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Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance page 1

Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

Preface

The following equation was developed to provide a one step procedure that will determine
the leaving dry bulb temperature requirement if air quantities, temperatures and required sensible
coil performance are known. It’s a new way of looking at some old equations.

Abstract

Calculations to determine the leaving dry bulb temperature of a coil are not normally
directly linked within a single formula to outside air and return air quantities, temperatures
and required coil sensible performance. Up to now this procedure involved several steps
to obtain the cooling coil dry bulb discharge temperature. By algebraic symmetry and
specific variable resolution, manipulations of two of the most basic HVAC equations
have produced the mathematical link which is presented within this document.
The following is simple algebraic manipulation.
The reader is invited to simply follow the authors reasoning in it’s obscure computational
niceties, produce a simpler more elegant manipulation, develop the equations further
or simply read through and apply the examples to one’s everyday work. This document
will not be found in any published work.

Main

The object of this mathematical treatise is to link sensible coil performance with
outside/return air quantities / temperatures and air change rates.
The first equation to be submitted is the well known Mixed Air Equation which
is simply a Dry Bulb Quantity / Temperature balance in the following form:

(TOA X QOA) + (TRA X QRA) = (TMA X QTOT) EQ-1

AND QTOT= QRA + QOA EQ-2

Where:
TOA = Temperature Outside Air deg F DB
QOA =CFM Outside Air
TRA = Temperature Return Air deg F DB
QRA = CFM Return Air
TMA = Temperature Of Mix Air deg F DB
QTOT = System CFM Total
Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 2
Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

EQ-1 Proof:
Example-1:
An air conditioning unit is returning 6,700 cfm of 70 deg F DB air and
has a make-up of 1,500 cfm of 95 deg F. DB outside air, does EQ-1 balance ?
TOA = 95 QOA = 1,500 TRA = 70 QRA = 6,700 QTOT = (1,500 + 6,700) =
8,200

6700
= 0.817
8200 1- .817= .183 .183 X 95 = 17.38 .817 X 70 = 57.19
TMA=(17.38 + 57.19)= 74.57

And = (95 x 1,500) + (70 x 6,700) = (74.57 x 8,200)


(142,500) + (469,000) = (611,500)
(611,500) = (611,500) EQ-1 balances

Now solving for TMA =

( QOA. TOA ) ( QRA. TRA)


TMA
QRA QOA EQ-3
Example-2
Using Example-1’s figures and substituting into EQ-3 we have:

( 1500. 95 ) ( 6700. 70 )
= 74.573
6700 1500 Deg. F. DB Mix Temperature
This agrees with Example-1.

EQ-3 will be set aside for now and will be used later.

Turning our attention back to EQ-1 we now must solve for QTOT. The
total cfm quantity of the system which can be related thru this equation
to our temperatures and then equivilated to required coil performance.

( TOA. QOA TRA. QRA)


QTOT
TMA EQ-4
Where:
60
1.08 0.244.
13.5 .244= specific heat 60= min/hr 13.5= specific volume

TMA = Miix Temperature (temperature entering coil) deg F DB


LvgTe

Example-3
Using Example-1’s figures and substituting into EQ-4 we have :

95. 1500 70. 6700


= 8200
74.57 cfm total system cfm
This agrees with Example-1.
Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 3
Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

Now to introduce that stalwart most basic of HVAC equations into our discussion

CFM Required To Satisfy a Sensible Load.

BTUH
CFM
1.08. ( delta T) EQ-5
Where:
60
1.08 0.244.
13.5 .244= specific heat 60= min/hr 13.5= specific volume
BTUH= required coil performance in BTUH (sensible)
Delta-T= Temperature difference through coil
(Coil entering DB temperature – coil leaving temperature)

Where QTOT = QRA + QOA mix temperature (TMA) can be substituted


for coil entering temperature and QTOT can be substituted for CFM
Thus:

BTUH
QTOT
.
1.08 ( TMA Lvgtemp) EQ-6

Now by Equivalence Relation EQ-4 and EQ-6 which are equinumerable, reflexive and
and do not violate the Anti-Physical postulate of equivalence can be related:

( TOA. QOA TRA. QRA) BTUH


QTOT
TMA 1.08. ( TMA LVGTEMP) EQ-7

Now solving for LVGTEMP= (T4)

For bookkeeping purposes let’s make the following assignments:


TOA=T1 QOA=Q1 TRA=T2 QRA=Q2 TMA=T3 BTUH=B LVGTEMP=T4

T1. Q1 T2. Q2 B
T3 .
1.08 ( T3 T4)

B T1. Q1 T2. Q2
.
1.08 ( T3 T4) T3 if a=b then b=a by symmetric axiom move the
variable to be solved to the left of the
equation

2
B B. ( T1. Q1) ( T2. Q2 )
.
1.08 ( T3 T4) T3 Multiply By B

2
B B. (T1 . Q1 ( Q2. T2)
1.08. ( T3 T4) T3 put factors in order (switch T and Q)
Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 4
Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

2
B B. (Q2 . T2 ( T1. Q1 )
1.08. ( T3 T4) T3 put terms in order (switch Q2 T2 T1 AND Q1)

3 2 2
B . ( Q2. T2 ( T1. Q1) B . ( T1. Q1 T2. Q2)
1.08. ( T3 T4) T3 multiply both sides by B(Q2 T2 + T1 Q1)

3 2 2
B . ( Q2. T2 ( T1. Q1 ) ) B . ( T1. Q1 T2. Q2)
1.08. ( T3 ( 1.08. T4) ) T3 multiply out by use of distributive law
a(b+c) = ab+ac

1
3. 1 . u2
B
1
2 1 2 2 2
B . T3 B . ( Q2. T2 T1. Q1)
u u
1.08. T3 1.08. T4 T3 known as an implicit or contextual
definition of a complex expression
(keeps the bookkeeping a little
simpler)

3 1
B. . u
2 1
B . T3
u
1.08. T3 1.08. T4 x to the ½ = square root of x
converted exponent to a square root

3 1 1 a . 1
B. . u. ( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) u ab
2 1 b
B . T3

eliminated the fraction by converting denominator


to a factor with an exponent

1 . u. ( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) 1 u


3
2 1 B
B . T3 divided both sides by B cubed

1
1 . u2. ( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) 1 u
3
2 1 B
B . T3 converted square root to an exponent
Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 5
Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

1
1 2
( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) . u u
3
2 B
B
T3 simplified

1
2
3. 1. 2 B .
B ( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) u u
T3 cross multiplied to eliminate denominator on
unknown left side
1
2
3. 1 B . 2
B ( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) u
T3 cancelled common u ½ factor on left side
1
3 2
B B . 2 n 1
u a
( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) T3 n
a converted negative exponent into a fraction
1
3 2
B B . 2 a
u a. b converted root fraction to two roots
( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) b
T3
1
3 2. 2
B B u 5. 2 5.
= 3.333 2 = 3.333
( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4) 3 3
T3 simplified a/b X c=(a x c)/b

1
3 2
B ( B). u 2
a a converted root of B squared to B
. .
( 1.08 T3 1.08 T4)
T3
1
3. 2
B T3 ( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4). B. u cross multiply (1.08 T3-1.08 T4)
1
2 3
( 1.08. T3 1.08. T4). B. u B . T3 if a=b then b=a
1 1
2 2 3
1.08. T3. B. u 1.08. T4. B. u B . T3 a(b+c)=ab+ac
1
2 3
( 1.08. T3. B 1.08. T4. B). u B . T3 combined 1.08 x T3 X B – 1.08 x T4 x B to single term

3
B . T3
( 1.08. T3. B 1.08. T4. B)
1
2
u divided both sides by u ½
Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 6
Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3
3
B . T3
( 1.08. T4. B) 1.08. T3. B
1
2
u subtracted (1.08 x T3 x B) from both sides

1
3. 2
B T3 1.08. T3. B. u
1.08. T4. B
1
2
u used common denominator and simplified
1
3 2
B . T3 1.08. T3. B. u
1.08. T4. B
1
2
u by associative law of subtraction –a=b = a=-b

1
2 3
1.08. T3. B. u B . T3
1.08. T4. B
1
2
u -(a-b)/c = (b-a)/c reversed order of negation

1
2 3
1.08. T3. B. u B . T3
T4
1
2
1.08. B. u divide by 1.08 x B, cleared the left side of the equation
1
2 2 2
B . ( Q2. T2 T1. Q1 ) 3
1.08. T3. B. B . T3
T3
T4
1
2 2 2
B . ( Q2. T2 T1. Q1)
1.08. B.
T3 put the definition of u back into equation

we now (finally) have our equation but it needs a lot of simplification now to clear all those
exponents and the radical sign
1
2 2 2
B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) 3
1.08. T3. B. B . T3
T3
T4
1
2. 2 2
B ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1)
1.08. B.
T3 switched Q and T, (keep it alphabetical)

Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 7


Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

1
2 2 2
B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) 3
1.08. T3. B. B . T3
1
2 n n
T3 a a
T4
1 b n
b reassigned the exponent
2 2 2
B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1)
1.08. B.
1
2
T3

1
1 2
2 2
2. B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) 3
T3 1.08. B. B . T3
1
2
T3
T4
1
2 2 2
1.08. B. B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) inverted and multiplied

1
1 2
2 2
2. B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) 3
T3 1.08. B. B . T3
1
2 n
T3 a n n
T4 a .b
1 1 b assign exponent to each
2 2. 2 2
1.08. B. B ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1)
variable
1
1 2
2 2
2. B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) 3
T3 1.08. B. B . T3
1
2 c
T3 b b. c
T4 a a combine exponents
1
2
2
1.08. B. ( B. B). ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1)
1
1 2
2 2
2 B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) 3
T3 . 1.08. B. B . T3
1
2
T3
T4
1
2
2 2
1.08. B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) collect powers

Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 8


Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

1
1 2
2 2
2. B . ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) 3
T3 1.08. B. B . T3
1
2
T3
T4 a. ( b c ) a. b a. c multiply by distributive
2 2
1.08. B . Q2. T2 1.08. B . Q1. T1
law
1
1 1
2 1
2
2.
T3 1.08. T32 . B . B2 . Q2. T2 Q1. T1 B3 . T3 2
T4 CANCEL__T3
2. 2.
1.08. B Q2. T2 1.08. B Q1. T1
1

1 2 2
1 1
2 2 2 2. 3
T3 . 1.08. T3 . B . B (( Q2 . T2 Q1. T1 B . T3 n n n
T4 ( a. b ) a . b assign exponent to
1.08. B2. Q2. T2 1.08. B2. Q1. T1
each variable
1 1 1
2. 2 2 2 3
T3 1.08. T3 . B. B ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) B . T3 b
c
b. c
T4 a a combined
2. 2.
1.08. B Q2. T2 1.08. B Q1. T1
exponents
1 1
2. 2 3
T3 1.08. T3 . B. B( ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) ) B . T3
T4
2 2
1.08. B . Q2. T2 1.08. B . Q1. T1 combined exponents again
1 1
2. 2 2 3
T3 1.08. T3 . B . ( ( Q2. T2 Q1. T1) ) B . T3
T4
2 2
1.08. B . Q2. T2 1.08. B . Q1. T1 collect powers B x B
1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 3
T3 . 1.08. B . Q2. T2. T3 1.08. B . Q1. T3 . T1 B . T3
T4 A( B C) A. B A . C
2 2
1.08. B . Q2. T2 1.08. B . Q1. T1
1 1 1
2. 2 2 3. 2 2
T3 1.08. B . Q2. T2. T3 B T3 1.08. B . Q1. T3 . T1
T4
1.08. B Q2. T2 1.08. B2. Q1. T1
2.
reorder terms
1 1
2 2 3 2 2
1.08. B . Q2. T2. T3 B . T3 . T3 1.08. B . Q1. T3. T1
T4 A( B C) A. B A . C
2 2
1.08. B . Q2. T2 1.08. B . Q1. T1
pg-8

Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 9


Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3
1 1
2 2
1.08. Q2. T2. T3 B. T3 . T3 1.08. Q1. T3. T1
T4
1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1 CANCELED B SQUARED
1
2
B. T3 . T3 1.08. Q2. T2. T3 1.08. Q1. T3. T1
T4
1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1 PUT TERMS IN ORDER

1 1 1
2. 22
T3 B. T3 1.08. Q2. T2. T3 1.08. Q1. T3 . T1
T4
1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1 Simplified
1
1
2
T3. B. T3 1.08. Q2. T2. T3 1.08. Q1. T3 . T1
T4 X2 X
1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1

2 2 2
B. T3 1.08. Q2. T2. T3 1.08. Q1. T3 . T1
T4
1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1 a(b+c) = ab+ac
multiplied out by distributive law
B. T3 1.08. Q2. T2. T3 1.08. Q1. T3. T1 2
T4 c c if c = or > 0
1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1

All the radicals and exponents have finally succumbed to algebraic manipulation.

T3. ( B 1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1)


T4
1.08. Q2. T2 1.08. Q1. T1 SIMPLIFIED
Now lets translate the above equation assignments back into our original variables.
TOA=T1 QOA=Q1 TRA=T2 QRA=Q2 TMA=T3 BTUH=B LVGTEMP=T4
TMA . BTUH 1.08. QRA. TRA 1.08. QOA. TOA
Lvgtemp
1.08.QRA. TRA 1.08. QOA. TOA EQ-8
Remember way back when we solved for TMA, (EQUATION-3) well let’s insert it into
Equation-8 and see what comes up:

( QOA. TOA ) ( QRA. TRA ) .


BTUH 1.08. QRA. TRA 1.08. QOA. TOA
QRA QOA
Lvgtemp
1.08.QRA. TRA 1.08. QOA. TOA EQ-9

Outside and Return Air Vs Sensible Coil Performance Page 10


Copyright z2009 By William Greco Trident3

Equation – 9 can be simplified by considering that 27/25 = 1.08 and

(1.08 – 1.00) divided by (27/25) / 2 equals the continuous series .037 and so

25.. BTUH 27.. QRA. TRA 27.. QOA. TOA


Lvgtemp .037.
( QRA QOA) EQ-10

Let’s try an example and see what equation 9 and/or 10 can do for us:
Example-4:
An air handler is supplying 12,000 cfm of which 9,000 cfm is return air and
3,000 cfm is outside air, the outside air db design temperature is 95 deg F and
the space is designed for 75 deg F db (if we figure a 1 degree rise in return the
air is being returned at 76 deg F, the load calc for this installation has been
calculated at 260,000 btuh sensible, what is the leaving db off the coil to
satisfy the above requirements ?

BY EQ-9

3000. 95 9000.76 .
260000 1.08. 9000.76 1.08. 3000. 95
3000 9000
= 60.688
1.08. 9000. 76 1.08. 3000. 95 deg F db
discharge
by EQ-10
25.. 260000 27.. 9000. 76 27.. 3000. 95
.037037. = 60.688
3000 9000

Conclusion:
In a single equation we can now calculate the required dry bulb leaving temperature
knowing only the required coil sensible performance the outside air quantities and
temperature and the return air quantity and temperature.

Bill Greco
Warrington, Pa.