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RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY ( Written Report )
Avila, Antonio Jr. Basco Jr., Mario A. Belarmino, Sherwin Calleja, Martin Owen Egaña, Von Leunice Erni, Ned Angelo J.
Estadilla, Jerome Cristopher H. Reyes, Juan Carlo Soriano, John Kevin M. Tayao, John Mark Vizarra, Mark Kevin
Submitted to: Archt. Jocelyn Lutap
10 September, 2012
Architectural Character: The obvious distinguishing features of Classical Roman architecture were adopted by Renaissance architects. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities. Among the earliest buildings of the reborn Classicism were churches of a type that the Romans had never constructed. Neither were there models for the type of large city dwellings required by wealthy merchants of the 15th century. Conversely, there was no call for enormous sporting fixtures and public bath houses such as the Romans had built. The ancient orders were analysed and reconstructed to serve new purposes.
Plan The plans of Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module. Within a church the module is often the width of an aisle. The need to integrate the design of the plan with the façade was introduced as an issue in the work of Filippo Brunelleschi, but he was never able to carry this aspect of his work into fruition. The first building to demonstrate this was St. Andrea in Mantua by Alberti. The development of the plan in secular architecture was to take place in the 16th century and culminated with the work of Palladio.
Figure 1. Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Façade Façades are symmetrical around their vertical axis. Church façades are generally surmounted by a pediment and organized by a system of pilasters, arches and entablatures. The columns and windows show a progression towards the center. One of the first true Renaissance façades was the Cathedral of Pienza (1459– 62), which has been attributed to the Florentine architect Bernardo Gambarelli (known as Rossellino) with Alberti perhaps having some responsibility in its design as well.
Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice. There is a regular repetition of openings on each floor, and Figure 2. Sant'Agostino, Rome, Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483 the centrally placed door is marked by a feature such as a balcony, or rusticated surround. An early and much copied prototype was the façade for the Palazzo Rucellai (1446 and 1451) in Florence with its three registers of pilasters
Columns and Pilasters The Roman orders of columns are used:- Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and as an integrated system. One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was in the Old Sacristy (1421–1440) by Brunelleschi.
Arches Arches are semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style) segmental. Arches are often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Alberti was Figure 3. Classical Orders, engraving one of the first to use the arch on a monumental scale at from theEncyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century the St. Andrea in Mantua.
Vaults Vaults do not have ribs. They are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault which is frequently rectangular. The barrel vault is returned to architectural vocabulary as at the St. Andrea in Mantua.
Domes The dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally. Domes had been used only rarely in the Middle Ages, but after the success of the dome in Brunelleschi’s design for the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore and its use in Bramante’s plan for St. Peter's Basilica (1506) in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in church architecture and later even for secular architecture, such as Palladio's Villa Rotonda.
Ceilings Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left Figure 4. The Dome of St Peter's open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted Basilica, Rome. or decorated.
begun in 1517. but there was also a good deal of innovation in solving problems. Emblematic in this respect is the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. Walls External walls are generally of highly finished ashlar masonry. In the Mannerist period the ―Palladian‖ arch was employed. Details Courses. The different orders each required different sets of details. Basements and ground floors were often rusticated. They may have square lintels and triangular or segmental pediments. laid in straight courses. The corners of buildings are often emphasised by rusticated quoins. They may be set within an arch or surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment. Windows Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch. which are often used alternately. especially at corners. to give views. Some architects were stricter in their use of classical details than others. Moldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed. as modeled on the Palazzo Medici Riccardi (1444–1460) in Florence.Doors Doors usually have square lintels. They are not integral to the building as in Medieval architecture. Figure 5. mouldings and all decorative details are carved with Figure 6. Windows are used to bring light into the building and in domestic architecture. as in Gothic Architecture. Palazzo Farnese Stained glass. internal surfaces are decorated with frescoes. Openings that do not have doors are usually arched and frequently have a large or decorative keystone. Palazzo Medici Riccardi great precision. Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory. although sometimes present. For more formal spaces. is not a feature. Sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths. Internal walls are smoothly plastered and surfaced with white-chalk paint. 4 . using a motif of a high semi-circular topped opening flanked with two lower square-topped openings.
with or without a piece of entablature.—More varied planning on a grand scale. which is also defined by string courses. Florence. Church naves were planned to support coffered vaults. 5 . Florence. to avoid too pronounced a division. C. both single and coupled. as in Florence. complex.— Walls are frequently screened with pilasters. Openings. and the building is crowned by a deep cornice. Church naves were planned. for vaults. Maria della Salute. Venice. Rome. Doorways are small and severe yet imposing. as in S. a broken. Venice. adapted to town rather than country buildings. which. and picturesque disposition was adopted. Staircases enclosed by walls were roofed by sloping barrel vaults. B. Staircases circular and elliptical with columnar supports are usual. or even carried through two storeys to give grandness of scale. are sometimes broken back round the columns. domes on pendentives. Rome. The old Roman type of dome over a circular space and the dome on pendentives over a square space were both used in churches. the Scala Regia. Strozzi. as in the Palazzi Riccardi. —Arcades have arches resting directly on columns. and Quaratesi. as in the Barberini. Plans. Staircases off a central court surrounded with arcades were characteristic. or timber ceilings. or flat ceilings.—Walls are characterised by multiplicity of parts produced by columns to each storey and dividing horizontal entablatures. but varied surface treatment gives character to each storey. Florence. Walls. The doorways at Genoa have triangular and segmental pediments. domes. and Braschi palaces.—Walls recall those of Egypt in severity and are frequently astylar.—Where site permitted. on each storey. but in palaces a straight front to the canals was the rule. Corsini. Windows are of three types : (a) " Arcade " type with central column and round arches. and at Caprarola.Comparative Analysis: A. — Symmetry and compactness of plan. while another treatment has a subsidiary architrave.
frequently supported the arches.—Arcades have arches supported on piers faced with columns or pilasters. Vaults were either coffered in stucco or painted. (c) " Order " type with columns and entablature. Doorways are flanked by columns. sometimes supporting round arches with carved spandrels. Domes in churches are grouped with towers. Raking vaults to staircases and waggon or cross-vaults are general. both in " cortile " and church arcades. They regulated not only the height of balustrades.—Arcades have round arches resting on columns. Doorways are flanked by columns and pilasters supporting cornice and semicircular or triangular pediment or are enclosed in rusticated blocks. or rusticated blocks. Florence.—Roofs are rarely visible and often hidden by balustrades. 6 . or have architraves and side consoles. Venice. as in the Palazzo Pandolfini. Windows are large with semi-Gothic tracery or are flanked by columns. were at first superimposed. Milan.(b) " Architrave " type with cornice.—Flat tiled roofs are sometimes visible above cornices. as in S. Roofs. staircases. Rome. and churches were elaborately moulded in plaster and frescoed. or with consoles.—Roofs with balustrades are frequent . and S. while timber ceilings are a feature in palaces. as at Verona. but later one great Order frequently included the whole height of the building. they have architraves and side consoles. Maria della Grazie. or on piers faced with columns. consoles. as in the Palazzi Pitti. Rome. Venice. while sometimes. not at first in general use for facades. Maria della Pace and the Palazzo Farnese. Vaulted ceilings of halls. — The Orders. Rome. as at the Certosa. In Milan and other north Italian cities the low internal cupola was often covered by a lofty structure in diminishing stages. after the style of the newly excavated Baths of Titus. Columns. both frescoed and coffered. but the spacing and size of windows. E.--The Orders. Domes on high drums and crowned with lanterns are usual in churches. Domes were favourite features in churches. Windows have semicircular arches enclosed in mouldings forming a square frame with spandrels. or are flanked by columns. Pavia. either single or coupled. D. based on the Colosseum facade. as in the Palazzo Gondi. Florence.
candelabra. — Florentine ornament is well illustrated in the sculptured frieze. were used. while coffered ceilings were of great elaboration as at Genoa. while heraldic shields contrast with plain wall surfaces. Rome. entablatures. pilaster capitals. Florence. pulpit. flowers. Venice.—The few and simple mouldings of string courses were slight in projection so as to throw into relief the crowning cornice. F. balustrade. Ornament. chimney-piece. of Luca della Robbia and his school are specially characteristic of Florentine art at this period. monuments. is one of the most 7 . Florence. Mouldings. lavabos. Rome. singing-gallery. while buildings by Sansovino and Palladio show a more correct and formal treatment. —Projecting columns in successive tiers with entablatures. the Triclinium. with their frescoes. Giulio Romano. angle lantern and link holder. as are also the pedimented door-heads at Genoa. although new combinations were introduced by Michelangelo and his disciples. The coloured bas-reliefs. doorways. niche.Venice. often broken back to the wall. and masks.D. Roman ornament generally can be studied from the capital.and original. pilaster. consoles or corbels. doorways.—Sculpture is both beautiful and exuberant and even competes with the actual architectural features. which was carried out on a large scale by Raphael. The mouldings of balconies. singing-gallery. fountains. fruit. and were extremely refined. tabernacle. holy-water stoup. niches. Mouldings of ornamental features—consoles. designed on Classic models. capitals. until it reached its zenith in the Sistine Chapel. 1481).— Classic mouldings from ancient Roman buildings naturally served as models which were closely followed. gave an impetus to the traditional art of painting in tempera on plastic surfaces. capitals. Mouldings of pedestals. G. and fonts. many of which were delicately carved with pagan motifs of infant genii. Venice (A. and Michelangelo. and capitals are frequently carved with intricate ornament. The unearthing of the Baths of Titus. Rome. coffered ceilings. and the Baroque treatment is seen in the Fontana di Trevi. and brackets—exhibit great refinement of line. Venice. and the altar in the Gesu Church. and reliquary. — Sculpture was refined in treatment and naturally followed Classical precedent. corbels. The Colleoni Monument. The traditional school of fresco painting by Cimabue and Giotto was influenced by the discovery of ancient Roman paintings. — Mouldings were influenced by local Byzantine and Gothic art. altar-piece. and tombs are all Classical in treatment.
especially of the triumphs of their city . Rustication is often used to give visual weight to the ground floor in contrast to smooth ashlar above. There is a general absence of pilasters as decorative features. The typical palace was built round as internal court. Figure 8. extended to three arches. as seen in the statue niche.a method of forming stonework with roughened surfaces and recessed joints. flagstaff standard. Similar to mediaeval cloister. surrounded by arcades. principally employed in Renaissance buildings. Rusticated masonry is usually squared-off but left with a more or less rough outer surface and wide joints that emphasize the edges of each block. Rome. surmounted by the bronze equestrian statue by Verrocchio. is obviously founded on the model of the Arch of Titus. where under unique conditions and influences. with a lofty pedestal embellished with columns. Rustication block masonry surfaces called ashlar. monuments. candelabrum. squared Figure 7. Palazzo Medici Courtyard 8 . balcony. The colour-loving Venetians clothed their walls internally with large pictures of subjects both sacred and profane. a type of palace building was evolved. to which huge blocks of rusticated masonry gives an unusually massive and rugged appearance. Venice (A. capital. THREE MAIN REGIONS: (FLORENCE. or else sheathed them in brilliant panels of many-coloured marbles from the shores of the Adriatic. Rustication. VENICE) FLORENCE.D. balustrade. 1540). In classical architecture. carved panel. The Renaissance of the 15th century in Italy had its birth in Florence. The bronze gates are rich in Renaissance metalwork. ROME. altar.famous in the world. and carved ornament. The Logetta. The niches contain statues of heathen gods. and the high attic has fine sculptured panels and is crowned by a pleasing balustrade. chimney-piece.rustication is an architectural feature that contrasts in texture with the smoothly finished. Sculpture was much influenced by the various preceding styles and by a Venetian love of display. Supporting the walls of upper storeys.
Capital and Brackets.reliefs in terra cotta. TABERNACLE. It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it. which are therefore called ‘astylar: while sparing use of detail. The imposing appearance of these massive features fronting on narrow streets mis emphasized by boldly projecting roof cornices. not only the ornament does depend on the personality of the artist. In architecture the capital forms the topmost member of a column (or pilaster). characteristic of the Italian palace. in strong contrast to rugged. Capital that has been reduced in size.a treatment of façade without columns . which crown the walls are proportioned to the height of the buildings. carving and statues. together with concentration on pronounced features produces boldness and simplicity of style. broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. Figure 11. with their colored glazed. baptistery doors. Palazzo Medici Riccardi Astylar. Florentine craftsmanship shows highly developed artistic perception and technical skills . bas reliefs. retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse. Figure 9. but architectural design also became the product of the individual architect rather than following the traditional lines of craftsmen. The architectural character owes much it’s interest to the contributions of sculptors and painters. Niche (left). during the Renaissance and its aftermath. fortress like character of the palaces. usually above an altar. A niche in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse Figure 10. In the facades.recess or receptacle. or palazzo. Cortile.to contain the characteristic host. Early Renaissance churches are conspicuous for refinement. internal court surrounded by an arcade. The columnar arcade is a favourite feature not only in courtyards but also in streets in the founding hospital. Tabernacle (right) 9 .
Florentine garden art was approaching its zenith. In many Christian churches.in the Renaissance term. Frieze make the Sign of the Cross using the holy water upon entrance of the church. undulating countryside has retained something or medieval character: progressively. or decorated with bas-reliefs. and a bowl to catch the water as it falls off the hands. About this time. A lavabo is a device used to provide water for the washing of hands. Lorenzo. A holy water font or stoup is a vessel containing holy water generally placed near the entrance of a church. Font/Stoup (left). In ecclesiastical usage it refers to both the basin in which the priest washes his hands and the ritual that surrounds this action in the Mass. Holy water is blessed by a priest. Lavabo (right) Pulpit is a speakers' stand in a church. the pulpit side of the church is sometimes called the gospel side. It is used in Catholic Church and some Anglican churches to Figure 12. and Catholics believe it to be a reminder of the baptismal promises. Since the Gospel lesson is often read from the pulpit. there are two speakers' stands at the front of the church. Pulpit In the 2nd quarter of 16th century. Figure 14. Frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order. Cantoria. The Early Renaissance villas in the neighboring beautifully-diversified. the one on the left is called the pulpit. Figure 13. they developed towards the intimate charm of formally 10 . the room in which it is kept is the lavatory. it refers to a sink for washing hands. it is used to denote a singers gallery often elaborately carved in a major church Florence contains many examples of Early Renaissance architecture. Michelangelo led the proto baroque breakaway from the formalism of design with his new sacristy of St. but fewer of high Renaissance and Proto-Baroque and almost none of the Baroque period. It consists normally of a ewer or container of some kind to pour water. Typically. In secular usage.
The dome covers an octagonal apartment.D. around which are ranged the 11 . with eight main and sixteen intermediate ribs supporting panels. 6 ins. Florence Examples Of Renaissance Architecture In Florence: Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. and is raised on a drum.D. but his accomplishments also include other architectural works. sculpture. His principal surviving works are to be found in Florence. Dome of Florence Cathedral have been used only to a limited extent. is a miracle of design which triumphantly blended a Renaissance dome with a Gothic building and set the crown on that masterpiece of Mediaeval Florence. centred on a summer dwelling or casino. mathematics. in diameter. is Michelozzo's best-known building. consists of inner and outer shells constructed on the Gothic principle. The palace was sold (A. The plan has a cortile or peristyle as in Pompeian houses. and here Lorenzo the Magnificent kept his brilliant Court. with circular windows to light the interior. Boboli Garden. He is perhaps most famous for his studies of linear perspective and engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral. which at any rate may Figure 17. Palazzo Medici Riccardi The Palazzo Riccardi. Italy. Florence (A. It is said that it was erected without centering. 1659) to the Riccardi family. which is pointed in form. 138 ft. growing more natural as they merged at the fringed with surrounding landscapes. 1430). Figure 16. Figure 15. Filippo Brunelleschi The Dome of Florence Cathedral which was entrusted to Brunelleschi as the result of a competition. engineering and even ship design. This unique dome.related garden compartments of different types.
Plan of Palazzo Strozzi 1763 were the projecting wings added facing the Piazza.D. bearing in its rugged simplicity a curious resemblance to the bold Claudian Aqueduct. The Palazzo Medici. off which are the stairs and surrounding rooms. was completed by Cronaca. is a Renaissance palace located in Florence. the intermediate storey has drafted stone walling with traceried windows . high. in three storeys. with its massive blocks of masonry and arches of the ground storey The cortile seen from the famous Boboli Gardens. which is further accentuated by the grand crowning cornice which projects over 7 ft. 1489) begun by da Majano. Palazzo Strozzi The Palazzo Strozzi.D. and the whole facade is crowned by a bold cornice projecting over 8 ft. and link are attractive features of this famous facade. but not until A. Florence (A. It is of astylar treatment. and is a grand and stately composition with a great central cortile and smaller lateral cortili added in A.D. in length. Florence (A. also called the Palazzo Medici Figure 18. The facade. and is about one-tenth the height of the building. The rusticated walls have moulded string courses emphasising the storeys and producing an effect of horizontality. Figure 19.various rooms with the grand stair to the " piano nobile. and the upper storey. a friend of Cosimo de' Medici.D." The exterior. The facade has one unbroken surface—an early example of the astylar treatment. The ground storey has heavily rusticated masonry with semicircular arches enclosing windows of the pediment type . with three-storeyed centre 119 ft. Italy. 1435) erected for Luca Pitti. The windows angle-lantern. is unique in its 12 . is 66o ft. It has a fine symmetrical plan. Walls of Palazzo Medicci Ricardi Riccardi after the later family that acquired and expanded it. is the largest palace in Italy except the Vatican. 1640. Pallazzo Strozzi Palazzo Pitti The Palazzo Pitti. in plain ashlar masonry. has similar windows. The chief features are a large central cortile with arcades on the three storeys. Figure 20. is an admirable example of the effective use of graduated rustication.
and is fully open to the public. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. and Corinthian half-columns. The palace was built from 1565 by Giovanni Domenico and Ponzello to Nicholas Grimaldi. Palazzo Doria Tursi (interior) Figure 22. The palace is now the king's residence and partly occupied by the famous picture gallery. The spacious balconies overlooking the street were added in 1597. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings. the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon. jewelry and luxurious possessions. High Renaissance and Proto Baroque Palazzo Doria Tursi The Palazzo Doria Tursi-or Nicholas Grimaldi Palace is a building in Via Garibaldi at number 9 in the historic center of Genoa. Palazzo Doria Tursi (exterior) 13 . when the palace became the property of Giovanni Andrea Doria who acquired it for the younger son Charles. one built on three parcels of land. Palazzo Pitti (exterior) Italy. and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Figure 21. it houses several minor collections in addition to those of the Medici family. In the late 18th century. to whom we owe its present name. with two large gardens framing the central body. and which are compounded by the numerous claims that he had against Philip II.columnar treatment of Doric. The facade is characterized by the alternation of materials Figure 23. Ionic. B. The building is now the seat of the municipality of Genoa. added on 13 July 2006 in the list of the 42 enrolled in Rolli palaces of Genoa which became a Heritage of UNESCO. Today. and its doors were opened to the public as one of Florence's largest art galleries. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919. plates. Since 1848 is the town hall of Genoa. appealed to the "Monarch" for the number of possible titles that could boast. Duke of Tursi. It is the most imposing building of the street. of which was the principal banker.
14 .The Porta Pila was originally designed to be part of the fortification of Porta Maurizio.foyer. Following lengthy discussions and tumultuous demonstrations.Baroque I. Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Carignano (Carignan Palas in Piedmontese) is a historic building which is one of the finest examples of Baroque architecture. It consists of two different buildings and is located in the center of Turin. The floor above the large windows skirting alternates from the original design with rustic pilasters projecting replaced. contributing to the plastic rendering of the facade. guardian of the city. rectangular courtyard elevated above the porch and staircase with two flights . common sense prevailed: it was decided that the transfer and buttressing the door to the ramparts of Monte Sano. Together with the Royal Palace and the Senate is one of the most important buildings of the city. Mascheroni by grimaces animalistic surmount the windows on both levels. upstairs. It was moved to its current place in 1940. the gray-black slate. Particularly innovative is the new and ingenious architectural solution that with the sequence of interior spaces . The main facade consists of two superimposed orders. During demolition of the Fronti Bassi the door was demolished as well. by Doric pilasters.of different colors: pink stone of Finale. II. but instead was transported by the order of Padri del Comune sometime between 1647 and 1649. with the statue of Our Lady. Porta Pila the Brignole train station. In 1898 due to the opening of the new Via XX Settembre in danger of being demolished. The majestic marble portal is crowned with the coat of arms of the city of Genoa. although this site no longer exists due to the expansion of Figure 24. staircase. violins Niccolò Paganini and Camillo Sivori and numismatic collections and that of ceramics from the city of Genoa. C. The building is the culmination of residential splendor of the Genoese aristocracy. but it was saved and moved in 1899 to the Montesano Bastion. or the Genoese painting of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.creates a wonderful play of light and perspective. the white of the precious marble from Carrara. Porta Pila Porta Pila was erected in 1648. remained where it had been erected by the avi. but a clergy uncompromising claims that ancient port. the Penitent Magdalene by Canova. The building is connected to the adjacent Palazzo Bianco and houses the last room of the museum gallery.
also in brick. with the regiment Carignan-Salières. From the courtyard instead of the elliptical body stands out from the wings. Figure 25. with a U-shaped plan and a unique architectural structure: an elliptical tower is slightly behind the facade and two wings unfold to form a square courtyard surrounded completely by body of the building. Nearby are the National University Library and the Teatro Carignano. with white stone and pink stucco 15 . become as plastic and moldable The decorations on the facade of the main floor. The large decorative frieze on the façade main bearing the inscription QVI NACQVE VITTORIO EMANVELE II was added in 1884 by Carlo Ceppi. The interiors are beautifully decorated with frescoes and stucco. also recalled the use of exposed brick. architect and mathematician Guarino Guarini (builder of the famous Chapel of the Holy Shroud) a palace for his family . This Palace is mainly related to the history of Italian Risorgimento. on the occasion of the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the Unification of Italy . the Museum of the Risorgimento has been closed for a period of about three years for a challenging restoration and redevelopment and reopened March 18. In the course of the extension work carried out at Giuseppe Bollati by Gaetano Ferri between 1864 and 1871 was built the back side. including victory in Canada performed alongside the French in 1667 against the native Iroquois. Guarini designed a beautiful building that is one of the most important works of the Piedmontese Baroque. in an eclectic style. Some frescoes are by Stefano Legnani said Legnanino. are references to adventures and enterprises of Carignano. Agostino Silva was the author of the stucco still visible in the room with an alcove on the first floor of the south side of the courtyard. making a magnificent effect. Since 1692 the hall. 2011. since the facade alternates concave with convex parts. In the monumental façade the ellipse is distinguishable because it makes room sinuously. the staircase and the hall are decorated with stucco and 29 busts of ancient sculptor Pietro Somazzi. surpassing them in height.Now houses the National Museum of the Italian Risorgimento. From April 2006. respecting the Baroque style in brick. The bricks perfectly sharpened and grouted with mortar powder cooked. In the second half of the seventeenth century (1679-1684) Emanuele Filiberto (known as the Mute) of the cadet branch of Savoy-Carignano commissioned the famous Theatine father. The building model is also sought at the Oratorio dei Filippini Borromini. in a configuration perhaps due to projects by Gian Lorenzo Bernini for the Louvre palace and the castle of Vaux-le-Vicomte. Palazzo Carignano The building overlooks the square and the side facade of the Palace of the Academy of Sciences and the imposing rear of the church of San Filippo Blacks creates a unique architectural extraordinary value.
after the crucifixion of Jesus in the second quarter of the 1st century A. known in Italian as Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano. He was crucified near an Egyptian obelisk in the Circus of Nero. a fisherman from Galilee. a theologian of early Christian interest in Alexandria. by his own request because he considered himself unworthy to die in the same manner as Jesus.D.. Peter was crucified head downwards. and the construction of a new church over the old Constantinian basilica began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626. took the leadership among Jesus’ followers and a great importance of the founding of the Christian Church. Peter’s Basilica is a Renaissance church located in the Vatican City. Peter. he met his martyrdom. Peter travelled to Rome and during the reign of Roman Emperor Nero in the year 64 A. one of his twelve disciples. now home to the National Library.D. It is also hailed as ―the greatest of all churches in Christendom‖. History The site was the burial place of St. Peter’s Square and revered as a ―witness‖ to Peter’s death. The basilica is famous as pilgrimage site and liturgical functions. According to the records of the Biblical book the Acts of the Apostles. known as Peter. Belongs to Late Renaissance period and one of the largest churches in the world. It was the interior facade of the building at the time when it was the residence of Savoy. Peter’s Basilica The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican.D. 16 .embellished with magnificent columns and pilasters. porch on the ground floor and topped raised by a balustrade on the top in the center. one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. St. after ministry of about thirty years. which is now Piazza Carlo Alberto. According to tradition. The most renowned and most important work of architecture from Renaissance period. Built on a site which has a church since the 4th century A. Simon. Peter’s Basilica (aerial view) holiest Catholic sites although it is not the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome and neither the mother church of the Roman Catholic Church.. St. but more popularly known as the St. According to Origen. The obelisk is now standing at the St. Overlooking the garden. His execution was one of the many martyrdoms of Christians after the Great Fire of Rome. the building was connected by walls Directly opposite the stable structure.. It is regarded as one of the Figure 26.
Peter’s Basilica was a 4th century church begun by Emperor Constantine between 309 and 333 A. In this plan also the foundation stone of the building has Figure 28. from the Circus. Years later a shrine was built on the site and almost 300 years later. Peter’s Basilica Architecture of the St. with a row of complex apsidal chapels off the aisles on both side.D. On 1513. I. a feature maintained in the ultimate design. an ambulatory encircles each semi-circular apses. The name Old St. a road which ran east to west along the north wall of the Circus on land now covered by the southern portions of the Basilica and the Square. These are the works of three famous architects of the period in the person of Donato Bramante. a wide nave and two aisles on either side. The chancel and transepts’ plan made the squareness of the exterior walls more definite by having the size of the towers reduced. His grave was initially marked by a red rock. Peter’s body was buried just outside the Circus. on the Mons Vaticanus across the Via Cornelia. Pope Julius died and Bramante was replaced by Guiliano da Sangallo. The Old St. produced the present day basilica. Pantheon. The difference between Bramante’s dome and Pantheon’s is that the Pantheon’s dome is supported by continuous wall and the new basilica’s dome was to be supported only by four large piers. Plans Bramante’s plan was a Greek cross in shape with a dome inspired by the circular Roman temple. Figure 27. The Old St. During the period. and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Raphael did the works because Sangallo and Fra Giocondo died in 1515. three plans from three different architects were chosen to be used. Rapahel Sanzio . and Raphael. symbolic of his name. Peter’s Basilica has been used since the construction of the current basilica for its predecessor to distinguish the two. The main change in the plan of Raphael is the five bayed nave. but for non-Christians it’s meaningless. and Bramante died the previous year. 17 . otherwise very similar to the lantern of Florence Cathedral.According to tradition. It was of typical basilical Latin Cross form with an apsidal end at the chancel. Old St. less than 150 meters from his place of death. The dome was to be surmounted by a lantern on a small dome. Fra Giocondo. lasted for 120 years and directed by many popes. The design was selected from a competition held by Pope Julius with the scheme as the grandest building in Christendom. Bramante's Plan been laid. Peter’s Basilica was constructed. Peter’s Basilica The plan of rebuilding the basilica which started in 1506.
Guilio Romano. Raphael's Plan decoration than that of Bramante and it also includes ribs on the exterior. He also recognized the quality of Bramante’s original design and reverted to the Greek Cross plan. 18 . For this Michelangelo wrote ―I undertake this only for the love of God and honor of the Apostle. He inherited also the numerous schemes designed and redesigned by some of the greatest architectural and engineering minds of the period. Peruzzi died in 1536 without his plan being realized. He is the principal designer of the large part of the building as what it is today. and the refusal of Jacopo Sansovino to leave Venice. As it is today. There were certain elements found in these schemes. Raphael. Peter’s has been extended with a nave by Carlo Maderno. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger also submitted a plan with the features of Peruzzi.Raphael died in 1520 at the age of 37 and succeeded by Baldassare Peruzzi. Michelangelo did not simply dismiss the ideas of the previous architects even though the work progressed only for a little 40 years. and they all called also for a symmetrical plan of either Greek Cross form or a Latin Cross.‖ Figure 30. Michelangelo’s work is best appreciated from distance. 1547 during the reign of Pope Paul III. Peruzzi maintained Raphael’s proposed changes to the internal arrangement of three apses. Because it is located at the Vatican State and the nave projection screens the dome from sight when you’re approaching from the square. Michaelangelo's Plan Michelangelo Era Michelangelo took over the building site at which four piers were rising behind the remaining nave of the old basilica. It is the chancel end with the huge centrally placed dome by Michelangelo. Michelangelo succeeded Sangallo the Younger as ―Capomaestro‖. His dome proposal was more elaborate on structure and Figure 29. but reverted to Greek Cross plan and other features of Bramante. Michelangelo was forced to do the job by Pope Paul III which is frustrated at the death of the one he choose to do the work. They all proposed for a dome equaled to the one engineered by Brunelleschi century earlier which dominated the skyline of Renaissance Florence. on January 1. Sangallo also proposed that the dome should be surmounted by a lantern which he redesigned to a larger and more elaborate form. The plan did not go ahead because of some difficulties with church and state. and Bramante’s combined and extends the building into a short nave with a wide façade and portico of dynamic projection. He drew on them in developing a grand vision. the superintendent or Chief Architect of the building program. St.
The solid wall which is used at the Pantheon is lightened at the St. His dome is constructed of two shells of brick. which is countered by the downward thrust of heavy masonry which extends above the circling wall. In 1564.57 meters from the floor of the basilica to the top of the external cross. The internal diameter of the dome is 41. accounting all that had gone before. The reason is the dome is ovoid in shape rising steeply as the dome of the Florence Cathedral. The work continued under Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola with Giorgio Vasari. Peter’s follows that of Pantheon very closely. Pope Sixtus appointed Giacomo della Porta in 1585. 15 meters high. The architects of the St. and like the Pantheon it was designed to be constructed in tufa concrete. with such arcade set back in a tier above the first. like the designs of Bramante and Sangallo. Michelangelo and Giacomo della Porta Era. Peter’s by Bramante. the outer shell having 16 stone ribs. Bramante and Sangallo Era. The Dome of St. to be assisted by Domenico Fontana. leaving the dome’s drum complete and Bramante’s piers bulkier than originally designed. 1506 and 1513 Figure 31. each 18 meters across. except that in this case the supporting wall becomes a drum above ground level on four massive piers. like the one in Florence. It holds the title as the tallest dome in the world. The dome is raised from piers on a drum. Peter’s looked for solutions on how to go about building what was conceived as the greatest dome of Christendom to the domes of the Pantheon and Florence Cathedral. a watchdog appointed by Poe Pius V to make sure that Michelangelo’s plans were carried out exactly. piercing it with windows and encircling it with a peristyle. of a large wooden model still exists. surrounded by a projecting base. Sangallo’s plan (1513). twice the number at Florence but still far fewer than in Sangallo’s design. looks to both these predecessors. The profile is very similar with the exception of the lantern surmounting it. Michelangelo redesigned the dome. like that of the Pantheon. Littke happened in this period despites Vignola’s knowledge of michelangelo’s intentions. Bramante’s encircling peristyle of and Sangallo’s arcade are reduced to 16 pairs of Corinthian columns. 1547 and 1585 In 1547. a peristyle and surmounted by a spire of conic form because of Sangallo. 19 . The delicate form of Florence-based lantern became a massive structure. He extended and strengthened Bramante’s peristyle into series of arched and ordered openings around the base. Peter’s Basilica Bramante’s plan for the dome of St. Michelangelo died. Dome The dome rises to a total height of 136. Visually appear to buttress each of the ribs. Realizing the value of the coffering at the Pantheon and the outer stone ribs the Florence Cathedral. connected by an arch.II. but structurally quite redundant.47 meters. therefore exerting less outward thrust than a hemispherical dome.
. successor of Sixtus V. Around the interior of the dome is written. Façade The stunning 114. V.. Clement VIII.Completion of the Dome In 1590. cracks appeared in the dome. so four iron chains were installed between the two shells to bind it. like the rings of that keep a barrel from bursting. erected in honor of the Prince of Apostles). the earliest possibly planned by Michelangelo himself as a precaution. Jesus Christ with talleleven Apostles. one containing a fragment of the True cross and a relic of St. Below a huge cornice on a 1 meter tall frieze an inscription reads: IN HONOREM PRINCIPIS APOST Figure 32. The next pope. Peter's Basilica PAVLVS V BVRGHESIVS ROMANVS PONT MAX MDCXII PONT VII (Paul V Borghese.. like what did Brunelleschi did at the Florence Cathedral. had the cross put into place. Gregory XIV. in the year 1590 and the fifth year of his pontificate. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven." Matthew 16:18-19 And beneath the lantern an inscription reads: S. PONTIF.69 meters wide by 45. PETRI GLORIAE SIXTVS PP. Supreme Roman Pontiff. as many as ten chains are installed. the seventh of his pontificate.you are Peter. (To the glory of St Peter. The façade is surrounded by giant orders of Corinthian columns and a central pediment rises in front of a attic surmounted by thirteen statues. TIBI DABO CLAVES REGNI CAELORVM. Andrew and the other. Facade of St. At various times. 20 . pope. . In the mid-18th century. M. in the year 1612.. medallions of the Holy Lamb. della Porta and Fontana brought the dome to completion. Carlo Maderno. Sixtus V. XC.55 meters high façade of travertine stone was a work of Swiss-Italian architect of the Renaissance period. and on this rock I will build my church. and was accompanied by the ringing bells of all the city’s churches. Pope Sixtus V’s last year of reign. in letters 2 meters high: TV ES PETRVS ET SVPER HANC PETRAM AEDIFICABO ECCLESIAM MEAM. A. an event which took all day. D.. with the exception of Peter whose statue is at the left of the stairs.. Two lead caskets are set in the arms of the cross. a verse from The Scriptures that translates to ". V. and John the Baptist. saw Fontana complete the lantern and to the honor of Sixtus V placed an inscription around its inner opening.) III.
the Chapel of the Sacrament and the Choir Chapel. These are decorated with marble. in which to the single bay of Michelangelo’s Greek cross plan he added further three bays. Peter’s tomb is behind the Niche of Pallium. and the ornate marble floor is beamed with light reflected from the piazza. Peter which lead to his martyrdom. 21 . Narthex V. This is the place where the Cardinals and other privileged persons could descend in order to get nearer to the burial place of thr apostle. He made dimensions slightly different to that of Michelangelo. It then became apparent that each is over 2 meters high and real children cannot reach the basins unless they scramble up the marble draperies. three are framed by huge salvaged antique columns. Nave The nave was also a work of Maderno. gilt. Because an Egyptian obelisk had been erected in the piazza but had not been quite aligned with Michelangelo’s building. an equestrian figure of Charlemagne by Cornacchini in the south and Emperor Constantine by Bernini in the north. thus defining where the two architectural works meet. stucco. an area often found in Italian Romanesque churches. Confessio refers to the Confession of Faith by St. Five portals lead into the basilica. and illuminated by small windows between pendentives. Peter’s was to design a crypt-like space or ―Confessio‖ under the dome. sculpture and mosaic. This the part of design in which Maderno is most satisfied. Madereno compensated.IV. carrying between them two Holy Water basins. Its long barrel vault is decorated with ornate stucco and gilt. Peter’s stretches a long narthex. The marble steps aree remnants of the old basilica and around the balustrade are 95 bronze lamps. The last work of Maderno at St. Narthex and Portals Behind the façade of St. Each aisles have two smaller chapels and a larger rectangular chapel. in order to at least align it with the Figure 34. The central portal has bronze door by Antonio Averulino in 1455 for the old basilica and enlarged to fit the new space. Figure 33. St. The cherubs appear o quite a normal cherubic size until approached. Four cherubs flutter against the first piers of the nave. At each end is a theatrical space framed by ionic columns and a statue is set within each. Nave St. The axis of the nave was also tilted by Maderno. Peter's Basilica Basilica’s façade.
known in Italian as Chiesa di Santa Susanna alle Terme di Diocleziano. Peter's Square After working on the interior of St. Church of Sta. St. is a Roman Catholic church in Quirinal Hill. Rome. there has been a Titular church associated at this site. Rome. Susana At about 280. the domus belonged to two brothers 22 . is a piazza located directly in front of St. Susana. which was in a house. designed to accommodate the greatest number of people that could see the Pope give his blessing either from the middle of the façade or from the window in the Vatican Palace. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City. History Figure 36. The four column deep colossal Tuscan colonnades frame the trapezoidal entrance and the massive elliptical piazza. According to the 6th-century acta of Susanna. At the base of the obelisk is an elliptical block of stone with carved relief of five billowing gust of wind known as the West Ponente. like many of the earliest Christian meeting places. not to compete with the palace-like façade by Carlo Maderno. Peter’s for decades. Italy Formally known as the Church of Saint Susana at the Baths of Diocletian. an early Christian house of worship was established on this site. With a goal of redesigning the square to be an appropriate forecourt. Under the direction of Pope Alexander VII. The current church was rebuilt from 1585 to 1603 for a monastery of Cristercian nuns founded in 1587 which still exists. which is founded in the United States. The colonnade consists of 284 Tuscan columns swept outward I 4 concentric arcs of diminishing size. Sta. An Egyptian obelisk marked the center of the elliptical piazza and two fountains stood at perfect symmetry at both sides of the square at the two geometric focal points.D. using Tuscan form of Doric. Italy. Peter’s Square Known as Piazza San Pietro in Italian. Figure 35.St. The church serves as the national parish of Rome from the United States since that was established at the church in 1921 by the Paulist Fathers. Gian Lorenzo Bernini redesigned the open space outside the basilica from 1656 to 1667. As far back as 280 A. Bernini gave order to the space with his own colonnades.
remained to be constructed. with a circular apse forming two side-chapels. The frescoes on the curved side of the apse shows Saint Susanna being threatened by Maximian. sister of Pope Sixtus V. but defended by the angel of God. Architectural History At the end of the 7th century Pope Sergius I restored the church. Caius has been identified both with Pope Saint Caius and with Caius the presbyter. was situated outside the wall of the Baths built by Diocletian and Servian Wall. he added the great apse and conserved the relics of the saints in the crypt. the first wall built to defend the city. To the right Susanna can be seen refusing to worship the idol Jupiter. built on remains of three Roman villas still visible beneath the monastery. where the saint was martyred. In the 4th century it was marked with the designation ad duas domos (at the two houses). The entrance and roof are surrounded by triangular pediments. but Pope Leo III. prominent Christians. This first three-aisled basilica was almost certainly built under the pontificate of Pope Leo III (795-816). Nebbia's frescoes of the dome of the apse depict Saint Susanna flanked on either side by angels with musical instruments. Six scenes of Susanna’s life from the Book of Daniel is represented in t he frescoes of the central nave by Baldassare Croce. still maintaining rigor. Chapel of Saint Lawrence Domenico Fontana constructed the second side-chapel to the left dedicated to Saint Lawrence. the painting depicting the beheading of Saint Susanna is by Tommaso Laureti. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters. Maderno completed the façade in 1603. fourth-century documents by its title "of Gaius" by the Baths of Diocletian or as "ad duas domos" ("near the two houses"). There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design. the chief architect of Pope Sixtus V. who was a prefect and who is a source of information on early Christianity. not as a martyr and previously the church was identified in the earliest. the church was built on Susanna’s house. Gabinus or Gabinius is the name given to the father of the semi-legendary Saint Susanna. Interior . crowding centrally. The present present church of Santa Susanna on its ancient foundations was the first independent commission in Rome for Carlo Maderno. who had trained as an assistant to his uncle Domenico Fontana. Her earliest documented attestations identify her as the patron of the church. Chapel of our Lady of Graces The chapel of our Lady of Graces has on its walls two recent frescoes of Saint Benedict and Saint Bernard. . a highly influential early Baroque design. commissioned by Camilla Peretti. rebuilt it from the ground in 796. . It is mentioned in connection with a Roman synod of 499. Behind the high altar. It is one of the oldest titles in the city of Rome. As tradition says. the fourth pope whi had benn a pastor of this church. The church consists of a single nave.named Caius and Gabinus. The paintings are by the Milanese 23 . and the protrusion and increased central decoration add further complexity to the structure. The windows are replaced by niches. A façade.
Later along the Strada Pia. St. probably in the mid 1630’s. It is also Borromini’s first independent commission. Borromini received the commission. it was only constructed towards the end of Borromini’s life and the upper part was not completed until after his death. carved to the design of Carlo Maderno. while to the right. It defines the 24 . is a Roman Catholic church in Rome. However. Chiesa di San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Italian. Presbytery Two frescoes decorated the presbytery. the financial backing did not last and subsequently the project suffered financial difficulties. Exterior The façade of San Carlo is of concave-convex form and undulates in a non-classical way. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Also known as the Church of Saint Charles at the Four Fountains. Sant’Andrea al Quirinale. In this chapel are venerated Saint Genesius of Rome. It is one of the three churches in Rome dedicated to San Carlo. Ceiling The valuable ceiling of the nave and of the presbytery is made in polychromed gilt wood.artist Giovanni Battista Pozzo (1563–1591). History Figure 37. Lawrence. Baldassare Croce depicts the martyrdom of Saint Gabinius. The site of the church and monastery was at the south-west end corner of the ―Quattro Fontane‖ which refers to the four corner fountains set on the oblique at the intersection of Strada Pia and Strada Felice. an oval church of Bernini is built. The church is an iconic masterpiesce of Baroque architecture. The altar painting by Cesare Nebbia depicts the martyrdom of St. In 1634. St. patron of actors. Designed by Francesco Borromini. in the act of receiving baptism. To the left. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane The monastic buildings and the cloister were completed first after which construction of the church took place during the period 1638-1641. built as part of a complex of monastic buildings in Quirinal Hill for the Spanish Trinitarians. In 1646 it was dedicated to Saint Charles Borromeo. under the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Although the idea for serpentine façade must have been proposed early on. Tall Corinthian columns stand on plinths and bear the main entablatures. who has a palace across the road. others are San Carlo ai Catinari and San Carlo al Corso. an architect from Ticino. and the bishop Pope Saint Eleuterus. Paris Nogari shows the martyrdom of Saint Felicitas of Rome and her seven sons. Italy. an order dedicated to the freeing of Christian slaves.
Sixteen columns. Crypt The crypt follows the size and form of the church and has a low pierced vault. Interior The interior of the church is both extraordinary and complex. with an octagonal chapel on the south-east side where Borromini intended to be buried. This creates an undulating movement effect which is enhanced by the variation in treatment of the bays between the columns with niches. the central oval aedicule of the upper order and the oval framed medallion borne aloft by angels. but the rectangular ordering is interrupted by 25 . Cloister Next to the church is the cloister. cherubim herms frame the central figure of Saint Charles Borromeo by Antonio Raggi. In a hierarchical structuring of light. Plan of St. in the lower part of the church. The arches which spring from the diagonally placed columns of the lower Figure 38. And statues of St. rise to meet the Fontane oval entablature and so define the space of the pendentives in which roundels are set. the coffering of the dome is thrown into sharp and deep relief and light gradually filters downwards to the darker lower body of the church. smaller columns with their entablatures weave behind the main columns and in turn they frame niches. founders of the Trinitarian Order. John of Matha and St. are at either side. The pendentives are part of the transition area where the undulating almost cross-like form of the lower order is reconciled with the oval opening to the dome. which is a two-storey arrangement. mouldings. windows. crosses and hexagons which diminish in size the higher they rise.main framework of the two-storey building and the tripartite bay division. The arrangement seems to refer cross plan but all altars are visible as the two central columns in each arrangement of four are placed on the oblique with respect to the axial ordering of the space. Carlo alle Quattro wall order to frame the altars and entrance. Light floods in from windows in the lower dome that are hidden by the oval opening and from windows in the side of the lantern. carry a broad and continuous entablature. in a group of four. Chapels open off this space. Between the columns. the illuminated lantern with its symbol of the Holy Trinity is the most brightly lit. The main altar is on the same longitudinal axis as the door and two altars on the cross axis. the transition zone of the pendentives and the oval coffered dome with its oval lantern. Above the main entrance. Felix of Valois. The oval entablature to the dome has a 'crown' of foliage and frames a view of deep set interlocking coffering of octagons. a variety of sculptures as well as the main door. and doors. The three principal parts can be identified vertically as the lower order at ground level. The space is longer along the entrance axis than it is wide.
the curvature of the corners. Roman technicians located a source of pure water 13 km from the city. When the Goth besiegers in 537-38 broke the aqueducts. Geometrical themes are reinforced by the central octagonal wellhead on an oval base and the octagonal capitals of the upper columns. In 19 BC. It served Rome for more than four hundred years. and the inventive balustrade.cutting the corners so it could also be understood as an elongated octagon. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was asked by Pope Urban VIII to sketch possible renovations but the project was abandoned when the pope died. Further complexity is introduced by the variation in the spacing of the twelve columns carrying alternating round and flat headed openings. Pope Nicholas V finished mending the Acqua Vergine aqueduct and built a simple basin. Fountains 26 . the coup de grâce for the urban life of late classical Rome came. In 1453. Design and Construction In 1629. fountains. Pope Clement XII organized a contest in 1730 in which Nicola Salvi initially lost to Florentine Figure 40. designed by the humanist architect Leon Battista Alberti. the revived Aqua Virgo. which was also used as a sewer. The eventual indirect route of the aqueduct made its length some 22 km. standing 26 meters high and 20 meters wide. History The fountain at the junction of three roads marks the terminal point of the "modern" Acqua Vergine. to herald the water's arrival. This Aqua Virgo led the water into the Baths of Figure 39. It is also one of the most famous fountain in the world. competitions to design buildings. In 15th century the Roman custom of building a handsome fountain at the end of an aqueduct was revived with the Renaissance. one of the ancient aqueducts that supplied water to ancient Rome. and even the Spanish Steps had become the rage. Fontana di Trevi Agrippa. During the Baroque era. Medieval Romans were reduced to drawing water from polluted wells and the Tiber River. there are many Bernini touches in the fountain as it exists today. supposedly with the help of a virgin. Italy is the largest Baroque fountain in the city. Fontana di Trevi The Trevi Fountain in Trevi district in Rome. Though Bernini's project was never constructed.
History The construction of the Ducal Palace was begun for Duke Federico III da Montefeltro around the midfifteenth century by the Florentine Maso di Bartolomeo. an architect from Dalmatia who had been influenced by Brunelleschi's cloisters in Florence. Palazzo Ducale 27 . Laurana's light and noble arcaded courtyard at Urbino rivals that of the Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome as the finest of the Renaissance. Urbino The Ducal Palace (Italian: Palazzo Ducale) is a Renaissance building in the Italian city of Urbino in the Marche. In high. Overcoming the exigencies of the Figure 41. Salvi was awarded the commission. The palace continued in use as a government building into the 20th century. housing municipal Figure 42. The Ducal Palace is famous as the setting of the conversations which Baldassare Castiglione represents as having taken place in the Hall of Vigils in 1507 in his Book of the Courtier. After Laurana's departure from Urbino in 1472. Domenico Rosselli. Many of the refined Early Renaissance carved details are so similar to features in paintings by Piero della Francesca that scholars have debated his possible input in the execution of Laurana's plan. chimneys and friezes created by Barocci. One of the most important monuments in Italy. Luciano Laurana. who was mainly responsible for the façade decoration.architect Alessandro Galilei. plainly stuccoed rooms the richly sculptured doorways. which made an irregular massing of architecture necessary. The second floor was added in the first half of the following century by Girolamo Genga. After the death of Duke Federico (1482). works were continued by Francesco di Giorgio Martini. it is listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site. Arcaded Courtyard cliff-like site. Palazzo Ducale. The portals and the window sculptures were executed by the Milanese Ambrogio Barocci. the famous courtyard and the great entrance staircase. The work began in 1732 and completed in 1762 when Pietro Bracci’s Oceanus (God of all Water) was set in the central niche. but due to the outcry in Rome that a Florentine won. from the 1460s onwards Laurana created what contemporaries considered the ideal princely dwelling. and their workshops stand out. who was also the decorator of the interior rooms. The new construction included the pre-existing Palace of the Jole. designed the façade. the construction was left partially unfinished.
the newly-completed palazzo was seized by the first Medici Pope. Pope Sixtus IV. like the church of Saint Clement[disambiguation needed] among others. meaning the Papal Chancellery) is a Renaissance palace in Rome. the Cardinal's titular church. who had not forgotten the complacency of Pope Sixtus at the time of the murderous Pazzi conspiracy intended to replace the Medici in Florence with a Della Rovere regime. the Jacobite "Henry IX of Great Britain". The 5th-century church (its interior has been rebuilt) sits. In 1517. the parliament briefly sat here. The building has traditionally been attributed to Bramante and Andrea Bregno. Cardinal Duke of York. Restorations completed in 1985 have reopened the extensive subterranean network to visitors. and is regarded as the earliest Figure 43. Palazzo della Cancelleria: the 18th-century engraving by Giuseppe Vasi exaggerates the depth of the Piazza della Cancelleria in front of the Palace. upon a Roman mithraeum (pagan sanctuary). not subject to Italian sovereignty. see below). that sits to its right. and public collections of antique inscriptions and sculpture (the Galleria Nazionale delle Marche. situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori. Its long façade engulfs the small Basilica Church of San Lorenzo in Damaso. the Properties of the Holy See. From 1753 the vicechancellor was the Jacobite pretender to the throne of Great Britain.archives and offices. The palazzo houses the Papal Chancellery. During the Roman Republic of 1849. with the palatial front continuing straight across: the entrance to the church is on the right side of the facade. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Palazzo della Cancelleria The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Italian for "Palace of the Chancellery".and 5th-century foundations of the grand basilica of San Lorenzo in 28 . The rumor was that the funds came in a single night's winnings at gaming. Italy. The Cancelleria was built for Cardinal Raffaele Riario who held the post of Cardinal Camerlengo to his powerful uncle. Palazzo della Cancelleria Renaissance palace in Rome. Current opinion of the architect's identity is divided. It is designated as a World Heritage Site as part of a group of buildings. Leo X. Henry Stuart. excavations beneath the cortile in 1988 – 1991 revealed the 4th. and is an exclave of the Vatican. Palazzo della Cancelleria was the first palazzo in Rome to be built from the ground up in the new Renaissance style. in the rione of Parione. It was built between 1489–1513 by an unknown architect as a palace for Cardinal Raffaele Riario. with Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Baccio Pontelli suggested as having been involved in the early stages of design.
Bramante moved to Rome. Lorenzo. Peter's martyrdom. It is more likely that the form of the courtyard is derived from that of the Ducal Palace in Urbino. however they were originally taken from the theatre to build the old Basilica of S. in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio. the Tempietto is considered a masterpiece of High Renaissance Italian architecture. and one of the most important early Christian churches in Rome. built for a city of over a million people that now housed some thirty thousand.  Brunelleschi's cloisters of Santa Croce in Florence. it is composed of slender Tuscan columns. The grand doorway was added in the 16th century by Domenico Fontana on the orders of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. for it has little architectonic use. the "Tempietto" is one of the most harmonious Figure 44. it is hard now to sense the impact this building had at the beginning of the 16th century. The façade with its rhythm of flat doubled pilasters between the arch-headed windows is Florentine in conception. since the individuals involved in the early planning of the palazzo had come from Urbino. comparable to Leone Battista Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai. cut with smooth surfaces and grooves around the edges. and a dome. The Tempietto buildings of the Renaissance. 1570). for the Eternal City was a field of ruins. founded by pope Damasus I. The building greatly reflected Brunelleschi's style. The so-called Tempietto (Italian: "small temple") is a small commemorative tomb (martyrium) built by Donato Bramante. The overall pattern of drafted masonry. is Ancient Roman in origin. where he was recognized by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere. Given all the transformations of Renaissance and Baroque Rome that were to follow. the soon-to-be Pope Julius II. Also commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella. A cemetery in use from the 8th century until shortly before the palazzo's construction was also identified. It is almost a piece of sculpture. The building's bone-colored travertine was scavenged from the nearby Roman ruins of the Theatre of Pompey. Perfectly proportioned. The forty-four Egyptian granite columns of the inner courtyard are from the porticoes of the theatres upper covered seating. 29 . The Tempietto The Tempietto in Andrea Palladio's Quattro Libri (woodcut. One of Bramante's earliest commissions. After spending his first years in Milan. which may have also inspired the courtyard of Luciano Laurana's Palazzo Ducale of Urbino (circa 1468) has been suggested as a possible source of inspiration. It is meant to mark the traditional (section) exact spot of St.Damaso. a Doric entablature modeled after the ancient Theater of Marcellus. possibly as early as 1502.
Venice Palace in Venice on the canal Rio di San Luca. at the confluence of the latter in the Grand Canal. The Gothic facade was originally clad with diamonds of red and straw yellow Verona marble. then Giovanni Grimani . Zest interior . but this plan was never executed. Figure 45. the modern species belongs to the 1556-1575 year. Vicenza The Basilica Palladian is a public building facing onto the Piazza dei Signori. Palazzo Grimani di Santa Luca.According to an engraving in Sebastiano Serlio's Book III. in the years 1532-1569 consistently reconstructed the heirs of Duke.Hall of Psyche. where the Council of the Four Hundred met. The palace consists of three parts and a small rear patio. Cardinal and Patriarch of Aquileia . Palazzo Grimani the succession order to perform the last Michele Sanmikeli .Door portal decorated by Alessandro Vittoria . Presumably. The copper-lined. adding the famous loggias with serliana openings in white marble to the existing Gothic building.After his death. Basilica Palladiana. The facade of the palace is decorated with colored marble. The upper floor is entirely taken up by an Figure 46. It was built in the Renaissance. the palace was completed in 1575 by Giovanni Rusconi .Also in the design of the palace attended by Taddeo Tsukkaro and Giovanni da Udine. the general procurator of the city. who redesigned it. built in Gothic style in the mid-fifteenth century to a design by Domenico da Venezia. Bramante planned to set it in within a colonnaded courtyard. Finally. which are still visible behind Palladio’s addition. first Vittore Grimani . The building on which Palladio worked was the Palazzo della Ragione. decorated with frescoes by Francesco Mentsokki Camilo Mantovano and Francesco Salviati . A loggia surrounding the building was 30 . In the present building is located in the Venetian Court of Appeals. Its name is linked to Andrea Palladio. inverted ship’s-hull roof was inspired by that of the Palazzo della Ragione in Padua. It was originally built for the Doge Antonio Grimani. Basilica Palladiana enormous hall with no intermediate supports.
ultimately. The project was awarded to Andrea Palladio (1508-80) in 1549. While the influence of Jacopo Sansovino and his Palazzo Corner della Ca'Granda on the Venetian palace architecture and especially on the Rezzonico palace is unmistakable. sits on a narrow strip of land between the Grand Canal and the St.The building has three independent exhibition spaces that are used to host architecture and art exhibitions of international renown. They included Jacopo Sansovino. Sta Maria Della Salute Potential designers competed for the right to create this magnificent new basilica and. Sta Maria Della Salute. following a competition. After the epidemic had subsided. who had been inspired by the model of the Roman basilica for civic use. Longhena's plastic design of the upper floors goes a Figure 48. The reconstructed building was called a basilica by Palladio himself.commissioned after its completion. which had already killed about a third of the city's population. It was completed posthumously in 1614. It is constructed of Istrian stone and a marble-dust-covered brick known as marmorino. Palazzo Rezzonico In 1649. The Salute is octagonal in shape and sits on a platform of 100. Figure 47. Venice The Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute. it is currently closed to the public for restoration. The Senate promised to build the church in honor of Mary if she would free the city from the plague. Mark's Basin. the Senate kept its promise and construction of the church soon started. but continually delayed due to various structural difficulties and the nature of the ground beneath.000 wooden piles. Longhena designed a massive structure with large domes and volutes. though not complete. At the beginning of the sixteenth century the double order of porticoes and loggias. The Council called on many leading architects of the time to resolve the difficult problem of its reconstruction. it contains some Byzantine elements. The church was proposed in 1630 by the Venetian Senate in response to a particularly terrible wave of the plague. collapsed. Sebastiano Serlio and Giulio Romano. designed by Baldassarre Longhena. Palazzo Rezzonico 31 . Filippo Bon decided to replace two old houses of his family with a new large palace. Longhena died five years before the church opened in 1687. He would never see his masterpiece completed. and he worked on it for the rest of his life. referred to by most locals as simply Salute. Though classic in design. Baldassare Longhena was chosen.
the Rezzonico brothers Quintiliano.wikimedia. While the forepart of the palace has a tripartite plan and a staircase for the second floor.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/PetersdomGrundriss.wikipedia.JPG/250px-0_Nef_-_Basilique_St-Pierre_-_Vatican.org/wiki/St.uk/religion/galleries/vatican/images/3. Barnaba also had the Villa Rezzonico Borella in Bassano Del Grappa.wikipedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/SaintPierreRaphael.svg.jpg/170p x-San_Pietro_in_Vaticano_4.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/0_Nef_-_Basilique_St-Pierre__Vatican.co.JPG 32 .jpg http://upload.jpg http://0. while the rear part was already completed.org/wiki/Santa_Susanna http://64.wikipedia.142. Giambattista Rezzonico was elected as Pope Clement XIII.wikipedia. Several incisions by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli and Visentini (after a painting by Canaletto) show the front of the Ca'Rezzonico unfinished.JPG http://upload. The largest representative staircase of a Venetian private palace gives access to this hall Reference Page: http://en.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Panoramic-ViewSt.jpg http://upload.jpg/170pxPetersdomGrundriss.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/San_Pietro_in_Vaticano_4.bobzworldcity. After Bon's bankruptcy. Two years later. taking up the height of two floors and the width of the entire building.wikimedia.wikimedia.jpg/25 0px-Basilica_di_San_Pietro_1450.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/Basilica_di_San_Pietro_1450.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/SaintPierre. a mezzanine floor and a massive cornice. as all nine window axis with their independent balconies are of equal dimensions and design. and Giovanni Battista.jpg http://upload. bought the unfinished palace in 1751. Abbondio.step further.JPG/170pxSaintPierreRaphael.jpg http://www.wikimedia.org/wiki/Saint_Peter%27s_Square http://en.jpg http://upload.Peters-Basilica.org/wiki/Renaissance_architecture http://en. who had acquired the Venetian nobility in 1687.png http://upload.svg/170pxSaintPierre._Peter's_Basilica http://en.com/d/goitaly/1/0/r/3/-/-/st-peters-basilica.19.bbc.10/www. The Rezzonico S. In 1756.tqn. the part behind the courtyard consists of a huge ballroom. the building was finished. Above a bossed ground floor with a portico rise two upper floors with the ionic respectively corinthian order. The Venetian tripartite floor plan still dominates much of the building. but is not invisible on the façade any more.
com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSbEjZGWThgTS4ikjX2tipLqO1M0MompOjgEqRxnw WWQDeCrbgYRA http://upload.aviewoncities.net/palaces/ca-rezzonico.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Facade_Santa_Susanna_Rome.jpg http://upload.jc-r.com http://commons.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9a/Palazzo_Pitti_Gartenfassade_Flore nz.wikimedia.com/poi/PalazzoGrimanidiSanLuca-11090/Venice3896/Sightseeings_Architecture_Palace#/poi/PalazzoGrimanidiSanLuca-11090/Venice3896/Sightseeings_Architecture_Palace http://www.wikipedia.jpg/220px-Lazio_Roma_SSusanna1_tango7174.jpg http://romafelix.learner.htm http://venice.php http://www.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Lazio_Roma_SSusanna1_tango7174 .gstatic.org/courses/globalart/assets/non_flash_386/work_183.wikimedia.wikimedia._ritratto_di_filippo_brunelleschi.JPG/22 0px-Fontana_di_Trevi_by_night.jpg/300px-Palazzo_Pitti_Gartenfassade_Florenz.jpg http://upload._cappella_brancacci.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Fontana_di_Trevi_by_night.org/wiki/File:Porta_pila_Genova_01.poiradar.com/San%20Carlino.jpg /250px-Facade_Santa_Susanna_Rome.museicivicivicenza.jpg http://upload.htm 33 .jpg http://it.greatbuildings.com/venice/santamariadellasalute.wikimedia.jpg/400px-Trevi_Fountain%2C_Rome%2C_Italy_2_-_May_2007.http://www.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Trevi_Fountain%2C_Rome%2C_Ita ly_2_-_May_2007.wikimedia.jpg/220pxhttp://upload.tripadvisor._san _pietro_in_cattedra.JPG http://www.jpg http://t2.wikimedia.jpg http://www.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/Masaccio.jpg www.com/gbc/drawings/palazzo_strozzi_plan.jpg http://upload.it/en/conservatoria/basilicapalladiana.150.org/wiki/File:Torino-PalazzoCarignanoFronte.
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