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MENSTRUATION & PREGNANCY

MENSTRUATION: 4 Hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone, LH, FSH Hypothalamus Pituitary LH & FSH secreted FSH initiates follicle (egg) development (day 1-14) Developing follicle secretes Estrogen Triggers more LH & FSH to be released Triggers endometrium to begin to build up LH triggers ovulation (day 14) Ovulation occurs Ruptured corpus luteum (sac structure that enclosed the follicle until it was released) secretes Progesterone Counteracts the estrogen and so stops the trigger for LH & FSH Progesterone maintains the endometrium If no pregnancy develops, corpus luteum degenerates and stops making progesterone Menstruation occurs as endometrium shed

PREGNANCY: Fertilized egg implanted in the endometrium secretes hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) o hCG stimulates the corpus luteum (in the ovary) to continue to secrete Estrogen & Progesterone to maintain the uterine lining o Estrogen & progesterone stimulate further development of the uterine lining & of the mammary glands By 3 months, the placenta secretes estrogen & progesterone o Maintains lining o Inhibits LH & FSH o Progesterone inhibits contractions o Estrogen relaxes pelvic joints Placenta also secretes Relaxin o Relaxin also inhibits contractions and allows stretching of the ligaments of the pubic symphysis Anterior pituitary releases Prolactin o Stimulates milk production At time of labor, posterior pituitary releases Oxytocin and placenta releases more estrogen o Oxytocin causes contractions and stimulates milk release let down o Increased estrogen over rides progesterones effects of inhibiting contractions