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Introduction. Like me, you may have the questions in your mind that which force tends to fly the earth round the sun? Which force tends to fly some satellites and comets in opposite direction of sun‟s rotation? How the gravitational force acts? Why the orbit of a comet is highly eccentric than a planet? How the solar system actually formed? How the universe continues? What is the actual model of an atom? Is there any theory which can unify and explain everything from atom to universe? After getting some solutions of above questions, I have written a book in Bengali language which is published in may 2012 by Spike Publishers from Bangladesh named “Poromanu Hote Mohabishwa O Oikkoboddho Tattwa”(From Atom to Universe and the Theory of Unification) . To get some idea about the book, you may visit website www.atomtouniverse.com which is designed in Bengali language. The chapters of the book are astronomy & my eagerness, light, electricity and magnetism, some required definitions and short notes, some theories of science, data of planets, heavenly bodies, atomic world, relativity, gravitational force, solar system, rotation of heavenly bodies, galaxy, universe, the theory of unification etc. I tried to explain presently accepted theories, models and explanations of physics in the book as well as I have included some new hypothesis, models and also explained some unexplained problems of physics which may unify everything from atom to universe. All these seem to be logical to me and many others. Those are yet to be judged and proved by the philosophers, scientists, researchers, physicists, religious leaders and by the people who love science. Some important aspects of those have been discussed in short in this paper. 2. Galaxy model of atom. The basic particle (quark) of an atom is produced from energy when it reaches at required temperature, density and velocity. It has North Pole and South Pole. It rotates on its own axis with the influence of field where it lies. Due to rotation, the polarity of the basic particle (quark) changes frequently like the sun. For this reason electromagnetic waves are produced in the basic particle (quark). When the number of electromagnetic wave exceeds the limit, it is emitted as a bundle of waves and bundle of loops. In atom these loops carry gluon particles. Each loop has two parts; one is positive and another is negative. With the interaction of loops from basic particles (six types of quark) globule is formed at the centre of atom and the basic particles (quarks) move in an elliptical path round the globule like a galaxy.
Quark Rotation of quark Globule Loop carrying gluon particle
Fig-1: New atomic model
Different sub atomic particles are formed from the quarks in different way when the atoms are disintegrated. The electromagnetic wave loops emitted from atoms make bond by mutual interaction. The electromagnetic wave loops which are emitted towards the center of an object make bond among the atoms and which are emitted outwards from an atom, carry gravitational force. The bonding strength created by these loops at any point is inversely proportional to the square of the distance multiplied by i.e. . Where „F‟ is force and „d‟ is distance from the center.
Bonding of loops
Fig-2: Bonding among atoms of an object 3. New explanation for action of Gravitational Force. There are two types of forces acting on a planet which moves round the sun. One is centripetal force and another is centrifugal force. The centrifugal force is developed due to the rotation of the sun. The centripetal force is the resultant of attraction or gravitational force and repulsion or anti gravitational force. The gravitational force and anti gravitational force works by using electromagnetic waves or light. The electromagnetic waves or light is emitted from an object as a loop. It is transverse wave. The emissions of electromagnetic waves also depend on the rotation of the object. The attraction force occurs due to the interaction of electromagnetic wave loops emitted from the sun and the planets, which take place between the sun and the planets. Each loop contains number of electromagnetic waves.
Fig-3: Attraction between two loops If the mass of the sun is m1 and the mass of a planet is m2 and the distance between the center of the nearest part of the sun and the center of the nearest part of the planet is d , then the gravitational force or attraction force = (m1x m2)/d2. The gravitational force or attraction force acts between the center of the nearest part of the sun and the center of the nearest part of the planet.
Fig-4: Attraction between two objects On the other hand repulsion force develops due to the repulsion of electromagnetic wave loops generated in the planet by the electromagnetic wave loops generated from the sun, which takes place outside the planet.
Fig-5: Repulsion force upon another loop If the mass of the sun is m΄1 and the mass of a planet is m΄2 and the distance between the center of the nearest part of the sun and the center of the distant part of the planet is d΄ then the anti gravitational force or repulsion force = (m΄1 x m΄2)/ d΄2. The anti gravitational force or repulsion force acts between the center of the nearest part of the sun and the center of the distant part of the planet.
Fig-6: Repulsion force on opposite side As the distance for attraction force is less than the distance for repulsion force, the value of attraction force is more than the repulsion force. So the resultant force here is the gravitational force or attraction force. Then the resultant force that is centripetal force on the planet by the sun = (m1 x m2) /d2 - (m΄1 x m΄2)/ d΄2. This formula is also applicable to all the objects of nature. Tide occurs at sub lunar point on earth due to attraction by moon‟s electromagnetic wave loops. On the other hand tide occurs at antipode due to the repulsion by moon‟s electromagnetic wave loops. The tail of a comet always remains away from the sun due to the repulsion by sun‟s electromagnetic (EM) wave loops.
Fig-7: Gravitational field around an object Due to interaction of electromagnetic wave loops, heat is produced at the center of cyclone, black spot is seen on the water surface before forming a water spout and sunspot is formed on the surface of the sun. If medium sized hair of a person is tied up with a band, then the middle part of the hair expands with the repulsion of electromagnetic wave loops and the ends of the hair remains together with the interactions of electromagnetic wave loops which are emitted from the hair. 4. New explanation about 23.50 Inclination of Earth’s orbit. We know that, an object which rotates on its own axis has a natural property called „rigidity in space‟. That means; the rotational axis of a rotary body will remain pointing in a fixed direction in the space. The earth moves round the sun as well as it rotates on its own axis. Due to rigidity in space, the rotational axis of the earth should remain pointing in a fixed direction in the space. But as the distance between the sun and the earth varies due to the variation of centrifugal force and centripetal force, the axis of the earth cannot remain pointing in a fixed direction. So, to compensate the property of „rigidity in space‟, the earth moves towards north or south. On 21st June the earth is at about furthest point to the sun and it goes to the maximum limit towards south. During this time, the sun is sighted towards maximum north (23.50 N). From that day centripetal force starts overcoming centrifugal force and the earth starts closing to the sun. And again, to compensate the properties of rigidity in space, the earth moves towards north till 22nd Dec. On that day the earth is at about closest point to the sun and the sun is sighted towards maximum south (23.50 S). From that day again centrifugal force starts overcoming the centripetal force. In this way the orbit of the earth is 23.50 inclined to the sun‟s equator although the earth‟s equatorial plane is only 70 inclined with the sun‟s equatorial plane.
5. New laws and explanation for Comets go far away and comes closer to the Sun. If we consider that the perpendicular line to the direction of centripetal force which joins the center of centrifugal force (R2) and the opposite direction of centripetal force as Rotational Lever (R'2 R2). If we again consider that the distance between the center of centrifugal force and the center of centripetal force along the line of centripetal force as Eccentric Distance(R'2 E2) as shown in figure below:
Rotation of planet
Direction of centrifugal force Center of centrifugal force (R2) Center of centripetal force (E2)
Rotation of Sun
Fig - 8: Forces acting on a planet Then from the above discussions, we may derive the following laws: I. The body whose ratio between the mass and rotational lever is more, it rotates more rapidly on its own axis. II. The body whose ratio between the mass and eccentric distance is more, it goes more away from the sun and comes closer to the sun. III. The body whose ratio between the mass and the acting resultant force is more, it moves at higher speed in the orbit. As the size is very small, the value of above ratios is more in a comet than a planet. So it rotates faster on its own axis, moves faster in the orbit and goes far away from the sun and comes closer to the sun. These also depend on the time elapsed after the capture by solar system and the direction from which the object is captured.
6. New explanation about the forces tend to move the planet round the sun. The centrifugal force from the sun acts in a curved path which is outward from the sun. This force is generated due to the rotation of sun.
Direction of centrifugal force
Fig - 9: Action of centrifugal force
We know that the gravitational force acts through a center and anti gravitational force also acts through a center. The resultant force that is centripetal force also acts through the center of the nearest part of the planet towards the center of the nearest part of the sun. All these are shown below:
Center of anti gravitational force Center of centripetal force Center of mass Center of gravitational force
Center of gravitational force Center of centripetal force Center of mass Center of anti gravitational force
Fig-10: Center of mass and different force Due to the variation in value of both the forces, when the resultant force starts acting outwards or when the centrifugal force overcomes the centripetal force and the planet opens out at an angle, the velocity of the planet starts decreasing. At some distance the centrifugal force starts decreasing and the centripetal force overcomes centrifugal force. Then the resultant force or centripetal force starts acting inwards, the velocity of the planet is increased gradually and the planet gets closer at an angle to the sun. At some distance, the centrifugal force again overcomes centripetal force and again the resultant force starts acting outwards. When the planet opens out from the sun, centrifugal force decreases rapidly than the centripetal force and when the planet gets closer to the sun, centrifugal force is increased rapidly than the centripetal force. As the centrifugal force acts in a curved path, the resultant force of centrifugal force and centripetal force acts in such a direction that the planet moves in an elliptical path round the sun. The path of the earth round the sun is shown in figure below:
Earth 22nd Dec
Sun 23 September 21 June
Fig-11: Elliptical path of Earth
The center of centrifugal force remains outside the center of mass in the direction of centrifugal force which is shown below:
Direction of centrifugal force Center of centrifugal force Center of mass
Fig-12: Center of centrifugal force The center of the centrifugal force and the center of the centripetal force remain away from the center of mass in a planet when the planet is nearer to the sun like the figure below and moving in an elliptical path. In this position, the length of Eccentric Distance (E1 R‟1) and the length of Rotational Lever (R1 R‟1) are maximum. The motion of a planet depends on the ratio of its mass and acting force including Eccentric Distance and Rotational lever.
Direction of centrifugal force
Fig-13: Forces acting when the planets are nearer to sun
The center of the centrifugal force and the center of the centripetal force remain closer from the center of mass in a planet when the planet is away from the sun and moving in an elliptical path. In this position, the length of Eccentric Distance (R‟2 E2) and the length of Rotational Lever (R‟2 R2) is minimum. The motion of a planet depends on the ratio of its mass and acting force including Eccentric Distance and Rotational lever.
Rotation of planet
Direction of centrifugal force
Rotation of sun
Fig-14: Forces acting when the planets are away from sun In both the cases, the center of centrifugal force and the center of the centripetal force do not remain in a straight line which is passing through the center of mass. That is why the planets are moving on their own axis because, both the center of forces tends to come in a line which is passing through the center of mass. The length of Eccentric Distance, the length of Rotational Lever and acting resultant force in a planet varies with the size, distance from the sun and position in the orbit.
Fig-15: Elliptical path of planet round the sun The center of resultant force in a moving object remains away from the center of mass in the direction of resultant force and shifts position with the change in value and direction of resultant force. The center of resultant force in a planet which is moving in an elliptical path round the sun gradually shifts in a direction shown below. From above figure, when the position of the planet is at A, B, C and D, the positions of the center of resultant force is at a, b, c and d as shown in figure below.
Path of the center of resultant force
Center of mass
Fig-16: Center of resultant force in a planet moving in elliptical path
7. New explanation for the movement of some comets in the opposite direction of Sun’s rotation. Actually the comets do not move directly on the opposite direction of sun‟s rotation. Due to the variation in centrifugal and centripetal force, the comets go away from the sun and come closer to the sun at an angle and move on the opposite direction of sun‟s rotation and apparently, it seemed to be moving in the opposite direction. These comets get forward motion from the variation in value and the direction of resultant force of centrifugal force and centripetal force. The mass, velocity and eccentricity of the comet determines the wave length of this wave like path. Two runs of a comet moving in opposite direction to the Sun‟s rotation are shown in the figure below:
Path of comet
Fig-17: Comets moving on the opposite direction This type of comets was received by the solar system from the opposite direction of sun‟s rotation and from rear side of the sun‟s motion.
Direction from which comet is captured
Orbital direction with the sun’s rotation Path of the sun
Direction from which comet is captured
Orbital direction opposite to sun’s rotation
Fig-18: Direction of capture and orbit of comets 8. Dead star hypothesis – The origin of solar system: A planet like object composed of carbon and oxygen may be formed from the core of a star after supernova explosion. Initially the planets were formed from the dead stars. Like other stars, dead stars were also moving in the orbit around the center of Milky Way Galaxy. Some dead stars may be captured while forming the sun and some may be captured after being formed and started orbiting as planets and satellites in the following way: (i) The dense molecular clouds along with dead stars, collapsed at a point due to gravitational force and a rotation of these clouds started around that point. Thus the sun
was formed like other stars. The dead stars near the central region of the cloud became the part of the sun. On the other hand, due to the rotation of central region, the centrifugal force started acting on the dead stars coming towards the center from outer region. Due to the variation of centrifugal and centripetal force, the dead stars started orbiting the sun and became the planets of the sun. In the same way some dead stars became the satellites of the planets. And the clouds which were away from the central region were by the central region and became the part of the sun. Inner planets and their satellites may be captured in this way. (ii) Like other stars, after forming, the sun along with the initially captured planets and satellites was also moving in the space. As the planets are small in size than the sun, the value of the ratio of mass and acting resultant force is more in the dead stars than the sun. So, the velocities and eccentricity of dead stars at nearest orbits were more than the sun. As a result, the dead stars came closer to the sun from rear side and attracted by the sun‟s gravitational force one by one. Just after being captured, due to the variation in centrifugal and centripetal force, some dead stars started moving round the sun and became the planets and some dead stars started moving round the planets and became the satellites. Outer planets and their satellites may be captured in this way. 9. Jet hypothesis – The origin of universe: Energy, time and space are infinite in the nature. Hydrogen atoms were created in the space from energy. Clouds were formed by the accumulation of hydrogen atoms. Due to the gravitational force large amount of clouds collapsed at a point and the stars were formed in different places at different times. Due to the effect of centripetal force and lack of centrifugal force, these stars started falling at a point and the rotation of stars started around that point like a cyclone, and the galaxies were formed. A number of galaxies fell at a point to form the cluster of galaxies. In the same way, due to the effect of centripetal force and lack of centrifugal force, all the clouds, stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies fell at a point.
Fig: New model of the Universe
While all these matters were falling at a point, a circular movement of these matters started around that point like the center of a large active galaxy. We may consider the matters of central region as dark matter as they are highly gravitationally compressed under highly rotating motion. Matters are still falling into the accretion disk of the central region. Due to the rotation or the frame dragging and interaction of electromagnetic wave loops at the
center, the accreted matters are converted into energy and escaped through the two poles of rotational axis like the polar jets or relativistic jets of a large active galaxy. The energy contains higher frequency electromagnetic waves and disintegrated sub atomic particles with high velocity at high temperature and density. So, we may consider this energy as the dark energy. As the energy is escaped from the center of a large object, the velocity and frequency of the energy is more. The velocity of radiation of the energy may be faster than the velocity of light. Our visible universe is a tiny part of a jet which is escaped from a pole of the universe. Thus the shape of our part of the universe is a conical sphere which is continuously expanding outwards like the shape of a big loud speaker. The cosmic microwave background radiation is the radiation from a pole of the universe which is located at the back. It radiates as a pulse. We receive the radiation from all the direction because of the refraction and reflection of the energy and rotation of the solar system, galaxies and cluster of galaxies. The central region rotates faster in larger objects to conserve the angular momentum of a wider area as the objects are coming from far away. So the interaction of electromagnetic wave loops are more in the center of larger objects and thus the frequency of the energy which is radiated from the two poles of the universe are more like a dynamo. As the size of the centers of all the objects are same and larger objects produce more electromagnetic energy, the center of larger objects can hold the charge for less time and that is why the duration of radiation pulse of electromagnetic energy which is radiated from the poles of the universe is less. According to the 2 nd law of thermodynamics, this energy is radiated in the region of conical sphere in such a manner that it tries to maintain equal temperature in all areas. New atoms, clouds, stars and also galaxies are formed from the energy depending on the temperature and density and thus the universe is homogeneous and isotropic in the visible region. As the energy is radiated from the pole towards forward and sideways in the region of conical sphere, there is a little variation in temperature between the pole and forward and between the center of the conical sphere and the sides. Due to the temperature variation, the energy is radiated outwards and the drag force acts in a slightly curved path. That is why the objects are getting continuous force to rotate and move forward. Thus the universe is accelerating and the orientation of our solar system and the galaxies and cluster of galaxies are same in the visible universe. Because of the action of drag force all the stars, galaxies and cluster of galaxies continuously get rotary motion and forward motion in the Polar Regions. The disc region does not require drag force. They are moving around the central region due to the variation of centripetal and centrifugal force. As the position of our galaxy is in, one of the polar region, so we are going away from the center of the universe.
The objects which are moving outwards from the Polar Regions return to the central region again through an elliptical or parabolic path and the system continues. We may consider the central region as a black hole. There may be infinite number of universes outside our universe.
All the questions related to universe may be answered from this model and all the mathematical equations and observational evidences about the universe may fit to this new and logical model. 10. Theory of Everything. The electromagnetic wave loops or light is the basic of all forces. The electromagnetic wave loops make bond among the quarks of an atom as strong force. They make bond among the atoms of an object as weak force. They also make bond among the objects of the universe as gravitational force. The electromagnetic energy is transmitted through medium or empty space with the help of electromagnetic wave loops. The bonding strength created by these loops at any point is inversely proportional to the square of the distance multiplied by i.e. . Where „F‟ is strength and „d‟ is the distance from the center. 11. Conclusion. The above new ideas are the result of my 25 years research and observations. I welcome you all to prove the new ideas. I hope that some of the new ideas will be proved in near future. If these new ideas are helpful in any way to the physics community then I shall be able to forget all the sufferings which I had to face in doing this.
Abdul Alim E-mail: email@example.com
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