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ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE

STRUCTURES BY FORCE METHOD

5.1 ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES

BY FORCE METHOD - AN OVERVIEW

• 5.1 ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES BY FORCE

METHOD - AN OVERVIEW

• 5.2 INTRODUCTION

• 5.3 METHOD OF CONSISTENT DEFORMATION

• 5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAMS

• 5.5 INDETRMINATE BEAMS WITH MULTIPLE DEGREES OF

INDETERMINACY

• 5.6 TRUSS STRUCTURES

• 5.7 TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND FABRICATION ERRORS

5.2 INTRODUCTION

5.2 Introduction

• While analyzing indeterminate structures, it is necessary to satisfy (force)

equilibrium, (displacement) compatibility and force-displacement relationships

• (a) Force equilibrium is satisfied when the reactive forces hold the structure in

stable equilibrium, as the structure is subjected to external loads

• (b) Displacement compatibility is satisfied when the various segments of the

structure fit together without intentional breaks, or overlaps

• (c) Force-displacement requirements depend on the manner the material of the

structure responds to the applied loads, which can be linear/nonlinear/viscous

and elastic/inelastic; for our study the behavior is assumed to be linear and elastic

5.2 INTRODUCTION (Cont’d)

• Two methods are available to analyze indeterminate structures, depending on

whether we satisfy force equilibrium or displacement compatibility conditions -

They are: Force method and Displacement Method

• Force Method satisfies displacement compatibility and force-displacement

relationships; it treats the forces as unknowns - Two methods which we will be

studying are Method of Consistent Deformation and (Iterative Method of)

Moment Distribution

• Displacement Method satisfies force equilibrium and force-displacement

relationships; it treats the displacements as unknowns - Two available methods

are Slope Deflection Method and Stiffness (Matrix) method

5.3 METHOD OF CONSISTENT DEFORMATION

• Solution Procedure:

• (i) Make the structure determinate, by releasing the extra forces constraining

the structure in space

• (ii) Determine the displacements (or rotations) at the locations of released

(constraining) forces

• (iii) Apply the released (constraining) forces back on the structure (To

standardize the procedure, only a unit load of the constraining force is applied

in the +ve direction) to produce the same deformation(s) on the structure as

in (ii)

• (iv) Sum up the deformations and equate them to zero at the position(s) of

the released (constraining) forces, and calculate the unknown restraining

forces

Types of Problems to be dealt: (a) Indeterminate beams; (b) Indeterminate

trusses; and (c) Influence lines for indeterminate structures

5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAMS

5.4.1 Propped Cantilever - Redundant vertical reaction released

(i) Propped Cantilever: The structure is indeterminate to the first degree; hence

has one unknown in the problem.

(ii) In order to solve the problem, release the extra constraint and make the

beam a determinate structure. This can be achieved in two different ways,

viz., (a) By removing the vertical support at B, and making the beam a

cantilever beam (which is a determinate beam); or (b) By releasing the

moment constraint at A, and making the structure a simply supported beam

(which is once again, a determinate beam).

5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAMS (Cont’d)

(a) Release the vertical support at B:

The governing compatibility equation obtained at B is,

f

BB

= displacement per unit load (applied in +ve direction)

x

y

P

P

B C

L/2 L/2

L

A

C

A

B

= +

B B

R

B

A'

BB

=R

B

*f

BB

A

B

+ A

'

BB

= 0

BB B B

BB B B

f R

f R

/

0 ) ( ) (

A ÷ =

= × + A

From earlier analyses,

) / )( 48 / 5 (

) 16 /( ) 24 /(

) 2 / ( )] 2 /( ) 2 / ( [ ) 3 /( ) 2 / (

3

3 3

2 3

EI PL

EI PL EI PL

L EI L P EI L P

B

÷ =

÷ ÷ =

× ÷ + ÷ = A

) 3 /(

3

EI L f

BB

=

P EI L EI PL R

BB

) 16 / 5 ( )] 3 /( /[ )] / )( 48 / 5 ( [

3 3

= ÷ ÷ =

Applied in +ve

direction

Governing compatibility equation obtained at A is,

= × + ) ( ) (

AA A A

M o u ,

AA

o = rotation per unit moment

AA

A

A

M

o

u

÷ =

From known earlier analysis,

) 16 (

2

EI

PL

AA

÷ = u

[under a central concentrated

load]

)] 3 /( )[ 1 ( EI L

AA

÷ = o

This is due to the fact that +ve moment causes a –ve rotation

PL 16) / (3

EI)] L/(3 /[ EI)] /(16 PL [ M

2

A

÷ =

÷ ÷ ÷ =

5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAM (Cont’d)

5.4.2 Propped cantilever - Redundant support moment released

L

P

L/2

(b) Release the moment constraint at a:

A

B

u

A

=

A B

P

Primary structure

+

B

A

M

A

u'

A

=M

A

o

AA

Redundant M

A

applied

To recapitulate on what we have done earlier,

I. Structure with single degree of indeterminacy:

(a) Remove the redundant to make the structure determinate (primary

structure)

(b) Apply unit force on the structure, in the direction of the redundant,

and find the displacement

(c) Apply compatibility at the location of the removed redundant

A

B

R

B

A B

A

Bo

f

BB

5.4.3 OVERVIEW OF METHOD OF

CONSISTENT DEFORMATION

A

B0

+ f

BB

×R

B

= 0

P

P

5.5 INDETERMINATE BEAM WITH MULTIPLE DEGREES

OF INDETERMINACY

(a) Make the structure determinate (by releasing the supports at B, C and

D) and determine the deflections at B, C and D in the direction of removed

redundants, viz., A

BO

, A

CO

and A

DO

A

B C D

E

R

B

R

C

R

D

A

B0

A

C0

A

D0

w/u.l

(b) Apply unit loads at B, C and D, in a sequential manner and

determine deformations at B, C and D, respectively.

A

B C D

E

f

BB

f

CB

f

DB

1

A

B C D

E

f

BC

f

CC

f

DC

A

B C D

E

f

BD

f

CD

f

DD

1

1

(c ) Establish compatibility conditions at B, C and D

A

BO

+ f

BB

R

B

+ f

BC

R

C

+ f

BD

R

D

= 0

A

CO

+ f

CB

R

B

+ f

CC

R

C

+ f

CD

R

D

= 0

A

DO

+ f

DB

R

B

+ f

DC

R

C

+ f

DD

R

D

= 0

5.4.2 When support settlements occur:

Compatibility conditions at B, C and D give the following equations:

A

BO

+ f

BB

R

B

+ f

BC

R

C

+ f

BD

R

D

= A

B

A

CO

+ f

CB

R

B

+ f

CC

R

C

+ f

CD

R

D

= A

C

A

DO

+ f

DB

R

B

+ f

DC

R

C

+ f

DD

R

D

= A

D

A

B C D

E

A

B

A

C

A

D

Support settlements

w / u. l.

5.5 TRUSS STRUCTURES

(a) (a) Remove the redundant member (say AB) and make the structure

a primary determinate structure

The condition for stability and indeterminacy is:

r+m>=<2j,

Since, m = 6, r = 3, j = 4, (r + m =) 3 + 6 > (2j =) 2*4 or 9 > 8 i = 1

C

80 kN

60 kN

A B

D

C

80 kN

60 kN

A B

D

1 2

Primary structure

5.5 Truss Structures (Cont’d)

(b)Find deformation A

ABO

along AB:

A

ABO

=E (F

0

u

AB

L)/AE

F

0

= Force in member of the primary structure due to applied load

u

AB

= Forces in members due to unit force applied along AB

(c) Determine deformation along AB due to unit load applied along AB:

(d) Apply compatibility condition along AB:

A

ABO

+f

AB,AB

F

AB

=0

(d) Hence determine F

AB

¿ =

AE

L

AB

u

AB AB

f

2

,

(e) Determine the individual member forces in a particular member

CE by

F

CE

= F

CE0

+ u

CE

F

AB

where F

CE0

= force in CE due to applied loads on primary structure

(=F

0

), and u

CE

= force in CE due to unit force applied along AB (=

u

AB

)

5.6 TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND FABRICATION

ERROR

• Temperature changes affect the internal forces in a structure

• Similarly fabrication errors also affect the internal forces in a

structure

(i) Subject the primary structure to temperature changes and fabrication

errors. - Find the deformations in the redundant direction

(ii) Reintroduce the removed members back and make the deformation

compatible

- 4 - Matrix Stiffness Method
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- aircraft stuctures
- Module 5.1 Influence Lines for Statically Indeterminate Structure
- ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES.pptx
- Slope Deflection Method
- btech_s7_civil_eng_20131466834698.pdf.pdf
- Tawhai - 2008 Multiscale Modeling in Computational Biomechanics - Determining Computational Priorities and Addressing Current Challenges
- Steel Heat Treatment
- Comparison of Increase in e for Sand Cus
- Aircraft dynamic and static loads design criteria
- Behaviour of Materials 2
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- Three Dimensional Truss Analysis
- TATSUOKA-2001_BurmisterLecture
- Chapter 03a (1)
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- مقاومة مواد
- Buckling Tests of Fire Exposed Cold-Formed Steel Columns
- Limit condition for anisotropic materials with asymmetric elastic range, J. Ostrowska-Maciejewska, R.B.Pecherski, P. Szeptynski

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