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Edited by Knut Sjövall, email@example.com ABB Power Technologies AB Department: PTHV/HV/MT SE-771 80 LUDVIKA, Sweden
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
Table of Contents
Table of contents
1. General principles of measuring current and voltage
1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 Instrument transformers Current transformers operating principles Measuring errors Calculation of errors Variation of errors with current Saturation factor Core dimensions Voltage transformers operating principles Measuring errors Determination of errors Calculation of the short-circuit impedance Zk Variation of errors with voltage Winding dimensions Accuracy and burden capability 7 8 9 9 11 13 14 16 17 17 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 29 30 30 30 32 32 32 35 36 38 40 42 45 46 46 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 51
2. How to specify current transformers
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.7 Rated insulation level Rated primary current Rated continuous thermal current Rated secondary current Short-time thermal current (Ith) and dynamic current (Idyn) Burden and accuracy Measurement of current Metering cores Relay cores Magnetizing curves Accuracy classes according to IEC 60044-1 Accuracy classes according to IEEE C57.13 Pollution levels
3. Measurement of current during transient conditions
3.1 Background 3.2 The network 3.3 Important parameters 3.3.1 Rated primary current (Ipn) 3.3.2 Rated secondary current (Isn) 3.3.3 Rated primary symmetrical short-circuit current (Ipsc) 3.3.4 Secondary burden (Rb) 3.3.5 Speciﬁed duty cycle (C-O and C-O-C-O) 3.3.6 Secondary-loop time constant (Ts) 3.3.7 Rated symmetrical short-circuit current factor (Kssc) 3.3.8 Rated transient dimensioning factor (Ktd) 3.3.9 Flux overcurrent factor (nf) 3.3.10 Maximum instantaneous error
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
7 4.5 4.2.3 4.1 Remanent ﬂux (Øs) 3.1 188.8.131.52.3 General Hair-pin type (Tank type) Eye-bolt type Top-core type Mechanical stress on current transformers Forces in the primary terminals Wind stress Seismic withstand 6. Design of inductive voltage transformers 6.15 Type of voltage transformer Rated insulation level Rated insulation levels according to IEC Basic insulation levels according to IEEE/ANSI Rated primary and secondary voltage Rated voltage factor Burdens and accuracy classes Pollution levels Transient response for capacitor voltage transformers Transient response for inductive voltage transformers Ferroresonance Ferroresonance in capacitor voltage transformers Ferroresonance in inductive voltage transformers Fuses Voltage drops in the secondary circuits Coupling capacitors CVTs as coupling capacitors 5.2 Error limits for TPS current transformers 3.5 5.1 5.2 5.1 Mechanical stress on inductive voltage transformers 7.9 4. TPY and TPZ current transformers 3.4.5 Accuracy classes for transient cores according to IEEE 60044-6 3.1 4.4.2 4. How to specify voltage transformers 4.3 External disturbances on capacitor voltage transformers Mechanical stress on capacitor voltage transformers Seismic properties of ABB’s capacitor voltage transformers 4 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1 4.14 4.11 4.2 4.4 5.2.10 4.5.6 How to specify current transformers for transient performance 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 57 58 59 59 60 61 61 62 65 65 66 66 66 67 68 68 69 70 71 72 74 74 75 76 76 76 77 79 80 81 83 84 86 4.2 Remanence factor (Kr) 3.1.2 7.6 4.1 7.Table of Contents 3.4 4.8 4. Design of current transformers 5.3 5.12 4.1 Error limits for TPX.4 Air gapped cores 3.13 4.5. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Design of capacitor voltage transformers 7.2 5.
3 9.6.3 8.1 184.108.40.206 8.3 DOIT — Technical description MOCT-EOVT — Technical description FOCT — Technical description 11.3 9.3 General Current transformer requirements for CTs according to the IEC 60044-6 standard Distance protection REL 501-531 Line differential protection REL 551 Line differential protection REL 561 Pilot-wire differential relay RADHL Transformer protection RET 521 and transformer differential protection RADSB Busbar protection RED 521 Overcurrent protection High impedance differential protection RADHA Current transformer requirements for CTs according to other standards Current transformers according to IEC 60044-1 Current transformers according to British Standard (BS) Current transformers according to ANSI/IEEE 10.2 8.7 9.2 9.2.1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 5 .3.6.2 9.4 Terminal designations for current transformers Secondary grounding of current transformers Secondary grounding of voltage transformers Connection to obtain the residual voltage Fusing of voltage transformer secondary circuits Location of current and voltage transformers in substations Location of current transformers Transformer and reactor bushing current transformers Physical order of cores in a current transformer Location of voltage transformers 87 88 89 91 92 94 95 97 98 98 99 101 102 104 104 105 106 106 107 108 109 110 110 110 111 111 113 114 115 118 121 9.6.6 8. Index 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Protective relays 9.1 9.6.1 8.3 8.8 9.3.4 9.6 220.127.116.11 8.2.2 8.1 10.5 9.Table of Contents 8.1 9.2.2. Optical current and voltage transducers 10.2 9.5 8.2 10.3. Instrument transformers in the system 8.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .1.6 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
1.Section 1 General principles of measuring current and voltage 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 7 .
Current transformers For a short-circuited transformer the following is valid: This equation gives current transformation in proportion to the primary and secondary turns. 8 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The common laws for transformers are valid. • To insulate the metering circuit from the primary high voltage system. A voltage transformer is ideally a transformer under no-load conditions where the load current is zero and the voltage drop is only caused by the magnetizing current and is thus negligible. Voltage transformers For a transformer in no load the following is valid: This equation gives voltage transformation in proportion to the primary and secondary turns. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . General principles of measuring current and voltage 1. Instrument transformers are special types of transformers intended to measure currents and voltages. • To provide possibilities of standardizing the instruments and relays to a few rated currents and voltages.1. A current transformer is ideally a short-circuited transformer where the secondary terminal voltage is zero and the magnetizing current is negligible.1.1 Instrument Transformers The main tasks of instrument transformers are: • To transform currents or voltages from a usually high value to a value easy to handle for relays and instruments.
different from other transformers. General principles of measuring current and voltage 1. 1.2 Current transformers operating principles A current transformer is.2 shows a simpliﬁed equivalent current transformer diagram converted to the secondary side. however. Figure 1.1 Measuring errors Figure 1. The currents are the prime quantities and the voltage drops are only of interest regarding exciting current and measuring cores.1.2 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.2.1 If the exciting current could be neglected the transformer should reproduce the primary current without errors and the following equation should apply to the primary and secondary currents: In reality. which means that the primary and secondary currents are stiff and completely unaffected by the secondary burden. in many respects.1. The primary is connected in series with the network. it is not possible to neglect the exciting current. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 9 . Figure 1.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Part of it is consumed by the core.3 Figure 1.3 shows a vector representation of the three currents in the equivalent diagram. 10 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The relation between the currents will in this case be: The error in the reproduction will appear both in amplitude and phase.1. which means that the primary current is not reproduced exactly. Figure 1. Figure 1.1. General principles of measuring current and voltage The diagram shows that not all the primary current passes through the secondary circuit.4 Figure 1. The error in amplitude is called current or ratio error and the error in phase is called phase error or phase displacement.4 shows the area within the dashed lines on an enlarged scale.
2. and the errors .6 The equivalent diagram in Figure 1.5 Figure 1. the current error ε and the phase error δ could be directly read in percent on the axis ( δ = 1% = 1 centiradian = 34. in Figure 1. Moreover. must be taken into account. General principles of measuring current and voltage In Figure 1. According to the deﬁnition. the positive direction will be downwards on the ε axis and to the right on the δ axis. the current error is positive if the secondary current is too high. The secondary internal impedance. 1. however.1. The primary internal voltage drop does not affect the exciting current. and the phase error is positive if the secondary current is leading the primary. Consequently.5 comprises all quantities necessary for error calculations. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 11 . The leakage reactance is negligible where continuous ring cores and uniformly distributed secondary windings are 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. but only the winding resistance Ri. Since δ is a very small angle.4 minutes).and therefore the primary internal impedance . a system of coordinates with the axles divided into percent has been constructed with the origin of coordinates on the top of the reference vector.are not indicated in the diagram.2 Calculation of errors Figure 1.4 the secondary current has been chosen as the reference vector and given the dimension of 100%.4.1.
Iµ and If can be calculated from: � � where magnetic path Lj Ns = = length in cm number of secondary turns 12 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The secondary induced voltage Esi can be calculated from where Z = the total secondary impedance 2. The exiting impedance is represented by an inductive reactance in parallel with a resistance. When Hµ and Hf are obtained from the curve. Iµ and If are the reactive and loss components of the exiting current.1. Both the reactive component Hµ and the loss component Hf must be given. The error calculation is performed in the following four steps: 1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . The magnetic data for the core material in question must be known. General principles of measuring current and voltage concerned. necessary for producing the magnetic ﬂux B. This information is obtained from an exciting curve showing the ﬂux density in Gauss versus the magnetizing force H in ampere-turns/cm core length. The inductive ﬂux density necessary for inducing the voltage Esi can be calculated from where f Aj B = = = frequency in Hz core area in m2 number of secondary turns magnetic ﬂux Tesla (T) Ns = 3. Iµ and If. The exciting current.1.
General principles of measuring current and voltage 4. The reactive component Iµ is 90 degrees out of phase with Esi and the loss component If is in phase with Esi. are constructed in the diagram shown in Figure 1.8. The vector diagram in Figure 1. The reason for this is the non-linear characteristic of the exciting curve.1.3 Variation of errors with current If the errors are calculated at two different currents and with the same burden it will appear that the errors are different for the two currents. Figure 1.4 is used for determining the errors. The dashed lines apply to the linear case.7 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.2. 1. expressed as a percent of the secondary current Is. If a linear characteristic had been supposed. The directions of the two vectors are given by the phase angle between the induced voltage vector Esi and the reference vector Is. This is illustrated in Figure 1. the errors would have remained constant.1.7 and Figure 1. The vectors Im and If. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 13 .6.
The ratio of Ips to the rated primary current Ipn is called the Instrument Security Factor (FS) and Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF) for the measuring transformer and the protective transformer respectively. At a certain current Ips (4) the error reaches a limit stated in the current transformer standards.8 shows that the error decreases when the current increases.1. General principles of measuring current and voltage Figure 1.1. These two saturation factors are practically the same. Figure 1. This goes on until the current and the ﬂux have reached a value (point 3) where the core starts to saturate.4 Saturation factor Ips is called the instrument security current for a measuring transformer and accuracy limit current for a protective transformer. even if they are determined with different error limits. 14 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.8 1. If the primary current increases from Ipn to Ips. A further increase of current will result in a rapid increase of the error.2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . the induced voltage and the ﬂux increase at approximately the same proportion.
1. however. the saturation factor for other burdens can be roughly estimated from: where ALFn Zn Z = = = rated saturation factor rated burden including secondary winding resistance actual burden including secondary winding resistance NOTE! Rct is not included here.6. General principles of measuring current and voltage Because of the ﬂat shape of the excitation curve in the saturated region. which means that the formula above could be written The formula states that the saturation factor depends on the magnitude of the burden. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. For more accurate calculation. Bn.3. Bs could be looked upon as approximately constant and independent of the burden magnitude. This factor must therefore always be related to a certain burden.1. If the rated saturation factor (the saturation factor at rated burden) is given. see chapter 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 15 . is directly proportional to the burden impedance.
If the calculated errors are too big. are: • Rated primary current (number of ampere-turns) • Rated burden • Secondary winding resistance • Accuracy class • Rated saturation factor • Magnetic path length The procedure when calculating a core with respect to accuracy is in principle as follows: A core area is chosen. is much simpler: The core area can be estimated from the following formula: where K Isn Zn = = = constant which depends on the core material (for cold rolled oriented steel K~25) rated secondary current rated burden including the secondary winding resistance. which must be taken into account in this respect. Factors.5 Core dimensions Designing a core for certain requirements is always a matter of determining the core area.1. ALF. This continues until the errors are within the limits. NOTE! It is important for low ampere turns that the accuracy is controlled according to the class. the core area must be increased and a new calculation must be performed. If the errors in the ﬁrst calculation had been too small the core area would have had to be decreased.2. The errors are calculated within the relevant burden and current ranges. 16 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. General principles of measuring current and voltage 1.1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . The procedure when calculating a core with respect to a certain saturation factor.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 17 . however.3 Voltage transformers operating principles The following short introduction to voltage transformers concerns magnetic (inductive) voltage transformers.1. the transformer should reproduce the primary voltage without errors and the following equation should apply to the primary and secondary voltages: In reality. General principles of measuring current and voltage 1. however. in general also applicable to capacitor voltage transformers as far as accuracy and measuring errors are concerned.1 Measuring errors Figure 1.3. The error in amplitude is called voltage error or ratio error. 1.1. it is not possible to neglect the voltage drops in the winding resistances and the leakage reactances. The equation between the voltages will in this case be: where ∆U = voltage drop The error in the reproduction will appear both in amplitude and phase. The content is. The primary voltage is therefore not reproduced exactly. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.9 If the voltage drops could be neglected. and the error in phase is called phase error or phase displacement.
General principles of measuring current and voltage Figure 1. the positive direction will be downwards on the e axis and to the right on the δ axis. According to the deﬁnition.1. Figure 1. the voltage error is positive if the secondary voltage is too high. 18 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1.11 the secondary voltage has been chosen as the reference vector and given the dimension of 100%.11 shows the area within the dashed lines on an enlarged scale. and the phase error is positive if the secondary voltage is leading the primary.10 shows a vector representation of the three voltages. Moreover a system of coordinates with the axis divided into percent has been created with origin of coordinates on the top of the reference vector.11 Figure 1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .10 Figure 1. In Figure 1. Consequently. Since δ is a very small angle the voltage error ε and the phase error δ could be directly read in percent on the axis (ε = 1% = 1 centiradian = 34.4 minutes).
12 is therefore divided into a no-load diagram shown by Figure 1. It is practical to look upon the total voltage drop as the sum of a no-load voltage drop caused by Is.3.1. Figure 1.13 and a load diagram shown in Figure 1.13 Zk Is (Ns/Np) x Up Zb Us Zk = Zp + Zs Figure 1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 19 .12 Figure 1.12 shows an equivalent voltage transformer diagram converted to the secondary side.14 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.14.2 Determination of errors (Ns/Np) x Ip Zp Is Zs (Ns/Np) x Up Ie Is Zb Us Figure 1. General principles of measuring current and voltage 1. Zs represents the corresponding quantities of the secondary.1. The impedance Zp represents the resistance and leakage reactance of the primary. The diagram in Figure 1.
20 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. the no-load voltage drop will be given little attention in the future. The two vectors ∆Ur and ∆Ux are constructed in the diagram shown by Figure 1.15.11 is used for determining the errors. General principles of measuring current and voltage The no-load voltage drop is. The attention will be turned to Figure 1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . The direction of the two vectors is given by the phase angle between the load current vector Is and the reference vector Us � The resistive component ∆Ur is in phase with Is and the reactive component ∆Ux is 90º out of phase with Is. very small and moreover it is always of the same magnitude for a certain design. in general. For these reasons.1.14 and the load voltage drop ∆Ub ∆Ub can also be written The voltage drop expressed as a percent of Us is: ∆Ub consists of a resistive and a reactive component and The vector diagram in Figure 1.1.
1. General principles of measuring current and voltage
1.3.3 Calculation of the short-circuit impedance Zk
Figure 1.16 shows, in principle, how the windings are built up. All quantities, which are of interest concerning Zk, are given in the ﬁgure.
The two components Rk and Xk composing Zk are calculated in the following way.
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
1. General principles of measuring current and voltage
• Rk is composed of the primary and secondary winding resistances Rp and Rs; Rp converted to the secondary side.
Rp is calculated from:
Dp ap = = mean diameter of primary winding in meters area of primary conductor in mm2
Rs is calculated in the same way. • Xk is caused by the leakage ﬂux in the windings and it may be calculated from:
Dm = mean value of Dp and Ds (all dimensions in cm)
1.3.4 Variation of errors with voltage
The errors vary if the voltage is changed. This variation depends on the non-linear characteristic of the exciting curve which means that the variation will appear in the no-load errors. The error contribution from the load current will not be affected at all by a voltage change. The variation of errors is small even if the voltage varies with wide limits. Typical error curves are shown in Figure 1.17.
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
1. General principles of measuring current and voltage
1.3.5 Winding dimensions
Designing a transformer for certain requirements is always a matter of determining the cross-sectional area of the winding conductors. Factors, which must be taken into account in this respect, are: • Rated primary and secondary voltages • Number of secondary windings • Rated burden on each winding • Accuracy class on each winding • Rated frequency • Rated voltage factor The procedure is in principle as follows: 1. The number of turns are determined from
N Un f Aj Bn = = = = = number of turns (primary or secondary) rated voltage (primary or secondary) rated frequency in Hz core area in m2 ﬂux density at rated voltage (Tesla)
The value of Bn depends on the rated voltage factor. 2. Determination of the short-circuit resistance Rk The highest percentage resistive voltage drop ∆Ur permissible for the approximate accuracy class is estimated. Rk is determined from ∆Ur and the rated burden impedance Zb
3. The cross-sectional areas of the primary and secondary winding conductors are chosen with respect to the calculated value of Rk. 4. The short-circuit reactance Xk is calculated when the dimensions of the windings are determined. 5. The errors are calculated. If the errors are too high the area of the winding conductors must be increased.
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
3. which is introduced into the ﬁrst winding. on condition that the turns correction is given values adequate to the two classes. General principles of measuring current and voltage If a transformer is provided with two measuring windings it is often prescribed that each of these windings shall maintain the accuracy. 1. when the other winding is simultaneously loaded. The load current from the other winding passes through the primary winding and gives rise to a primary voltage drop. The ratio between accuracy class and burden capability is approximately constant.1.5 capability is 100 VA with the same quantity of copper.1. the burden capability depends on the value of the short-circuit impedance. class 1 is performed with a certain quantity of copper. A low value for the short-circuit impedance (a high quantity of copper) means a high burden capability and vice versa. This constant may be called the “accuracy quality factor” K of the winding where A P = = accuracy class rated burden in VA 24 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The burden capability must always be referred to a certain accuracy class. If 200 VA.6 Accuracy and burden capability For a certain transformer design. the class 0. This inﬂuence must be taken into account when designing the windings. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 25 .1.Section 2 How to specify current transformers 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
1. The dielectric strength of air decreases as altitude increases. The lightning impulse test is performed with a wave shape of 1. Consequently. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .2/50 ms and simulates a lightning overvoltage. the dielectric strength is not affected by altitude. These tests shall show the ability of a current transformer to withstand the overvoltages that can occur in the network.1 Rated insulation level The current transformer must withstand the operational voltage and overvoltages in the network.2. For current transformers with a system voltage of 300 kV and more the switching impulse test is performed with a wave shape of 250/2500 ms simulating switching overvoltages. Test voltages are speciﬁed in the standards in relation to the system voltage. 26 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. IEEE or national) • Rated insulation level (service voltage) • Altitude above sea level (if >1000 m) • Ambient temperature (daily temperature or average over 24 hours) • Rated primary current • Rating factor (maximum continuous current) • Rated secondary current • Short-time current • Dynamic current • Number of cores • Burdens (outputs) and accuracies for each core • Pollution level (creepage distance) 2. How to specify current transformers Important main factors when selecting current transformers are: • Standard (IEC. It is performed as a wet test. Note that as far as the internal insulation is concerned. for installation at an altitude higher than 1000 m above sea level. the external insulation (arcing distance) of the transformer has to be adapted to the actual site altitude. For voltages below 300 kV a wet power frequency test is performed instead.
00 0.75 0.86 0.83 0.70 0.2.95 0.67 Altitude above sea level (m) 1 000 1 200 1 500 1 800 2 100 2 400 2 700 3 000 3 600 4 200 4 500 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.92 0.98 0.75 for switching impulse voltage According to IEEE dielectric strength that depends on air should be multiplied by an altitude correction factor to obtain the dielectric strength at the required altitude.89 0. where H m m = = = altitude above sea level in meters 1 for power frequency and lightning impulse voltage 0. How to specify current transformers According to IEC 60044-1 the arcing distance under the standardized atmospheric conditions is determined by multiplying the withstand voltages required at the service location by a factor k. according to the following table: Altitude correction factor for dielectric strength 1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 27 .1.80 0.
5 72. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . RIV level PD test voltage kV 43 86 148 174 204 276 360 434 420* 525* 765* Max. How to specify current transformers Rated insulation levels according to IEC 60044-1 Max. System voltage kV 36 72.5 123 145 170 245 300 362 420 525 765 Power frequency withstand voltage Dry kV 70 140 230 275 325 460 460 510 630 680 975 Wet kV 70 140 230 275 325 460 Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 170 325 550 650 750 1050 1050 1175 1425 1550 2100 Switching impulse withstand voltage kV 850 950 1050 1175 1550 RIV test voltage kV 78 92 108 156 191 230 267 334 485 Max. *) Earthed neutral system Basic insulation levels according to IEEE C57. PD level pC 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 µV 250 250 250 250 250 2500 2500 2500 2500 Test voltages above apply at ≤ 1000 m above sea level.2. System voltage kV 36.5 121 145 169 242 362 550 800 Power frequency withstand voltage Dry kV 70 140 230 275 325 460 575 800 920 Wet kV 70 140 230 275 315 445 Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 200 350 550 650 750 1050 1300 1800 2050 Chopped wave test voltage kV 230 400 630 750 865 1210 1500 2070 2360 RIV test voltage kV 78 92 108 156 230 334 485 Max.1.13 Max. 28 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. RIV level µV 250 250 250 250 2500 2500 2500 Test voltages above apply at ≤ 1000 m above sea level.
However. The closest standard value.1.40% higher than the estimated operating current. i. 50. Reconnection is made with extra secondary terminals (taps) taken out from the secondary winding. 40.5. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 29 . The most usual design is with two different ratios. In order to obtain several current ratios. which can be connected. should be chosen. In this case the number of ampere-turns and also the output will be reduced at the taps. in relation 2:1. 12. How to specify current transformers 2. Thus output and class will also be identical at all current ratios. 25. if there is a deviation from the standard. but three current ratios in relation 4:2:1 are also available. Combinations of reconnections both at the primary and the secondary side are also possible. the short-circuit capability is reduced for the lower ratios. which gives a high resolution on the metering equipment and instruments. unless otherwise speciﬁed. The primary rated current should be selected to be approximately 10% . The accuracy rating applies to the full secondary winding. Primary reconnection A usual way to change ratio is to have two separated primary windings. Here. providing several different ratios with few secondary taps.2. 15. Secondary reconnection For high rated currents and high short-time currents (>40 kA) normally only one primary turn is used.13 standards. for 35ºC (30ºC) average ambient air temperature. Current transformers are normally designed according to IEC 60044-1 and IEEE C57. either in series or in parallel. 60 or 75 A.2 Rated primary current The current transformer must also withstand the rated primary current in continuous operation. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 30. The advantage is that the number of ampere-turns will be identical at all different ratios.e. current transformers can be designed with either primary or secondary reconnection or a combination of both. as the short-time withstand current will be reduced when the primary windings are connected in series compared to the parallel connected winding. but the short-circuit capacity remains constant. the average ambient temperature must be taken into account. 20. decimal multiples of 10.
3 Rated continuous thermal current The continuous rated thermal current is the current which can be permitted to ﬂow continuously in the primary winding without the temperature rise exceeding the values stipulated in the standards. i. 150% and 200% of the rated primary current. In IEC 60044-1 it is called extended current rating and has standard values of 120%. it can be calculated by using the formula: where Sk Un = = the fault level in MVA at the point where the current transformer is to be installed. a 1 A circuit has a cable burden 25 times lower in VA compared to a 5 A circuit. i. 250ºC for oil immersed transformers.5 Short-time thermal current (Ith) and dynamic current (Idyn) This is the maximum current. rated service voltage (line-to-line) in kV If Sk is not known.2 times the rated current.e. which the transformer can withstand for a period of one second. without reaching a temperature that would be disastrous to the insulation. In applications where the actual currents are higher than the rated current. The cable burden is I2R. but there is a clear trend towards 1 A.g. Unless otherwise speciﬁed it is equal to the rated primary current.0. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . 30 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. 2 A rated current is also frequently used in Sweden. If the short-time thermal current is not speciﬁed. With a rating factor of for instance 1. the rating factor is 1.2 the current transformer must withstand a continuous current of 1. the burdens in the cables are predominant ones. the breaking capacity of the associated breaker can be used. a rating factor must be speciﬁed. The lower burden needed for 1 A reduces the size and the cost of current transformer cores.e. 2. e.2.4 Rated secondary current The secondary rated current can be 1 or 5 A. As modern protection and metering equipment have relatively low burdens. 2. How to specify current transformers 2. The accuracy for metering cores must also be fulﬁlled at this current.
The short-time thermal current has a thermal effect upon the primary winding. the number of primary turns in the current transformer can be increased. which may arise at its position.6 x Ith 2.3 8 10 12. This will result in large and expensive current transformer cores. The protective equipment will be both “blind” and “deaf”. since no information will then be submitted to the protective relays. If the current transformer should break down.5 40 50 63 80 100 Dynamic peak current (Idyn) IEC 50 Hz IEC 60 Hz ANSI/IEEE 60 Hz 2.5 x Ith 2. As a consequence the primary short-circuit current (Ith) will be lower for a higher number of primary turns. especially at low rated currents. are: 6. In the event of a short circuit. To increase the number of ampere-turns at lower currents with a given core size. NOTE! It is very important to adapt requirements imposed on short-time current to a realistic level. the entire associated equipment would be left unprotected.2.s values.5 16 20 25 31. This current peak gives rise to electromagnetic forces between the turns of the primary winding and externally between the phases in the primary connections. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 31 .7 x Ith 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. Rated short-time thermal current (Ith) standard r. At high short-time currents and low rated currents the number of ampere-turns will be very low and the output from the secondary side will thus be limited. Otherwise. How to specify current transformers A current transformer is connected in series with the network and it is therefore essential to ensure that the current transformer can withstand the fault current. the ﬁrst current peak can reach approximately 2. the low number of ampere-turns must be compensated for by increasing the core volume.5 times Ith. The short-time current for periods other than one second Ix can be calculated by using the following formula: where x = the actual time in seconds. A check should therefore be made to ensure that the current transformer is capable of withstanding the dynamic current as well as the short-time thermal current.m. expressed in kilo amperes.
2. How to specify current transformers
2.6 Burden and accuracy
In practice all current transformer cores should be specially adapted for their application for each station. Do not specify higher requirements than necessary.
2.6.1 Measurement of current
The output required from a current transformer depends on the application and the type of load connected to it: 1. Metering equipment or instruments, like kW, kVar, A instruments or kWh or kVArh meters, are measuring under normal load conditions. These metering cores require high accuracy, a low burden (output) and a low saturation voltage. They operate in the range of 5-120% of rated current according to accuracy classes 0.2 or 0.5 (IEC) or 0.3 or 0.6 (IEEE). 2. For protection relays and disturbance recorders information about a primary disturbance must be transferred to the secondary side. Measurement at fault conditions in the overcurrent range requires lower accuracy, but a high capability to transform high fault currents to allow protection relays to measure and disconnect the fault. Typical relay classes are 5P, 10P or TP (IEC) or C 100-800 (IEEE). In each current transformer a number of different cores can be combined. Normally one or two cores are speciﬁed for metering purposes and two to four cores for protection purposes.
2.6.2 Metering cores
To protect the instruments and meters from being damaged by high currents during fault conditions, a metering core must be saturated typically between 5 and 20 times the rated current. Normally energy meters have the lowest withstand capability, typically 5 to 20 times rated current. The rated Instrument Security Factor (FS) indicates the overcurrent as a multiple of the rated current at which the metering core will saturate. It is thus limiting the secondary current to FS times the rated current. The safety of the metering equipment is greatest when the value of FS is small. Typical FS factors are 5 or 10. It is a maximum value and only valid at rated burden.
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
2. How to specify current transformers
At lower burdens than the rated burden, the saturation value increases approximately to n:
Sn S Isn Rct = = = = rated burden in VA actual burden in VA rated secondary current in A internal resistance at 75ºC in ohm
To fulﬁll high accuracy classes (e.g. class 0.2, IEC) the magnetizing current in the core must be kept at a low value. The consequence is a low ﬂux density in the core. High accuracy and a low number of ampere-turns result in a high saturation factor (FS). To fulﬁll high accuracy with low saturation factor the core is usually made of nickel alloyed steel.
NOTE! The accuracy class will not be guaranteed for burdens above rated burden or below 25% of the rated burden (IEC).
With modern meters and instruments with low consumption the total burden can be lower than 25% of the rated burden (see Figure 2.1). Due to turns correction and core material the error may increase at lower burdens. To fulﬁll accuracy requirements the rated burden of the metering core shall thus be relatively well matched to the actual burden connected. The minimum error is typically at 75% of the rated burden. The best way to optimize the core regarding accuracy is consequently to specify a rated burden of 1.5 times the actual burden. It is also possible to connect an additional burden, a “dummy burden”, and in this way adapt the connected burden to the rated burden. However, this method is rather inconvenient. A higher output from a core will also result in a bigger and more expensive core, especially for cores with high accuracy (class 0.2).
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
2. How to specify current transformers
Figure 2.1 Limits for accuracy classes 0.2 and 0.5 according to IEC 60044-1 with example curves for class 0.5 at different burdens.
How the ampere-turns inﬂuence accuracy
The number of ampere-turns inﬂuences the accuracy by increasing the error at lower ampere-turns. The error (ε) increases:
k AN = = constant ampere-turns
Also larger core diameter (length of the magnetic path) can also lead to an increase in the error:
Lj = length of the magnetic path
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
the overcurrent factor n changes for relay cores when the burden is changed. In the same way as for the metering cores. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 35 . It is given as a minimum value.2. How to specify current transformers 2.6. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.3 Relay cores Protective current transformers operate in the current range above rated currents. when electromagnetic relays and instruments were used. It indicates the overcurrent as a multiple of the rated primary current up to which the rated accuracy is fulﬁlled with the rated burden connected. where nALF Sn S Rct Isn = = = = = rated accuracy limit factor rated burden in VA actual burden in VA internal resistance at 75ºC in ohm rated secondary current in A Note that burdens today are purely resistive and much lower than the burdens several years ago. The main characteristics of these current transformers are: • Low accuracy (larger errors permitted than for measuring transformers) • High saturation voltage • Little or no turn correction The saturation voltage is given by the Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF). The IEC classes for protective current transformers are typical 5P and 10P.1. It can also be deﬁned as the ratio between the saturation voltage and the voltage at rated current. Also the burden on the secondary side inﬂuences the ALF.
4 Magnetizing curve Secondary voltage E2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . How to specify current transformers 18.104.22.168. The secondary induced voltage is: where: A B = = core area in m2 ﬂux density in Tesla (T) f N2 = = frequency number of secondary turns Magnetizing current Io The magnetizing current Io is: l where: H l N2 = = = magnetizing force in At/m length of magnetic path in m number of secondary turns 36 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
will be ≥ the rated knee point e.f. secondary burden resistance and turns ratio is sufﬁcient to assess its performance in relation to the protective relay system with which it is to be used. exciting current to increase by no more than 50%. (r.2. How to specify current transformers Knee point according to IEC 60044-1 class PX Figure 2. secondary winding resistance.m.f.m.m.s. all other terminals being open-circuited.s.m.m.f. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 37 .f.1.) at rated power frequency when applied to the secondary terminals of the transformer. which when increased by 10% causes the r. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. (Ek) The minimum sinusoidal e. Rated knee point e.m. Note! The actual knee point e.2 Typical magnetizing curve for protective and metering cores Class PX protective current transformer A transformer of low leakage reactance for which knowledge of the transformer’s secondary excitation characteristics.
1 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2S 3) Limits of errors Ratio error % Phase displacement minutes 15 8 5 5 30 15 10 10 30 15 10 10 10 90 45 30 30 90 45 30 30 30 Application 0.1 25-100% of rated burden 20 100 120 25-100% of rated burden <15 VA 1VA-100% 5 20 100 120 1 0.75 0.5 Accuracy classes according to IEC 60044-1 Class For burdens 1) at % rated current 5 0.5 0.75 0.5 0.f. (r.) at rated power frequency when applied to the secondary terminals of the transformer.2 Precision revenue metering 25-100% of rated burden <15 VA 1VA-100% 5 20 100 120 5 Precision revenue metering 0.1. will be > the rated knee point e. The minimum sinusoidal e.m.75 0.s. all other terminals being open-circuited.1 0.4 0. Note! The actual knee point e.20 0.4.6. which when increased by 10% causes the r.35 0.5 Laboratory 0. 38 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.2 0.2 0.f.5 25-100% of rated burden 20 100 120 1 5 20 100 120 Standard commercial metering 0.s.2 1. exciting current to increase by no more than 50%.3) 5) Rated knee point e.35 0.f.m.5 0.8 (for 5 VA burden and lower PF = 1. (Ek). How to specify current transformers 2.2.m.0) 2) Composite error 3) Applicable only to transformers having a rated secondary current at 5 A 4) Remanence factor (Kr) shall not exceed 10% after 3 minutes (see section 3.5 1.5S 3) 25-100% of rated burden Precision revenue metering 1) PF of secondary burden 0.m.m. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .5 0.75 0.m.f.
0 1.8 (for 5 VA burden and lower PF = 1.3) 5) Rated knee point e.0 1.0 5.f.m.0 3.0 1. Limits of errors Ratio error % Phase displacement minutes 180 90 60 60 60 2) Application 3.) at rated power frequency when applied to the secondary terminals of the transformer.5 1. Rct 50 120 50 120 100 ALF x In 100 ALF x In - Instruments Instruments Protection Protection Protection 3.0 3. will be > the rated knee point e. (r. Ie.0 25-100% of rated burden 20 100 120 3. all other terminals being open-circuited. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 39 .0 - 1) PF of secondary burden 0. (Ek).4.m.6.f.0 5.m.0 5.0 5 10 2) Industrial grade meters 50-100% 50-100% 100% 100% Ek.s. The minimum sinusoidal e. Note! The actual knee point e.m.1.s.f.0) 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. which when increased by 10% causes the r.m.f. How to specify current transformers 2.2.m.0 5P and 5PR 4) 10P and 10PR 4) PX 5) 2) Composite error 3) Applicable only to transformers having a rated secondary current at 5 A 4) Remanence factor (Kr) shall not exceed 10% after 3 minutes (see section 3. exciting current to increase by no more than 50%.5 Accuracy classes according to IEC 60044-1 (continued) Class For burdens 1) at % rated current 5 1.
13 Class Times rated current 0.9 Designation Ohm PF Application Metering Class C100 *) T100 C200 T200 C400 T400 C800 T800 ratio.0 0.9 1. it is possible to extend the metering range i. Valid for CTs in which the leakage ﬂux in the core of the transformer has an appreciable effect on the Class C is used for cores with evenly distributed winding. How to specify current transformers 2.2 2.2 1.2 B-0.2 1.6.0 B-2.8 0.1 1. from 1% to 150%. i. the manufacturer will have no problem meeting the requirements.9 0.1 Error limits (the limits are valid for any of the standard burdens below) Power error % 0.5 B-0.9 0.e.9 0.0 B-8.5 0.5 B-0.13) cover 10% to 100% of the rated current. At lower rated currents there may be problems fulﬁlling the accuracy in the extended range.3 0.15 will sometimes be required.6 1.1 1.5 0. Note that the metering range must be speciﬁed separately.6 1. 40 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.0 PF 0.5 0.8 0. Normally. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .9 B-1. Times rated current 20 20 20 20 Ratio error 10 10 10 10 Sec.6 Accuracy classes according to IEEE C57. A better non-standardized accuracy class 0. when the leakage ﬂux is negligible (valid for all ABB CTs).2 0. It is not always satisfactory for revenue and precision metering.6 0. However.2.5 Application Protection 0. Extended Range Metering Capabilities Metering range for metering classes (IEEE C57.1 0.0 0. T = Tested.e.0 B-4.3 0.1. terminal Designation voltage 100 200 400 800 B-1.9 0.1 B-0.0 0.5 *) C = Calculated.
2. In IEEE 5 A is the standard value. How to specify current transformers Comparison between IEC 60044-1 and IEEE C57. so then 100 A at 20 times Ins.1. the secondary voltage will be 5 times higher than for 5 A. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The transformer will deliver this voltage to a standard burden Zb of 8 ohms at 20 times (n) the rated secondary current Ins of 5 A. The burden is generally given in ohms (Zb) in IEEE and CAN but in VA (Sb) in IEC. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 41 .13 relay cores: For example in class C800 the secondary terminal voltage Ut is 800. In IEC 60044-1 the corresponding classes are roughly estimated to be: • C800 ~ 200 VA class 10P20 • C400 ~ 100 VA class 10P20 • C200 ~ 50 VA class 10P20 • C100 ~ 25 VA class 10P20 For 1 A rated secondary current.
Heavy IV .1. 42 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Due to the chemical nature of silicone the insulator surface is hydrophobic (non-wetting). • Agricultural areas • Mountainous areas These areas shall be situated at least 20 km from the sea and thus not exposed to wind from the sea. How to specify current transformers 2. They also have the ability to encapsulate contaminant particles.Medium III .2. Washing is normally not needed. As an alternative to the use of silicone rubber insulators the practicability of regular washing of porcelain insulators can be considered. Water on the surface stays as droplets and does not form a continuous water ﬁlm. IEC 60815 describes examples for typical environments for each level of pollution: Pollution level I “Light”: • Areas without industries and with low density of houses equipped with heating. The mechanism behind the hydrophobicity of silicone rubber is the diffusion of low molecular weight (LMW) silicones to the surface. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . • Areas with low density of industries or houses but subjected to winds and/or rainfall. The leakage currents are suppressed and the risk of ﬂashover is reduced compared to porcelain and other polymeric materials. the creepage distances according to IEC 60044-1 for different pollution levels are: Pollution level I . Silicone rubber has the unique ability to maintain its hydrophobicity during the lifetime of the insulation.7 Pollution levels For outdoor current transformers with ceramic insulators susceptible to contamination. where they spread out and form a hydrophobic layer.Light II .Very Heavy Minimum nominal speciﬁc creepage distance (mm/kV) 16 20 25 31 In cases of exceptional pollution severity silicone rubber insulators can be used instead of ceramic insulators.
• Areas generally of moderate extent. • Areas close to the sea or in any case exposed to relatively strong winds from the sea. exposed to strong winds carrying sand and salt.1. • Desert areas. • Areas exposed to wind from the sea but not too close to the coast. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.2. Pollution level III “Heavy” • Areas with high density of industries and suburbs of large cities with high density of heating plants producing pollution. How to specify current transformers Pollution level II “Medium” • Areas with industries not producing particularly polluting smoke and / or with average density of houses equipped with heating. very close to the coast and exposed to sea-spray or very strong and polluting winds from the sea. characterized by no rain for long periods. and subject to regular condensation. subjected to conductive dusts and to industrial smoke producing particularly thick conductive deposits. Pollution level IV “Very heavy” • Areas generally of moderate extent. • Areas with high density of houses and / or industries but subjected to frequent winds and / or rainfall. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 43 .
1.How to specify current transformers 44 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 45 .1.Measurement of current during transient conditions Section 3 Measurement of current during transient conditions 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
During transient conditions. The relays must perform measurements at a time when the transient (d.c. the fault current consists of the symmetrical a.c. Measurement of current during transient conditions 3. Direct lightning strikes can also give qualiﬁcation for a 100% d.c. e. 3.c.1 DC component Figure 3.5 ms. Figure 3. which can occur only when the voltage is around maximum. offset can be achieved only if the fault occurs in the very moment when the voltage is zero. component) has not yet died down.c. A 100% d. After saturation occurs. A normal type of fault is a ﬂash-over.1 Background During the last decades the demands on current transformers for protection has increased rapidly. Overcurrents in power networks and also time constants for the short-circuit d. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . within 2 . Very short breaker tripping times are stipulated and achieved by fast operating protective relay systems. offset. For protection relays intended to operate during a fault the core output under transient conditions is of importance. short-circuit current and a d. 46 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. A normal protective core in a current transformer will saturate very rapidly due to high currents and remanent ﬂux. The impedance is mainly inductive in a network and the phase angle is ~ 90º between the voltage and the current during short-circuit conditions. the current transformer output will be distorted and the performance of the relay protection system will be affected. The only possible occasion for a 100% d.g. component which rapidly saturates on an ordinary relay core.c. component are increasing.c.2 The network Earlier we analyzed the measuring of currents during symmetrical conditions.3. component.1. offset to occur is when the fault is a solid short-circuit or solid grounded line and located near to the generator station.1 shows the voltage and the short-circuit current with its d.c.
the resistance of the line reduces the time constant considerably. It is the duty of the current transformer to supply the protective systems with a current that is a correct reproduction of the primary current during a time that is sufﬁcient to allow operation of the protective relays. higher values of rated primary time constant may be required. Example: large turbo-generator circuits. Many utilities specify the same time constant for the whole network.120 ms. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. component runs out depends on the network’s time constant Tp and where L R = network inductance = network resistance Typical time constant Tp Up to 100 ms but typically less than 50 ms Up to 150 ms but typically less than or equal to 80 ms Varying but typically 100 .150 ms System voltage 100 .3. Relay operating time may be 10 . are: 40 60 80 100 120 NOTE! For some applications. With a transmission line between the generator and the location of the current transformer.500 kV > 500 kV Close to transformers the time constant will increase compared to the above values Standard values for rated primary time constant (Tp) Standard values.360 kV 380 .c. It should be noted that high values of the primary time constant not only occur close to the generation source but also close to low load loss power transformers which can give a high primary time constant.1. This gives a typical fault clearing time of 80 . Measurement of current during transient conditions The time before the d. In a power network the short-circuit current will ﬂow until the fault is cleared by means of a power circuit breaker. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 47 . but also in a signiﬁcant reduction in required core area. which means that the value is often too high.50 ms and breaker operation time 40 . A reduced time constant does not only result in a reduced short-circuit current. in a substation each incoming line may have different values.80 ms. The time constant does not have the same value throughout the complete network. expressed in milliseconds.
offset will be very large and sometimes their cores will have absurd dimensions.2 shows an example of how the ﬂux develops in the current transformer.2 Effect of d.c.3. Figure 3.1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Figure 3.3 shows an example of the distortion of the secondary current due to saturation in the core. component of primary fault current on ﬂux demands of a current transformer core Figure 3.3 Distortion in secondary current due to saturation 48 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Measurement of current during transient conditions Current transformers which are to measure a complete fault current with 100% d. Figure 3.c.
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 5 A is more applicable in indoor switchgear with short wiring. It is important that the actual level is speciﬁed. The power factor is 1 (resistive).1. the preferred secondary rated current for outdoor switchgear is 1 A. 3.3.3. 3.10 VA. Standard values of rated resistive burden (Rb) in ohms for class TP (IEC) current transformers based on a rated secondary current of 1 A are: 2.2 Rated secondary current (Isn) Common standard value is 1 or 5 A. 5. Therefore. We assume that the external burden is resistive 1 ohm (Zb) and the burden in VA is S S = = 25 VA for a rated secondary current of 5 A 1 VA for a rated secondary current of 1 A The core size is proportional to the rated burden.1 Rated primary current (Ipn) Maximum continuous current to be rounded off to the nearest standard value.3.3 Rated primary symmetrical short-circuit current (Ipsc) The RMS value of primary symmetrical short-circuit currents (AC).3. For current transformers having a rated secondary current other than 1 A. It is much easier to maintain the external burden at a low value when using 1 A. e. the above values should be adjusted in inverse ratio to the square of the current.5 10 15 The preferred values are marked with grey.3. A high short-circuit current in combination with low rated current results in low ampere-turns and large cores.g.4 Secondary burden (Rb) For transient cores the secondary burden must always have a low value. Measurement of current during transient conditions 3.3 Important parameters 3.5 5 7. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 49 . 3.
which can be either single or double: • The single duty cycle is described as C-t’-O. value of primary symmetrical short-circuit current Rated primary current 50 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The accuracy must be maintained during a speciﬁed duty cycle. (phase displacement 180 min. 3. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Measurement of current during transient conditions 3.+/.duration of current ﬂow . The time t’ is due to the relay operation time • The double duty cycle is described as C-t’-O-tfr-C-t”-O meaning Close .dead time .3. The time t’ and t” are due to relay and circuit breaker operation time during the reclosure.10%) (large air gaps) Air gaps in the core give a shorter Ts. The dead time or fault repetition time tfr is the time interval between interruption and re-application of the primary short-circuit current during a circuit breaker auto-reclosure duty cycle. winding resistance (Rs) and leakage inductance with rated burden connected to the secondary terminals.2 seconds (small air gaps) • TPZ core ~ 60 msec.7 Rated symmetrical short-circuit current factor (Kssc) Ratio Ipsc Ipn = = r. meaning Close . The duty cycle is described as an auto-reclosing operation.Open.1.5 Speciﬁed duty cycle (C-O and C-O-C-O) During each speciﬁed energization.Open.5 .3.3.Close .m.duration of second current ﬂow .duration of ﬁrst current ﬂow . The duration of the current ﬂow (t’) can be substituted with t’al meaning that the accuracy only needs to be maintained for a shorter time than t’. Typical secondary time constants are for • TPX core 5 . 3. the primary energizing current shall be assumed to be “fully offset” from the speciﬁed primary time constant (Tp) and be of rated amplitude (Ipsc). which is very common in network operation. They can be substituted by t’al and / or t”al in the same way as for the single duty cycle.Open .20 seconds (no air gaps) • TPY core 0.s.3.6 Secondary-loop time constant (Ts) The value of the time constant of the secondary loop of the current transformer including the magnetizing inductance (Ls).
8 Rated transient dimensioning factor (Ktd) A transient core has to be heavily oversized compared to a conventional protection core.9 Flux overcurrent factor (nf) The secondary core will be designed on the basis of the Kssc (AC-ﬂux) and Ktd (DC-ﬂux). is derived from this factor.5. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. and d.3.c. 3. The rated transient dimensioning factor Ktd. Typical value of Ktd is 10 .1 Remanent ﬂux (Ψr) That value of which ﬂux would remain in the core three minutes after the interruption of an excitation current of sufﬁcient magnitude as to induce the saturation ﬂux Ψs. The cores must be designed according to the transient current: • TPX cores have no requirements for remanence ﬂux and have no air gaps. It is shown on the rating plate of the current transformer. • TPY cores have requirements for remanence ﬂux and are provided with small air gaps. ABB will design the cores to ﬁnd the optimum solution.10 Maximum instantaneous error: where: Ipsc Ial Ns Np = = = = rated primary symmetrical short-circuit current accuracy limiting secondary current secondary turns primary turns 3. A transient factor (Ktf) is determined with respect to the primary and secondary time constants for a fully offset short-circuit after t seconds. For special measurement of fault current (transient current.3.3.25. 3. where the speciﬁed duty cycles are taken into account. components. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 51 . see Figure 3.4 Air gapped cores 3.4. Measurement of current during transient conditions 3.) including both a.3. TPY and TPZ.1. The remanent ﬂux of ungapped current transformers can be as high as 80% of the saturation ﬂux. • TPZ cores have speciﬁc requirements for phase displacement and the air gaps will be large.c. IEC 60044-6 deﬁnes the accuracy classes TPX.
Figure 3.2 Remanence factor (Kr) where s r = = saturation ﬂux remanent ﬂux Maximum value of TPY and PR cores is 0. The width of the required gap is critical and caution should be exercised in the construction of the current transformer to ensure that the gap will remain constant.1.4. Measurement of current during transient conditions 3. see Figure 3. and a secondary time constant Ts can be deﬁned by: where Rct Rb = = Secondary resistance of the CT Connected external resistance (burden) 52 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Small air-gaps in the core can be shown to reduce the value of remanent ﬂux to a negligible value. In this case the characteristic magnetization curve of the current transformer is mainly determined by the characteristics of the airgap itself up to saturation level.4 Hysteresis curves of a current transformer a) without air-gap b) with air-gap The magnetizing inductance Ls of a gapped CT is more linear than in the case of an ungapped core.5. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .3.1 after 3 minutes.
1 Error limits for TPX. TPY and TPZ current transformers With the secondary resistance adjusted to rated values ( Rs = Rct + Rb ) the errors shall not exceed the values given in the table below: Accuracy class At rated primary current Current error % TPS TPX TPY TPZ See 3. Measurement of current during transient conditions The determination of magnetizing inductance Lm from routine tests for magnetizing characteristics provides a means of controlling the gap width.5 Accuracy classes for transient cores according to IEC 60044-6 3.5 Typical relation between residual ﬂux and air gap for electrical sheet steel.0 ± 1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 53 . Figure 3.0 Phase displacement Minutes ± 30 ± 60 180 ± 18 Centiradians ± 0.3 ± 0.2 ± 0.6 At accuracy limit condition Maximum instantaneous error % ε=5 ε = 10 ε = 10 εac = 10 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.3.9 ± 1.8 5. A tolerance of +/30% is allowed for class TPY transformers according to IEC 60044-22.214.171.124 ± 1. 3.5.
1. The value shall be such that an increase of 10% in magnitude does not result in an increase in the corresponding peak instantaneous exciting current exceeding 100%. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . With a double duty-cycle the TPX core would be saturated much too fast during the second energization. The accuracy limit voltage deﬁned by the purchaser is generally expressed as follows: in which K is the dimensioning factor assigned by the purchaser.3. If there are requirements regarding the remanence factor (usually Kr < 10%) it is clear that the core must have air-gaps.6 How to specify current transformers for transient performance First it must be decided which type of transformer is speciﬁed. Rct is deﬁned by the manufacturer’s design. except for certain applications where limits may need to be set by the purchaser to enable co-ordination with other equipment. Measurement of current during transient conditions 3.25%. When speciﬁed by the purchaser. the exciting current shall in any case not exceed that value corresponding to an error class of 5% of Ith for the secondary side. 3. If no limit is set. as long as the speciﬁed transient duty cycle contains only a single energization. If there is no requirement for low remanence we would probably choose a TPX-core. The accuracy limiting conditions are deﬁned by the magnetization characteristic and the secondary accuracy limiting voltage Ual shall not be less than the speciﬁed value. 54 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.5.2 Error limits for TPS current transformers The primary/secondary turns ratio error shall not exceed ± 0. the measured value of the peak exciting current at the accuracy limiting voltage shall not exceed the speciﬁed value.
As transient cores are heavily oversized it is important that the speciﬁed parameters are as accurate as possible. t”al Rb K Maximum Ial at Ual Rct Ith Idyn Kssc Tp Ts t’al tfr Rb K Ial Ual Rct = = = = = = = = = = = = Short-time current (fault current) Dynamic current (peak) Ipsc/Ipn Primary time constant Secondary time constant Permissible time to accuracy limit Dead time (during reclosing) Resistive burden Dimensioning parameter assigned by the purchaser Magnetizing current Kneepoint voltage Secondary CT resistance at 75ºC 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.3. depending on the selected accuracy class: Current transformer class Rated primary current (Ipn) Rated secondary current Rated frequency System voltage and insulation level Ith (Ipsc) Idyn Ratio to which speciﬁed data applies TPS X X X X X X X X X X X X TPX X X X X X X X X X X X X TPY X X X X X X X X X X X X TPZ X X X X X X X X X X X - Kssc Tp Ts % DC-component Duty cycle: Single: t’. t”. tfr. Measurement of current during transient conditions With a remanence factor of less than 10% the choice stands between class TPY and TPZ as they are both designed with air-gaps. t’al Double: t’. The following data is to be submitted to the manufacturer. component in the short-circuit current.1. The difference between the two classes is that the TPZ core cannot accurately reproduce the d. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 55 . t’al.c. and therefore the instantaneous current error can only take the alternating current component into account. The TPY-core has a smaller air-gap and it is possible to have a criterion for the total instantaneous error current.
1. Measurement of current during transient conditions 56 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .3.
1.How to specify voltage transformers Section 4 How to specify voltage transformers 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 57 .
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . the high capacitance type is the best choice. disturbances. With requirements on accuracy at different operation conditions. namely inductive voltage transformers and capacitor voltage transformers (CVT). IEEE or national) • Inductive or capacitor voltage transformers • Insulation level (service voltage) • Altitude above sea level (if >1000 m) • Rated primary voltage • Rated secondary voltage • Ratio • Rated voltage factor • Burdens (outputs) and accuracy for each winding • Pollution levels (creepage distance) 4. Inductive voltage transformers are most economical up to a system voltage of approximately 145 kV and capacitor voltage transformers above 145 kV.1. also for voltages lower than 145 kV. How to specify voltage transformers Important main factors when selecting voltage transformers: • Standard (IEC. A capacitor voltage transformer can also be combined with PLC-equipment for communication over the high-voltage transmission line.4. 58 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. There are two types of capacitor voltage transformers on the market: high and low capacitance types. variations of the frequency temperature and transient response. such as pollution.1 Type of voltage transformer Voltage transformers can be split up into two groups.
5 123 145 170 Power frequency withstand voltage Dry kV 50 70 95 140 150 230 275 325 Wet kV 50 70 95 140 150 230 275 325 Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 125 170 250 325 380 550 650 750 RIV test voltage kV 78 92 108 Maximum RIV level PD test voltage kV *) 29 43 62 87 99 148 174 204 Maximum PD level pC 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 µV 2500 2500 2500 *) Test voltage for isolated or non-effectively earthed neutral systems (voltage factor > 1.5) the test voltage is Um Test voltages apply at ≤ 1000 m above sea level For capacitor voltage transformers IEC 60126.96.36.199 82.5). How to specify voltage transformers 4. for earthed neutral systems (voltage factor 1. PD level pC 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 µV 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 Test voltages apply at ≤ 1000 m above sea level *) Earthed neutral system 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 59 .1 Rated insulation levels according to IEC For inductive voltage transformers IEC 60044-2 is applicable: Maximum System voltage kV 24 36 52 72. IEC 60358 and IEC 60044-5 are applicable: Maximum System voltage kV 72.5 123 145 170 245 300 362 420 525 765 Power frequency withstand voltage Dry kV 140 230 275 325 460 460 510 630 680 975 Wet kV 140 230 275 325 460 Lightning Switching impulse impulse withstand withstand voltage voltage kV kV 325 550 650 750 1050 1050 1175 1425 1550 2100 850 950 1050 1175 1550 RIV test voltage kV 78 92 108 156 190 230 267 333 486 Maximum RIV level PD test voltage kV *) 87 148 174 204 294 360 435 420* 525* 765* Max.2 Rated insulation level 4.1.
13 is applicable Maximum system voltage kV 25.5 36.4.5 121 145 169 Power frequency withstand voltage Dry kV 50 70 95 140 230 275 325 Wet kV 50 70 95 140 230 275 315 Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 150 200 250 350 550 650 750 RIV test voltage kV 21 28 42 70 84 98 Max. How to specify voltage transformers 4. apply a correction factor in the same way as described for current transformers in chapter 9.1. 60 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. For capacitor voltage transformers ANSI/NEMA C93.2.5 48.1-1999 is applicable Maximum system voltage kV 72.2 Basic insulation levels according to IEEE/ANSI For inductive voltage transformers IEEE C57.1.3 72. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . RIV level µV 50 50 50 50 50 50 Test voltages apply at ≤ 1000 m above sea level.5 121 145 169 242 362 550 800 Power frequency withstand voltage Dry kV 165 265 320 370 525 785 900 1200 Wet kV 140 230 275 325 460 680 780 1050 Lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 350 550 650 750 1050 1550 1800 2425 Switching impulse withstand voltage kV 975 1300 1675 RIV test voltage kV 42 70 84 98 140 209 318 462 Maximum RIV level µV 125 250 250 250 250 250 500 750 Test voltages apply at ≤ 1000 m above sea level For installation at an altitude higher than 1000 m above sea level.
The transformers will therefore supply a secondary voltage at good accuracy even when the primary voltage varies considerably from the rated voltage. The relay winding has a voltage range from 0. 200. the chosen voltage ratio shall be one of those stated in the standards. however. in European countries often 100/√3 V or 110/√3 V.5 for systems with solidly earthed neutral. for some reason. a special ratio must be chosen. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.9 for systems not being solidly earthed • 1. If. IEC speciﬁes the voltage factors: • 1. be made for the connected metering and relaying equipment.3 Rated primary and secondary voltage The performance of the transformer is based on its rated primary and secondary voltage. 1000. The normal measuring range of a voltage transformer is for the metering winding 80-120% of the rated voltage. 2000 and their multiples).9 of the rated voltage. As can be seen from Figure 1. Vf times the nominal rated performance voltage. 300. 4. Because of the above-mentioned requirement the voltage transformers operate with low ﬂux density at rated voltage. 400. The rated secondary voltage is chosen according to local practice. The standard values of rated primary voltage are 1/√3 times of the value of the rated system voltage. A check must. in other cases 8 hours. 500. the ratio factor should be of a simple value (100. In the event of a disturbance in a three-phase network.4.4 Rated voltage factor Voltage transformers. the voltage across the voltage transformer may sometimes be increased even up to the voltage factor. Voltage transformers for outdoor applications are normally connected between phase and ground.7 the variation of accuracy within a wide range of voltages is very small.5 or 1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 61 . How to specify voltage transformers 4.05 to 1.1. The voltage transformer core must not be saturated at the voltage factor. both inductive and capacitor types are usually connected phase to earth. to ensure that they operate satisfactorily at the different voltages. Wherever possible. The duration is speciﬁed to be 30 seconds if automatic fault tripping is used during earth faults. 600.
Figure 4. On a voltage transformer provided with more than one secondary winding. The voltage drop in the primary winding of a voltage transformer is proportional to the total load current in all secondary windings. paper and polypropylene. while capacitor voltage transformers with a dielectric consisting only of paper or polypropylene ﬁlm show large variations due to changes in capacitance.4. The deviation is about the same magnitude as that of an inductive voltage transformer. these windings are not independent of each other. Measuring and protective circuits can therefore not be selected independently of each other.2 and 0. as in the case of a current transformer with several secondary windings each on their own core.1.1 Typical error curves and limits for classes 0. In a modern capacitor voltage transformer the dielectric consists of two different types of material. For revenue metering. How to specify voltage transformers 4. it is important that the transformer is measuring correctly at different temperatures. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .5 according to IEC 60044-2 62 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.5 Burdens and accuracy classes As for the current transformers the accuracy is divided into classes for measuring and classes for protection purposes. An inductive voltage transformer has negligible deviations at different temperatures. which have opposite temperature characteristics and thus combined give a minimum of deviation.
5. the higher accuracy class required for metering must be selected.5 100 VA 3P • The voltage transformer selected should then be able to supply 100 VA at an accuracy corresponding to class 0. see above). The protective classes are valid from 5% to Vf times rated voltage and for 25-100% of rated burden (Vf = voltage factor. • The burden requirements must be equivalent to the total burden of all the equipment connected to the voltage transformer. taking into consideration the voltage factor. with the other windings unloaded. 0. When more than one secondary winding is required. i. and. It shall be noted that a voltage transformer winding can be given a combined class. Note that different secondary windings of a voltage transformer are dependent of each other. which means that metering accuracy is fulﬁlled for 80-120% of rated voltage.4. it must be clearly speciﬁed how the burdens and classes shall apply. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 63 . For example: Metering equipment Accuracy class Relays Accuracy class 25 VA 0. additionally. If the relay circuits are loaded only under emergency conditions.Vf times rated voltage. their inﬂuence on the metering circuits can be neglected.5/3P. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. or • With all windings loaded simultaneously.80% and 120% .e.1. The metering classes of IEC 60044-2 are valid for 80-120% of rated voltage and 25-100% of rated burden. the accuracy and transient response requirements for the protection class are fulﬁlled between 5% . • The above is valid provided that the relays consume the 70 VA connected continuously in regular service. • For one winding. The thermal burden of a voltage transformer is equivalent to the total power the transformer can supply without exceeding the speciﬁed temperature rise. How to specify voltage transformers The accuracy class and rated burden are normally selected as follows: • When the burden consists of metering and relaying components.
1). The voltage transformer will be designed with regard to this requirement. 5 10 Laboratory Precision and revenue metering Application 0.0 3. are: 10 15 25 30 50 75 100 150 200 300 400 500 VA The values marked with grey are preferred values.0 6.5 1.0 20 40 120 240 Standard revenue metering Industrial grade meters Instruments Protection Protection *) Vf = Voltage factor Standard values of rated output The standard values of rated output at a power factor of 0. The best way is specify a rated burden of 1.2 Limits of errors Phase displacement min.0 3. Modern meters and instruments have low power consumption and the total burden can be lower than 25% of the rated burden (see Figure 4. Minimum error is typically at 75% of the rated burden. How to specify voltage transformers Burdens lower than 25% of rated burden According to IEC 60044-2 and some other standards.1.5 times the actual connected burden. expressed in volt-amperes. Accuracy classes according to IEC 60044-2: Class Burden % 0. 64 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Due to correction of turns the error will increase at lower burden.0 3P 6P 80-120 80-120 80-120 5-Vf *) 5-Vf *) 0. the accuracy class shall be fulﬁlled from 25% to 100% of the rated burden. The rated output of a threephase transformer shall be the rated output per phase.4.0 3. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .1 0.5 1.8 lagging.1 0.2 25-100 25-100 <10VA 0-100% PF=1 25-100 25-100 25-100 25-100 25-100 Range Voltage % 80-120 80-120 Ratio % 0.
85 0. How to specify voltage transformers Accuracy classes according to IEEE C57. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.85 0. The amplitudes of the transient are determined by the phase angle of the primary voltage at the moment of the short-circuit.0 0.20 0.7. for instance when a short circuit occurs in the network. This transient is normally a combination of one low frequency oscillation of 2-15 Hz and one high frequency oscillation that can lie between 900 to 4000 Hz. normally within 10 ms. Transient response When a primary short-circuit occurs.6 1.6 1.5 25 75 200 400 Power error at metered load PF 0.13 Class Burden % 0.10 0. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 65 .70 0.4.6 Pollution levels The effects of pollution on voltage transformer insulators are the same as described for current transformers in chapter 2.3 0.1. the discharge of the energy stored in the capacitive and inductive elements of the transformer will result in a transient voltage oscillation on the secondary side.2 PF 0. 4. The high frequency part of this is damped out within short time.6-1. Good qualities in this respect are of great importance in ensuring that the protective relays function correctly.2 M W X Y Z ZZ 0-100 0-100 0-100 Range Voltage % 90-110 90-110 90-110 VA 35 12.7 Transient response for capacitor voltage transformers Speciﬁc requirements are put on the ability of a capacitor voltage transformer to reproduce rapid voltage changes. Higher capacitance gives lower amplitude on the low frequency oscillation.3 0.85 Application Revenue metering Standard metering Relaying Standard burdens 4. whereas the low frequency part lasts longer.
66 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. How to specify voltage transformers Standard recommendations and requirements The different standards specify certain requirements as to what can be accepted after a short-circuit occurring directly on the terminals. The dominating low frequency lapse in the capacitor voltage transformer does not occur since there are no capacitors in the inductive voltage transformers. Three-phase. the capacitance could be as simple as a length of cable connected to the ungrounded winding of a transformer. For example.9 Ferroresonance Ferroresonance is a potential source of transient overvoltage. 4. For example during a switching operation.8 Transient response for inductive voltage transformers In an inductive voltage transformer only the fast high frequency oscillation lapse occurs. blown fuses.4. for instance. singlephase switching. Other standards also require that all frequencies of the transient shall be outside (higher or lower) the limits set by a certain speciﬁed frequency band. The phenomenon may be started if the core of the intermediate voltage transformer for some reason happens to be saturated. Another example of ferroresonance occurring is when an inductive voltage transformer is connected in parallel with a large grading capacitor across the gap of a circuit breaker. The secondary voltage must not be higher than a speciﬁed value at a certain time after the short-circuit. may then be initiated and superposed on the normal frequency voltage and may last a long time if it is not efﬁciently damped. 4. and broken conductors can result in overvoltage when ferroresonance occurs between the magnetizing impedance of a transformer and the system capacitance of the isolated phase or phases. speciﬁes a secondary amplitude value not higher than 10% of the secondary voltage before the short-circuit within a time equivalent to one period of the rated frequency.10 Ferroresonance in capacitor voltage transformers Ferro-resonance may occur in circuits containing a capacitor and a reactor incorporating an iron core (a non-linear inductance). normally having a frequency lower than the normal 50-60 Hz. 4. A capacitor voltage transformer with its capacitor divider and its intermediate voltage transformer with non-linear magnetizing characteristics is such a circuit. A resonance oscillation.1. IEC. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Ferroresonance is usually known as a series resonance.
phase voltage) The corresponding value for cable is Damping of ferro-resonance The inductive voltage transformer will be protected from ferro-resonance oscillation by connecting a resistor across the open delta point in the 3-phase secondary winding.1.4. 200 W. 4. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 67 . Figure 4. as it depends on the design of the transformer. An oscillation can occur between the network’s capacitance to ground and the non-linear inductance in the inductive voltage transformer. Under such circumstances the core of the intermediate voltage transformer works at full saturation and the magnetizing current might be large. A damping arrangement that damps any resonance oscillations effectively is thus a necessity. We can roughly calculate that there will be a risk of resonance when the zero-sequence capacitance expressed in S km transmission line is Un = System voltage (phase .11 Ferroresonance in inductive voltage transformers When the ferroresonance in a capacitor voltage transformer is an internal oscillation between the capacitor and the inductive intermediate voltage transformer. is dangerous for the transformer. which is not damped out efﬁciently. How to specify voltage transformers Damping of ferroresonance A ferroresonance oscillation. The oscillation can only occur in a network having an insulated neutral. A typical value is 50-60 ohm.2 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. It is difﬁcult to give a general ﬁgure of a possible risk of ferroresonance. The oscillation can be triggered by a sudden change in the network voltage. The standards specify certain requirements on the damping and these tests should be performed in order to verify that these are fulﬁlled. so that there is a risk of a failure. the ferroresonance in an inductive voltage transformer is an oscillation between the inductive voltage transformer and the network.
3 The accuracy of a voltage transformer is guaranteed at the secondary terminals 68 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.5 µF/km).05 to 0. The accuracy of a voltage transformer is guaranteed at the secondary terminals. If the cable is interrupted.13 Voltage drops in the secondary circuits The voltage drop in the secondary circuit is of importance. 4. Separation of the metering circuits (with low burden) from protective circuits (with higher burdens) is of the utmost importance. This is especially important for revenue metering windings of high accuracy (class 0. The recommended total voltage drops in the secondary circuits must not be more than 0.1. and in an auto reclose breaking cycle there is a risk of the transformer overheating.1%. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . only the network.0042 Ω 6-10 A is a typical value for safe rupture of the fuses. How to specify voltage transformers Inductive voltage transformers in high voltage cable net High voltage cable stores high energy due to the high capacitance in the cable (typical 0. A short-circuit on the secondary windings produces only a few amperes in the primary winding and is not sufﬁcient to rupture a high voltage fuse. The winding will heat up.12 Fuses It is possible to protect a voltage transformer from secondary short-circuit by incorporating fuses in the secondary circuits. The voltage drop in the fuses and long connection wires can change the accuracy of the measurement.048 Ω 0. Figure 4. Resistance in fuses Typical values 6A 10 A 16 A 25 A 0. High voltage fuses on the primary side will not protect the transformers.3).024 Ω 0. the stored energy in the cable will be discharged through the primary winding of the voltage transformer. 4. which will delay connection of the cable to the network.0076 Ω 0.4. It will take 6-12 hours to cool the transformer.2 or 0.
This illustrates the importance of having a low rated burden for the measuring winding. It is sometimes possible to use 2 nF. The range and data are dependent of the PLC equipment design. but this will limit the band pass range.1. How to specify voltage transformers Below is an example of high rated burden (170 VA) resulting in a high voltage drop in the secondary circuit. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 69 .6 nF is preferable. especially when using frequencies below 100 kHz.14 Coupling capacitors In coupling capacitor applications for connecting the power line carrier equipment (PLC) to the network. The minimum capacitance of the coupling capacitors is normally 3 nF but 5 .4. Figure 4. either a separate capacitor or the capacitor voltage divider of a capacitor voltage transformer can be used.4 Example on voltage drop in secondary cables 4.
How to specify voltage transformers 4. The existing PLC equipment will normally be useful after replacement of old CVTs and coupling capacitors. The “L” terminal in the terminal box gives access to the CVTs capacitor voltage divider. The ABB CVTs type CPA and CPB have the compensating reactor connected on the high voltage side of the primary winding resulting in the possibility of also using higher frequencies (<400 kHz) for power line carrier transmission. To be sure and not increase the damping of the signal in the lower frequency range the capacitance of the new capacitor must be equal or higher then the old one. Figure 4. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Deviation of the capacitance is not critical.1. The line tuner unit can be adjusted to/for the new capacitor value.5 Power line equipment 70 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.4. Power line carrier equipment and accessories including drain coil and spark gap protection are available in the terminal box. For external connection of the power line equipment the insulation of the wires must withstand 10 kV RMS test voltage. 250 kg for CVTs and coupling capacitors up to 245 kV. However. Line traps can be mounted on the top of ABB CVTs and coupling capacitors. the weight of the line trap is limited to max. Standard ﬁxing pedestals for the most types of line traps are available for mounting on the top of the voltage divider. Earthquake and extreme wind speed must be taken in consideration (see chapter 7).15 CVTs as coupling capacitors It is possible to combine the ABB CVTs as coupling capacitors for line carrier transmission and as a voltage transformer.
1. How to specify voltage transformers Section 5 Design of current transformers 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 71 .4.
Figure 5. For outdoor erection the epoxy has to withstand climatic stress on the creepage surfaces.1 Hair-pin (Tank) and top-core design Epoxy-molded current transformers Other types of current transformers are epoxy-molded. 72 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. This gives a well-stabilized design with good ﬁxture of the windings and the cores. However. The operating principle is the same as that of oil-immersed current transformers. porcelain and silicone rubber are more resistant to atmospheric corrosion. Design of current transformers 5. Epoxy-insulated current transformers have the primary winding and the secondary cores embedded in a mixture of epoxy and quartz ﬂour. There are two main types: 1. 2.1 General Oil-immersed current transformers Most of the high voltage current transformers sold and installed today are immersed in oil.1. Epoxy-insulated current transformers up to 110 kV level are available on the market.5. Epoxy-insulated current transformers with creepage surfaces made of porcelain may be a viable option in aggressive environments. The primary winding can also be coil-shaped. The primary conductor is usually in the shape of a bar. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Tank type with the cores situated in a tank close to the ground. Inverted type (top-core) with the cores situated at the top of the transformer. A common type of epoxy that can withstand the outdoor climate is cycloalipatic epoxy. The primary conductor is U-shaped (hair-pin) or coil-shaped (eye-bolt). but lower voltage levels are more common.
circuit breakers and instrument transformers. Silicon rubber insulators Silicon rubber insulators are an alternative to ceramic insulators for instrument transformers.1. Today an increasing number of different high voltage apparatus with silicone rubber insulation are being installed. The design is typical top-core type. Silicon rubber insulators manufactured by ABB have been continuously tested in both normal and severely polluted conditions with good results for many years.g. Depending on the type of equipment. Design of current transformers SF6 gas insulated current transformers For the SF6 gas insulated current transformers the oil and paper insulation have been replaced by Sulphurhexaﬂouride (SF6) gas. surge arresters. Because of the unique non-wetting properties. vessel and gaskets. The gas is solely for insulating purposes. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 73 . The high overpressure (4-5 bar) of the gas requires high performance of the insulators. polymeric insulation material. although it will not improve the insulation of the current transformer. Compared with ceramic insulation. silicone rubber is the fastest growing. and for high voltage even the dominating. bushings. additional technical advantages and safety improvements are obtained. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The gas is not ﬂammable and has good dielectric and thermal capabilities.5. silicon rubber has the additional advantages of light weight and being non-brittle. e.
While being insulated the core must be assembled on the primary conductor. Limitation of the shortcircuit currents. • Difﬁcult to have large core volumes. • The tank is part of the support. which is important during transport and earthquakes.5. • Oil circulation in the primary conductor (tube) ensures an even temperature and no hot spots. Additional advantages with ABB’s unique quartz ﬁlling • Low oil volume • Having the primary conductor and cores embedded in quartz ﬁlling means that the current transformer can withstand strong vibrations. • Limitation of the short-circuit currents. Design of current transformers 5. • Difﬁcult in cooling the primary conductor. • Quartz ﬁlling affords the opportunity to have expansion systems with no moving parts such as bellows or membranes.1. 74 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. • High quality with the use of machines when insulating the primary conductor. • High earthquake resistance. Disadvantage • Long primary conductor means higher thermal losses.3 Eye-bolt type Advantage • Low centre of gravity • High earthquake withstand Disadvantage • Long primary conductor means thermal losses and the current transformer will not be very competitive compared to top-core transformers at currents above 2000 A. • Easy to adapt the core volume to different requirements. 5.2 Hair-pin type (Tank type) Advantages • Low centre of gravity. • Using heavy cores without stressing the porcelain insulator. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .
TPY).4 Top-core type Advantages Short primary conductor with low thermal losses High rated current and short-time current. which are embedded in paper insulation. Disadvantage • High centre of gravity • Large core volume stresses the porcelain insulator • Limited core volume • Difﬁcult to cool the secondary windings. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 75 . Design of current transformers 5.5.1. • Unsuitable in earthquake areas when using big cores (TPX. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
76 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.2 Typical design of CTs Top-core 5.5. Electrodynamic forces will also occur under short-circuit conditions.5 Mechanical stress on current transformers Current transformers in operation are mechanically stressed in different ways: 5.1 Forces in the primary terminals Connected bars and wires develop the forces in primary terminals.1. There is a static stress from the weight of the connected conductor and a dynamic stress from wind and vibrations in circuit breaker operation. A normal ﬁgure is 35 m/s. 5. The wind speed depends on the climatic conditions. In this instance.2 Wind load A current transformer must also withstand the stress of wind. The maximum wind speed which might occur is about 50 m/s (180 km/h).5. ABB’s current transformers are designed for 50 m/s with a simultaneous load of 2000 N (force) applied to the primary terminals.5. the safety factor will be 2. Design of current transformers Hair-pin / Tank type Eye-bolt Figure 5. A typical requirement of a static and dynamic load is 2000 N with a safety factor of 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .
Generally ABB’s current transformers can withstand 0.1 to 0.0 g. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 77 . response spectra and damping. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.5 g and in exceptional cases up to 1. For higher voltage levels and earthquake requirements the current transformers will be designed according to the requirements. The value of horizontal acceleration is normally 0. Design of current transformers 5. To exactly verify the stress in the current transformer a calculation must be carried out from case to case. The ﬁgure of acceleration is determined by the region where the current transformer is erected. The stress in the current transformer is dependent on the total conﬁguration of the design of the support.1.3 Seismic withstand In earthquake regions the current transformer must withstand the seismic stress caused by an earthquake.5 for current transformers up to a 300 kV system voltage.5.5 g seismic stress according to IEEE spectrum with a safety factor of 1.5.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Design of current transformers 78 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.6.1.
Design of inductive voltage transformers Section 6 Design of inductive voltage transformers 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.6. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 79 .1.
1 Inductive voltage transformer 6. ABB’s voltage transformer has a unique quartz ﬁlling that improves mechanical stability and reduces oil volumes. The load on the primary terminal is normally lower than on a current transformer. 80 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Typical requirements for static and dynamic loads are 1000 N with a safety factor of 2. However. The cascade type consists of two inductive voltage transformers with different potential integrated in the same enclosure. The connection lead weighs less because of the very low current in the voltage transformer which can be transferred by a thinner wire.1. Design of inductive voltage transformers The design of ABB’s inductive voltage transformers is not much different from those of other manufacturers. Core and windings are situated in the bottom tank and the porcelain insulator is mounted on the top of the tank. For wind load and seismic resistance.5 above. For higher voltage levels (> 245 kV) a cascade type is usual.6. but a modern capacitor voltage transformer will be more economical.1 Mechanical stress on inductive voltage transformers As in the case of current transformers. wind forces and earth-quakes. Figure 6. a voltage transformer is subject to mechanical stresses due to forces in the primary terminal. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . see chapter 5.
Design of capacitor voltage transformers Section 7 Design of capacitor voltage transformers 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 81 .1.6.
7. Design of capacitor voltage transformers
A capacitor voltage transformer consists of a Capacitor Voltage Divider (CVD) and an inductive Intermediate Voltage Transformer (IVT). The IVT voltage level of ABB’s capacitor voltage transformers is about 22/√3 kV, and the rated voltage of the complete capacitor voltage transformer determines the ratio at the capacitor voltage divider. It is more convenient to make an Inductive voltage transformer for lower voltage levels and let the CVD take care of the high voltage. The ratio of the capacitive divider is
The ratio of the intermediate voltage transformer is
The total ratio factor is therefore K1 is normally chosen to give E2 = 22/√3 kV. Thus for different primary voltages, only C1 differs and a standard intermediate transformer can be used for all primary voltages. The intermediate voltage transformer (IVT) also contains reactors for compensation of the capacitive voltage regulation. The capacitor voltage transformer has a double function, one for metering/protection and one for power line communications (PLC).
CVT quality depends on formula:
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
7. Design of capacitor voltage transformers
Figure 7.1 Principle diagram for a capacitor voltage transformer
7.1 External disturbances on capacitor voltage transformers
External creepage currents due to pollution on insulators can inﬂuence the accuracy of a capacitor voltage transformer. When a porcelain insulator is divided into several parts, there can be different creepage currents in each part of the capacitor voltage divider. This has an effect on voltage dividing in the capacitor and results in a ratio error. The proportion of errors is difﬁcult to estimate, as it is not easy to measure the different creepage currents. High capacitance in the voltage divider makes it less sensitive to pollution.
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
7. Design of capacitor voltage transformers
The effect of stray capacitance from equipment erected nearby on accuracy is negligible. If two 420 kV capacitor voltage transformers are erected at a distance of 1.25 m from each other, the ratio error of ABB’s high capacitance CVT due to the other capacitor voltage transformer will be 0.01%. Normally the phase distance is longer than 1.25 m. Therefore, the high capacitance of the voltage divider has a positive effect on the accuracy.
7.2 Mechanical stress on capacitor voltage transformers
As with current transformers the capacitor voltage transformers are also exposed to similar mechanical stresses from forces in the primary terminals, wind and earth-quakes. The load on the primary terminals is normally lower than that on a current transformer. The connection lead weighs less because of the very low current in the voltage transformer, which can be transferred by a thinner wire. A typical requirement on static and dynamic load is 1000 N with a safety factor of 2. The limitation of the stress is the bending moment in the porcelain insulator. A typical value for a standard insulator is 25 kNm (Tmax), but it is possible to obtain a higher value.
Fmax S H Tmax = = = = maximum horizontal force on the primary terminal (kN) safety factor, usually 2 height of the capacitor (CVD) in m maximum bending strength of the porcelain insulator (kNm)
Fmax must be reduced according to the wind load. The following part describes the calculation of wind load on a capacitor voltage transformer. The additional wind load with line traps placed on top of the capacitor voltage transformer is also of importance. Wind pressure (W) will be speciﬁed for cylindrical surfaces:
V = wind speed (m/s)
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1, 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide
7. The force (F) will take up half the height of the CVD: where D1 = medium diameter of the porcelain The moment (M) will be: If the capacitor voltage transformer is provided with line traps.2 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. this must also be taken into account: where Hs Ds = = line trap height (m) line trap diameter (m) Figure 7. Design of capacitor voltage transformers We assume that the capacitor voltage transformer has a cylindrical shape. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 85 .
For particularly heavy applications a capacitor voltage transformer with stronger porcelain can be designed to withstand 0. With help of these programs high precision calculations can be made. Some general rules and also a few examples of requirements ABB has been able to fulﬁll are given below.3 Seismic properties of ABB’s capacitor voltage transformers The requirements on the seismic withstand capability of capacitor voltage transformers usually depend on the local seismic conditions. formulated as an acceleration spectrum of a probable earthquake. As these calculations could be complicated to perform. Due to its slender shape.5 g horizontal and 0. the vertical requirements are usually satisﬁed automatically. Resonance frequency tests If the requirement says that the CVT shall withstand mechanical testing at its resonance frequency.e. i.3 g horizontal ground acceleration according to IEEE spectra with a safety factor of 2. if a capacitor voltage transformer can withstand the horizontal requirements.1. Earthquake calculations will normally be performed from case to case depending on the requirements. modern cost-saving computer programs have been developed. Response spectra If the requirements.0. This means that a particular calculation has to be performed in each individual case.3 g vertical acceleration with a safety factor of 2. Generally. have to be met at a certain safety factor. However. the system voltage. a CPA or CPB will always withstand 0. the damping will be the most important factor in the calculation. a capacitor voltage transformer is more sensitive to horizontal movements than vertical ones. Design of capacitor voltage transformers 7. some tests must still be performed to verify these calculations. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .0 up to 550 kV highest system voltage. The difﬁculties in meeting earthquake requirements increase rapidly with the height of the CVD. 86 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.7.
7. Design of capacitor voltage transformers L1 L2 L3 P1 P2 Section 8 Instrument transformers in the system Transformer 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 87 .1.
1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .1 Terminal designations for current transformers According to IEC publication 60044-1.2 Transformer with two secondary windings Figure 8.8. Instrument transformers in the system 8. All terminals that are marked P1.3 Transformer with one secondary winding which has an extra tapping 88 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1 Transformer with one secondary winding Figure 8. S1 and C1 are to have the same polarity. the terminals should be designated as shown in the following diagrams. Figure 8.
ground the terminal that is nearest to the protected objects. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Instrument transformers in the system Figure 8. High voltage will be induced.8. When metering instruments and protective relays are on the same winding. If the cores are not used in a current transformer they must be short-circuited between the highest ratio taps and shall be grounded. differential protection). these shall be grounded at one point only (e. they must be left open. WARNING! It is dangerous to open the secondary circuit when the CT is in operation. these circuits have to be grounded. For meters and instruments. If there is a galvanic connection between more than one current transformer. For protective relays. the protective relay determines the point to be grounded. If there are unused taps on the secondary winding. Connect either the S1 terminal or the S2 terminal to ground. ground the terminal that is nearest to the consumer.4 Transformer with two primary windings and one secondary winding 8.g.1.2 Secondary grounding of current transformers To prevent the secondary circuits from attaining dangerously high potential to ground. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 89 .
8. Instrument transformers in the system Figure 8. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .1.6 Cables 90 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.5 Transformer Figure 8.
A voltage transformer.1.8 Voltage transformers connected between phases 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. grounded. Instrument transformers in the system Figure 8. shall have the secondary circuit.3 Secondary grounding of voltage transformers To prevent secondary circuits from reaching dangerous potential. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 91 .8. Windings not in use shall be grounded. A voltage transformer.7 Busbar 8. which has a voltage lagging the other terminal by 120 degrees. which on the primary is connected phase to ground. with the primary winding connected between two phases. Figure 8. the circuits shall be grounded. shall have the secondary grounding at terminal n. Grounding shall be made at only one point on a voltage transformer secondary circuit or galvanically interconnected circuits.
92 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Instrument transformers in the system Figure 8.4 Connection to obtain the residual voltage The residual voltage (neutral displacement voltage.1.8. which have their primary winding connected phase to ground and one of the secondary windings connected in a broken delta. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . It can also be obtained from a three-phase set of voltage transformers. for instance at a power transformer neutral.9 A set of voltage transformers with one Y-connected and one broken delta secondary circuit 8. polarizing voltage) for earthfault relays can be obtained from a voltage transformer between neutral and ground.
1. Voltage transformers with two secondary windings.g. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. one for connection in Y and the other in broken delta can then have the ratio for high-impedance and effectively grounded systems respectively. are also used depending on national standards and practice. 100 V or 115 V. it can be seen that a solid close-up earth-fault produces an output voltage of in a high-impedance earthed system and in an effectively grounded system. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 93 . Therefore a voltage transformer secondary voltage of is often used in high-impedance grounded systems and U2n = 110 V in effectively grounded systems. From the ﬁgure. e. Instrument transformers in the system Figure 8. Nominal voltages other than 110 V.8. A residual voltage of 110 V is obtained in both cases.10 illustrates the measuring principle for the broken delta connection during an earth-fault in a high-impedance grounded (or ungrounded) and an effectively grounded power system respectively.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Earth faults and two-phase faults should be checked.5 Fusing of voltage transformer secondary circuits Fuses should be provided at the ﬁrst box where the three phases are brought together. 94 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. The fuses in the three-phase box enable a differentiated fusing of the circuits to different loads like protection and metering circuits. Instrument transformers in the system Figure 8. even for a fault at the end of the cabling.10 Residual voltage (neutral displacement voltage) from a broken delta circuit 8.8. as this will make the supervision of the voltage transformers more difﬁcult. The fuses must be selected to give a fast and reliable fault clearance. The circuit from the terminal box to the ﬁrst box is constructed to minimize the risk of faults in the circuit. It is preferable not to use fuses in the voltage transformer terminal box.
feeders. fault recorders and synchronizers. at transformer neutral connections and at the busbars. etc. protective relays. Instrument transformers are thus installed when it is necessary to obtain measuring quantities for the above-mentioned purposes. Instrument transformers in the system 8. indicating instruments. bus couplers. such as energy meters.1.8. fault locators. Figure 8. transformers. Typical points of installation are switchbays for lines.6 Location of current and voltage transformers in substations Instrument transformers are used to supply measured quantities of current and voltage in an appropriate form to controlling and protective apparatus.11 Current and voltage transformers in a simple substation 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 95 ..
13 Transfer busbar station 96 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Figure 8.12 Double busbar station Figure 8. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .Instrument transformers in the system Location of instrument transformers in different substation arrangements Below are some examples of suitable locations for current and voltage transformers in a few different switchgear arrangements.1.
Double breaker station It is usual to locate the current transformers on the line side of the circuit breakers. To determine the line current.6. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. the secondary currents of the two current transformers are added together. It will depend on the arrangement of protective relays. Bus coupler and bus sectionalizer bays A set of current transformers is necessary to enable different busbar protection zones to be formed. The detection zones of line relays and busbar relays start at the current transformers and the tripping point is the circuit breaker. In the improbable case of a fault between the current transformer and the circuit breaker.Instrument transformers in the system Figure 8. Transfer busbar station It is advantageous to locate the current transformers on the line side of the disconnectors for circuit breakers and the transfer bus. In this way the protective relay connected to the current transformer will remain connected to the line when it is switched over to transfer busbar and standby circuit breaker. The two current transformers shall be identical.1 Location of current transformers Current transformers in line bays The current transformers are placed near the circuit breakers and on the line side. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 97 .14 Double breaker arrangement 8. the busbar protection will detect and clear the fault.1. Sometimes current transformers on both sides of circuit breakers are used but are usually not necessary. The protection can be arranged to give complete fault clearing with a short time-delay for faults between circuit breaker and current transformer. It is advantageous if these two points are close to each other.
1. it is hard to predict the operation of the relays anyhow. Physical order of cores in a current transformer It is usual to show the use of current transformer cores in a diagram in such way that protective relays overlap inside the current transformer.3. current transformers are located at the circuit breakers.6. of course.15 Cross section of a current transformer 98 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. A current transformer in a power transformer neutral can be a bushing current transformer or a separate 36 kV or 24 kV unit. A fault from the primary conductor to earth between the cores is extremely unlikly. The current through the current transformer cores is the same.2. It is also possible to use a single set of current transformers. At the central circuit breaker (tie circuit breaker) two current transformer sets are shown. as the windings of the adjacent cores might be destroyed. but sometimes it can be difﬁcult to accommodate all cores in one current transformer tank. 8. It is important to specify the current transformers correctly when purchasing the transformer. Figure 8. Transformer and reactor bushing current transformers Bushing current transformers can be a good and economical complement to separate current transformers if properly adapted to the requirements for protection and metering. If this should happen. correct to arrange the current transformer cores in that order.15 is a cross section of a current transformer. as it is difﬁcult to exchange them once they are installed in the power transformer. Instrument transformers in the system One and a half breaker station As with the double breaker station. It is.6. 8. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . In addition. Figure 8. but if the cores of one CT should be reversed there is no practical effect.8. transformer bushing current transformers are used.
They are then to be located at the line side of the line traps and line earthing switches. as shown in chapter 1.1. Located at the entry they can also enable indication of voltage on a line energized from the opposite end.3. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 99 . 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. A similar case is the single-phase voltage transformer on the station side of the line disconnector in a 1 ½ circuit breaker station.6. Single-phase voltage transformers on the busbars and at transformers provide reference voltage for synchronization. Instrument transformers in the system 8. Capacitor voltage transformers can also be used as coupling capacitors for power line carrier (PLC).8. If these voltage transformers are selected a voltage selection scheme must be used. protection and synchronization. It will be more or less complex depending on the switchgear conﬁguration.4 Location of voltage transformers In line bays a three-phase set of voltage transformers or capacitor voltage transformers is used for metering.
Instrument transformers in the system 100 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .
1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 101 .Protective relays Section 9 Protective relays 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
In protection equipments. which also specify different protection classes. even if the CT becomes saturated. these airgaps minimize the inﬂuence of the DCcomponent from the primary fault current. Conventional magnetic core CTs are usually speciﬁed and manufactured according to some international or national standards. Saturation can also cause unwanted operations for external faults. This CT has a magnetic core without any airgap and a remanent ﬂux might remain for an almost inﬁnite period. There are several different ways to specify CTs. The low remanence type has a speciﬁed limit for the remanent ﬂux. the CTs must be able to produce a sufﬁcient amount of secondary current. Class TPY according to IEC is a low remanence type CT.1. or correctly reproduce the current for a minimum time before the CT will begin to saturate.m. In this type of transformer the remanence ﬂux can be up to around 85% of the saturation ﬂux. One source of distortion is CT saturation. and measures need to be taken in the protection to handle this phenomenon. At the same time. The non remanence type CT has practically negligible levels of remanent ﬂux. This type of CT has relatively big airgaps in order to reduce the remanent ﬂux to practically zero. To fulﬁll these requirements for a sufﬁcient amount of secondary current or a speciﬁed time to saturation. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .1 General The operation of a protection measuring function is inﬂuenced by distortion.9. The small airgap has only very limited inﬂuence on the other properties of the CT. 102 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. This CT is made with a small airgap to reduce the remanent ﬂux to a level that does not exceed 10% of the saturation ﬂux. TPS. Saturation of a CT can cause a failure to occure or a delayed operation for a fault within the protected zone. measures are taken to allow for a certain amount of CT saturation with maintained correct operation. PX.f. TPX according to IEC and class C and K according to ANSI/IEEE. the CTs must fulﬁl the requirements of a minimum secondary e. To guarantee correct operation. The airgaps will also reduce the measuring accuracy in the non-saturated region of operation. Class TPZ according to IEC is a non remanence type CT. Typical examples of high remanence type CTs are class P. Protective relays 9. generally there are three different types of CTs: • high remanence type CT • low remanence type CT • non remanence type CT The high remanence type has no limit for the remanent ﬂux. However. Often protection can allow relatively heavy CT saturation.
All kinds of high. The current for a single phase-to-earth fault will exceed the current for a three-phase fault when the zero sequence impedance in the total fault loop is less than the positive sequence impedance.f. The CT saturation is directly affected by the voltage at the CT secondary terminals. In general the speciﬁed CT requirements of different protection concern high.and low-remanence type CTs can be used. ABB uses “The rated equivalent limiting secondary e. provided they fulﬁll the requirements of the speciﬁed secondary e.m.and low-remanance CTs but not speciﬁcally non-remanance type CTs. This is of most importance in cases involving more complicated protection. simulations and often also investigations performed in a network simulator. Protective relays Protection equipment from ABB has been designed to put low requirements on the instrument transformers and still give correct operation.9.” Eal in according with the IEC 60044-6 standard to specify the CT requirements for different protection equipment. For earth faults in solidly earthed systems it is important to consider the loop containing both the phase and the neutral conductors. The requirements are based on calculations. the characteristic of the non remanence type CT is not well deﬁned as far as the phase angle error is concerned.f. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. However.m. the neutral current is zero. For three-phase faults. such as distance protection and differential protection. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 103 . Often it is possible to use non remanence type CTs (TPZ) if they fulﬁll the required Eal.1. Maximum fault current will occur for three-phase faults or in some cases for single-phase-to-earth faults. and only the phase conductor and relay phase burden have to be considered. This voltage is developed in a loop containing the conductors and the relay burden. We therefore recommend contacting the manufacturer to conﬁrm that the type in question can be used. This can be the case in solidly earthed systems and therefore both fault types have to be considered. In most cases the CT requirements are based on the maximum fault current for faults in different positions.
Eal that is greater than or equal to the maximum of the required secondary e. Protective relays 9.1.f. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .m. This factor is a function of the network frequency and the primary time constant for the dc component in the fault current. a = 2 for the primary time constant Tp ≤ 50 ms. The minimum operating current is 10-30% of the nominal current.9. k = 4 for the primary time constant Tp ≤ 30 ms. Ealreq below: where Ikmax Ikzone1 = = = = = = = = Maximum primary fundamental frequency current for close-in forward and reverse faults (A) Maximum primary fundamental frequency current for faults at the end of zone 1 reach (A) The rated primary CT current (A) The rated secondary CT current (A) The protection terminal rated current (A) The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) The resistance of the secondary cable and additional load (Ω). The time constant is normally less than 50 ms.m. The loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires must be used for phase-to-earth faults (solidly earthed systems) and the resistance of the phase wire should be used for three-phase faults. 50 Hz k = 7 for the primary time constant Tp > 30 ms. and must have a rated equivalent secondary e. 50 Hz a = 4 for the primary time constant Tp > 50 ms.2. 50 and 60 Hz k = 6 for the primary time constant Tp > 30 ms.2 Current transformer requirements for CTs according to the IEC 60044-6 standard 9. 60 Hz A factor of the network frequency and the primary time constant for the dc component in the fault current for a three-phase fault at the set reach of zone 1. 50 and 60 Hz a = 3 for the primary time constant Tp > 50 ms.f.1 Distance protection REL 501-531 The CT ratio should be selected so that the current to the protection is higher than the minimum operating value for all faults that are to be detected. 60 Hz Ipn Isn Ir RCT RL a k = 104 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. The CTs should have an accuracy class comparable to 5P or better.
where Ikmax Itmax Ipn Isn Ir RCT RL = = = = = = = Maximum primary fundamental frequency fault current for internal close-in faults (A) Maximum primary fundamental frequency fault current for through fault current for external faults (A) The rated primary CT current (A) The rated secondary CT current (A) The protection terminal rated current (A) The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) The loop resistance of the secondary cable and additional load (Ω) 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Protective relays 9.40 and 1. The CTFactor is used to equalize different primary CT ratio in the two terminals or to reduce the resulting CT ratio to which the minimum operating current is related. Ealreq below (Equations 3 . The minimum operating current for the differential protection function in REL 551 is 20% of the nominal current multiplied by the CTFactor setting.1.2.f. The CTs should have an accuracy class comparable to 5P or better and must have a rated equivalent secondary e. The CTFactor can be set between 0.6). The resulting CT ratio must be equal in both terminals.m.m. The requirements according to the formulas below are valid for fault currents with a primary time constant less than 120 ms. The resulting CT ratio is the primary CT ratio multiplied by the CTFactor.9.f. Eal that is greater than or equal to the maximum of the required secondary e. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 105 .00.2 Line differential protection REL 551 The CT ratio should be selected so that the current to the protection is higher than the minimum operating value for all faults that are to be detected.
2.f.3 Line differential protection REL 561 The line differential protection REL 561 is equipped with both line differential and line distance protection functions.m. In a solidly earthed system shall the double length.4-1. 9.9.000% of IR) Set current scaling factor (0. The factor 2 in Equation 4 is replaced with 2. phase and neutral wires must be considered.2. 106 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1.5 for primary time constants of 200 ms and 300 ms respectively. The resistance of the cables shall be taken for a single length if the application is in a high impedance earthed system. The CTs must have a rated equivalent secondary e. Protective relays The factor 0. Ealreq below: where Isn Ir RCT RL = = = = The rated secondary CT current (A) The protection terminal rated current (A) The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) The resistance of the secondary cable and additional load (Ω).m.0) Requirements according to the Equations 5 and 6 are independent of the primary time constant.53 and 0. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Eal that is greater than or equal to the required secondary e.f. where f IminSat CTFactor = = = Nominal frequency (Hz) Set saturation detector min current (100-1.54 for primary time constants of 200 ms and 300 ms respectively. 9.5 in Equation 3 is replaced with 0. Ratio matching can be done with the internal auxiliary summation CT.4 Pilot-wire differential relay RADHL The CTs at each terminal do not need to have the same ratio.32 and 2. Therefore the CT must fulﬁll the requirements both for the distance protection REL 501-531 and for the line differential protection REL 551.
the fault current may pass two main CTs for the transformer differential protection without passing the power transformer. the CTs must satisfy requirement (8) and the requirement (10) below: where If = The maximum secondary side fault current that passes two main CTs without passing the power transformer (A) Requirement (10) applies when both main CTs have equal transformation ratio and magnetization characteristics. to the interposing CTs when used) and additional load (Ω) A factor depending of the system earthing k = 1 for high impedance earthed systems k = 2 for a solidly earthed system In substations with a breaker-and-a-half or double-busbar double-breaker arrangement.f.5 Transformer protection RET 521 and transformer differential protection RADSB To avoid maloperation on energization of the power transformer and in connection with fault current that passes through the power transformer.2.9.m. Ealreq below: where Int Itf Ir RCT Zr = = = = = The main CT secondary current corresponding to the rated current of the power transformator (A) The maximum secondary side fault current that passes two main CTs and the power transformer (A) The protection relay rated current (A) The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) The burden of the relay (Ω) RET 521: (Ω) RADSB: The reﬂected burden of the relay and the loop resistance of the wires from the interposing CTs (when used) to the relay RL k = = The resistance of a single secondary wire from the main CT to the relay (or. the rated equivalent limiting secondary e.1.f. Protective relays 9. Eal of the CTs must be greater than or equal to the maximum of the required secondary e.m. in case of RADSB. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 107 . In such cases.
1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . Ealreq according to the following: High remanence CT Low remanence CT where Ifmax Ipn Isn Ir RCT RL = = = = = = Maximum primary fundamental frequency current for busbar faults (A) The rated primary CT current (A) The rated secondary CT current (A) The protection terminal rated current (A) The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) The resistance of a single secondary wire from the CT to the relay (Ω) 108 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.9.6 Busbar protection RED 521 The CT can be of high remanence or low remanence type and they can be used together within one zone of protection.m. Each of them must have an Eal that is greater than or equal to the required secondary e. Protective relays 9.2.f.
Depending on the design of the relay and in the case of a maximum DC-component.f.2. The burden of the relay (Ω) Ipn Isn RCT RL = = = = Zr = If the fault current contains a DC-component there is a considerable risk that the CTs will saturate. The loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires must be used for faults in solidly earthed systems and the resistance of a single phase wire should be used for faults in high impedance earthed systems. Eal that is greater than or equal to the required secondary e. In most cases the CTs will have some remanence.m.m. 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Protective relays 9. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 109 .7 Overcurrent protection The CTs must have a rated equivalent secondary e.1. which can increase the saturation rate of the CTs.9. The primary time constant is very seldom more than 150 ms and in most cases within the interval 30 – 60 ms. a factor 2 has been used in Equation 13. Ealreq below: where Iop = For instantaneous and deﬁnite time functions: Iop is the primary operate value (A) For inverse time delayed functions: Iop is the maximum primary fault current or the highest value of the primary current that is of importance for the time selectivity (A) The rated primary CT current (A) The rated secondary CT current (A) The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) The resistance of the secondary cable and additional load (Ω).f. This safety factor gives a satisfactory operation in most cases but there is still a minor risk of a short delay. To consider a certain amount of DC-component. the delay can be around 1 to 3 times the primary time constant. In applications where this is not acceptable the factor has to be increased and calculated more carefully. If a CT has been saturated the secondary current will not recover until the DC-component in the primary fault current has subsided. This can cause a delay in the relay operation.
f.9. RADHA must be provided with separate cores. It is then possible to compare this to the required secondary e. Protective relays 9.3 Current transformer requirements for CTs according to other standards It is possible to use all kinds of conventional magnetic core CTs with the various relays. of the CT.f. 9.m.f. 9. if they fulﬁll the requirements that correspond to that speciﬁed above according to the IEC 60044-6 standard. All CTs to the same protection should have identical turn ratios.1 Current transformers according to IEC 60044-1 A CT according to IEC 60044-1 is speciﬁed by the secondary limiting e. E2max. The loop resistance containing the phase and neutral wires must be used for faults in solidly earthed systems and the resistance of a single phase wire should be used for faults in high impedance earthed systems. From the different standards and available data for relaying applications it is possible to approximately calculate a secondary e.m.f.f.8 High impedance differential protection RADHA The CTs connected to the RADHA must have a rated equivalent secondary e. Consequently auxiliary CTs cannot normally be used. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .3. Ealreq below: where Us Itmax Ipn Isn RCT RL = = = = = = Set operate value of the voltage relay (V) Maximum primary fundamental frequency fault current for through fault current for external faults (A) The rated primary CT current (A) The rated secondary CT current (A) The secondary resistance of the CT (Ω) The resistance of the secondary cable from the CT up to a common junction point (Ω).2. The CTs must have a secondary limiting e.m. Eal that is greater than or equal to the required secondary e. The value of the E2max is approximately equal to Eal according to IEC 60044-6.m. Ealreq and judge if the CT fulﬁlls the requirements. The requirements according to some other standards are speciﬁed below.m.f.1.m. E2max that fulﬁlls the following: 110 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
m. EalANSI for a CT speciﬁed according to ANSI/IEEE can be estimated as follows: where ZbANSI UANSI = = The impedance (i. for a C400 the UANSI is 400 V). It is not possible to give a general relation between the EkneeBS and the Eal but normally the EkneeBS is 80 to 85% of the Eal value.m.2 Current transformers according to British Standard (BS) A CT according to BS is often speciﬁed by the rated knee-point e. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 111 .g.f.1.m. The value of the EkneeBS is lower than Eal according to IEC 60044 6.m. Therefore. EalANSI for a CT speciﬁed according to ANSI/ IEEE can be estimated as: The CTs must have a knee-point voltage UkneeANSI that fulﬁlls the following: 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.3.f.f. EkneeBS that fulﬁlls the following: 9.f.m. EkneeBS. For example a CT of class C has a speciﬁed secondary terminal voltage UANSI. This is graphically deﬁned from the excitation curve. complex quantity) of the standard ANSI burden for the speciﬁc C class (Ω) The secondary terminal voltage for the speciﬁc C class (V) The CT requirements are fulﬁlled if: Often an ANSI/IEEE CT also has a speciﬁed knee-point voltage UkneeANSI. the rated equivalent limiting secondary e. There are few standard values for UANSI (e. The rated equivalent limiting secondary e.3. The knee-point according to ANSI/ IEEE normally has a lower value than the knee-point according to BS. EalBS for a CT speciﬁed according to BS can be estimated as: The CTs must have a rated knee-point e.e.3 Current transformers according to ANSI/IEEE A CT according to ANSI/IEEE is speciﬁed in a slightly different way. The rated equivalent limiting secondary e. Protective relays 9.9.f.
1. Protective relays 112 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.9. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .
Optical current and voltage transducers Section 10 Optical current and voltage transducers 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 113 .
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . As the DOVT is based on a conventional capacitor divider it can also be used for power line carrier communication applications. is being developed for metering and protection. The resulting transfer function is better than with conventional voltage transformers and the risk of ferroresonance is also eliminated.Digital Optical Voltage Transducer A capacitor voltage divider is used to measure the voltage. Both are potentially applicable to digital metering and protection when the new IEC 61859-9/1 is introduced. DOIT and MOCT-EOVT. Some trial installations are in service. After being converted into digital form by the electronic DOIT circuit. the value is transmitted as light to the optical OIB board (optical interface board) placed inside an industrial computer. A third system. Power to supply the DOIT circuit is transmitted as laser light from the OIB board to the sensor simultaneously.Digital Optical Current Transducer The DOCT consists of a sensor in the primary circuit connected by an optical ﬁber to the interface unit in the substation control room.1 The DOCT function 114 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. the values being transmitted to the OIB board using identical opto-electronics as in the DOCT. using the same optical ﬁber. Optical current and voltage transducers ABB currently has two commercial concepts. DOVT . the current value is measured with a magnetic current transformer with core.Technical description DOCT . Figure 10. FOCT.1 DOIT . the DOIT is only used in HVDC applications. Currently.1. 10.10. In the transducer.
1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. However. optical isolation. The optical ﬁbers are wound around the tube in a helix in order to withstand insulator motion due to mechanical forces or temperature variations. and. and between the insulator and the secondary box are protected by a ﬂexible conduit.2 metering) measurements in high. reduced weight. more civil work is needed. this conﬁguration requires a polymer high voltage link or polymer support insulator for the DOCT. OIB Board Output IEC 61859-9/1 Figure 10. ﬂexible installation and safety. These offer the advantages of wide accuracy range.and extra-high-voltage power systems.10. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 115 . Optical current and voltage transducers Combined DOCT/DOVT The combined DOCT/DOVT consists of a separate DOCT mounted directly on top of the DOVT. The principle of operation of these instrument transformers is based on interaction between a beam of polarized light and an electromagnetic ﬁeld. The DOCT and DOVT can be performed with the new IEC protocol IEC 61859-9/1.2 MOCT-EOVT — Technical description The Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT) and Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) described here are capable of performing high accuracy (class 0.2 DOCT/DOVT combined 10. The polymeric insulator of the DOVT contains three optical ﬁbers which are embedded in the insulator between the silicone sheds and the epoxy tube containing the capacitor voltage divider. in addition. The ﬁbers between the DOCT and the polymer insulator.
0 A output current which is proportional to the primary current ﬂowing through the conductor. the light is transmitted back through another optical ﬁber to the electronic module where it is converted into an electric signal by a photodiode (1). The light is polarized as it enters the sensor. It then travels around the conductor inserted through the opening on the rotator and exits through an analyzer.3 116 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. In the equation below I is the current ﬂowing through the conductor and µ is the permeability of the material.10. the angle of rotation (θ) is proportional to the magnetic ﬂux density (B).1. Light is emitted by an LED and transmitted through multimode optical ﬁber to the rotator installed at high voltage. � � � Figure 10. This effect explains the rotation of the plane of polarization of a linear beam of light in certain materials that become optically active under the presence of a magnetic ﬁeld. Figure 10. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . the length of the path (l) and a constant named Verdet constant (V). If the magnetic ﬁeld and light propagation directions coincide.3 shows the MOCT optical sensor system. which is a property of the material. Subsequently. Optical current and voltage transducers MOCT and the Faraday effect The MOCT is a current measuring device based on the magneto-optical Faraday effect. The analyzer is oriented 45× with respect to the polarizer. The signal processing module and precision ampliﬁer circuit provide an analog 1.
10. (phase shifted 90×). The phase retardation is due to the difference in the velocity of propagation of the light and is related to different refractive indices between these axes. These two signals provide sufﬁcient information to reconstruct the waveform and magnitude of the voltage across the sensor by means of a digital signal processor. The sensor depicted in Figure 10. which are transmitted back to the electronic module where they are converted into electric signals. After exiting the sensor. The light emitted by a source is transmitted through multimode optical ﬁber to the sensor. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 117 .1. This effect occurs in crystalline materials that exhibit induced birefringence under applied electric ﬁeld.4 includes a reﬂective prism on the high-voltage side of the crystal. Therefore. Linearly polarized light propagating the crystal parallel to the electric ﬁeld will experience phase retardation between its components in the slow and fast axis. The voltage is obtained by interpolating information extracted from segments of the signals and counting their optical fringes. This prism reﬂects the light back towards the grounded side. the light is split into two quadrature components. then it propagates through the crystal in the direction of the electric ﬁeld. The signal is then ampliﬁed to provide a 120 V output proportional to the applied voltage.4 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. longitudinal mode electro-optic Pockels effect referred to as the Quadrature Pockels cell. The beam of light is polarized as it enters the sensor. The EOVT sensor consists of a crystal placed between high voltage and ground. Figure 10. Optical current and voltage transducers EOVT and the Pockels effect The EOVT operates using a variation of the linear. all of the connections are on the ground side.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide . see equation below. The operation of an FOCT is. based on the Faraday effect with the modiﬁcation that the path length is multiplied by the number of turns (N) of the optical ﬁber coil around the conductor. light weight and use of standard optical components in the switch yard.820 nm) or second (1300 .3 FOCT . The DOIT platform is provided with both analog and digital output.1.10. This concept is presently in service in a number of pilot installations in Sydney. Figure 10. Further advantages with the FOCT are ﬂexible geometry. Figure 10. � � The ﬁber is single-mode and used either in the ﬁrst (780 .5 shows the principle for a Sagnac concept closed on high potential by passive 3x3 coupler. 118 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. Optical current and voltage transducers 10. FOCT. Australia.5 Principle layout of Sagnac current transducer with 3x3 coupler Figure 10.Technical description ABB is participating in a number of development projects worldwide on ﬁber optic current transducers. as with the MOCT.1550 nm) window. The increased number of turns increases the sensitivity and dynamic range so that the same sensor can be used for both protection and metering.6 shows how this version of the FOCT can interface with the DOIT platform. Operation is interferometers using the sensor either in a closed loop Sagnac or in a dual polarisation mode reﬂective conﬁguration.
10.1. Optical current and voltage transducers Figure 10. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 119 .6 Use of FOCT for protection and metering 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .Optical current and voltage transducers 120 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1.
Index Section 11 Index 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 121 .
19 Exciting current 12 Exciting impedance 9 Equivalent diagram 11 S Saturation factor 14 Security current 14 Simultaneously load 24 F Ferroresonance 66.1. 80 D DC-component 46. 17. 66 G General principles of measuring current and voltage 7 V Variations of errors with current 14 Voltage drop 68 Voltage factor 68 Voltage transformers operating principles 17 H High remanence 102 I Induced voltage 12 Instrument security factor (FS) 14 L Line trap 70. 17 122 1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2. 85 Low remanence 102 M Measuring errors 9. 109 Duty cycle 50 R Remanence 52 E Error 13. Index Index A Accuracy limit factor (ALF) 14 Ampere turns 16 Arcing distance 27 N Non-remanence 102 O Optical ﬁber 112 B Burden 9 C Calculation of errors 11 Core dimensions 16 Core area 16 Crystal 117 P Power line 70 Polarization 116 Protocol 115 Q Quartz ﬁlling 74. 114 T Transient response 65. 67. 2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide .11.
2005-09 ABB Outdoor Instrument Transformers Application Guide 123 .1HSE 9543 40-00en Edition 2.1.
NOTE! ABB Power Technologies AB is working continuously to improve the products.1. dimensions and data without prior notice. ABB Power Technologies High Voltage Products SE-771 80 LUDVIKA.abb.com Catalogue publication 1HSM 9543 40-00en.abb. Application Guide. We therefore reserve the right to change designs. Sweden Phone +46 240 78 20 00 Fax +46 240 78 36 50 E-mail: instr.transf@se. Outdoor Instrument Transformers.com Internet: http://www. 2005-09 . Edition 2.
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