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Mathematics for the Curious

Peter M. Higgins

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ISBN 978 977 6263 16 1


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kalimatarabia@kalimatarabia.com :
http://www.kalimatarabia.com :
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.
Arabic Language Translation Copyright 2008 Kalimat Arabia
Mathematics for the Curious was originally published in English in 1998.
This translation is published by arrangement with Oxford University
Press.



.
Peter M. Higgins 1998.
All Rights Reserved.

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7
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135
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128 .
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. 128 2 = 64
64 64 2 = 32
. :
64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 127.


) (127 .
) (128
2 128 = 27 :
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

) (

. 26 +25 +24 +23 +22 +21 +1 = 27 1 :
10

2
n
2n + 2n1 + 2n2 + + 22 + 21 + 1 = 2n+1 1.

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100
128 .
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50 25
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13 ) 12
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100, 50, 25, 13, 7, 4, 2 :
50 + 25 + 12 + 6 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 99.



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121 . :


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t = 4
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11
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11 = 1 11

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18 136 :

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360
60 = 6
126 = 12 . t

6
180 6t .
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t :

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2

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= 120,
2

16

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18 136 = t
28 .


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121
121
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121 121
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121 121 121
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1+

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r = 121 r = 12 :
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10%
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18


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10% 10%
.
100
10%
90 . 10%
10% 90 90 + 9 = 99
100 .


10% 110
10% 10% 110 11
110 11 = 99
.
.

.10% 10%
.
.1%
.
.
10% 10%
101

.
99 .
19


) (.
. P
. :
10% P 1 + 0.1 = 1.1
P .1 0.1 = 0.9
:
P 1.1 0.9 = 0.99 P = P 0.9 1.1,

1%
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(P .


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1% .
1

100 .

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2
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20

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12 12
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11 10 12 .10
171 123
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3 12 ) 3 (3
3 .12
5
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1
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100

10 1000


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1
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10%
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100%

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100%
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Fabtex 150%
1.5 .

20% 25% 5%
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25
25 20
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20

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10

9 11
23

.9 11 = 99 = 100 1 : :

.

n
(n 1)(n + 1) = n2 1.


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A 4 68 17
B 8 128 .16
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( A B .
.
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1 + 3 + 5 = 9 = 32 ,

1 + 3 = 4 = 22 ,

1 = 12 ,

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 = 42 , . . .

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n
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25


2n1

5
3
1

3

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2n) 2n 1

.(2 n

1 + 3 + 5 + + (2n 1) = n2 .


n
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n n2

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26

-7 n
:
)n(n + 1
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2

= 1 + 2 + + n

) 1+2+ +10 = 55 = (1011 .

2
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:
(1 + n) + (2 + n 1) + (3 + n 2) +

.n + 1
.
n
n 2
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) (n + 1) n2 .
:n = 10
)1 + 2 + + 10 = (1 + 10) + (2 + 9) + (3 + 8
)+ (4 + 7) + (5 + 6
= 11 + 11 + 11 + 11 + 11
= 11 5 = 55.

n .
.
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. .

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27

n = 11

)0 + 1 + 2 + + 11 = (0 + 11) + (1 + 10) + (2 + 9
)+ (3 + 8) + (4 + 7) + (5 + 6
= 11 6 = 66.

n -: 0
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2
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0 . 2
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r + 1
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2 (r + 1) 2 r .

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2 r + 2 2 r = 2 ,

2
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n
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an n
. ) a1 = 1
(
recursion .an :
.a4 = 1 + 2 7 = 15, . . . a3 = 1 + 2 3 = 7 a2 = 1 + 2 1 = 3
:
1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, . . .

32

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2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, . . .

2n an
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bc
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h
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b
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2
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44 = 1 :
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2 4
8
4
= 4
4
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9

43 . 43

Unit Fraction 15 201
27
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27 ) 41 + 281
17 + 17 (.
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0 1

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42

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1
7
1
60 9 180
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57 136
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mn m
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43

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13 = 0.33333 . . .
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3 .1 = 0.99999 . . . :


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0.99999 . . . 1
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2.364
2.36399999 . . .
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23 : 178.
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12

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44



47 6 57 6
7
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0 1
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12 42
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ab a b
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:
2
1

= 0.666 . . . = 0.6,
= 0.142857142857 . . . = 0.14285
7,
3
7
1
1

= 0.041666 . . . = 0.0416,
= 0.058823529411764
7.
24
17
= 0.5

1
2


38 = 0.375 :

12 = 0.50 83 = 0.3750
.
45

:
)(
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)(
)(


1
6 1 16


56 :
5

= 0.8333 . . . = 0.83.
6

:
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.5
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2
5 50 101 50 6
2
2
8
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1
20 100 .
6
)(

20

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2
56 = 0.83 + 100
6
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46

2
:
5

= 0.83.
6
m
n

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n .

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.

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17
1 6 . 1
7 1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1, . . . :
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.n 1
7 17 )
6 16
.

1 = 0.0 2
9
:
131 = 0.07692
3
11
6 . r
. m m n r n
n
.m r
47

.
.n

1
2 = 0.5
51 = 0.2 2 5 10 .


.
r s

r + s
0.202 0.01744 = 0.00352288
1
1
r + s = 3 + 5 = 8 2 5

1
= 0.0625.
16

1
= 0.025,
40

16 = 24 ,

40 = 23 5,

407 = 0.175
)
.(0.25 2 = 0.5 :


2s 5s
10
:
255
51
=
.
1000
200

= 0.255

:
1000 = 10 10 10 = 2 5 2 5 2 5 = 23 53 .

48


.(200 = 23 52 ) 5 2
.
mn n
n = 2a 5b
) .5s 2s
2s
5s 161 .( 251
2 5 10
.


: ) 3

0.1 1
( 13
1 13 .1 101

.



.
0.63 r 2
a .102 = 100 0.63 = 0.6363
.100a = 63.63
.a 100a = 63 + a a
63
99a = 63 :
a = 99
7
.
11

3
=
0.6


.
7
= 1
) 0.18 = 112 , 0.03 .(1000
27
49

.a = 0.27
r = 1 10 10a = 2.7
.9a = 2.7 0.27


.9a = 2.7 0.2 = 2.5
10
5
.a = 25
90a = 25 90 = 18
: 0.583 = 127
)
(
.

b = 0.101001000100001000001 . . . ,

.

b .
b .

0.12345678910111213141516 . . .


2 = 1.414213 . . . .

2

. : .
50

. 2

. 2


: .

2
: 12 < 2 < 22

1 < 2 < 2 2 1 2

2 = 1. . . . 1.42 = 1.96 < 2 < 2.25 = 1.52 :

.1.4 < 2 < 1.5 .

1.41 < 2 < 1.42 1.414 < 2 < 1.415.


2 2
) .
(.
.

.

. 2

. 2
. .
.
a b c
.a2 + b2 = c 2 a = b = 1
.c 2 = 12 + 12 = 1 + 1 = 2
51


E
D
2

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.

2 a


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.a

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A B
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C B AB BC
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A
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B B .D ABD .
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AB

B .D E
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2 .


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2 .

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a
2 b

2
a .b 2 = ab .2 = ab2
:
2b2 = a2 .

2

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a ) .

a a2
(.
2c a c .
:
a2

2b2 = (2c) (2c) = 4c 2 .

53

2 .b2 = 2c 2 :
)(

b a .

b a .
2 = ab
a b .2

. 2
.
.
.

.

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.

: x )

x = 2 (. ab
x + ab

dc :
c
a
)(bc ad
=
,
d
b
bd

=x

x .
x . ab a
dc
54


(:

a
c
b c
bc
= x
= = = x
.
b
d
a d
ad

2
3

) ( 31

) 1 + 2 (1

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.
2 2 2

2 2 2 = 2 2 = 4

2 2 2 .2

a b ab .
!
a b

.
:
.an am = an+m

:
n m
a2 a3 = (a a) (a a a),

a 2 + 3 = 5 .
n
aam = anm :

:
a5
)(a a a a a
=
= a52 = a3 .
a2
)(a a

55

(an )m = anm :

:
(a2 )3 = (a a) (a a) (a a) = a23 = a6 .


)(

a1/2 = a:

a a = a = a1 ,

= a1/2 a1/2

:
a1/2 a1/2 = a1/2+1/2 = a1 = a,

.
a1
:

1
a


a
1
; =
a2
a

.1 2 = 1

2
a0 = 1 aa2 = 1
.2 2 = 0

a b ab .
.a = b = 2

2 2 .
. )


( a = 2 2 .b = 2
56

:
) ( 2 )2 ( 22

2
=
2
= ( 2)2 = 2.

= ab

.


.
.
.


.
x
: y = 10 x y
10 x = log10 y
10 .
10 x = log y

log 1000 = 3 log 0.1 = 1 103 = 1000


y = 10x
.101 = 101 = 0.1

:
) (
a
= log a log b.
b

;log ab = log a + log b

log


a b
.

.
57

x y
log b :

log a

a = 10x , b = 10y = ab = 10x 10y = 10x+y ,

log ab = x + y = log a + log b :


:
log(x y ) = y log x :

1
1
log 10 = log(101/2 ) = log 10 = .
2
2


1 10

:
1 10
log 84 = log(10 8.4) = log 10 + log 8.4 = 1 + log 8.4 = 1.9243.


.

)( . )(
.
.

.


.
.
.
log 8.4

58

log 10,

)
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pH
decibel

e = 2.7182 . . . e
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59

:log 3
.10
. log 3
a 3 = 10a/b b
b
b
a
.3 = 10
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Z
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{
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Z = . . . , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .

61


:
)(2

Z = 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, . . .


:
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . ,

b1 , b 2 , b 3 , . . . ,

a1 , b1 , a2 , b2 , a3 , b3 , . . . .

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2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5

0, 1,


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n(

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63

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1 1 2 1 3 1 2 3 4


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m
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mn
mn

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5

0, 1, 1, 2, 2,


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Q .
)
6x 3 + 5x 2 + 8x + 1 = 0 x
( . ab bx a = 0

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x 2 2 = 0 21/3 2
.x 3 2 = 0
.

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65

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b
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Lindemann

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60
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