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Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement of PGDM (IB) Batch 2012-2014
Submitted to: SEEMA AGARWAL Associate Professor
Submitted by: RISHABH BATRA 65/PGDM(IB)
JAGANNATH INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT SCHOOL KALKAJI
CONTENTS S. no 1 2 3 4 5 DESCRIPTION Acknowledgement Certificate of completion Student’s Declaration Executive summary Chapter-1 Introduction - Introduction of globalization - Introduction of globalization in sports 6 Chapter-2 Objective of the project 7 Chapter-3 Research Methodology 8 Chapter-4 Analysis and Findings - Historical background - Current state of the field - Impact of Globalization in sports - Related Examples 26-82 21-25 20 10-19 Page no. 4 5 6 7-9
Recommendations and Limitations Conclusion Appendices
I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide Seema Agarwal for her exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this thesis. The blessing, help and guidance given by her time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark. I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Company, Shelly Chopra (External Mentor), for her cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through various stages. Lastly, I thank almighty, my parents, brother, sisters and friends for their constant encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible.
His work is appreciable. RISHABH BATRA. has completed his project on the topic “IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION IN SPORTS” under my guidance.CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION This is to certify that Mr. Project Guide: Seema Agarwal Associate Professor 5 . pursuing PGDM (IB) from JIMS KALKAJI.
25/02/2013 Place-Delhi 6 . All care has been taken to keep this project error free and I sincerely regret for any unintended discrepancies that might have crept into this report Thank You (RISHABH BATRA) PGDM (IB) (2012-2014) Jagannath International Management School (KALKAJI) Date.STUDENT’s DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project report titled – “Impact of globalization in Sports “ is my own work and has been carried out under the table guidance of Seema Agarwal (Associate Professor at JIMS Kalkaji) and Shelly Chopra (External Mentor) .
political and cultural aspects of life. through the exchange of goods. What is unique is the emergence of a modern form of globalization in recent decades.e. products whose components are made in different locations around the world. science. increasing interconnectedness and interdependence among countries and economies. aided by the pace and scope of global integration resulting from unmatched advancements and reduction in the cost of communications. This process is changing the world dramatically and quickly. Markets have become more interwoven and the production process has been made more efficient by the option to create ‘world products. transport and industry. bringing the world closer through better world-wide communication. jobs. products. Also. information. social. knowledge and culture.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Globalization can be defined as the process of change.’ i. transport and trade links. the ability to ship information and products easily and cheaply from one country to the next and to locate the manufacturing process where labour and work processes are less expensive has changed the pattern of production and consumption across the world. The process of globalization is an inevitable phenomenon in human history which has been bringing the world closer since the time of early trade and exploration. technology. 7 . affecting economic.
and he isn’t from an American city. Before-hand. these sports were popular only in the nations they were created in. Basketball has spread to almost all countries around the world. and people from France wearing basketball caps. and cricket was only popular in Britain. many NBA teams recruit from outside of the US now. he’s from China. 8 . Basketball. I tell you. or the integration of facets of life from different cultures into comprehensive proclivities. How has this amazing internationalization of sports fanaticism occurred? The answer. football. Hakeem the dream Olajuan—Nigeria. Look at the big-man sharpshooter Dirk Nowitski—from Germany. In fact. Improved technology in transportation and telecommunications Movement of people and capital Rise of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Transnational Corporations (TNCs) Nowadays. soccer was only popular in international Spanish nations. at the advent of modern sports. is globalization. as well as many other Middle-Eastern countries. However. The list goes on and on. with the new popularity of basketball all over the world. you see people from India wearing NFL hats. the sports popularities increased. Cricket expanded to Australia and India. as time passed by and globalization mechanisms increased. people from America wearing soccer jerseys with the names Messi or Henri. Look at Yao Ming: this guy is one of the most dominant big men in the game. and baseball were only popular in the US.
there is the Davis Cup. which is like a World Cup for tennis that takes place every year. and there will continue to be an increase in international communication. who won the Olympic basketball tournament in 2004. there is an increasing amount of communication mechanisms out there right now. except Afghanistan. Japan has gained ground and has become a baseball power. Soccer has the most popularity out of any sport worldwide. Whereas beforehand there was no diversification of sports internationally. and even Argentina. was Fred Perry. It’s part of the NFL’s promise to have increased international participation.Also. it has probably had the most widespread globalization. Lithuania. the recruitment of international players. 9 . and he did it 76 years ago. There’s email.Tennis has also been globalized. other teams have reached the top of the basketball world. The last player to win Wimbledon. there’s the internet. The days of the “Dream Team” are long gone.In baseball. and the World Cup for soccer that is held every four years. Now. Teams like Germany. Every year. And the commissioner of the league says that soon there will be more international games played. And it’s not going to stop. now the globalization of sports has caused more sports to be popular worldwide. This truly shows the widespread popularity of tennis. Currently there is a tennis player on the professional circuit from every nation of the world. as evidenced by the different international leagues. while America is still at the top of the basketball. foreign players win majors more than the hometown favorites. the British major. Globalization has also occurred extensively in soccer: actually.
social. political and cultural aspects of life. increasing interconnectedness and interdependence among countries and economies. This process is changing the world dramatically and quickly. 10 . transport and trade links.Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION Globalization can be defined as the process of change. bringing the world closer through better world-wide communication. affecting economic.
or to escape danger in their own country. Movement of people and capital – increasing numbers of people are now able to move in search of a new home. products. the ability to ship information and products easily and cheaply from one country to the next and to locate the manufacturing process where labour and work processes are less expensive has changed the pattern of production and consumption across the world. aided by the pace and scope of global integration resulting from unmatched advancements and reduction in the cost of technology.’ i. job. through the exchange of goods. Markets have become more interwoven and the production process has been made more efficient by the option to create ‘world products. jobs. science. information. from cheaper air travel and high-speed rail to the rapid growth of the internet and mobile phones. 11 . knowledge and culture. Money is being moved globally through electronic transfer systems. Also. transport and industry. Improved technology in transportation and telecommunications – the cost of how people communicate and travel has drastically reduced in the last few decades.e.The process of globalization is an inevitable phenomenon in human history which has been bringing the world closer since the time of early trade and exploration. What is unique is the emergence of a modern form of globalization in recent decades. products whose components are made in different locations around the world. communications.
Many of these issues are not constrained by country boundaries. The World Trade Organization (WTO). e. the most recent of which was the Doha round. so has the number of organizati ons that aim to deal with them. 12 . The lowering of trade barriers since the Second World War has been a major factor in the growth of world trade. Transnational Corporations (TNCs) – accessing new markets across the world which are opening up in developing countries. formerly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.g.Developing countries are becoming a more common place for international investment due to the huge potential for growth. Rise of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) – as global awareness of certain issues has risen. climate change. Businesses are also encouraged to source workers globally. as some jobs can be done by foreign workers for a much lower cost than domestic workers. such as manufacturing jobs. has been responsible for negotiating reductions in tariffs and other barriers to trade in rounds of talks.
poverty rates in China fell from 60% to 16%. India and Vietnam. for example. include countries such as China.com. Alex Steffan. discusses how we are affected by being so disconnected from the process of creating the things that we consume. it is also a chaotic process which offers both benefits and disadvantages to people across the world. where research and development (R&D) is increasingly outsourced to cut costs and get products to new markets faster. leaving 475 million fewer people in poverty. The last decade has also seen an increase in the outsourcing of innovation. Clothes shops are able to source cheaper clothing from overseas factories. Within Britain the benefits are often seen as unevenly distributed. co-founder of WorldChanging. knowledge and expertise • the improvement of international standards for variables such as education and health 13 . The World Bank states that between 1990 and 2005. Those that have been successful in opening up to the world economy. For consumers. supermarkets now source produce from all over the world. Benefits and disadvantages While globalization is a catalyst for human progress. who have significantly reduced poverty in their respective countries. Positive • consequences in local of productivity globalization can promote include: prosperity improvements • the movement and sharing of information. globalization can mean a wider choice of goods at lower prices.
Similarly health and safety laws and regulations are often less demanding in developing countries.• increases the variety of goods available to the world market and provides a bigger range of markets for internationally sourced products Negative consequences of globalization include: • the loss of employment in manufacturing in developed countries such as Britain • a drift towards a more homogenized culture and society internationally • local economies may be more vulnerable to fast changes in the international economy • increased centralization of power in the hands of large transnational corporations • the location of industry in less developed countries. often leads to environmental degradation Globalization is often criticized on the basis that is has led to the exploitation of workers and the environment. Consumers are increasingly aware of the distance produce has travelled before being sold to us (known as food miles). for many reasons. With an increasing awareness of the environmental impact of what we buy. 14 .
15 . primitive pasture games relying on balls of rocks. Any sport can now attract players or audiences in any part of the globe. feathers or hair transformed into global events with intricate rules.GLOBALIZATION IN SPORTS In a few short centuries. with television and the internet tracking cricket matches in Australia to soccer in Zaire. it becomes more controlled and competitive. and yet conventional wisdom suggests that as an activity takes on global stature. rags. disconnecting from local origins.
The editors and other essayists in “Globalization and Sport” point to two forms of global growth. sport still emits a clarion call to the most rigid of characters. 16 .” concludes sociologist Barry Stuart. and yet also highlight the powerful role of sports in social and cultural change.” a compilation of essays written by sociologists and anthropologists. Yet despite such global growth. The nine essays largely assume global-local tensions. often through national or international regulatory boards. agues political sociologist Chris Rumford. “As modern sport has become global in scope it has largely lost its playful character and its professional practice has become both a global media spectacle and a serious and financially significant global business. Styles can emerge in sports that reflect and reinforce both local and national values. who anxiously sought International Cricket Council recognition for Afghanistan shortly before their ouster in 2001. referring to the integration of local practices as “glocal” and the overwhelming of local ways as “grobal. Kelly. including the Taliban in Afghanistan.” notes William W. “Local appropriation is seldom simply assimilating and imitating.But does the process of global growth necessarily eliminate local connections or fervor? Can innovation accompany tradition? And how do endeavors that require fierce competition reveal a common humanity? Editors Richard Giulianotti and Roland Robertson delve into such questions with “Sport and Globalization.” Some sporting formats adapt more readily than others and some impose more constraints.
explains Rumsford. undergo post-Western transformation as former British colonies tussle with traditionalists over one-day versus multiple-day matches. 17 .The local does not necessarily resist the global. and can be effectively marketed across borders. with frequent upsets of even the most dominant players. and speed skating is akin to ahusmanskost.” he writes. business and politics. Global sports such as golf and tennis manage without a world championship. Other sports. a cheap entrance ticket and immediate gratification are factors facilitating global dissemination. sensory or intellectual appeal” that transcends local concerns. Competition and its regulation need not be totally centralized. such as cricket. “In other words.” For Eriksen. instead competing with a set of world tournaments. Rumsford maintains that a global sport such as cricket lacks a single global modernity. often intermingling with trade. soccer is a hamburger. and Thomas Hylland Eriksen’s essay details reasons why some sport phenomena spread while others do not: The most popular cultural products – whether books. “low common denominators. particularly via television or the internet. or a Swedish fish meatball. much as audiences tend to cheer and admire the underdogs. speed and innovation are recognized transnationally in business or sport. Talent. Sport’s purpose is no longer limited to entertainment. have an “emotional. Andrews and George Ritzer. and yet many researchers tend to privilege the local. food or sports – tend to require little culturally specific knowledge. explain David L.
soccer. such as legitimization. Another approach could center on economic issues. in an essay about Dutch soccer style. Still.” notes Eriksen. baseball – are offered as evidence for the essayists’ arguments on how the local interacts with outside forces. originator of many cultural trends. mimicking or influencing. US football. annihilation. This student of globalization welcomed a set of essays addressing diverse sports. commodification and spectacularization. Anyone involved in the highly competitive. basketball or ice hockey as sports with true global reach. Gaelic football. is almost “an island until itself when it comes to team sports. but would prefer a more specific overarching theme in future collections.Skill combined with simplicity in regulations. One approach might be to compare the movement of sports around the globe with the promotion of governance or religion. speed skating. with too many parentheses and “–tion” words. whether protecting.” The most intriguing parts of the book are where historical details of specific sports – cricket. Eriksen suggests. and the book could discover a wide audience beyond sociologists. The book is academic in tone. Lechner joins the editors in pointing out that “Postmodern nations engage complex globalization to produce new identities. interdisciplinary and multicultural world of sport will want to understand globalization’s influence and patterns. Likewise. pointing to similarities or differences. Frank J. the essays are provocative and far-reaching. hurling. The United States. The book was 18 . regions and issues. defining their particularity in relation to universal standards. as he rejects baseball. reduced time requirements and viewer friendliness are characteristics that can merge diverse cultures.
” Yet readers can’t help but be curious about a recent abrupt shift in attitudes – from widespread expectations that of rising global wealth to thriftiness and caution about investments – and which sport traditions might endure the current downturn. and over-commercialization.published prior to widespread recognition of the global economic crisis now under way. and offers a reminder of sport’s limited power. unemployment and forced migration in the developing world have “disconnected large populations from their sporting facilities and outlets. by Gary Armstrong. centers on the 2005 national election in Liberia when international soccer star George Weah lost to Harvard-educated grandmother Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf. Gender concerns. Indeed. intrusive nationalization. arrogant celebrity hierarchies as well as relentless quests for victory or profits that can taint those stories. Giulianotti and Robertson briefly point out that poverty. economic troubles and diverse talents can outweigh the media attention directed at major figures in sports. Despite sport’s special appeal and symbolism. Much of sport’s power is derived from the narratives of players and teams that emerge over time. 19 . the book’s closing essay. societies expect responsibility from organizers and individual players. Another intriguing approach might center in on conflicts among sports or even disdain for a sports culture. rapid growth.
Chapter-2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT TO STUDY WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION. AND TO ANALYZE WHAT ARE ITS IMPACTS ON SPORTS. WAS IT INVOLVED IN SPORTS IN THE EARLIER TIMES AND WHAT ALL TRENDS IT HAS DEVELOPED IN THE RECENT YEARS. 20 .
Chapter-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Marketing research is the function which likes the consumers. generate. refine & evaluate marketing action. monitor marketing performances & improve understanding of marketing as a process. customers & public to the marketer through information which is used to identify & define marketing opportunities & problems. It has following steps: I: II: III: IV: V: VI: PROBLEM DEFINITION DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM RESEARCH DESIGN FORMULATION FIELDWORK OR DATA COLLECTION DATA PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS REPORT PREPRATION AND PRESENTATION 21 .
All marketing research projects start with it. It specifies the details of procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and/or solve marketing research problem. The major emphasis is on the discovery of ideas & insight.2. Research design broadly classified into two parts : Exploratory Research Conclusive Research EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: Exploratory research looks for hypothesis in well-established fields of study. CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH: Conclusive research provides information that helps the executive so that he can make a rational decision. Hypothesis is tentative answer to the question that serves as guide for most of the research projects It seeks to discover new relationships. This study has done well while attempting to arrive at a more clear description of an apparent problem. This is a preliminary phase & is absolutely essential in order to obtain a proper definition of problems at hand.1 RESEACH DESIGN: It is framework or blueprint for conducting the market research project. Hypothesis usually comes from ideas developed in previous researches or are delivered from theory. 22 .
2.3 SAMPLE SIZE: Sample size refers to the number of elements to be used in a study.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES: Sampling Techniques are of two types: a) b) Non probability (non random) Probability sampling (random sampling) 2. SAMPLING UNIT: The basic unit containing the elements of the population to be sampled. Through this study we will find out the globalization effects on business. 2.2 TARGET POPULATION: The collection of elements or object that possesses the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made. Target population should be defined in term of Element and Sampling unit.5 SCOPE OF STUDY: The scope of the study will be useful in future. 23 . ELEMENT: Object that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made.2. Through this study we can know what is the scenario of globalization in the recent years and what are the globalization factors that influence the business.
Secondary participation: Postal mail Electronic mail Telephone Web-based surveys. Here are a few examples of data collection tools used within three main categories. In-person observations In-person surveys – used to gain general answers to basic questions Direct or participatory observations – where the researcher is directly involved with the study group Interviews – used to gain more in depth answers to complex questions Focus groups – where certain sample groups are asked their opinion about a certain subject or theory. and external evaluations. 24 . The data collection tools need to be strong enough to support what the evaluations find during research. Data collection tools are instruments used to collect information for performance assessments.6 DATA COLLECTION METHOD: The data collection process can be relatively simple depending on the type of data collection tools required and used during the research.2. self-evaluations.
already conducted survey analysis. analyze. evaluate. • The data is collected mainly from websites. database available etc. 1) Data Collection:- • The analysis will be done with the help Secondary data. 25 . annual reports. Some examples of this type of data collection tool would include: Expert opinions – leaders in the field of study Case studies – previous findings of other researchers Literature searches – research articles and papers RESEARCH METHODLOGY OF THIS PROJECT REPORT:- The ability to gather.I. Case Studies And Content Analysis: Case studies and content analysis are data collection tools which are based upon pre-existing research or a search of recorded information which may be useful to the researcher in gaining the required information which fills in the blanks not found with the other two types during the data collection process. research reports. present and utilize information is therefore is a vital skill today.
Chapter-4 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 26 .
Man is not the only living creature with the ability to store surpluses and live in complex societies controlled by chiefs — consider the industrious ants and bees — but he is unique in his ability to socially redistribute these surpluses through increasingly complex divisions of labour under the authority of the State. State power was a coalition of local power elites owing allegiance to a monarch who never had access to centralized administrative machinery. with the notable exception of North Africa adjoining the Mediterranean. 27 . Most people remained at their place of birth right through their lives. Religious experience was mostly limited to the local parish. the fundamental principle on which markets are organized. Although the term 'globalization' has gained currency only recently. and were never transcontinental. with wider pilgrimages limited to a select few. the forces driving this trend can be traced back to the end of the middle Ages in Europe. which are amongst the oldest and most distinctive human innovations.A brief history of globalization Globalization involves the interplay of markets. The saga of globalization is that of an unbound Prometheus. calamity or local demographic pressure. Exchange. technology and State. is known to exist in the most primitive human societies. with surges in productivity and growth unparalleled in history as markets. were above all else defined by localism and decentralization. however. technology and states are progressively freed from local demand and supply constraints. Empires meant mostly march of armies over land. Pre-modern societies. Migration was a one-way street to resettle in virgin territory in response to conquest.
discovery and mercantilism. New ideas. the European Renaissance. information and technology spread slowly since transportation and communication were based on animal traction. Four distinct phases of globalization can be discerned in modern history. with long distance trade mostly limited to luxury goods for the small power elite. 28 . The Industrial Revolution opened up a rapidly widening income gap between Europe and America on the one hand. inanimate traction. and the rest of the world on the other. markets were neighborhood-trading places. The first phase began in the sixteenth century with the passing of pre-modern localism. improvements in maritime technology leading to the great age of maritime exploration. The second phase from the late eighteenth century was marked by the spread of the Industrial Revolution and vast improvements in human technology. productivity and demand. which led to mass production and conveyance of merchandise goods and people. centralizing tendencies associated with absolute monarchy and the emergence of modern nation states following the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. and the spread of the ideals of the American and French Revolutions from the eighteenth century. colonial plunder. cross-border integration through bulk longdistance trade. investment flows and empire during a phase of European imperial expansion which saw the flag follow trade across the globe.With near universal poverty a structural constraint on demand.
History of globalization in Sports Sports in American History: From Colonization to Globalization journeys from the early American past to the present to give students a compelling grasp of the historical evolution of American sporting practices. 29 .
This gives students a broader knowledge of the complexities of sport. sporting culture. such as gender.This text provides students with insights that will allow them to develop new and alternative perspectives. provide a more complete understanding of sports in American history. race. and ethnic and religious groups have influenced U. generate a better understanding of current sport practices. minorities. Sports in American History examines how women. health.S. 30 . and religion. examine sport as a social and cultural phenomenon. to the era of sport in the United States today. and play in the American experience and how historical factors. providing coverage of sport by historical periods—from the indigenous tribes of pre-modern America. Unlike previous sport history texts. ethnicity. This expansive text is the most comprehensive resource on sport history. and consider future developments in sport in American life. through colonial societies.
31 . the global economy. sound macroeconomic policies. and the existence of a market economy. and integration with. the spread of technology. a common denominator which appears to link nearly all highgrowth countries together is their participation in.GLOBALIZATION IN RECENT YEARS Yet. These include investment (particularly foreign direct investment). several basic principles seem to underpin greater prosperity. based on experiences throughout the world. strong institutions. Furthermore. an educated workforce.
lower prices. And the biggest threat to continuing to raise living standards throughout the world is not that globalization will succeed but that it will fail. from countries of different sizes and different regions. It is probably no mere coincidence that over the past 20 years. Regional disparities persist: while poverty fell in East and South Asia. As much as has been achieved in connection with globalization. and higher overall living standards. and the exchange-rate system. it actually rose in sub-Saharan Africa. the percentage of the developing world living in extreme poverty—defined as living on less than $1 per day—has been cut in half. in the form of access to a wider variety of goods and services. as it provides them with the opportunities that come with being part of the world economy. financial sector sustainability. more and better-paying jobs. 32 .There is substantial evidence. but rather too little. It is the people of developing economies who have the greatest need for globalization.6 billion living on less than $2 per day. Proponents of globalization argue that this is not because of too much globalization. as a number of countries has become more open to global economic forces. These opportunities are not without risks—such as those arising from volatile capital movements. that as countries "globalize" their citizen’s benefit. The UN's Human Development Report notes there are still around 1 billion people surviving on less than $1 per day—with 2. there is much more to be done. improved health. through economic analysis and policy advice and through technical assistance in areas such as macroeconomic policy. The International Monetary Fund works to help economies manage or reduce these risks.
The risks are not a reason to reverse direction. The following is a brief overview to help guide anyone interested in gaining a better understanding of the many issues associated with globalization. but for all concerned—in developing and advanced countries. among both investors and recipients—to embrace policy changes to build strong economies and a stronger world financial system that will produce more rapid growth and ensure that poverty is reduced. 33 .
people. globalization has spread across economy.Globalization in Sports in Recent Years Throughout the twenty-first century. political relations. 34 . The world of sports has also been radically globalized during this same period of time. and popular culture all over the planet.
these and many other questions will be addressed and also explained how each of the major sports can best transition into this global society while maintaining its quality of play. The history of international sports. In 1896. up to this point. the revival of the summer Olympics was the first truly global competition.NBA and MLB are filled with players that reside from countries outside of the United States. The arrival of Yao Ming added thirty million Houston Rockets fans to a team that only has one million viewers in the US currently. but it was restricted to amateurs. How will the globalization of sports change the games we know and love today? Will these changes improve sports for the fans or only line the pockets of owners and corporations? To what extent will the relevancy and hierarchy of the established leagues be transformed by the pressures of global markets? In a six-part series. the World Cup has truly become a global competition. while foreign soccer teams tour on American soil. The World Soccer Cup emerged in 1930 as the first global competition that allowed professional athletes. 35 . With the rise of the US Soccer team. Regular season football and hockey games are now played abroad. has been sporadic.
since the 1990’s. globalization has been limited. players from across the world fill American sports leagues and European soccer clubs and these games. and Montreal while the NHL expanded hockey to the United States. American sports leagues have added Canadian franchises in Toronto. which later evolved into the Champions League) would also arise throughout the world in the mid-twentieth century. began the globalization of sports.Soccer championships (such as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. Eventually. Franchises and the surrounding sports league will see greater profit as the global market provides limitless expansions of revenue. broadcasted on national television and the Internet. Outside of soccer. The domination of the 1992 USA Dream Team basketball squad has inspired foreign youth to play American sports while the 1994 World Soccer Cup led to the AYSO (American Youth Soccer Organization) to supersede Little League. Vancouver. What changes does globalization provide for professional sports leagues? The future of sports lies in the change from continental markets to global markets. leagues will have multi-continental franchises and road trips will tire players even more. Today. 36 . However. globalization has excelled with the advancements of technology and the acceptance of professional athletes in the Olympic Games. Americans in the past five years have been seen regularly wearing Manchester United jerseys and Lakers fans can be found in China.
when I will discuss how NBA has made basketball the world’s most popular sport and what challenges does the League face with its international fan base.The percentage of international players will continue to grow along with the popularity of global competitions. These trends seem general. For how each of the major sports is dealing with globalization and how it affects them. such as the World Baseball Classic and the UEFA Champions League. It is not even unlikely that ESPN International will appear in some countries. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON SPORTS 37 . The next edition will be released tomorrow. but different industries have different reactions to the global economy. please read the rest of this series.
net books.4 million viewers. laptops and satellite televisions have increased international viewership of sporting events. generating 15.5 million times and accessed by an average of one million users per day. The network's World Cup application was downloaded more than 2. For the 2010 World Cup.Impact of globalization and technology on professional sports Technological advances are bringing sporting events to more people than ever before. ESPN3 clocked nearly 7.7 million hours of viewing. 38 . Mobile devices.
Recently. The increased globalization of sports has also increased the value of many sport properties as evidenced recently by the $2 billion price tag—double the previous contract—for overseas television rights for the next three years of Premier League games. The potential sale of Liverpool.Though the World Cup may be seen as an outlier in terms of revenue generated and number of viewers. a leading Spanish bank. Globalization of the NBA is not a new phenomenon. More than half of all NBA.S. which may generate interest in a player's native country. the NBA finals are televised to more than 200 countries in over 40 languages. the NBA announced a multi-year marketing partnership with the BBVA Group. a soccer team in the English Premier League. Due to its enormous popularity in China and because of highprofile players Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian. has drawn the interest of potential purchasers from across the globe. but technological advances are helping it continue. This influx of interest creates opportunities for local and foreign sponsors and advertisers. This is due in part to athletes playing abroad. such as Mikhail D. 39 . the number of Chinese sponsors and advertisers in the NBA is growing. the international fan base continues to grow—even for smaller scaled local sporting events—with the aid of ever-advancing technology. Today.com traffic comes from outside of the U. Cross-border deals are also part of the equation as foreigners increasingly purchase interests in local teams. and in part to the relatively new ability to watch games taking place anywhere in the world through live web stream or satellite television. Prokhorov recently becoming the first foreign owner of an NBA team.
This necessity has become more visible due to special world conditions and gradual growth of communication beginning in the late1950s and early 1960s. can be seen throughout MLB stadiums.S. MLB is also seeing its brand grow. they reach more people in more countries than ever before. Under such conditions. The benefits of globalization are not limited to foreign companies. which rose 22% in 2009. Sanyo Electric and Hitachi. a significant number of Japanese sponsors. The NBA's popularity in China is a significant reason for Nike's revenue growth in that country. All countries could find common points in their cultures and strengthen them. companies are also getting in on the action. Nowadays there is no doubt that sport and physical activity have become universal phenomena. driving an increase in opportunities for advertisers and sponsors. including Nintendo. Thanks to players such as Ichiro Suzuki.. international World Cup associations. one could claim that every change in the vision of a nation could affect other nations too. Sponsors and advertisers are no longer limited to local markets or traditional forms of advertising and should explore different markets and media to reach as many "local" sports fans as possible. and common wealth country competitions are examples of globalization in sport.S. Spain and Puerto Rico. In the era of globalization. 40 . Ajinomoto. WNBA and the NBA D-League in the U. close cooperation among countries is more urgent than ever. MasterCard Japan. Many sports are using advances in technology to expand. many U. Because international games are so easily accessed. The international federations. BBVA will serve as the official bank of the NBA.As part of the partnership.
it could be expected that social demand.Additionally. Therefore. Since even a tiny event can be seen live throughout the world. economical. manpower and other resources makes the role of globalization and communications even more plausible. interests and even world values are being manipulated and are beginning to resemble each other more day by day. However. it is not difficult to predict people’s interactions during forthcoming years in the 21st century (EICHBERG. Researchers claim that forming of a third universal culture. the emergence of such amenities increases the information transfer and exchange in a less expensive manner. some other researchers see it as a kind of Americanization. is underway. The incurred cost recoveries due to these amenities. in most countries of the world. in terms of transportation. The main reason for this should be sought in the impact of information technology and communication in all organizations 41 . social and cultural changes that Culminates in improvement of relations and more interaction and mingling in the world. 2003). the increasing investment is occurring for purpose of developing communication facilities and improving information systems in sport organizations. e-mail. Emergence of various amenities such as the internet. satellite communication and so on. the combination of available cultures. ideas. Globalization is a process of political. According to Hall (1990) globalization is not equal to the breaking down and substitution of cultures but it is a kind of minor renovation of conventional cultures. In most cases. and sport is not an exception to this trend. It is now obvious that planning for each and every phenomenon entails a global vision. plays an important role in the development of organizations.
the viewpoints of experts have not been exerted. this study is likely to apply the experts' ideas in sport policy development. it should be emphasized that the same change is happening in sport. Globalization and information technology are considered the determinants of social demand and its harmonization. we are seeking the answer for this question: -What is the role of globalization in future Strategies of the country? Experts in a particular field are the most reliable and authenticated groups that could provide beneficial information about the policies and strategies for the same field. Apart from the negative aspects of globalization. in a widely and planned manner. Therefore. from all over Iran. METHODS -Subjects Subjects of this study were 169 active academic staffs in physical education departments. Subjects held either M. or PhD degrees. in sport policy development so far. They ranged in age from 32 to 61years.including sport organizations. therefore. They were contacted and asked to review the questionnaire to be sent to all faculties of departments specializing in sport studies working at universities in Iran.S. The goal of this study is to determine the role of globalization in future strategies of the country’s sport. Unfortunately. 42 .
The purpose of the first round was to elicit respondents’ views about the ability of the questionnaire to reach to the goals of study. The experts were faculties of large Iranian university sport management schools who had extensive experience in planning and management. and each was asked whether he or she would participate. The purpose of the study was explained. In Step 2. yielding a list of 19 potential panelists. the panel was asked to name the physical education scholars they felt should be included in the Delphi panel. In successive rounds.Procedures The protocol was done in two steps. Responses can be both qualitative and quantitative. and that more iteration can bore panelists. all from universities of Iran. In Step 1. All agreed to participate. the focus and intent of the questions were determined. In the first phase. 43 . with each round building on the preceding round. a panel of five sport management faculty with an aggregate of 31 years of experience in the field consensually identified the five “most important factors effecting sport strategies”.. Four of the five responded. Research indicates that three iterations are typically sufficient to identify points of consensus and systematic points of difference. The Delphi technique consists of iterated rounds of survey questions. panelists are encouraged to explain their responses and to indicate the bases for agreement or disagreement with other panelists. The panel consisted of Ten men and four women. Findings from each round are fed back to the panelists who then respond. the timetable for the study was presented. the appropriate sequence for questions was identified. thus reducing the validity of findings. In the second phase.
Initial agreement ranged from 84–92%. Once the independent analyses had been completed. Likert -type scales were used in order for the Delphi Panel members to refine their responses. After completing the questionnaire it was sent to all faculties mentioned before. Disagreements were resolved through consensual discussion. Their responses were collated and the content was analyzed independently by an analyst using the procedures described by Weber. For all questions panelists were asked to rate the importance of each theme on a five point scale ranging from no importance to critical importance. 44 . depending on the question being analyzed. The faculty members approved the questions. to determine the concomitant weight of each variable’s internal factor. They then specified their estimate of the probability that the ideal quality represented by the theme would occur.In order to check the appropriateness of the questions for the research goals. All qualitative comments and explanations panelists provided for each theme under each question were provided as well.Statistics This study was conducted in descriptive way and the data were gathered via questionnaires with their validity approved by Chronbach’s alpha. Eleven to 16 themes were identified for each question. In the data analysis. the method of Factor Analysis was adopted. Panelists were also reminded of their own rating for each item. the questions were then submitted to the faculty members who had participated in steps 1 and 3 of the selection of Delphi panelists. who were asked to provide detailed responses to each question. . the analysts met in order to compare the themes each had identified. The questions were then e-mailed to each of the 14 panelists.
do not necessarily foreground the idea of hierarchically based. The history of sport in modernity is conventionally written as a process of cultural diffusion from Victorian Britain. sport is rather less sympathetic to globalization than other cultural forms.To ascertain the difference among the educational background of subjects and their comments the MANOVA method was applied. even when deeply connected to notions of identity. This split discourse of sport is produced in the interplay of tensions between ‘noble’ universalism and ‘base’ partisanship. with rationalized and regulated physical play either directly exported as part of the apparatus of imperialism and/or absorbed through the unfolding process of colonialism. as much through appropriation and advocacy by the state as by the market. then produced second and successive waves of sports diffusion. The Sport and Identity Paradox Sports events and their outcomes become most meaningful and powerful — and so most amenable to capital accumulation and political exploitation — where there can be an extrapolation of socio-cultural significance from the action on and around the field of play. 45 . In this sense. such as music (Rowe. The co modification of sport. perfected in the United States. which may be more easily communicated as universal in nature and. 1995) or film. Sport’s reliance on passionate national differentiation and celebrity is so thoroughgoing as to question its suitability as an exemplar of global culture. competitive national performance.
despite the success of sport in the institutionalized diffusion of the framework for regulated. Truly international sport consists only of a relatively small set of games that are regularly and readily translatable as the ‘Esperanto’ of mediatized entertainment. Nonetheless. In fact. This is because international sporting competition functions so effortlessly as metaphor for the state of the nation at the popular political level. more association football players operate outside their countries of origin than ever before.The development of the apparatus of sport in each country varies according to the specific character of its historical social formation. the record of the actual ‘export’ of national sports is much less impressive. rugby league). but there are few sports that have not — either voluntarily or under duress— been aligned with some conception of nation. This structural importance of the nation persists despite the increasing circulation of sportspeople around the globe as part of the new international division of cultural labour. 46 . and potential damage to. and their clubs complain of the loss of. For example. competitive physical play. their labour power caused by international demands. while at the level of cultural economy ‘indigenous’ sports are less tradable within the burgeoning ‘media sports cultural complex’ in all but the largest and most affluent sports markets. or where it is dominated by one country while attracting overseas fan interest and foreign labour (as in the case of US baseball and its domestic World Series). any sport can claim to be ‘international’ even where contested by a limited set of territories marked by geopolitical and/or sporting systems of governance (for example.
Stevenson. and their players are still expected to return to ‘home base’ in their respective continents for peak international sports tournaments like the World Cup. As Dayan and Katz (1992) note. Sport’s dependency on the nation. as Patrick McGovern (2002) has recently noted in analyzing patterns of recruitment of foreign players2 to the English football leagues between 1946 and 1995. always threatening to assert itself and to circumscribe the free circulation of sports personnel and the meanings that can be derived from its operation (e. Yet the clubs still retain a ‘national’ brand irrespective of the composition of their playing and coaching staff and of their shareholder register. The nation. culturally and linguistically resemble those who are hiring them — a case of ‘homosocial reproduction’ (Kanter. a preference is shown for players who socially. 1996. labour-market trends have been international rather than global in nature. therefore. 1997). always reinserts the restrictive framework of modernity into the fluid workings of post modernity. His study (albeit one that stops just before the crucial 1996 Bosman European Court of Justice ruling that deregulated footballer movement within the European Union)3 shows that: In particular. therefore. 47 . is never far below the surface of sports discourse.Football more than any sport can lay claim to be the ‘global game’. media sports events generate ‘contest’ narrative forms that are perfectly suited to articulations of nation. Furthermore. and the range of supply countries highly limited. Duke and Crolley. 2002).g.
be a key marker of national fantasy or aspiration. indeed. masking the creeping control of global institutions. the world secular religion of football might appear to fuse with branded transnational capitalist consumption. sport’s fixation on the nation functions as cover for more profound changes occurring at the political economic level. 48 . therefore. leading the football teams of nations to resemble just so many niches in a global market. then. It could be objected that. 2000). the non-existent English nation.In so doing — and in a highly emotional manner — sport operates as a perpetual reminder of the social limits to the reconfiguration of endlessly mutable identities and identifications. In events like the football World Cup. reflect the domination of the North America–Europe–Japan triad in trade and foreign direct investment. but above all it is generative of a symbolic entity that comes into being by affixing a notion of identity that is likely to be an impediment to the free-floating cosmopolitanism so crucial to the ethos of globalization. As noted above. This does not have to be the literal invocation of the nation state. Sport can. Mega-media sports events do. legal nation. the sporting nation is not coterminous with the sovereign. can materialize in international sporting competition just as Catalan nationalists strategically capitalized on the opportunities afforded by the 1992 Barcelona Olympics (Hargreaves. as symbolized by the flag of St George. be seen as a sop to sovereignty and difference. International sport can. On screen. in an adaptation of a classical Marxist economic base–cultural superstructure model.
however. 49 . Here globalization might be said to have its progressive side as a counterweight to ultra-nationalism. While the potential for ideological manipulation of sport and the tendency towards conservatism of sporting organizations and personnel is readily apparent. This paradox was evident in global sport’s most recent and spectacular festival. the restricted scope of globalization in such examples provides its own questioning of the globalization thesis. sport’s constant evocation of the nation as its anchor point and rallying cry makes for an uneasy relation to globalization advocacy.Of the 15 partners of the Korea/Japan 2002 World Cup. just as expressions of nationalism do not in all instances operate as ideological cement preserving the unity of class-ridden societies for the benefit of their ruling class. simultaneously. the historically Francophile peak governing body . in a tournament organized by FIFA (the acronym for the Federation International de Football Association). The rhetoric of globalization does. a left functionalist perspective reduces sport’s complex workings within the popular socio-cultural sphere to that of a mechanical effect of capitalist ideology. in practice predominantly reflect the drive of global capital to extend and deepen its dominion. the source of its affective power and the potentially activated resistive impediments to the globalization process. with the remaining partner coming from co-host Korea. It is improbable that sport can be reconfigured as postnational and substantially stripped of its ‘productive’ capacity to promote the forms of identity because these are. 14 came from the Triad . Of course. but even if global power were to be more widely dispersed. But even if its dynamic impulses were more benign. the ideological complexion of the institution of sport cannot be so neatly classified.
generating massive broadcast rights fees and recruiting major corporate partners. it could be argued. 50 . This was not a rigorous methodological exercise. is so central to sport as to present a constant potential interruption to the smooth passage of globalization. In countries where it is known as ‘soccer’. ‘La Coupe du Monde’. whose deep historical enmity is well known. 2002 Observation of the recent Korea/Japan World Cup from three different vantage points illustrates how the nation. as the peak spectacle of the self-described ‘world game’. and between whom there is continuing tension over the Japanese educational erasure of culpability for Second World War atrocities. This word choice may also have an explicitly political edge.Reflections on the Korea/Japan World Cup. Korea/Japan 2002. the world’s most populous nation. New Zealand and the US. seems to represent globalization in and through sport par excellence. as in the case of the Irish nationalist preference for the term ‘soccer’ to demarcate it more effectively from ‘indigenous’ Gaelic football. imagined or real. but an attempt to trace elements of national cultural formations during a mega-media global sports event. Canada. China’s involvement. and reluctance to make reparation. like Australia. however. But there are limits even to the cultural portability of association football. also raised the stakes of the nationalist rivalry in east Asia that was so starkly revealed in the difficult relationship between the cohosts. the linguistic marker signifies that it is not the dominant code of football. nonetheless represented a substantial step towards the globalization of football with the appearance for the first time of China.
Watching the World Cup from the vantage point of three countries with different historical and contemporary experiences of football demonstrated how the same spectacle mutates according to national context and viewing position. furthermore. Turkey. where interest in the event was more intense. Australia.Ironically. In Australia. This meant that football spectators in Australia had a wider repertoire of viewing positions than those of participating nations. such as Italy. This failure of the World Cup’s equivalent of the Pax Olympia dramatically revealed the limitations of sport as a global pacifier and. in this case. has only once qualified for the World Cup (in 1974). and placing the militaries of both nations on full alert. Mega-media sports events like the World Cup and the Olympics take place at particular sites. England. the potential of the World Cup to exacerbate regional national resentment. with brief observations of contrasting national cultural milieu. the finding of Australian connections (such as an Italian player who had lived in the country as a child) and (as would have often occurred irrespective of Australia’s involvement) support for a team of the viewer’s national-ethnic origin. North Korea and its southern neighbor were involved in a naval engagement resulting in several fatalities on both sides. and failed to do so again in 2002. glamour and so on). ‘adoption’ of a favourite team (on some grounds of affinity. These included the universalist appreciation of the world game. 51 . the World Cup could be watched on television in prime time as the tournament was taking place in the Asia-Pacific region for the first time. and what occurs is relayed to differentiated audiences in customized fashion. China and South Africa. as Korea met Turkey in the play-off for third place. The main focus here is on the UK. however.
52 . unlike Australia.and Europe-based players and teams. which would have immediately mobilized an intense. usually reaches the World Cup but also did not qualify for Korea/Japan 2002. therefore. is then still crucial to the experience of the World Cup. In cabled European televisual space.In the case of Australia. in turn. with a greater concentration on and identification with Dutch. The location. French and other nation’s viewers could watch their team as presented by their own national broadcasters. however. condition responses to the event at the various points of intersection with global forces. German. This observation was borne out in a different country visited briefly during the World Cup (not counting the credit card advertisements and screened games in the quasi-postnational space of the airport transit lounge). Some supportersof the Dutch team were able to express negative identification in the form of the teams that they didn’t want to win (and. nationalist discourse. Belgian. Association football is the dominant winter sport in that country (rather than the ‘poor cousin’ as it is in Australia). The nation. thereby seeming to create greater resentment at non-participation. present or absent. Holland. Far distant from the site of the tournament. ‘Europeanness’ came to the fore in Holland. history and demography of the nation will. the absence of direct national representation opened up more diverse viewing spaces than would have been possible had the national team qualified. British. contra European unity. this seemed mainly to be France or Germany). geopolitical position.
as an emblem of England. This role was even less visible in the next nation state visited — the UK — and. such as Tunisia. Austria and Holland itself) was immigration and asylum seekers. the emblems of nation were everywhere to the fore. ‘Britishness’ had been much fore grounded during recent golden jubilee celebrations of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II as a constitutional monarch. and few seemed to take the opportunity to adopt a position of neutrality in the role of global cultural citizen. Welsh and Northern Irish devolution Britain) in bedroom and shop windows. The World Cup offered an even more compelling opportunity for the aggressive assertion of ‘Englishness’ through the flag of St George and licensed a temporary. some of which had the quality of postmodern pastiche. symbolic secession from Great Britain (mirrored. and other publicly visible sites. As might be expected of viewers of an international tournament. there was visible support on Dutch streets for the various nations of origin that comprise the contemporary Netherlands. it might be noted. 53 . within it. Brazil and Nigeria. the sporting nation of England. At a time when the most conspicuous political issue in the European Union (signalled by a turn to the right in France. although the flag of St George. as in the cases of the English and Irish theme pubs promising ‘All World Cup Games Live’. in pre-tournament debates in Scotland concerning the ‘traitorous’ tendency there to support any team playing against England). Italy. Denmark.Touristic spaces were created for viewing the World Cup. supplemented and often replaced the Union Jack (the sign of the nation state in a now post-Scots.
While it is necessary to be cautious in naively ascribing cultural and ideological representativeness to the tabloid press. nostalgic and inevitably fantastical myths of nation in and through football. for example. 2001. the wrap-around front and back page consisted of only player and manager headshots and the headline ‘YOU CAN DO IT LADS’. ‘ENGLAND’S soccer heroes will inflict pain on the Danes today by booting them out of the World Cup’. the participation of a team. extracted from the nation state and invested with a specific national character for the purposes of sport. The Daily Mirror. 54 . The Sun opened its front-page text with the anticipatory statement that ‘All of England will get up for the Cup tomorrow to see our heroes tackle Nigeria . 1999. As a game against Brazil approached.g. The Sun promised that. The story ‘BEAT ’EM FOR MY GRANDAD.As in earlier tournaments (e. the popular media amplified strong. while the back-page headline recorded the ‘Beckham Battle-Cry’ to ‘FINISH THE JOB LADS. at half past Sven [the given name of the England’s Swedish-born manager+’. Carrington and McDonald. activated conceptions of the nation that were the antithesis of ‘progressive’ global cosmopolitanism. while inside stories included ‘One Flies Flag for the Lads’ carrying a fake internet photograph of the Queen in an England shirt with her face painted with the flag of St George. . Says Bobby Moore’s *the late. For the next game. World Cup winning England captain+ grandson’ was one of many nostalgic references to England’s solitary World Cup tournament win in 1966. on the same day listed 12 reasons ‘WHY WE’LL WIN’ on its front page. on jingoism during Euro ’96). To take a small number of examples. . and Garland and Rowe. adding that these were all precedents from 1966.
This brief snapshot of English tabloid media discourse during the 2002 World Cup illustrates the ways in which international sport compulsively reactivates and recalculates’ long-standing and emergent myths of nation. . while the back page carried an image of a controversial German victory in the same round with the statement ‘AND JUST WHEN YOU THOUGHT IT COULDN’T GET ANY WORSE . We want it. with frequent crossreferences to serving military personnel in Afghanistan such as the Royal Marines. the front page of the Daily Mirror consisted of white space. . ‘This page is cancelled. The country is speaking with one voice: DO IT FOR US!’. we need it. The Sun rearticulated football and monarchy with the emphasis on the latter. after England’s loss.’ Its World Cup supplement noted that. a small flag of St George and the small. The next day. Nothing else matters. the Daily Mirror’s black wrap-around carried a front-page picture focusing on distraught England goalkeeper David Seaman. Constant homage were paid to ‘our lads’ and ‘our heroes’. 55 . centered headline. while the ‘loyalties’ of Japanese fans were ‘split’: ‘The whole of England has been brought together with a dream of victory. who were ‘hunting Taliban’ while monitoring the progress of the World Cup during their tour of duty.’ Within a few days. Interpellations of the national ‘us’ (despite the fact that the national ‘we’ is an effect of sporting governmentality — and incorporates ‘citizens’ who are not football supporters of any kind) constitute the kind of discourse that is inimical to globalization rhetorics. we crave it.On the day of the game. accompanied by the headline ‘Anyone for tennis’. carrying a prominent front-page image of Prince William in jeans juggling a football.
the victory of first-time participants Senegal over world champions France in the opening match was open to colonial interpretation. confronted with the prospect of a referendum on the replacement of the national currency (sterling) in favour of the multinational Euro. just as the first-time hosting of the World Cup in Asia provoked interpretive narratives of the rising nations of the Orient challenging the established hegemony of the Occident. During the 2002 World Cup. in Britain. idiosyncratic rivalries and identifications. the continuing reference to the Falklands/Malvinas War on the eve of its 20th anniversary in the lead-up to the game against Argentina. were all examples of the foregrounding of local. such as Geoffrey Green’s famous reflections in the London Times on the significance of the English national team’s first home defeat at Wembley Stadium by ‘communist’ Hungary in 1953: ‘England at last beaten by the foreign invader on solid English soil’. The cultural atmosphere in early 21st-century England was close to the kind of discourse reflected in much earlier representations of sport and nationhood. On a wider stage. Spectacular expressions of South Korean nationalism and the more general carnivalesque presentations of national culture that football generates problematize the meanings and effects of sport. the English nationalist fetishization of David Beckham’s hair and left foot. and of Michael Owen’s groin. 56 . and the anxiety about a possible German tournament win. the World Cup fostered a political and cultural climate that was unlikely to be favourable to changes seeming to infringe national sovereignty by replacing the heavily symbolic pound in the name of cross-border exchange rate efficiency.For example.
Some researchers are pessimistic about these changes and do not consider them helpful for world community. it can clearly operate as a force that provides considerable cultural reinforcement for those who wish to preserve older structures and boundaries — and. This issue is confirmed by other researchers as well. 57 . But. There are multiple reasons including. less automatically. the most significant impact of globalization should be sought in harmony with the values and needs of different countries. Fishman (1996) considers globalization as a process in which geographical limitations in social and cultural compositions are being abolished. Any shift in the visions and values of a society affects other societies and these values interact strongly with each other. to (re)construct new ones. and difficulty in making decisions for space.The sport carnival’s turning of the ‘world upside down’ by celebrating the nation may be interpreted in functionalist terms as a safety valve for resistance to globalization. Mannington (2001) sees the globalization as a form of imperialism or cultural empire building in which receivers of these universal cultures become the new workforce and consumers of its market products. products. DISCUSSION In this study the loading of globalization was relatively high and its impact on sport strategies was significant. The globalizing flow that connects the countries together indicates that could build the wall around them and protect themselves from this flow. air pollution. indeed. In addition. the seas and a special area health. education and so on.
The process of globalization does penetrate into native cultures. they did not suppose that this process would culminate in destruction of native culture. The native culture could survive subjectively but the competition between these two cultures is not fair. They regard the introduction of new sports helpful. in part. for native culture. Although the subjects of this study did not believe the abovementioned idea. satellite communication and so forth play an important role in developing these structures and in many cases presence of such amenities pave the way for transferring large amounts of information inexpensively and utilizing a minimum of the existing workforce. Some research finds commonalities between the European community and African countries in terms of sanitary priorities. The reason for such comments probably lies in the subjects' interest in moving forward. the significance of congruence of large scale planning with developed countries was emphasized and to a lesser degree. e-mail. how could we neglect the scientific organizations? There is some evidence that the more we move forward the greater will be the gap between developed and developing countries in terms of talking of phenomena. the congruence with developing countries. In the current study. It goes without saying that the governing process in place in the developed countries is the source of innovations and creation of new ideas. Various amenities such as the internet. 58 . Considering that all routine activities including sport are affected heavily by communication technology. Sport for all is going to become more common among developed and developing countries .
This comment is concordant with previous studies. it is necessary to be aware of the ways of exploitation from amenities instead of adopting the irrational policies. Even the most pessimistic researchers against globalization see it as indispensable and numerous sources. could reflect the people’s demand and commitment . Instead of various visions on globalization. they should try to enhance health and community sports among the people in their nations. Singapore. Some other developing countries like Malaysia. The respondents to the questionnaire not only emphasized protecting native culture against any damage but also focused on the congruence of sport strategies with globalization. The results of the current study also emphasize the necessity to pay attention to globalization. 2001) and generally speaking economic and social problems hinder the investment in sports in these countries. Rather. Pakistan and Hong Kong meticulously try to improve their industrial and technical capabilities. Therefore. On the other hand.The final result of this process. India. the social demands should be taken in to account. 59 . In Kenya even the most elementary sport facilities are not provided (MONNINGTON. Social demand is strongly affected by globalization. namely emergence of harmony. the incurred impacts could not be denied in all areas including sport. but not in an imperialistic form. when developing strategies. confirm the shifting of people’s vision toward sport and its ever increasing development in the world. It seems that the first priority in such countries is not developing elite sports. Globalization is an indispensable process and successful managers are those who understand strategic opportunities. in many developing countries sport is given lower priorities. Therefore.
60 . he’s from China. The days of the “Dream Team” are long gone. How has this amazing internationalization of sports fanaticism occurred? The answer. other teams have reached the top of the basketball world. who won the Olympic basketball tournament in 2004. Hakeem the dream Olajuan—Nigeria. soccer was only popular in international Spanish nations. is globalization. or the integration of facets of life from different cultures into comprehensive proclivities. while America is still at the top of the basketball. Lithuania. Teams like Germany. people from America wearing soccer jerseys with the names Messi or Henri. and even Argentina. Look at the big-man sharpshooter Dirk Nowitski—from Germany.How Globalization Is Making Sports Better Nowadays. The list goes on and on. and he isn’t from an American city. Basketball has spread to almost all countries around the world. these sports were popular only in the nations they were created in. Before-hand. many NBA teams recruit from outside of the US now. Basketball. I tell you. and people from France wearing basketball caps. you see people from India wearing NFL hats. at the advent of modern sports. as well as many other Middle-Eastern countries. as time passed by and globalization mechanisms increased. the sports popularities increased. However. In fact. and baseball were only popular in the US. Also. and cricket was only popular in Britain. Cricket expanded to Australia and India. Look at Yao Ming: this guy is one of the most dominant big men in the game. with the new popularity of basketball all over the world. football.
except Afghanistan. foreign players win majors more than the hometown favorites. but this simply isn’t the case anymore. the tailgating. there is the Davis Cup. Tennis has also been globalized. and the World Cup for soccer that is held every four years. It is true that American football hasn’t globalized as fast as many of the other sports out there. and he did it 76 years ago. Currently there is a tennis player on the professional circuit from every nation of the world. Last but not least is football. as evidenced by the different international leagues. The same with golf. The cheerleaders. This sport has long been called America’s Game. You may think that Tiger Woods is the only dominant golfer out there. Now. the game itself. Every year. Japan has gained ground and has become a baseball power. The last player to win Wimbledon.Globalization has also occurred extensively in soccer: actually. The Tampa Bay Buccaneers also made the long journey to play. was Fred Perry. the recruitment of international players. it has probably had the most widespread globalization. you must be an American right? WRONG. the British major. If you like football. 61 . which is like a World Cup for tennis that takes place every year. Soccer has the most popularity out of any sport worldwide. This truly shows the widespread popularity of tennis. There are so many great golfers from all around the world now. In baseball. Real-time example: right now the New England Patriots have traveled to Old England to play a football game. it is well on its way in the right direction.
And it’s not going to stop. Whereas beforehand there was no diversification of sports internationally. there is an increasing amount of communication mechanisms out there right now. There’s email. now the globalization of sports has caused more sports to be popular worldwide. 62 . and there will continue to be an increase in international communication.It’s part of the NFL’s promise to have increased international participation. there’s the internet. And the commissioner of the league says that soon there will be more international games played.
It reports that the five flows of globalization. economic dimension. The Global Flows of International Professional Baseball System Abstract This paper employs concepts drawn from a five-phase model of globalization adapted from the work of Maguire et al. migrant dimension. in 2002. and ideological dimension are shaping the outcomes of various local professional baseball cultures within the global context and vice versa. namely. The paper concludes that Major League Baseball (MLB) in 63 . which aids in developing an understanding of the global phenomenon of professional baseball. technology dimension. media dimension.
Third. Boundaries become increasingly porous as they experience growing flows of people. social transformations are taking place that loosen the constraints of traditional institutions and local communities on individuals. is confirmed as the core economy within world professional baseball. the growing importance of transnational institutions and agencies. Second. there has been a growing awareness of the ecological environment and the global impact of human activities upon a fragile and interdependent biosphere. According to Bramham and Spink (2001). such dramatic changes can be thought of in six separate dimensions. such as the European Union (EU) has become 64 . in relation to political change. Fifth. 2002). First. Some of this activity has been facilitated by a revolution of global technology. Cultural values can no longer be contained and constrained within a single nation state. social action groups and political movements have tended to transcend the local and to make common cause at a transnational scale. have been impacting and shaping the outcomes of different local professional baseball cultures with a particular focus on the relationships between the above five flows. Introduction During the past generation. especially from the 1980s to the present. Fourth. the power of MLB in particular. the world has experienced fundamental changes.S. culture. there has been a cultural transformation. particularly in terms of the decline of tradition. and “globalization has emerged as one of the foremost discourses” (Jackson & Hokowhitu.the U. information. and services. and the global forces. goods.
2002). 2002. For example. distribution and consumption (Bauman. propose an elementary framework for exploring such 65 . Maguire et al. one can find the flows from country to country of sporting goods. media dimension. Lawet al. and ideological dimension are shaping the outcomes of various local professional baseball cultures within the global context and vice versa.increasingly apparent. with a focus on understanding the global phenomenon of professional baseball. equipment. Chiba. economic dimension. in 2002. there are economic factors changing global patterns of investment. 2004).. In a set of flows in global processes. Takahashi & Horne. In the academic field. Maguire et al. 1998). Elite sport now occurs on a worldwide scale and is patterned along what academics term ‘global flows’ (Maguire et al. a major concern has been raised regarding the consequences of globalizing the sport field. In this paper... 2004. 2001. production. Magnusson. the subjects of growth of internationalization or globalization have received much attention from numbers of academics (cf. 2002. and landscapes that have grown such as the development of the media-sport production complex and project images to global audiences. technology dimension. Theoretical Background With the radical changes taking place in this global context. They seek to report how the five flows of globalization: migrant dimension. adapted from the work of Maguire et al. The global development of sport has also accelerated from the 1980s. Finally. the authors employ concepts drawn from a five-phase model of globalization approach.
such as professional baseball. (2002).g. exiles and guest workers and so on. players. between North America. media dimension. technology dimension. “The economic dimension has been obviously concerned on the rapid flow of money and its equivalents around the world” (Maguire et al. “the migrant dimension involves the international movement of people such as tourists. 2002).” This concept of migration refers to the make up of persons who have constituted the shifting world where guest workers. The technology dimension. and persons constitute an essential feature of the world in general. coaches etc.phenomenon. It is evident that the flow of finance in the global sports arena has come to focus on the 66 . Latin America. In the sport arena. “created by the flow between countries of the machinery and equipment produced the flow between countries by corporations and government agencies. Modern technology. suggesting that there are five dimensions of global flows: migrant dimension. 2002) making technology “a shaping factor at the nexus of alternative global sport futures. For instance. economic dimension.. other moving groups. the global migration of sports personnel (e. the movement of player migration occurs in some sports.” (Maguire et al. has created financial benefits and publicity for professional baseball. and ideological dimension.) has been a pronounced and established feature of the sporting ‘global village’ in recent decades (Maguire.. such as the development of media. and East Asia. According to Maguire et al. sport equipment etc.. 2003: 153). and as such it is a pivotal driver of sport’s global evolution” (Westerbeek & Smith. 1999).
entailing the flow between countries of information and images that are produced and distributed by newspapers. Olympic Games. and the marketing of sport along specific lines. consider worldwide audiences for the World Baseball Classic in 2006. cable and the World Wide Web” (Maguire et al. Discussions “Sports migration is bound up in a complex political economy that is itself embedded in a series of power struggles characterizing the global sports system” (Maguire et al. prize money and endorsements. and excitement are emphasized. magazines.. Some good examples are manifested in the transformation of sports such as USA basketball and baseball. into global sports.g.. Nevertheless. 2002). except for the MLB. the leagues seem to have different stories (Lee et al. radio.S.. 2000). Currently. personality. of which spectacle. 2006)..international trade in personnel. For example. is a central part of the global system. The most striking example of transnational power of sports organization is Major League 67 . television. 2002: 5). The sport-related media continuously ‘broadcasts’ images of sports to large global audiences. Another factor that must be considered is “the media dimension. satellite. and Football World Cup etc. global and local media sport organizations have aligned a range of sporting events to meet the global audiences’ interests. film. The ideological dimension is “linked to the flow of values centrally associated with the state or counter-state ideologies and movements” (Maguire et al. In the professional baseball business. video. 2002: 32). negotiation) (Suzuki. The U. players are regarded as individual entrepreneurs with rights (e.
Puerto Rico. Players from outside the United States are defined as guestworkers in this system. and media have provided rapid development related to professional baseball labor conditions. There has been an influx of talented players from Latin America. capital. and Puerto Rico is third with 34 (Major League Baseball. technology.2% of 829 Major League players. The Dominican Republic leads all countries with 91 players. 68 .Baseball (Rosentraub. and Australia because U.S. one could find that players came from Netherlands despite the fact that football is the most popular sport in Europe. The import of MLB players from East Asia in this half decade has also shown a dramatic growth. 2004) has fostered the exploitation of the North American professional baseball market over the past years. and Venezuela. 2000). 2005). In MLB. This. which occupied 29. Indeed. Europe. 242 overseas players. 1995). By 2005. were featured from 15 countries together with Puerto Rico and the Virgin Island. many players have been recruited from Latin American countries.S. as illustrated by the professional sporting relations between the U. U.S. domination increasingly relies on Latin America talent. The growing prominence of foreign born baseball players in MLB appears not only in the performances of foreign superstars such as Sammy Sosa but also in overall number of foreign players now on MLB rosters (Marcano & Fidler. 2000). and Latin America (Klein. Venezuela is second with 46. together with the infusion of Asian players (Takahashi & Horne. The baseball business is booming in Asia as a rapidly-swelling band of fans follow the exploits of home-grown players on the other side of the Pacific. On the other hand. such as the Dominican Republic.
during the 2001-05 period. Foreign players strive to play in the Major Leagues because that is the highest level. this claim clearly implies “the global migration of sports personnel has been a pronounced feature of recent decades and appears likely to continue in the future”. 69 . “These results indicate that most of the demand for major league players is focused on foreign-born players”.S. More importantly. and 3 Taiwanese played in the U.Twenty-one Japanese. 9 Koreans.
the best players and their services can be offered to clubs in different countries and whatever the price they want and the top players can make salaries of millions a year plus whatever additional 70 . Today.EXAMPLES 1. and is often regarded as most globalized profession. Globalization Of Football Football in one of the most popular sports of the world.
craves as well as flying flags for expressing pride. To be very precise. Besides players. the game of football brings players together form every part of the world. simply implying football as global sport. For instance that game of football helps to unite the nation of Ghana and it gained independence from British imperial rule in 1957. 71 . Ghana has now become one of the most passionate football nations in both Africa and the world. the game also brings together football fans. Simply referring FIFA World Cup. According to him. Today. The globalization of football has created international rivalries yet it has also the power to bring communities together. However. According to Franklin Foer. majority of the clubs have multiple foreign players. He further explains that the nationalism is show in wearing football shirts. the game of football has now become a global sport where spectators from all over the world can enjoy variety of different leagues. The globalization in football has benefited many players and teams enabling them to find a wider support base outside their traditional local areas. we can say the tournament brings the world of football together for an entire month. the national teams usually create a tribal sense of nationalisms amongst the football supporters and fans. the tournaments including FIFA World Cup. coaches and clubs from every part of the world. the Africans Cup of Nations as well as the UEFA European Championship bring football supporters from different nations of the world and this naturally lead to the globalization of football game.endorsements they receive. We can simply say that different tournaments plays major role in making football as a global sport.
The Effects of Globalization on Soccer in India The nation of India supports over fifteen percent of the world’s population. Interestingly. making India the second most populous nation in the world. India is one of the youngest nations among large economies. the median age in India is 25.2. India’s history has been marked by numerous invasions from various 72 .
The technology boom of the 1990s created many technology driven industries within India. there is a disconnect in soccer’s popularity. yet. Likewise. field hockey and soccer. recruiting and development of many sports within India. Though many avidly watch the EPL and similar top-ranked leagues. Watching televised international soccer stars continues to be more popular than attending or playing games locally.cultures which have been absorbed and modified to create the current racial and culture synthesis India enjoys. As in other countries. India won one bronze medal. particularly European leagues such as the English Premier League (EPL). 44 percent of Indians spend less than a dollar a day. the high ratings for English soccer have not done a great deal to improve domestic interest. 73 . It is worth mentioning that the Indian cricket team is considered one of the strongest teams in the world. fewer Indians have proven to actually follow their own local leagues. exported itself onto the world’s global sporting stage in the realm of the World Cup or the Olympics. Despite domestic passion for the previously mentioned sports India has not. To better understand the world of Indian sports it is helpful to look at some background information. India is home to many intense sporting fans. which would seem to have a great effect on the training. Indians are passionate about a variety of sports – especially cricket. The popularity of foreign soccer leagues has had a positive effect on the development of soccer in India because it exposes many more Indians to the game. For instance. This lack of interest in Indian domestic soccer has hurt the national team-dropping it to an all-time low rank in the FIFA world rankings. which seems surprising considering India’s large population and the county’s love of sports. At the Sydney Olympics of 2000. the advent of relatively easy access to satellite television created a vast market within India for soccer. However.
Globalization does not necessarily mean the gap between the first world (European and Latin American teams) and the Third World (Asia largely and to some extent Africa) in football is going to become narrower. Soccer clubs such as Manchester United and AC Milan are household names in India. Nigeria. Japan and China – are likely to rise further. creating a “brain-drain” at home. globalization has impacted the sporting culture in India. which is itself struggling from the lack of funds. only a handful of teams – primarily South Korea. maybe Ghana or Sierra Leone.Globalization has had a deep impact on India in many positive and negative ways. look at the other side. Soccer is basically viewed as a commodity – created in Europe and then exported around the world to the masses. Add to that South Africa and in times to come. due to the effects of globalization. Senegal or Algeria. V.” discusses the impact of teams from countries such as Senegal and Korea making the World Cup: But before you start clapping or dreaming of a Senegal or Korea up there on the top of the heap in 2010 or 2014. The globalization of world football may only mean more European and Latin American coaches in Asia and Africa and more talented Asian and African footballers in Europe – not even Latin America. Just when it seems it is helping perk up standards. it turns its face and moves 74 . It creates technology-driven industries yet spurs the migration of Indians with technical skills to other countries. particular the sport of soccer. Within Asia. “Football and Globalization. Krishnaswamy in his article. Likewise. And in Africa it will still be the same four to six countries – Cameroon.
It is yet to be seen if the domestic league in India will gain support and be able to grow talented Indian soccer players to be able to qualify India for the World Cup in the future. but leaves its own home in tatters. This quote highlights the disconnect between the growth of the sport of soccer amount the population in terms of viewership of foreign leagues without the growth of the sport on the field. Not even for a fleeting moment should one believe that the rise of Senegal in the world cup … will raise the standard of football in that country.away. 75 . Just forget it. This is an interesting and popular view of the impact of globalization on countries that are not as developed as the Western industrial democracies. It does enrich the world. It is now unclear what the future effects globalization will have on the sporting culture of India. If anything. nor is it likely to happen. It has not happened. the domestic football scene in Senegal will be even more impoverished.
3. The recent discussion about 20/20 at the Olympics is part of that trend. The globalization of cricket The ICC seems quite serious about promoting cricket around the world even in countries without any serious tradition of the game. 76 .
It makes a lot of money already and will probably make even more in the near future. The inevitable effect would be test cricket being overshadowed. OTOH I think 20/20 has huge potential in terms of global appeal. Its closest competitor is baseball and IMO 20/20 with its high scoring and greater variety of action is more accessible to someone who is new to both. If you haven't grown up watching test cricket. it's not a very accessible sport IMO. So what are the prospects of cricket becoming more popular around the world? And how will it affect the balance between test cricket and 20/20? Personally I seriously doubt that test cricket will ever catch on anywhere outside the existing countries. 77 .There is no question that the format is quite well-suited to the Olympics and the presence of cricket there will promote the game globally. From the entertainment point of view 2-4 hours is probably the ideal length and it is the first cricket format which is down to that length. considering that its popularity is on the wane among several of the current test countries. Once you have an entertaining format. Is that likely to happen? Is it a good thing? Obviously it will be sad for fans of test cricket but it will mean a lot more cricketers around the world able to make a living from cricket. cricket has a lot of obvious advantages when it comes to spreading globally. Its existing base is nicely spread across the world in five continents The bottom line is that I could see cricket becoming global but only for 20/20.
pre-determined destinies. as the greens add to a community. 78 . and perhaps bring about the realization of a dream for those who wish to be the next Tiger Woods. Golf can do this. Gold is one of them. then we must realize that there does exist a choice.4. pain. There should be areas of commonality that all people can enjoy and participate. The world is in a constant mode of change. A choice to not simply sit back and complain while the world rolls along in its usual fashion. and are a pleasant site. If we cannot choose the direction of world events. The globalization of golf: A future Tiger Woods world golf tour? The Globalization of golf is a must. Then the choice exists to find areas where all people can identify and strive toward a better life. Conflict.
After all. which this writer prefers: Do nations or the global world need heroes? Particuliarly in sport? I think that the answer is evident. There are some things that cannot be learned quickly. From this vantage point it then takes its departure and perhaps claims its legacy. once a player always a player. a Good Will Ambassador. If a people desire freedom to the extent that they are willing to walk through a desert or paddle a leaky craft to freedom. advantage. More demands more. This of course opens the door to the next question. but the world is interested in how nations develop their young. without his realizing. is a costly commodity.not only for the athlete. each citizen must return to its inhabitants a certain nominal percentage of what it harnesses in terms of achivement and knowledge to the next. as any golfer will attest to. True. A Tiger Woods is. Each nation. and the pursuit of pleasure.For some reason. most athletes are young. when a nation pursues sports it generates much attention . And what of the impact on golf widows? Guess that will be addressed at the 19th hole after the first major golf tournament.which is all that most folks have or possess. and time . 79 . then the globalization of golf will certainly offer an incentive to pursue a more democratic existence as democracy breeds opportunity. but the very fabric of its social structure.
regulate the game and keep track of scores. The same is followed in badminton.5. Badminton Hand Signals In any sports that we see today. 80 . which we may name as badminton hand signals. participants and game supervisors use hand signals to communicate with each other.
Above all.8 is reported about a player or the umpire witnesses it. flexing the elbow and keeping the palm vertically facing the opposite direction. All these people use badminton hand signals to regulate the game. it is often difficult to communicate verbally during a game. Badminton hand signals are used precisely to overcome this difficulty. even if they know the language. Hand signals followed by the umpires are Raising his right hand straight above his head. there is a Referee who is in overall charge of the game. When misconduct sufficient enough to apply rule 16. Some of them may not know the language used and others may have difficulty in following the accent.In this era of globalization. The service judges are responsible for monitoring whether a player serves correctly as per rules. he should call the player. it is often difficult to adjust scores and manage the game properly if verbal communication alone is used to regulate the game and keep track of scores. particularly by the game supervisors. a service judge and a line judge. an Umpire. besides participating players. Moreover the players come from different parts of the world. when the crowd is excited. It is because the players' attention is primarily riveted to the game. It is done to indicate that the shaft of the racket when hitting the shuttle was not below the level of the wrist holding the 81 . Hand signals followed by the service judges are Raising the right arm in front slightly. In badminton.
racket and/or the shaft of the racket was not facing downwards when hitting the shuttle during serving. Keeping the palm horizontally facing downwards at the level of the abdomen, followed by moving it to the left and right below the level of waist. It is done to convey that the shuttle, as a whole was not under the level of the waist while it was struck during serving. Extending the right leg and pointing the hand towards the foot. It is done to indicate that one or both feet were not in the service court or remains constant till the serve was completed. Resting the palm of the right hand on right side of the abdomen, keeping the palm facing the left side of the body, with fingers pointing downwards and pointing the fingers of the left hand to the palm of the right hand with the palm of the left hand facing the abdomen. It is done to show that the first point of contact with the shuttle was not the base of the shuttle.
Hand signals shown by line judges include – Extending both hands horizontally to the sides of the body. It is to indicate the shuttle landed outside. Pointing the hand to the line. To show that the shuttle has fallen inside correctly. Closing both eyes with hands. To convey to the umpire that you are not sure where the shuttle landed.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
1.) Improvements in new technologies and strategies in sports can promote
2.) The movement and sharing of information, knowledge and expertise. 3.) The improvement of international standards for sports. 4.) Increases the variety of Games and countries which are interested in
getting involved into the sports.
5.) The loss of new talent in the games in developed countries such as Britain. 6.) A drift towards a more homogenized culture and society internationally. 7.) Under development countries may be more vulnerable to fast changes in
the internationally developed countries.
8.) Increased centralization of power in the hands of developed countries. 9.) Globalization is often criticized on the basis that is has led to the
exploitation of players and the playing environment.
Rights and safety of player’s laws and regulations are often less
demanding in developing countries.
Our paper has identified and described the emerging phenomenon of the globalization of sports, and has shown that existing management concepts are difficult to apply as the business parameters are different from those of any other business and not very well covered so far in existing research.
Although sports is becoming commoditized, the business rules are still unclear off the pitch, offering a broad area for further research in international business. This paper has sought to highlight how commercialization and globalization has changed the worldwide picture of sports. As we can conclude a sport manager, in order to be competitive in the global marketplace and in order to be able to react to the changes of the international rules of commercialization have to be aware of the needs of the market and “consumers”-fans that address. According to Markle(1997), sports managers need to understand the nature of the business and the disposition of the consumer through demographics, psychographics, socioeconomics, etc…sports managers need to built their business, the product and the perception of the product to be attractive and appealing … to built relationships with sponsors, to learn their business needs and become an agency rather than a salesperson. They should under-promise and over-deliver” Also we should always have in mind what Robert L. Boucher suggests : “ call me naïve, but it is possible that today’s promoters of commercialism in sport have become intoxicated by sponsorship revenues? …is it right for a sport manager only to be conduit by which a sponsor can achieve greater market penetration? My contention is simply that in our quest for legitimation, we may have sold our souls to the interests of big business.
that management of human services in sport and management of entertainment services through out sport. 86 . without any mention of damaging native sport and culture. special attention should be paid to new sport activities and providing the amenities necessary for those people at the recreational and non official levels. In addition. in fact. It is suggested that in future planning after policy makers pay attention toward social needs. sport program growth and development which pays attention to globalization could maintain the national values. The ever-increasing trend of people using personal computers provides the appropriate opportunity for sport policymakers to transfer a variety of information to the community beyond applying conventional methods. a large percentage of sport enterprises in the global community are of an amateur nature where the motives of participants. In conclusion. In any event. In fact.It can be argued that much of what comprises the Sport Management domain is not related to business and producing entertainment for profit. establishing sport internet websites tends to play an important role in sport development. the need to return in a balance in orientation and to refocus has never been more pressing”. Perhaps Chelladurai’s (1992) observation that there are really. universal needs should also be taken in to consideration. In future planning for sport. two fields. The conducted studies showed that the 21st century is the century of approaching the world’s nations’ values and need for each other. spectators and administrators are of a more altruistic nature. is entirely accurate.
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