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CHNG V: XNG SN XUT

5.1. Gii thiu b phn ISBL ISBL ng vai tr quan trng trong sn xut. ISBL l b phn ph trch tt c cc hot ng sn xut. Cng vic ca n nh sau: Kim sot tt c cc hot ng chnh ca nh my v cc thit b ph tr khc nh:

l hi, nc lm mt, chun b vt liu, vv. . . Kim sot tt c cc qu trnh c th chc chn rng cc hot ng sn xut trong

qu trnh lin tc v c hiu qu cao. 5.2. L thuyt trng hp PVC Nha PVC c to thnh t phn ng trng hp VCM:

PVC to thnh l hp cht no v phn ng trng hp c khuynh hng xy ra theo c ch trng hp gc. Mt trong s nhng tnh cht quan trng lin quan n qu trnh gia cng cng nh s dng sau ny l tnh bn nhit ca PVC. Bt nha thu c t qu trnh trng hp c gi l PVC nguyn thy. T 65oC tr ln nha PVC bt u chy mm v t 100oC, PVC bt u phn hy nhit. Qu trnh phn hy nhit xy ra vi s tch acid clohydric (HCl) t nha dn n s chuyn mu (t trng qua vng nht cho n mu en) v s thay i cc tnh cht ha, l v in. Cui cng PVC s b bin cht, ta gi nha b lo ha. Khng ch b lo ha do nhit m PVC cn b lo ha di tc dng ca nh sng (tia t ngoi ca nh sng mt tri). Chnh v vy, trong thc t PVC khng bao gi c s dng mt mnh m phi c phi hp vi cc ph gia khc nhau cho sn phm cui. Qua qu trnh c th thay i c chn lc cc c tnh ha l ca PVC nguyn thy, to ra nhng sn phm

ph hp yu cu s dng. Cc ph gia bao gm: cht chng lo ha, cht n nh nhit, cht n nh nh sng, cht n, cht mu, cht bi trn... Trong cng nghip ngi ta thng iu chnh trng lng phn t ca PVC bng cch thay i nhit trng hp, ch khng phi thay i nng cht khi mo. Ngoi ra, iu chnh trng lng phn t ngi ta cng c th thm vo cc hp cht c kh nng chuyn mch hoc c th dng phng php trng hp VCM trong nh tng p sut thp (ngha l thp hn p sut hi bo ha ca VCM trong iu kin nhit nht nh). Lm nh vy tc l gim nng Monome trong pha nc, lm gim trng lng phn t v vn tc phn ng. C ch trng hp PVC: Phn ng trng hp PVC xy ra theo c ch gc t do bao gm 3 giai on: a. Giai on khi mo To ra cc gc hot tnh, c th khi mo bng cch dng nhit hoc nh sng, hoc dng cht khi mo nh: tert-butyl peroxyneodecanoat, di-2-etylhexyl peroxydecarbonat, peroxit benzoic... hay hp cht azo, diazo. giai on u cht khi mo phn hy di tc ng ca nhit to ra cc gc t do:

Gi R* l cc gc t do trn. b. Giai on pht trin mch Cc gc t do to ra s tc dng vi VCM to ra cc gc mi, cc gc mi ny li tip tc tc dng vi VCM thc hin phn ng chuyn gc v do ko di mch trng hp ra.

RO- CHCl CH

-Q

+ CH = CHCl
2

RO- CHCl CH - CHCl CH


2 ........

RO- CHCl CH2 - CHCl CH2

+ CH2 = CHCl +

H2
.

(- CHCl CH2 -) - CHCl CH2


n-1

c. Giai on ngt mch S ngt mch ca phn ng gn lin vi bo ho in t khng cp i, nn qu trnh ngt mch l kt qu tng tc ca 2 gc t do. l s kt hp ca cc gc polymer vi nhau (s ti hp gc).
.

2-(- CHCl CH -) - CHCl CH


2 n-1

2 .

(- CHCl CH -)
2

2n

2-(- CHCl CH2 -)n-1 -CHCl CH2

(- CHCl CH2 -)n + (- CHCl CH2 -)n-1 -CHCl = CH2

5.3.

thit b ph tr

5.3.1. Boiler C s Ni hi bao gm mt bung t, ni nhit to ra bng cch oxy ha nhin liu v b mt nng cn thit hp th nhit thnh nc. Nc c gia nhit ha hi. Hi nc c tch ra khi nc qua khu vc tch hi nc. m bo hiu qu cao ca qu trnh t chy cng nh hiu qu hp th nhit c ti a th phi c s phi hp gia pha trn nhin liu v khng kh trong ghi v bung to ra hiu qu t chy cao nht c th. iu kin an ton

Cc kha cnh quan trng nht trong hot ng ca ni hi l s c mt ca nc trn b mt gia nhit, gip ngn chn s mt n nh ca cc b phn p lc. ng v gc nhn an ton th ta nn cn nhc nc bn trong l hi thc s l lm mt l hi ngn nga cc nguy him do ngn la qut qua khu vc ch khng phi l to ra hi nc. N s c sinh ra trong chnh bung t bao gm kh t v nhit trong khong 1100C. V vy n bt buc rng mc nc lun c gi trn mc bung t. iu ny t c bi mt b iu khin c thit k ng mc nc t ng. N cng cn thit m bo rng trong trng hp c s c xy ra th cn khc phc ngay lp tc. Duy tr cc tnh cht ca nc m bo rng cc b mt gia nhit t vt qua s n mn. Khng ng cht lng ca nc l khng th chp nhn c cho hot ng l hi. Cc ch tiu v cht lng thch hp cho nc cp v nc bioler c ch ra trong tiu chun nh IS 10392 etc ... Cu to ca b phn l hi Service Boiler Steam Condensate tank Fuel oil Tank Condensate filter Boiler feed water pump Fuel oil pump Forced draft fan Reqd No 2 1 1 2 2 2 2+2

Cc ph kin ng ng, bng iu khin kim sot, dng sn phm, cc thng s v in c s.

C s thit k ni hi c im k thut ca nhin liu: Du nhin liu Nng: LHV 10.200 Kcal / kg Loi ni hi: ni hi chy S lng ca ni hi: 2 p lc: +Hot ng: 7kg/cm2G +Thit k: 10 kg/cm2G Nhit hiu qu: 90%

5.3.2. My nn a. H thng kh ca nh my My nn kh thng cung cp kh nn cho nh my qua ng ng, thit b sy khng kh kh v h thng nit thng qua my nn vt. Khng kh c lc ht loi b cc ht rn b cun theo v sau cung cp cho my nn kh. Khng kh sau khi c nn khong 8.0 kg/cm2G c lm lnh sau khi lm mt v lm nguyn liu cho PA, my sy IA v b phn PSA. Kh nh my t thit b cha PA sau c phn phi vo cc b phn khc nhau ca nh my vi mng li ng ng. b. H thng kh thit b Mt phn ca khng kh nn t my nn kh c s dng nh kh thit b sau khi c sy kh trong my sy IA, l cc phn t qua li lc loi hp th. c. H thng Nit Mt phn ca kh nn c dng to Nit. Di chuyn n thit b cha 30 m3 p sut 7 kg/cm 2 thng qua b nng p

5.3.3. Kho lnh a. Cng sut & c im thit b Cht liu c lu tr: Peroxide cht xc tc. S chai: 1800 (600/unit x 3 n v). Nhit lu tr: -20 2 0C.

b. Cu tao h thng H thng lu tr Lnh bao gm: + Xy dng thch ng vi 3 n v bo qun lnh + B phn chng n lu tr lnh + ng ng v ng ng ph kin, in v cc phng tin cng c 5.3.4. H thng nc lm mt Cng sut v thng s k thut: Cng sut: 3600 m3 /h p lc cung cp: 4kg/cm2G p sut quay tr li: 2kg/cm2G Nhit cung cp: 32 0C Quay tr li nhit : 35.50C Nhit bu t: 300C gi cht lng ph hp lun cho lu thng nc lm mt, lm mt nc bng cc ha cht sau y: + c ch n mn + Chng scale + Cht kim sot Agent + iu khin PH + Cht chng ru mc.

5.4.

Dy chuyn cng ngh Ton b quy trnh sn xut l khp kn, lin tc t khu np liu n h thng x

l nc thi v c iu khin bi h thng iu khin PID. Nh my gm hai dy chuyn cng ngh Line 1 v Line 2 h tr hot ng lin tc. V c bn, hai dy chuyn ging nhau v quy trnh sn xut, ch khc nhau v cch b tr thit b v n phi liu cho mi loi sn phm. Trong , Line 1 tuy hot ng lu nm hn nhng vn duy tr c tnh n nh v an ton ca h thng nh cng ngh hin i v vn ang l dy chuyn sn xut chnh trong nh my. Sau y l cc bc trong dy chuyn sn xut ca Line 1. S dy chuyn cng ngh

VCM

PW Cht n nh huyn ph Cht khi mo

Phn ng trng hp Chng ct Slurry

Khuy trn 50 70oC , 5 8 atm

Tch nc

Thu hi VCM

NaOH (d) + Bis phenol A + Nc

Tch VCM trong PVC VCM

Hi nc

Ly Tm

Nc

Bnh PVC

Sy

PVC

Sng

Thnh Phm

5.4.1. Chun b nguyn liu L mt trong nhng bc quan trng quyt nh tnh cht v cht lng sn phm. Do , mi loi nguyn liu cn c chun b cn thn trong tng iu kin c th chun b cho qu trnh np liu. Tt c nguyn liu sau s dng cho phn ng trng hp s c chun b trong b phn ny.

a. Nc Nc dng trong nh my cung cp t Khu Cng nghip G Du, gi l nc IW. Nc cp t khu cng nghip c nhn vo b nc th, sau , nc t cc b cha c a qua thit b x l s b cha si v than nhm tch cc cn bn c kch thc nh hn, kh ha tan v cc tp cht hu c. Cui cng nc ny c a qua 2 ct nha trao i ion to ra nc kh khong (nc tinh). Nc tinh khit c a v bn cha cung cp cho qu trnh sn xut. Nc dng cho sn xut tng ng vi mi m s c bm t bn cha ny qua mt thit b trao i nhit nng nhit ca nc ln 400C. Mc ch ca qu trnh ny l nhm gim bt lng oxy v kh ha tan trong nc, ng thi cng gim thi gian gia nhit trong thit b phn ng v do s lm tng hiu sut s dng thit b phn ng, rt ngn chu k sn xut, nng cao hiu qu kinh t. Nc tinh khit cng c dng cung cp cho qu trnh chun b cc nguyn liu, ra cc u np liu v b sung trong qu trnh phn ng gi cho mc cht lng trong thit b phn ng khng i. Nc tinh khit c np vo thit b phn ng thng qua mt bm ly tm v c nh lng bi mt thit b o lng. b. Agent (AG-1, 2, 5, 19) Cc AG (1, 2, 5, ty vo loi sn phm s c thm AG-19) dng bt ln lt c cho vo bn ha tan FA1101 thng qua phu np liu PE1101. Ti y AG c phn phi xung sng rung JF1103 a n bn ha tan c cnh khuy v gia nhit. Ti bn ha tan AG s c ha tan trong nc to thnh dung dch c nng theo yu cu. Sau khi ha tan, dung dch c bm bnh rng vn chuyn vo cc bn cha tng ng FA1102A, FA1102B v FA1103B chun b cho qu trnh np liu. Ring AG-1, do cn bo qun nhit thp khong 20oC nn bn cha c lp thit b lm lnh bng RW.

Thnh phn PW (m3) Agent (Kg) Ch tiu nng (wt%)

Agent-1 13.3 1000 7.26

Agent-2 17.3 1000 5.54

Agent-5 24500 500 2.16

Trnh t thc hin: Agent-1 1. Np PW. 2. Khuy trn. 3. Np Agent (75 pht). Agent-2 1. Np PW. 2. Khuy trn. 3. Np Agent (75 pht). 5. Ly mu th. Agent-5 1. Np PW. 2. Khuy trn. 3. Gia nhit n 90oC (40 pht) 4. Np Agent (20 pht), duy tr nhit 90oC trong 60 pht. 5. Lm lnh n 30oC bng CW. 6. Ly mu th.

4. Gia nhit n 60oC (35 4. Khuy t nht 6 gi. pht), duy tr trong 10 pht. 5. Lm lnh 30oC bng CW 6. Khuy t nht 6 gi. 7. Ly mu th

c. Catalyst (Cat-19, Cat-29) Cc cht khi mo dng dung dch c cha trong kho bo qun. Nhit trong kho phi nh hn -150C v d b phn hy bi nhit. Lng cht khi mo cn thit cho mi m s c chun b sn v chuyn n t lnh. Sau n c a n bn cha cht khi mo FA1111 c h thng nc lm mt 9oC, ti y Cat c ha tan chun b cho qu trnh np liu. bm ti thit b phn ng, Cat c ha tan bi lng AG-2 xc nh v Cat khng tan trong nc.

Cn lu , cht khi mo c a ra khi t lnh khi v ch khi chc chn s dng v hot tnh ca cht khi mo s gim dn theo thi gian (tu nhit ). Cc nguyn liu khc nh agent hay AD c th lun c chun b d tr trong bn sau khi np liu nhng Cat th khng th v kh bo qun. Chnh v vy m n ch c chuyn vo h thng np liu ngay trc khi bt u m phn ng. Bn cha FA1111 c h thng lm lnh ngoi v o m bo nhit bo qun cho cht khi mo. d. Cht ngt mch phn ng (AD-3) Bt AD-3 c chuyn n bn ha tan c cnh khuy FA1104A, ti y AD-3 c ha tan vi nc v NaOH. Mc ch cho NaOH vo y l ha tan AD-3 v to ra mi trng kim, v khi np vo ni phn ng s trung ha bt lng HCl v CO2 sinh ra trong qu trnh phn ng v c tc dng dp tt phn ng trng hp. AD-3 c np liu bng bm mng. e. Cht n nh nhit (AD-5) AD-5 c dng dng nh tng, l cht n nh nhit v chng to bt. T kho cha, AD-5 s c np vo bn cha FA1104B v t y n tip tc c np vo bn phn ng FA1304 hay np vo bn thu hi FA1503 vi khi lng tng ng tng m nh hai bm vn chuyn dng mng. f. VCM (Vinyl Chloride Monomer) VCM t bn cha nguyn liu c a vo bn cha trung gian FA1305 cng vi lng VCM thu hi trong cc m sn xut trc. Trc khi vo bn cha trung gian th c VCM thu hi v VCM t bn cha nguyn liu u phi i qua ct tch nc v cht c ch (Hydroquinol) bng NaOH (VCM thu hi) hoc KOH (VCM t OSBL) rn. Ngoi ra n cn phi i qua b phn lc cc tp cht c hc. Sau , VCM c chuyn vo bn cn bng FA1301 chun b cho np liu bng bm ly tm thng qua cc thit b o lng. c im ca VCM khi nhp cng

g. -

Trng thi

: kh ha lng. : 3 ( 250C).

p sut (kg/cm2)

Nhit (0C) : Mi trng (ti a 40oC). Vinyl chloride : 99.96 % wt.

Hp cht Acetylenic : 10 ppm ti a. HCl ti a 1ppm. Fe ti a 1ppm. Hp cht Clo ti a 100 ppm. Butadien ti a 10 ppm. H2O ti a 100ppm. INH-3 Gi p sut 23 kg/cm2 bng kh Nit.

h. INH-1 INH-1: 20(kg). CH-12 (Methanol): 200(l) tng ng 180(kg). Thit b phn ng sau khi tho liu xong c ra chun b np liu m mi.

5.4.2. Np liu Bn cha P-FA1307 v h thng ng ng dn slurry bng nc nng p sut cao ly t nc thi ly tm xung, ton b nc ra c cho vo Recovery Tank. Lc ny bm GB1402 s bm ht ht kh trong bn phn ng gim p sut t 3KG n 0.2KG chun b np liu. Trng ph RCS Mc ch: chng s bm dnh vo thnh thit b phn ng ca hn hp phn ng, Thi gian ca giai on trng ph RCS l khong 12 pht. hn ch s gel ha to ra cc khi ln nha lm nh hng n cht lng sn phm. -

Trc khi ph RCS ngi ta tin hnh gia nhit thnh thit b phn ng ln khong 65oC bng hi nc nng cp t Jacket Heater nhm mc ch tng hiu qu bm dnh ln b mt thnh thit b. Dung dch RCS 7Kg/m c vn chuyn bng bm GA1327 n thit b phn ng phun vo di dng sng m s bm u ln thnh thit b, sau khi lm kh n to thnh mt lp mng mng c kh nng chng bm dnh. Sau khi trng ph, ch khong 30 giy cho mng RCS kh, ta tin hnh ra thit b phn ng mt ln na bng nc DPW t nc thi ly tm. Nc thi ra c x qua bn P-FA1803 thu hi VCM trong nc thi. Np liu Ty vo mi loi sn phm PVC khc nhau th n phi liu c lp khc nhau. Lng nguyn liu s dng s c chun b theo k hoch sn xut tng ng vi tng m v c np vo bn phn ng chnh xc qua cc thit b o lu lng di s kim sot ca h thng my t nh iu khin. u tin, nc PW c np vo bn phn ng thng qua van lu lng. Ngoi lng nc cn thit cho phn ng, ngi ta cn np thm 5% lng nc ra cc u np liu sau khi np cc Agent. Thi gian np nc l khong 12-15 pht. ng thi AD5 c np cng vi nc. Sau tin hnh np VCM v Cat. i vi sn phm SG 660: Nc PW: 46 tn + 2 tn ra u np liu. Nc s c np u tin, khi np Khi np c 10 tn nc, bt u khi ng cnh khuy bn phn ng. Khi np c 30 tn nc bt u np AG-1 khong 296.4 l nh bm mng AG-2 c np 2 phn, 1 phn np thng vo bn phn ng nh bm mng c 5 tn nc, bt u np AD-5 (2l). -

GA1101A. GA1101B, 1 phn dng ha tan Cat np vo thit b.

Sau , VCM v Cat c np cng ln, nhng hai ng ng khc nhau. VCM

khong 52 tn 32-34oC c np nh bm ly tm GA1104. Trn ng ng bm VCM c lp nhiu valve d c lp gii quyt khi c s c v ng ng di. Thi gian np VCM khong 18 pht. Cat c np khong 34KG. Np cho n khi ct Cat khong 0.8m l bo tn hiu bt u qu trnh gia nhit, v bt u bm nc ra Cat v 2 tn nc ra cc ng np liu. Trong khi , nc vn c bm cho 46 tn. 5.4.3. Gia nhit v phn ng Polymer ha y l giai on chnh trong dy chuyn sn xut. Di tc dng khi mo ca Cat cng vi nhit v p sut thch hp v n nh, phn ng Polymer ha xy ra v ta nhit. Phn ng c n nh nhit v chng to bt bi AD-5, n nh huyn ph bi cc AG-1,2. Nhit ti u ca phn ng c gi tng i n nh bi h thng PID iu khin m ca van ng ng nc tun hon v o. Theo , p sut cng c n nh. Ngoi ra, lng nc b cng gp phn n nh phn ng nh n nh th tch. Nhit ti u c Setpoint ty vo tng loi sn phm. Khi np liu xong thit b phn ng FA1301 s c gia nhit bng LS chy tun hon trong v o. Cat bt u c phn r, phn ng bt u xy ra, nc lm mt cnh khuy cng c bm t t. y l phn ng ta nhit nn trc khi phn ng t nhit ti u (SG660 khong 57.5-58oC), mt s phn t Cat c hot tnh mnh bt u khi mo phn ng Polymer ha, nn qu trnh gia nhit dng khi nhit t ti 5252.5oC, khi nhit qun t nh tng n nhit ti u do nhit ta ra t phn ng. Khi nhit t khong 56oC th nc CW c cho chy tun hon v o lm mt duy tr nhit ti u ca phn ng. Lc ny, phn ng xy ra mnh lit, p sut trong bn phn ng tng (SG660-8.57 KG) phn ln l do VCM bc hi v kh tr sinh ra trong qu trnh phn ng, sau gim n 8.24 KG v n nh. B m thi gian phn ng cng bt u chy, nc lm lnh cng bm vo h thng ngng t nh. Thit b ngng t nh bn phn ng Polymerizer condenser dng nc CW. y l thit b trao i nhit dng ng chm c din t ch trao i nhit ln nn 70% nhit ca

phn ng c ly ra y khi ngng t hi VCM bc hi. Hi VCM bay ln i trong ng, nc lm lnh i bn ngoi ng, khi , VCM c ngng t thnh lng quay v bn phn ng m bo t l cc cht tham gia phn ng, do cht lng PVC cng m bo v gim tht thot nguyn liu ra ngoi mi trng. 30% lng nhit cn li s c ly ra bi nc lm mt tun hon v o, ph thuc vo tc v nhit ca phn ng m m valve OP (%) nc lm mt ny c iu chnh ph hp. Trong qu trnh phn ng, kh tr sinh ra v khng c kh nng ngng t, l nguyn nhn lm p sut trong bn phn ng tng nhanh v c th gy n. Khi kh tr bay ln s chim ch trong khng gian thit b Polymerizer condenser, lng kh tr tng dn s khng c ch cho hi VCM bay ln, VCM ha lng thnh hi cha kp phn ng s lm tng p sut, nh hng n trng hp do nhit v p tng. Do lng kh tr sinh ra c sau 15 pht 1 ln c x nh k qua thit b x l kh, mi ln x trong 12 giy. Trn nh bn phn ng cng lp thit b van an ton x khn cp nu p tng cao qu gy nguy c n th n s m. Trong sut giai on polymer ha, ng thi vi qu trnh hnh thnh PVC l qu trnh gim th tch ca hn hp phn ng do khi lng ring ca PVC ln hn khi lng ring ca VCM. trnh nh hng n qu trnh khuy trn khi phn ng ta phi tin hnh ng thi vic cp b lng nc PW vo bng vi gim th tch. Ch nh lng nc ny cng ly i mt phn nhit nhng khng ng k. chng hin tng phu do cnh khuy sinh ra, ngi ta thit k hai thanh cn hai bn thnh bn phn ng. Thi gian phn ng Thi gian phn ng c tnh ton da vo nhit ti u phn ng v chuyn ha VCM thng qua thc nghim. Tng thi gian phn ng bao gm thi gian phn ng ti u (Trec) v thi gian phn ng trong giai on gim p Defress (Tdefress). Thi gian ti u l thi gian cn thit hiu sut chuyn ha l 75%. T= Trec+Tdefress

Theo thc nghim, i vi SG660, T=290 pht, khi hiu sut phn ng t 85%. Ngi ta s setpoint thi gian ti a v ti thiu cho Trec v Tdefress bng cch ly thi gian thc nghim ca tng loi + hoc 60 pht.

i vi SG660: 155< Trec <275 15 < Tdefress <135 Giai on gim p Defress c nh du bi p sut trong bn phn ng gim

0.5KG. B m thi gian Defress c iu khin cht ch, b m ny s bt u chy khi tha mn 1 trong 2 iu kin: p sut bn phn ng gim 0.5KG v Trec ln hn hoc bng thi gian phn ng ti thiu (155 pht). Trec ln hn hoc bng thi gian phn ng ti a (275 pht). Thng thng, iu kin u tin t trc. ng thi qu trnh gim p, m valve nc lm mt tun hon v o s gim, lng nc b cng gim trnh trng hp p sut v nhit gim nhanh. Khi p sut gim n 6KG, th p sut gim tip khng ng k, hiu sut phn ng tng khng c bao nhiu, nu tip tc cho gim th tng thi gian phn ng, khng c li v mt kinh t. Do , n 6KG, AD-3 c np vo ngt mch phn ng. 5.4.4. Giai on tho liu c th chuyn hn hp t bn ny qua bn khc, ngi ta cn m cc ng cn bng LEQ, EQ, HEQ. Qu trnh np AD-3 vo bn phn ng c tin hnh ng thi vi qu trnh tho liu dp tt mt phn cc gc t do trc khi tho liu, sau qu trnh ngt mch phn ng trit bn thu hi P-FA1304. Lc ny, h thng nc lm mt v nc b tt, ch cn nc b lm mt cnh khuy.

giai on u, p sut trong bn thu hi l -0.65KG (i vi SG660), ngi ta li dng s chnh lch p sut gia hai bn x liu trc tip t bn phn ng sang Recovery Tank. Trong qu trnh chuyn hn hp, p sut trong bn phn ng gim dn, trong bn thu hi tng do hn hp chim ch. Khi p sut trong bn thu hi ln khong 0.5KG th my nn P-GB1402 m, ht hi VCM v P-FA1303 (Foam Trap). Trong qu trnh ht hi VCM s c ln bt PVC nn thit b Foam Trap c gn thm bm nc tun hon phun vo trong bn cha dp bt PVC xung, trnh i theo hi VCM lm nghn hoc h my nn. Mc ch ca vic dng bm ht P-GB1402 l gim p trong bn thu hi, to c chnh lch p gia hai bn trong thi gian di hn, do lng slurry x trc tip nhiu hn, tit kim c nng lng khi phi dng bm. Ngoi ra, bm ny cng ht hi VCM cha phn ng ln trong PVC a i x l thu hi. Khi chnh lch p gia hai bn khng cn ln t chuyn hn hp nhanh hn, tit kim thi gian ngi ta dng bm P-GA1301 chuyn liu qua. Ngi ta da vo lu lng, nhit , chnh lch p hay mc lu cht bm x liu. Thng thng, ngi ta da vo mc lu cht, khi mc liu trong bn thu hi t khong 4.4m th bt u chuyn qua bm. Trc khi bm liu th ngi ta dng nc cao p ra s b 3 ln VCM lng bm trong ng thit b ngng t v thnh bn phn ng. Nc ra ny s c a n bn FA1803 x l thu hi VCM trong nc thi. Khi , ng cn bng HEQ gia bn phn ng FA1301 v bn FA1307 c thng, hn hp phn ng c a n bn cha FA1307 n nh hn hp v nh lng cho bm, nu khng c bn trung gian ny, lng hn hp x lc t lc nhiu s nh hng n ch lm vic ca bm v xm thc bm. Khi liu c chuyn qua ht bn thu hi, nc t ly tm s c bm vo ra, sau , bm P-GB1402 tm thi dng ht bn thu hi chuyn qua ht bn phn ng n p sut 0.2KG chun b cho m mi, lc ny p sut bn thu hi khong 2.6 KG. Sau khi ht xong bn bn phn ng, bm ny chuyn qua ht tip bn thu hi. Khi p sut gim n 1KG th ph bm P-GB1401 ht p sut xung -0.65KG.

Trong qu trnh x liu vo bn thu hi s to ra nhiu bt kh trong bn. Khi ht hi VCM, bt PVC ln trong bt kh rt d b ht i theo gy h my nn. Do ng thi vi qu trnh x liu phi thc hin qu trnh bm AD-5 vo dp bt, thng dng nhiu vi sn phm SG580. 5.4.5. Giai on x l huyn ph Ti bn thu hi P-FA1304, ng thi vi qu trnh x liu, hn hp huyn ph c khuy trn, ht hi VCM, sc hi nc nng p sut thp (LS). Vic sc LS hay khng l ty thuc vo nhit ca Slurry ng vi tng loi sn phm trong bn thu hi. Sn phm SP660, nu nhit di 75oC th ta sc LS, trn 75oC th ct LS. Sn phm SG660, nu nhit di 52oC th ta sc LS, trn 52oC th ct LS. Mc ch ca vic sc LS nhm li ko hi VCM cn ln trong PVC h tr cho vic ht VCM. Cn vic khuy trn ch h tr thm VCM thot ra d dng hn ng thi hn ch vic pht sinh nhit cc b gy nh hng n cht lng PVC v to h huyn ph ng nht (chng sa lng). Khi p sut trong bn thu hi c ht chn khng n p sut cn thit (vi SG660 l -0.65, i vi SP660 th khong ht n -0.56KG v phi ch thm khong 30 pht) th hn hp huyn ph bt u bm qua Slurry Surge Tank (P-FA1501A). Trc khi bm, ngi ta m vavle 1307 thng ng cn bng LEQ to bi bm chn khng PGB1801, v m ng cn bng LEQ thng gia bn FA1304 v FA1501A. FA1501A l bn cha trung gian phn phi lin tc Slurry cho ct tch Stripping column DA1501. Bn FA1501A c thit k ba cnh khuy, hai cnh b tr hai bn thnh i din nhau cch y khong 4.5m v mt cnh khuy b tr lch y nhm trnh hin tng phu khi khuy trn. Cnh khuy y lun chy cn hai cnh thnh khi mc Slurry trong bn khong 4.5m th bt u khuy trn. Trong qu trnh khuy trn mt phn kh VCM tch ra c bm chn khng P-GB1801 ht v bn P-FA1803 thu hi VCM trong nc thi. Sau khi bm ht Slurry qua bn FA1501A, ta tin hnh ra Recovery Tank v h thng ng ng bng nc thi t ly tm. Trong qu trnh ra, bm chn khng

GB1801 s ht hi VCM cn st li qua bn FA1803 thu hi VCM trong nc thi. Khi bm xong s ng li c lp bn thu hi. T bn cha FA1501A, Slurry c bm lin tc qua ct tch DA1501. p sut ca bn c gi n nh -0.65KG nh ng cn bng LEQ to bi GB1801 thng qua valve 1503, do vavle ny lun m. Lu lng Slurry qua ct tch c khng ch u n qua m valve OP da trn sai lch gia hai gi tr o mc cht lng trong ct l SP-4m v PV. Vai tr ca ct tch DA1501 l tch trit VCM cn ln trong cu trc PVC. Ct ny c cu to gm nhiu a, trn cc a c cha cc hoa nha nhm to ng i ziczac, do lm tng b mt tip xc gia pha lng khi cho i t trn xung vi pha hi t LS sc t di ln, lm tng hiu qu tch. Hi nc s li cun lng VCM cn st li trong bt PVC. Kh VCM bay ln nh c gn thit b PEA1503 m bo kh lng i lu v lm mt, n nh v gim nhit VCM bc hi khi vo my nn GB1801, m bo an ton cho bm, chng xm thc bm. Bm chn khng GB1801 ht v bn P-FA1803 x l VCM trong nc thi. Slurry thu y ct c cho qua thit b trao i nhit P-EA1501 nng nhit cho dng slurry t bn FA1501A t 52oC ln khong 70oC, do tit kim c lu lng LS sc vo y ct. Trong qu trnh tch VCM, khi mc Slurry trong ct gim xung, mt lng bt PVC bm dnh vo thnh ct rt d chy do nhit thnh ct khong 104oC. trnh hin tng ny ngi ta ci t sau 30 pht th m ca valve x LS c tng ln tng lu lng LS phun mnh vo t trn xung cun tri cc bt PVC bm dnh ny. Slurry ra khi ct tch, hu nh khng cn ln VCM s c bm sang bn cha FA1501B. Ti y Slurry cng c tip tc khuy trn nh 3 cnh khuy nh ca bn FA1501A. Kh VCM cn st bay ra trong qu trnh khuy trn c y ra ngoi tri nh h thng qut gi thi di y bn ln.

5.4.6. Giai on ly tm tch nc c hc

Slurry c hm lng bt khong 30% t bn cha FA1501B c bm ln hai thit b ly tm tch nc c hc. Slurry s c cho vo trong mt trc quay hnh tr c c cc l nh. Motor dn ng lm quay trc vi tc rt ln, PVC c khi lng ring ln hn nc nn vng ra lp ngoi v c trc vt vn chuyn n l x bt xung thit b sy. Nc c khi lng ring nh hn tch ra lp trong v c chy trn ra ngoi xung bn cha nc ra FA1306. Ti y mt phn nc c bm i ra thit b phn ng v bn thu hi, phn cn li a vo h thng x l nc thi. Trong qu trnh tch nc, dng PW c phun vo lm long hn hp huyn ph chng tc nghn. Sau khi tch nc bt PVC c m khong 22%. My ly tm GF1501A c cng sut ln hn khong 8 tn bt PVC/h, my ly tm GF1501B c cng sut khong 5 tn/h. S dng hai my li tm iu phi bt vo trc vt vn chuyn vo my sy. Hai my c nng sut khc nhau nng cao nng sut. 5.4.7. Giai on sy Bt PVC thi ra t hai thit b ly tm c h thng gm hai vt ti y qua thit b phn phi bt P-JF1503 phn phi bt ng u cho my sy. Bung sy c chia lm hai vng chnh: BM v PF. Vng BM: c 10 tm heating panel, bn trong c dng hi nc nng gia nhit lm bay hi nc trong bt. Nhit ca dng hi nc khong 9598oC, c iu khin bi gi tr ra ca AC1501 thng qua vic so snh gi tr m SP l 0.9% v gi tr PV o c nh thit b gn cui vng BM. Khi m cao th m ca valve hi nc c m rng ra, tng lu lng hi nc vo, do tng nhit bt. Bn di v pha trn hng vng BM c h thng kh nng thi vo, nhit khong 96oC. Dng bn hng va c tc dng lm nng chng hi nc ngng t trn my sy v thi bt sang vng PF. Hi nc v kh sc vo c my nn GB1503, gi p sut n nh p sut -90mmH2O. Trong qu trnh ht c ln bt PVC theo s c Cyclone FC1501 gi li tr v vng BM, tip tc sy cho n khi t m yu cu. Nhng phn khng ri xung c my nn ht v bn FA1502 c gn bm nc tun hon phun nc vo dp nhng ht PVC cn st li. Kh sch c thi ra ngoi tri.

Ti Cylone, ngi ta thit k hai ng ng tr bt PVC v vng sy. Mt ng l tr bt v vng BM sy li, mt ng x thng v vng m ti bt vo trc vt, ng ny s dng khi khng cn bt sy trong vng BM. Vng PF: khi bt t vng BM chuyn sang c m khong 1% s tip tc c a sang vng ny sy bng khng kh nng n khi m t 0,2%. Nhit ca dng kh nng khong 100107oC c iu khin bi gi tr ra ca AC1502 thng qua vic o s chnh lch m gia gi tr SP l 0.14% v gi tr PV o c nh vo thit b o m gn cui vng PF. Khi m cao th m ca TC1514 s m rng ra, lu lng LS cho vo lm nng kh tng ln, lm tng nhit ca dng kh nng. Do lm m gim. Trong trng hp bt sy qu kh th dng LS xt vo m bo m tiu chun l 0.3%, nu khng, khi qu kh, hin tng tnh in s xy ra v lm cho cc bt dnh vo nhau, gy hin tng trn sng. Ngoi ra trong h thng sy, ngi ta c thit k cc vch x nh k bt t di y thit b. 5.4.8. Giai on thu hi VCM Phn ln hi VCM cha phn ng bn phn ng v bn thu hi c hai my nn GB1401 v GB1402 ht v bn FA1403 tin hnh thu hi VCM. H thng hai my nn ny c thit k ch yu ht hi VCM v to p thp h tr cho cc thit b bn phn ng v bn thu hi. Khi cn ht n p thp trn 1KG, ch cn my nn GB1402 s hot ng, ngc li th c hai my nn s cng hot ng. hai my nn hot ng n nh, lun c lng nc c bm tun hon lm kn my nn. Bn cnh , hi ra khi my nn lun c a qua bn cha n nh dng v gim nhit ca nc. Ring vi my nn GB1402, hi LS s sc trc tip vo bn cha ny, ng thi cng lp h thng ng ng dn nc lm mt hot ng c lp. Khi nhit ln hn 45oC, valve ng nc lm mt s m h nhit ca nc. Trn nh bn c hai thit b ngng t, thit b ngng t dng nc CW v dng RW tch trit cc kh tr khng ngng t x ra ngoi v hi VCM c ln hi nc bay ln c ngng t thnh lng ri xung. Do VCM khng tan trong nc nn phn thnh hai lp, VCM c khi lng ring nh hn nn to thnh lp trn cn nc lp

di. VCM lng c bm vo 3 thit b P-DA1401A,B,C bn trong c cha cc NaOH rn hp th nc ra khi VCM. Lp nc ph a di c x nh k sau 120 pht v bn FA1804 x l thi hi VCM trong nc thi. Hi VCM cha ngng t, tip tc bay ln thit b EA1404 ngng t hon ton. Cc kh tr khng ngng t, c thi ra v a v bn cha FA1409. VCM tip tc cho qua thp chng DA1403 tch trit hi VCM c ln nc. Hi VCM bay ln nh thp c a v thit b ngng t EA1409 thnh lng c cho xung bn cha FA1406 v c bm mt phn cho hi lu, phn cn li c cho v bn cha FA1105 chun b cho m mi. Kh khng ngng cn ln VCM cha ngng t c cho qua EA1407 tip tc ngng t VCM, kh no khng ngng c cho xung bn FA1409.

S thu hi VCM t

FA 1403

D A 1403 FA 1406

FA DA1401A FA 1405 1105

FA 1408

FA 1804

Ti h thng ny, ngi ta cng thit k mt bn d phng FA1408 cha VCM t bn FA1403 khi nh my i tu hoc khi c s c bt ng phi shutdown nh my. Thu hi VCM trong nc thi Nc thi cha rt t VCM t cc thit b s c a n b phn 800-section x l thu hi VCM trong nc thi. H thng ny c cc b phn chnh gm hai bn cha FA1803 v FA1804, ct tch DA1801, hai my nn. Hai bn cha s c chc nng cha v tch s b hi VCM v nc nh hin tng lng t nhin, nc s lng xung di, kh nm bn trn. Bn FA1803 ln hn FA1804 rt nhiu, s cha nc thi t GB1801 v thit b foam trap, nc ra cc thit b bn phn ng v ng ng. Bn FA1804 s cha nc t ct tch nc trong VCM khu chun b nguyn liu, nc x nh k t bn FA1403 v nc residue. Hi VCM trong trong cc ng cn bng bn thu hi, thp x l huyn ph cng c my nn vo a qua bn FA1804.

Bn FA1803 lun gi p sut thp 0.2KG nc t cc ng ng khc nhau c th v. Theo chu k, 120 pht mt ln, nc phn di ca bn FA1403, nc t ct tch DA1403, residue s bm qua bn FA1804, khi t c cc iu kin v p sut v mc cht lng, kh v nc ln lt c x t FA1803 sang FA1804. Khi t n cao 0.2m, valve ng ng kh s m, kh c x qua bn FA1803, khi p sut p sut bn FA1804 t 0.65KG th ng valve dng x kh m valve ng ng x nc qua. Khi mc nc trong FA1804 ch cn 0.1m, th valve ng, ch n chu k tip theo. Chu trnh x nc v kh ti bn FA1803 tng t nh FA1804, khi t c mc 0.4m, valve x kh s m, my nn GB1802 s a hi VCM n FA1703 c sc LS ly trit nc trong VCM v tun hon nc lm kn my nn. Ti y VCM s c a tr v li bn FA1403, nc lm kn nu d s i bm tr li FA1804. Khi x xong kh ti FA1803, nc tip tc c x qua ct tch DA1801. Ti y, VCM trong nc thi s c thu hi trit . Nc s i t trn xung, hi LS (>100oC) c sc t di ln li ko VCM bc hi quay v li FA1803, nc thi nhit cao s c i qua thit b trao i nhit dng xon c tit kim gia nhit cho nc thi cha x l vo ct tch. Sau , nc thi s c a n b phn x l nc thi. Sng Bt PVC sau khi sy t m 0.2% s c tho qua sng, nhm loi b cc ht c k ch thc ht ln hn 160m. Cc ht c k ch thc t yu cu s c van qu kh phn phi vo ng ng chuyn bt i ng gi. Bt PVC thnh phm c chuyn qua b phn ng gi nh h thng kh thi. Khng kh ngoi tri s c qut, ht qua thit b lc bi, sau y qua thit b trao i nhit nhm h nhit khng kh xung khong 30oC (do sau khi qua my thi nhit khng kh tng ln ng k nhm mc ch ngng t hi nc trong khng kh, gip cho vic tch nc ti thit b lc nc c d dng hn). Bt PVC s c dng kh chuyn n silo cha, b phn ng gi v chuyn vo kho bo qun. 5.5. X l nc thi

5.5.1. Mc ch

Nm c cc ch tiu v nc thi: COD, BOD, pH, nhit ,... Hiu c bn v quy trnh x l nc thi nh my. Hiu c cc thit b chnh trong quy trnh x l nc thi. 5.5.2. QCVN 24: 2009 Gi tr gii hn cc thng s v nng cc cht nhim trong nc thi cng nghip TT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Thng s Nhit pH Mi mu (Co-Pt pH= 7) BOD5 ( 200C) COD Cht rn l lng n v A
0

Gi tr C B 40 5.5-9

C -

40 6-9

Khng kh chu Khng kh chu 20 30 50 50 70 50 100 100

mg/l mg/l mg/l

5.5.3. Nc thi trong nh my Cc ngun nc thi: Sinh hot: 120m3/day My ly tm: 865m3/day 800 section: 320m3/day Lu lng tng: 1305 m3/day pH: 3-13

BOD: 7ppm COD: 32 ppm SS: 41 ppm

5.5.4. Cc ch tiu nc thi * COD: Chemical oxygen demand L lng oxi cn thit cho qu trnh oxi ha ton b cc cht hu c c trong mu nc iu kin xc nh. Phng php o: chun bng dung dch KMnO4 Cng thc:

n v: COD(ppm), V(ml): th tch mu, f: nng KMnO4 a: th t ch KMnO4 ban u(ml), b: th tch KMnO4 sau chun (ml) * BOD: Biochemical oxygen demand L lng oxi cn thit oxi ha cc cht hu c c trong nc bng vi sinh vt iu kin xc nh. Ch thch: BOD5 l gi tr BOD o trong 5 ngy, l gi tr chun nh gi. BOD * MLSS: Mixed liquor suspended solids L nng cht rn l lng trong nc thi khi lm kh hon ton nc. n v mg/l Phng php o: - dng giy lc tch cht rn l lng - sy kh cht rn l lng nhit khong 1050C Ch thch: MLSS l gi tr ca SS sau khi c tch nc hon ton. ngha: th hin lng thc n cn cung cp cho vi sinh vt.

* SV: Sludge volume L th tch bn lng t theo thi gian. n v: % th tch ngha: nh gi lng vi sinh vt c trong nc thi. * SV30: l th tich bn lng t trong 30 pht y l gi tr chun nh gi lng bn lng t. Phng php o: ly mu nc thi cho vo ng ong 1000ml, 30 pht cho bn lng t, c gi tr ngay im tch pha, l gi tr cn o. * DO: Disolve oxygen L lng oxy ha tan trong nc thi. ngha: Cho bit lng oxy cung cp cho vi sinh vt, DO=0.2% * Cng thc t nh lng thc n cn cung cp

Gi tr thch hp: F/M=0.05-0.15 SS: Suspended solids L nng khi lng cht rn l lng c trong nc thi. n v mg/l Phng php o: dng giy lc tch cht rn l lng ra khi nc. Cng thc:

n v: V:th tch mu(ml) a: khi lng giy lc(g)

b: tng khi lng giy lc + cht rn(g) SS: ppm 5.5.5. Quy trnh x l nc thi (Hnh v) 5.5.6. Thit b chnh a. Ct lm mt Ngun nc thi c nhit cao, v vy cn lm mt trc khi cho vo b trung ha. b. B iu chnh pH Ngun nc thi c pH thay i t 3-13 nn ta cn cho HCl hoc NaOH vo trung ha. PH sau khi trung ha t 5.5-9 c. B cn bng n nh ngun nc trc khi qua x l vi sinh. Th tch 220m3 d. B nh lng n nh lu lng cho b x l vi sinh. e. Aeration basin (b x l vi sinh). Gm 4 b ging nhau. Th tch 200m3. Qut cung cp kh nui vi sinh. Thc n c cho vo hng ngy: phn g, N, P. Vi t l ln lt 100:5:1 f. B lng Cnh co quay a bn v chnh gia bn. Bm ht bn chuyn ti b cha bn, mt phn hi v b x l vi sinh. g. My p bn

My p bn s tch nc ra khi bn. Bn c a v b cha. 5.6. im khc nhau gia Line 1 v Line 2 Sn phm: Line 2 ch yu chy SG660 v SP660, Line 1 chy ch yu SG580 v SG710. Hin ti nh my cng ang cho chy th SG660 v SP660 Line 1 v vn chy n nh nhm h tr cn thit khi c s c. Nguyn liu vo, nc thi ra cng nh silo cha bt ng gi c hai line dng chung h thng. Tuy nhin, trong h thng thu hi VCM Line 2, ngi ta khng b tr thp tch tch trit VCM m cho qua tch nc ri cho VCM thu hi tr v ha trn vi VCM mi chun b np liu cho m mi, iu ny cho php khi thit k dy chuyn do c tnh ton khng nh hng n cht lng sn phm. Thm vo , kim tra v m bo cht lng sn phm cho tng m, ngoi vic theo di cht ch ngi ta cn b tr thm 1 bn cha Slurry thu hi VCM. Bn ny dng tch Slurry khng m bo cht lng khi c tn hiu bo cng nh l trn Slurry thu hi. Ngoi ra, y cng l bn cha d phng m bo h thng hot ng lin tc nu vng sy c s c v dng. Hai thit b ly tm ca Line 2 c thit k c cng sut b hn Line 1, theo vt ti iu phi bt xung my sy c b tr n gin hn gm 1 vt ti ngang v 1vits ti ng. H thng sy c b tr nhiu hn Line 1 n 3 cyclone tch v thu hi trit bt. Line 2 c lp t h thng iu khin hin i hn theo di cht ch hn cc qu trnh trong dy chuyn sn xut.