INTRODUCTION

Sight Limitations
Limitations of sight can be overcome by using appropriate optical devices such as Microscope, Telescope, Periscope and others. The range of frequency of hearing in human is 20 Hz and 20 000 Hz. It was different according to the age of a person.

Hearing Limitations
Hearing limitation can be overcome by using appropriate hearing aids such as Microphone, Stethoscope , Amplifier and others.

B6D1E1 - CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 1

ii) Teachers use microphone in the assembly.OBJECTIVE The objectives of learning about the limitation of sight and hearing:• • • I have learnt that our hearing and sight has its limitation. I have learnt that we can overcome the limitation of our sight and hearing by using or wearing technology devices.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. B6D1E1 . iii) Scientists use microscope to see the virus.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 2 . The technology devices have made our live easier:i) Doctors use stethoscopes to hear our heartbeats.

SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 3 . This is because the brain cannot interpret accurately what is actually seen by the eye.The limitation of sight and hearing The Limitations of Sight:Optical Illusion Sometimes what we see may not appear to be the real thing. Blind Spot The blind spot is a point of the retina of the eye that cannot detect any image. B6D1E1 .CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R.

Person exposed to constant loud noise experiences a loss of hearing-range of hearing is smaller than normal people. As people age. Their eardrums become less elastic.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 4 .The Limitations of Hearing: • • Children have eardrums that are more elastic. • B6D1E1 . their hearing deteriorates.

CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. Objective lens and eyepiece magnify image. MICROSCOPE Instrument to magnify object such as virus.TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICES TO OVERCOME LIMITATION OF SIGHT 1.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 5 . The first microscope invented by Sacharias Jansen in 1611.    B6D1E1 .

Stars.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 6 . The first known practical telescopes were invented in Netherlands.objective and eyepiece lens.     B6D1E1 . Consists of two convex lenses . TELESCOPE Viewing very far objects .2.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. Planets and Moon. The image produced by the objective lens is magnified by the eyepiece lens.

 An instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation. PERISCOPE To see a view beyond and obstructing object. An instrument for observation from a concealed position.   B6D1E1 .SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 7 .CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. 3.

4. A pair of identical or mirror Symmetrical telescopes mounted side by side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction allowing the viewer to use both eyes when viewing distant objects.    B6D1E1 . BINOCULAR To see tiny distant objects such as birds in the sky.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 8 . Consists of an outer case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at 45 degree angle.

CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. Convex lens that is used to produce a magnified image of an object. MAGNIFYING GLASS   To make tiny objects appear larger than the original.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 9 . Also called a hand lens in laboratory contexts.  B6D1E1 .5.

SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 10 .    B6D1E1 . A cyclic sound pressure wave with frequency greater than the upper limit of the human hearing range.6.create images -organ. fetus.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. for heart and for biopsy Ultrasonic waves . ULTRASOUND MACHINE  To scan and see the condition of the baby in a pregnant mother. This is used for obstetrics.

This is inverted by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen a German physicist on 8 November 1895. X-RAY MACHINE    To see the internal organs. Types of x-ray machines:1. CT Scanner  B6D1E1 .   7.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. This device sends out very high frequency sound waves into the area being scanned.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 11 . To inspect baggage at the airports. Device shaped like microphone is pressed against the area being scanned. The waves bounce back upon hitting an organ and an image of the organ is then obtained on computer screen.

Bone X-Ray Machine 3. MICROPHONE  Microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.2. Backscatter X-Ray Machine 4. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) TECHNOLOGICAL DEVICES TO OVERCOME LIMITATION OF HEARING 1.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 12 . Linear Accelerator 5. B6D1E1 .CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R.

  B6D1E1 . hearing aids. Invented in France by Rene Laennec. and others. STETHOSCOPE  Allows medical professionals to listen to sounds produced by the lungs. 2. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. A stethoscope that intensifies auscultatory sounds is called phonendoscope. karaoke systems. Any abnormal function within these systems in the body can be immediately spotted with proper use of a stethoscope. tape recorders.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 13 . heart and intestines.

   B6D1E1 .CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 14 . The term ‘megaphone’ was first associated with Thomas Edison’s instrument 200 years later. MEGAPHONE Boosts weak sounds ( the function of Megaphone as same as Microphone ) Invented by Samuel Morland and Athanasius Kircher in 1655.3.

EARPHONE Collects and amplifies sounds before sending them to the middle ear.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 15 . are also known known as ear     as earphones B6D1E1 . colloquially. cans.4. The in-ear versions or earbuds. Invented by Nathaniel Baldwin in 1937.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. They are sometimes speakers or.

Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums. PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM (PA SYSTEM) A public address system (PA system) is an electronic sound amplification and distribution system with a microphone. B6D1E1 . used to allow a person to address a large public. and small bars.5. churches.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 16 .     Invented by Edwin Jensen and Peter Pridham. amplifier and loudspeakers.CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R. Amplifies voices so that they can be heard from far away.

B6D1E1 .CHAPTER 1: The World Through Our Senses by R.SRI HAARAN (2A1) Page 17 .