient style and task-directed or hard-nosed style. the degree to which the situation provides the leader with influence over his group members. (HIGH) High Relationship and Low Task Relationship Behavior Style of Leader High Task and High Relationship S3 S4 S2 S1 Low Relationship and Low Task High Task and Low Relationship (LOW) Mature HIGH M4 Task Behavior Maturity of Follower(s) MODERATE M3 M2 LOW M1 (HIGH) Immature Situational Leader Model In the Second phase. Thus. However. This style is called the “directing” or “telling” approach of leadership. Delegating is the style which the manager follows in the final stage. Fiedler feels that ‘the group performance will be contingent upon the appropriate matching of leadership style and the degree of favorableness of the group situation for the leader. The manager will no longer need to be directive (indeed. the manager may choose to initiate employeeoriented behaviors. as subordinates are not yet willing or able to accept full responsibility.4) B . the subordinates’ ability and achievement motivation are increased and subordinates actively begin to seek greater responsibility. ii) Subordinates’ willingness and ability to accept more responsibility.Leadership (Chapter 2. However. the manager’s trust in and support of subordinates can increase as the manager becomes familiar with subordinates and desires to encourage further efforts on their part. 2) Fiedler’s Contingency Model: Taking the cue from the situational approach of leadership that any one of the single style cannot be considered suitable for all situations and for all kinds of subordinates. that is. a participatory employee relationship approach would also be inappropriate at this stage because subordinates cannot yet be regarded as colleagues. Here the manager can reduce the amount of support and encouragement as subordinates are on there own and no longer need or expect a directive relationship with their manager. when subordinates first enter the organization a high task orientation by the manager is most appropriate. At this stage a non-directive manager causes anxiety and confusion among new employees however. iii) Education and/or experience of subordinates with respect to the job.145 Maturity level in Hersey and Blanchard’s leadership theory refers to the following: i) The need for achievement. as subordinates begin to learn their tasks. or motivation level of subordinates—that is. Task-directed style is primarily concerned towards achieving task performed. Fiedler developed a contingency model of leadership assuming that the effectiveness of the leadership is based on his ability to act in terms of situational requirements.
A manager has more position power if the manager is able to hire. fire and maintain discipline. makes decisions Continuum of Leadership Behavior Forces in the leader encompass a manager’s value system. Autocratic Boss-Centered Leadership Use of authority by the manager Area of freedom for subordinates Free-rein SubordinateCentered Leadership Manager makes decision and announces it Manager “sells” decision Manager presents ideas and invites questions. assembly line jobs are more structured than managerial occupations. and (3) the situation. and inclination toward a more autocratic or democratic leadership style. presents subordinates to tentative decision ask group to function within limits subject to change problem. Position power is analogous to coercive.146 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) Favorableness of situation has been defined as the degree to which a given situation has enables the leader to exert influence over a group. and to the leader’s congeniality. and if a great deal of authority is formally attributed to the leader’s position. Manager Manager Manager permits Manager presents defines limits. a leader has a continuum of styles from which to choose for maximizing organizational productivity. if the task is very structured. Fiedler identifies the relationship between leadership style and favorableness of situations as shown in figure above. (2) the follower. Based on the prevalence and interaction of these forces. For example. is situation the very favorable. If the opposite exists. if the leader is generally accepted followers.B . gets make decision. the situation is very unfavorable to the leader. the degree of confidence in subordinates’ abilities to handle authority and responsible tasks. Style leadership Task directed O Human Relations Very (–) Unfavorable Unfavorable O Favorable (+) Very favorable Favorableness of the Situation Fiedler Model of Leadership Situations are favorable if all the three dimensions are high. personal attitudes regarding delegation of authority and responsibility. ii) Task structure is the degree to which the job tasks are structured. iii) Position power refers to the power and influence that go with the job. personal feelings of insecurity in certain crises or no routine situations. defined by superior suggestion. . 3) Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s Situational Continuum: Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt theorized that the most effective leadership style is contingent on what they called “forces” in (1) the leader. reward and legitimate power. He has identified three critical dimensions of favorableness of situations: i) Leader member relations refer to the degree that others trust and respect the leader.
the attribution framework accounts for the conditions under which people use leadership to explain organizational outcomes. the type of organizational structure–centralized versus decentralized. and the specific knowledge and experience for solving specific problems. regardless of the situation. This theory. and leadership is no exception. Thus. the high-high leader (high on both initiating structure and consideration) has been found to be consistent with attributions of what makes a good leader. aggressiveness. should not be taken as the final word in leadership. the managers may do better by adopting management practices including leadership which match with the situational variables.4) B . Similarly. In fact. 2) Charismatic Leadership Theory: Charismatic leadership theory is an extension of attribution theory. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and. outgoing personality. At the organizational level. it necessities the executive training and development programmes for the development of future Leaders. from boss centered to subordinate-centered. the degree of understanding and identification with the company goals. revealing the various styles or approaches a leader can adopt. Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders i) Self-Confidence: They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability.147 Forces in the subordinate refer to their need for freedom versus careful direction and control. However. people are prone to make leadership attributions to explain the performance. When an organization has either extremely negative or extremely positive performance. When something happens. incur high costs. Studies on charismatic leadership have. the willingness and readiness to accept additional responsibility. a high-high leadership style tends to be perceived as best. iv) Strong Convictions about the Vision: Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed. demands from higher management levels. This is not necessarily provided by the theory but experience has its role. Figure above graphically depicts the leadership continuum. ii) Vision: This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. however. deals with people trying to make sense out of causeeffect relationships. the systems and contingency approach has become the way of thinking in management. and depending on the inter-relationships of the three forces described above. “Leaders are made”. the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader. and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision. Forces in the situation are identified as time pressures and deadlines. understanding. for the most part. That is. iii) Ability to Clear the Vision: They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. The theory appears to be good on the surface but becomes quite complex in practice because of the presence of numerous contingent factors.Leadership (Chapter 2. Those conditions are extremes in organizational performance. Therefore. In the context of leadership. Thus. been directed at identifying those behaviors that differentiate charismatic leaders from their non-charismatic counterparts. acts as a motivating force. Using the attribution framework. managers can overcome this problem by diagnosing these factors suitably. It says that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. this approach does not belief that leaders are born but asserts. and industriousness. they want to attribute it to something. hence. and the degree of interest in and expectation of sharing in organizational problem solving and decision making. attribution theory says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals. The greater the disparity between this idealized goal and the status quo. Evaluation of Situational Theory Situational theory has wide implications for managers in the sense that it offers clues why a manager who is successful in one situation. the synergistic cooperation and effectiveness of the work group. . researchers have found that people characterize leaders as having such traits as intelligence. strong verbal skills. and willing to take on high personal risk. Most Recent Approaches to Leadership 1) Attribution Theory of Leadership: Attribution theory. fails when there is change in the situation.
They pay attention to the concerns and developmental needs of individual followers. . and expresses important purposes in simple ways. vii) Environment Sensitivity: These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.148 Thakur’s MBA First Semester HB (Organizational Behavior) v) Behavior that is out of the Ordinary: Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel. these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers. iv) Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities. treats each employee individually. rationality. iii) Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence. promises rewards for good performance. instills pride. arouse. avoids making decisions. and who is capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on his or her followers. gains respect and trust. Management by Exception (Active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards. 3) Transactional versus Transformational Leadership: Transactional leaders.B . and advises. they change followers’ awareness of issues by helping them look at old problems in new ways. Characteristics of Transactional Leader i) ii) Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort. and inspire followers to put out extra effort to achieve group goals. iv) Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations. and they are able to excite. coaches. and counter to norms. and careful problem solving. vi) Perceived as being a Change Agent: Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo. But there is another type of leader who inspires followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization. these kinds of leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. These are transformational leaders. uses symbols to focus efforts. When successful. unconventional. recognizes accomplishments. takes corrective action. iii) Management by Exception (Passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met. Characteristics of Transformational Leader i) ii) Charisma: Provides vision and sense of mission.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.