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1. Dd 2. Dd 3. Dd 4. Dd 5.

Thnh phn mi hng trong qu da v sn phm t da Thnh phn hng ca cc loi nc p t da ti (n = 19; Costa Rica, Ghana, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Phi-lp-pin, La Re'union, Nam Phi, Thi Lan) c nghin cu so vi nc da thu hi hng (n = 16), nc da c c (n = 10) cng nh cc loi nc p thng mi (n = 17). Ngoi ra, mt da (n = 6, mu t ch) c nghin cu. Phn tch HRGC-MS trn loi nc p c lm t tri cy ti cho thy cc loi ester ph bin, metyl 2-methylbutanoate, methyl 3 - (methylthio)-propanoate, methyl butanoate, methyl hexanoate, ethyl hexanoate v etyl 3 - (methylthio)-propanoate, cng nh 2,5dimethyl 4-methoxy-3 (2H)-furanone (mesifurane) v 2,5-dimethyl 4-hydroxy-3 (2H) furanone (furaneol) trong thnh phn chnh. Cc cu t hng tng ng him khi c tm thy trong nc da thu hi hng khi nghin cu. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, cc methyl ester c trng v hydroxy hoc axetoxy ester hon ton khng c hoc ch xut hin vi lng nh trong cc sn phm ny. Trong khi , mt vi loi nc p c trong thng mi cho thy cc thnh phn lin quan n hng tri cy, nc tri cy c sn xut t dch c c cng cho thy thnh phn hng tng t nh trong nc qu c c, tc l chng c xc nh ch yu da vo thnh phn furaneol v khng cho thy c s lin quan n ester. Tng t nh vy, mt da c t cc thnh phn in hnh trong da. 6. Tin x l nhit mu c rt bng cch s dng cc k thut gia nhit khc nhau: nh hng n cht lng Trong qu trnh ch bin rau tri, cc qu trnh nhit khc nhau (chn, thanh trng, tit trng) c th c s dng da trn cc k thut gia nhit khc nhau. Do , vic nh gi nhng nh hng ca qu trnh chn n cc thng s c lin quan n cht lng l rt quan trng. Bi bo ny m t mt nghin cu trn mu c rt, nghin cu nh hng ca vic tin x l nhit (chn nhit cao, chn nhit thp v chn nhit thp kt hp ngm vi

Ca2+) n hot ng ca enzyme (peroxidase (POD), pectinmethylesterase (PME)), c im cu trc (mc methoxylation (DM), kt cu) v cc kha cnh dinh dng (hm lng -carotene). Tin x l nhit c thc hin bng cch truyn nhit thng thng cng nh lm nng bng l vi sng v truyn nhit ohmic, k t khi cc phng php truyn nhit mi ny c th tr thnh cng ngh mi quan trng trong ngnh cng ngh thc phm. Ngi ta ch ra rng, ty thuc vo ng dng m la chn cc iu kin tin x l ng n c th gip kim sot cc hot ng ca enzyme. c c mt cu trc c rt vng chc sau khi ch bin nhit, chn nhit thp c v l iu kin tin x l thch hp nht. iu ny c h tr bi cc hnh nh hin vi v cc phn tch mc methoxy ha. Hn na hu nh khng c nh hng ca vic tin x l n hm lng -carotene ca cc mu. i vi tt c cc thng s cht lng c nghin cu, k thut truyn nhit khng c nh hng r rng. Nh vy, cc iu kin thi gian/nhit ca vic tin x l nhit xc nh nhng kha cnh lin quan n cht lng, khng ph thuc vo k thut truyn nhit s dng. S lin quan n cng nghip: Kim sot tt cht lng rau tri l mt vic rt quan trng i vi s chp nhn ca ngi tiu dng. Cht lng thc phm bao gm mt lot cc thng s, gm hm lng enzyme, c im cu trc, tnh cht dinh dng, tnh cht cm quan. Nghin cu ny a ra mt ci nhn tng quan v nh hng ca qu trnh chn, mt bc tin x l ph bin trong ch bin thc phm, ln cc thng s cht lng lin quan n c rt. Cc d liu cung cp nhng thng tin tch hp trn cu trc cng nh v mc dinh dng v hm lng enzyme. Hn na, k thut truyn nhit (truyn nhit bng l vi sng, truyn nhit ohmic), ngy cng c ch trong ngnh cng ngh thc phm, ang c coi l la chn thay th cho phng php chn thng thng. 7. Bromelain t da v i lc ca n vi cc c cht protein khc nhau Nhit v pH ti u cho hot ng phn gii protein ca bromelain t da c xc nh bng cch s dng cc cht nn khc nhau: azocasein v azoalbumin (pH = 3-10 ti 20-700C), casein v caseinate natri (pH = 2-10 ti 20-700C), v hemoglobin (pH = 2-6,5 ti 30-600C). Bromelain t tri cy c hot tnh ti u ti pH = 7,5 cho azoalbumin v mc 6,5 cho azocasein, tt c ti 550C. Hot tnh ca bromelain t tri cy c xc nh

vi casein v caseinate natri cho thy hot tnh ti u 590C, trong khi pH ti u l 7,7 vi casein v 6,5 vi caseinate natri. iu kin ti u qu trnh thy phn ca bromelain t tri cy i vi hemoglobin cho thy mt nh cao r rt pH c tnh axit 2,9 370C. Kt qu thp nht ca Km v kt qu cao nht ca Vmax / Km thy khi dng azocasein v azoalbumin. Nhng c cht ny c c bit c ngh xc nh qu hot tnh ca bromelain.