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https://www.scribd.com/doc/136615059/PHYSICSWork
06/15/2013
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original
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Energetic people
Food that is “full of energy”
High cost of electric energy
Risks of nuclear energy
Reference point
y
Energy:
the amount of work a physical system
is capable of performing.
Energy can neither be created nor
consumed or destroyed
When anything happens in the
physical world, energy is somehow
involved.
A measure of the change a force produces.
Definition:
“The work done by a force acting on an object is
equal to the magnitude of the force multiplied
by the distance through which the force acts”.
Fd W =
Work is done…
…by a force when the object it acts
on moves
NO work is done by pushing
against a stationary wall
no distance
Work IS done by throwing a ball
because the ball moves while
being pushed.
Equation for work:
In words:
The direction of the force (F) is assumed to be the same
as the direction of the distance (d)
A force perpendicular to the direction of motion of an
object cannot do work on the object
Fd W =
( )


.

\

=
acts force the
hich through w distance
force applied done Work
Joule (J)
The SI unit of energy
Amount of work done by a force of one newton when it acts
through a distance of one meter:
Example:
Push a box 8 m across the floor with a force of 100 N
performs 800 J of work:
J m N m N Fd W 800 800 ) 8 )( 100 ( = · = = =
m) (N meter . newton 1 (J) joule 1 · =
When a force and the
distance through which it
acts are parallel, the work
done is equal to the product
of F and d
If the forces are NOT
parallel, work done is equal
to the product of d and the
projection of F in the
direction of d.
EXAMPLE
(a)
(b)
(c)
cos 0 = 1
The RATE of Doing Work…
Power is the amount of work done in a specified
period of time
The more powerful something is, the faster it can do
work
interval time
done work
= = =
t
W
P Power
Standard (SI) unit of power is the watt
Example:
500W motor can perform 500J of work in 1 s
… or 250J of work in 0.5 s
… or 5000J of work in 10 s
Watts are very small units
Kilowatts are used most commonly
(J/s) nd joule/seco 1 (W) watt 1 =
kW 1 W 1000 kilowatt 1 = =
Kinetic – Energy of Motion
Potential – Energy of Position
Chemical Energy
Food converted to energy in our bodies
Heat Energy
Heat from burning oil to make steam to drive turbines
Electric Energy
Electricity turns motors in homes and factories
Radiant Energy
Energy from the sun
Kinetic energy = the energy a body possesses
due to its motion
velocity, v
(ms
1
)
mass, m (kg)
Translational
Rotational
Kinetic energy
= ½ mv
2
Kinetic energy depends on the mass and speed of
a moving object
2
2
1
mv KE =
Note: v
2
factor means that KE
increases VERY rapidly with
increasing speed
When a hammer strikes a nail, the
hammer’s kinetic energy is converted into
work, which pushes the nail into the wood
Example:
Using a hammer with a 600g head moving at 4
m/s to drive a 5mm nail into a piece of wood,
what is the force exerted on the nail on
impact?
N
m
s m kg
d
mv
F
Fd mv
960
) 005 . 0 ( 2
) / 4 )( 6 . 0 (
2
nail on done work head hammer of KE
2 2
2
2
1
= = =
=
=
Potential energy = the energy
stored in a system
1) Elastic potential Energy:
k = spring constant = N/m
x = distance = m
W = PE = (½)kx² = J
Gravitational Potential energy =
the energy a body possesses because
of its position relative to the ground
Gravitational
Potential (PE) = mgh
Energy
h
mg
It takes work to lift a mass against the pull (force) of gravity
The force of gravity is m·g, where m is the mass, and g is the
gravitational acceleration
F = mg (note similarity to F = ma)
g = 9.81 m/s
2
on the surface of the earth
Lifting a height h against the gravitational force requires an
energy input (work) of:
AE = W = F ·h = mgh
Rolling a boulder up a hill and perching it on the
edge of a cliff gives it gravitational potential
energy that can be later released when the
roadrunner is down below.
When the boulder falls off the cliff, it picks up speed,
and therefore gains kinetic energy.
Where does this KE come from??
¬ from the gravitational potential energy
The higher the cliff, the more kinetic energy the
boulder will have when it reaches the ground.
mgh
becomes
½mv
2
Energy is conserved, so
mgh = ½mv
2
Can even figure out v, since v
2
= 2gh
Δh
Examples are almost everywhere
Book on the table
Skier on the top of a slope
Water at the top of a waterfall
Car at the top of a hill
A stretched spring
A nail near a magnet
Amount of
gravitational
potential energy
is a function of
the relative
HEIGHT or
DISTANCE of the
objects.
The Law of Conservation of Energy:
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although
it can be changed from one form to another.
This principle has the widest application to all science
Applies equally to distant stars and biological processes
in living cells.
Conservation of energy is significant because, if
the laws of nature…
…are the same at all times (past, present, and future), then
energy must be conserved.
Most mechanical processes involve conversions
between KE, PE, and work
A car rolling down a hill into a valley
PE at the top of the hill is converted into KE as the car rolls
down the hill
KE is converted to PE as the car rolls up the other side
Total amount of energy (KE+PE) remains constant
ΔKE + ΔPE = 0
KE = 0
(no motion of
the pendulum)
PE increases
as height
increases.
Exercise
m = ??? kg
5m
v = ?
A parcel slides down a smooth curved ramp. What is
the speed of the parcel when it reaches the bottom.
The rise of modern civilization
Impossible without vast resources of energy
Development of ways to convert energy forms
Most convenient fuels are limited
Oil, natural gas, and coal
Other sources of energy have various problems
Population increasing, as is demand for energy
High consumption as time
passes due to increasing
population
Limited Supply, Unlimited Demand
The sun – source of most of our energy
Food, wood, plants
Water power – The hydrological cycle
Wind power – Temperature changes
Fossil Fuels
Nuclear and hydrothermal power
Not related to the sun
Variation due to climate and latitude
$70/watt in 1960, $3/watt today
Economics still limit widespread application
Limited Supply
Most large deposits of oil and gas have been
found and used up
Remaining reserves = years??
No new deposits being formed
Takes millions of years to produce
petroleum naturally
Problems with coal
Mining needed to extract from earth
Air pollution – dangerous to health and
environment
All Fossil Fuels
Adds CO
2
to atmosphere – greenhouse effect
Kinetic energy of falling water
converted into electricity using
turbines
New hydro projects unlikely due to
environmental and landuse
constraints
Twosided arguments
Environmental concerns
Development concerns
Advantages
Nonpolluting
Don’t contribute to global
warming
Renewable resource
Disadvantages
Only work where winds are
powerful and reliable
Take up a lot of space
Noisy, some environmental
concerns
Geothermal Energy
Nuclear Energy
Tidal Energy
Fusion Energy
Technology may be many years into the future
Most alternate energy sources are very
expensive
Cost of fossil fuels is still the lowest and easiest
to distribute
A baseball (mass is 0.145 kg = 145 g) moving at
30 m/s (67 mph) has kinetic energy:
K.E. = ½×(0.145 kg)×(30 m/s)
2
= 65.25 kg·m
2
/s
2
~ 65 J
A quarter (mass = 0.00567 kg = 5.67 g) flipped
about four feet into the air has a speed on
reaching your hand of about 5 m/s. The kinetic
energy is:
K.E. = ½×(0.00567 kg)×(5 m/s)
2
= 0.07 kg·m
2
/s
2
= 0.07 J
1 m/s = 2.2369 mph
Calculate the KE for the following:
1) A 1500 kg car moves down the freeway at 67
mph.
2) A 2 kg fish jumps out of the water with a speed
of 2.2 mph
Give answers in kg.m²/s² @ J
1 mph = 0.44703 m/s
Example
Kinetic energy of a 1000kg car moving at 10 m/s is
50kJ
(50kJ of work must be done to start the car from a
stop, or to stop it when it is moving)
How much gravitational potential energy does
a 70 kg highdiver have on the 10 meter
platform?
How massive would a book have to be to have
a potential energy of 40 J sitting on a shelf
two meters off the floor?
Potential energy of a car pushed off a 45m cliff
Compare with amount of KE done by a car moving
at 30m/s
kJ m s m kg mgh PE 441 ) 45 )( / 8 . 9 )( 1000 (
2
= = =
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