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:      $  . do not C reat G roup s         . ( g e n d e r   &   ?  N'       . 1    . /     2  $    . 9 (        *  (     D   H    2   : C omp are G roup s   2   ( G ro u ps B a se d o n     # "  1    .  &     1     (     <      2        C o mpa re G ro u ps  E         K   /     . C (     &  2  3  :  .  : A nal y se A l l C ases. /  # )   &     1   <         $    ( E    @         D    $     E  6 7  . / : O rg aniz e O utp ut b y G roup s      .      . /    )     1   "  # L C (     &         E  $  . / L  C (   $ #  E  6  -.   9 (  7       % 4 .   Spl i t F i l e ..

 (  /   . / @   # . -& 9  * C (     &  2   Spl i t F i l e   H    # O K  &  E    :  (    g e n d e r  1  (       ?  C    L So rt L     2   %  f .  ]    ?  w a g e g e n d e r 30 f 35 f 40 f 60 m 7 0 m 65 m 43 .9   5    !  L      L   9   M   ! C (   :F il e is A l ready S orted 9  (   So rt L        (   2 & '   " %      !  /     . F re q u e n ci e s  L  C (   L   2  : S ort T h e F il e b y G roup ing V ariab l e .  &  @         "      .  "  (       D ("   1  )   1   <         1    (      %     E  6  #    C '   !      C o mpa re G ro u ps . /     2  ! L( = ?  m   .   &     1   L   . ( So rt T h e F i l e b y G ro u pi n g V a ri a b l e ) H              *      .

   H           C o mpa re g ro u ps      .N (   ?   w a g e   1  (        6      L   ( #   . J     # L     K   9   $     .

GEND ER = f 3 0 35 . 00 H 6     L   2001 2000        #     $   M   ?          $    : 2  2  pro d 800 600 1400 900 44 ye a r 2000 2000 2001 2000 re g i o n N o rt h So u t h N o rt h N o rt h (   R  .1 : co mpa re g ro u ps     "    . ) . 00 Frequencies Statistics WAGE f N m M e a n N M e a n V a lid M is s in g V a lid M is s in g 3 0 35 . GEND ER = m 3 0 6 5 . 00 G E N D E R = m Statisticsa WAGE N V a lid M is s in g M e a n a . 00 3 0 6 5 .  " (    "     #   3       L     $  <     $     3  -)A n a l yz e  De scri pt i v e St a t i st i cs  F re q u e n ci e s :           "       ( F re q u e n ci e s  ?       6     Frequencies G E N D E R = f O rg a n i z e O u t pu t b y G ro u ps     "    .2 Statisticsa WAGE N V a lid M is s in g M e a n a .

 E 6         L (pro d M   .1090 950 1350 1180 700 975 1290 1000 750 1310 1150 2001 2000 2001 2001 2000 2000 2001 2001 2000 2001 2001 So u t h N o rt h N o rt h So u t h So u t h N o rt h N o rt h So u t h So u t h N o rt h So u t h .

H      # O K _ _ _ _ _ _ _  L( 6   2n d G ro u p 3rd G ro u p 4t h G ro u p   ..   C (     & 2  E  4 .   9 (  7       &  E   1st G ro u p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  D    .   Spl i t F i l e   H     3 # Da t a  :    $ pro d 8 00 9 00 9 50 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 7 5 600 7 00 7 50 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1400 1350 129 0 1310 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 109 0 <       re g i o n N o rt h N o rt h N o rt h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ N o rt h So u t h So u t h So u t h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ N o rt h N o rt h N o rt h N o rt h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ So u t h .9   C (     & 45  .    #  ye a r 2000 2000 2000 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2000 2000 2000 2000 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2001 2001 2001 2001 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2001 Spl i t F i l e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  1 :      " 6    :      $  .   1  ) C (     & <         $    I H 6    L $   pro d  1    " !  .2  E      2   5 '  .

118 0 1000 1150 2001 2001 2001 So u t h So u t h So u t h $ (    . /  J # pro d  1    6    M     ! fre q u e n ci e s  ?    .

 $ (    ) 

-  

:  (   O rg a n i z e O u t pu t b y G ro u ps    ?  <    9 (  &

F r e q u e n c ie s
Y E A R = 2 0 0 0 , R E IG O N

= N o rth

Statisticsa
PROD
N
V a lid
M is s in g
M e a n

4
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a . Y E A R = 2 000, RE I G ON = No r t h

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Statisticsa
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3
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Statisticsa
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4
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= S o u th

Statisticsa
PROD
N
V a lid
M is s in g
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4
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1 1 05 . 00

a . Y E A R = 2 001 , RE I G ON = S o u t h

46 

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( Da t a Ed i t o r F r e q u e n c ie s Statistics DEGREE N V a lid M is s in g M e a n   H    53 1 00 0 6 0.  M e a n      .1 .   . .    ?  "   '  F         6    L  .   7      2 E  4 . J  <  (F re q u e n ci e s  ?  $  <     $    <  ) :      Frequencies Statistics DEGREE N V a lid M is s in g M e a n 4 0 6 5 . J   2 E  C (   " ! F    ) 1  .2     2  E   6  . 00   # Do n o t w e i g h t ca se s      . 00 :      " 6    <    <   ?  "   '  w e i g h t  1    F W e i g h t C a se s   H     3 # Da t a          6    L   W e i g h t C a se s     2  E   6  .2  :      $  .:  (   L( 6  .     ?  "   '       6    L  .        6    L   .3 '    8  .N (  ) w e i g h t  1    C (   " !  &  2   O K  &  E    :           9 (  $  C  F re q u e n ci e s  ?       6    L        .1 A n a l yz e  De scri pt i v e St a t i st i cs  F re q u e n ci e s       9  (  $  .    .  #  1  4 .

W e i g h t C a se s . :  3 '  .

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1 :  2 :      " 6    <    8  .      Data T ransf ormation Da t a  ( ?  "     9 (  $   &      .   comp u te variab l e . . (   x2  x1   1    $        $    x1 x2 60 9 0 8 7 8 8 7 0 43 9 0 8 0 57 55 7 3 47 9 5 9 0 66 50 40 55 55 8 0 8 5 7 5 8 8 8 6 35 7 0 2 %      # x2  x1   1    " !  (   *    ) M e a n      6    L  L( 6     H    54   3  # Transform  . . X 1. 9  *     * 2   .    :      $  . / F   : C o mpu t e  ?  . b      70         2      @    " !    9 (     !  @   "  1      9  * :      ?    3  T ra n sfo rm  % 2 I  "  1   L     *  ?  . (     "  &  R   * R    $  )  I   :  (    Da t a Ed i t o r  . X 2 ≥ 50 comp u te     2   E   6   .   9 (  7       2 E  4 .      . 6  .

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) :      $  .  $    C DF •     $  6     $     # @        & ?      !  ( x 2 ≥ 50 x1. L   !     9 (  $    2   C omp u te Variab l e   x1 60 8 7 70 90 57 73 95 66 40 55 8 5 8 8 35 9  (  $    • x2 90 8 8 43 8 0 55 47 90 50 55 8 0 75 8 6 70     * .    #  <  &    56 . F    S P S S      # @  #       !  "   &    $     : ' 0  1  2           1    # 8  .   $    * 2       ?          E   2 E    "!       ) & $       6   . .   G H      # O K   I   L          .  :  (   Data E d itor 9  * ( x2 x1     1  (       6    ) x3 75 8 8 8 5 56 93 58 68 8 0 8 7 .incl u d e al l cases  E   "!   #    I   incl u d e if case satisfies cond ition  E   "!     ) & 6   .   p arameters 2           H   6       <  &      .   7         if C ases    H    & 2   I f C ases    H      3  . @  #      # continu e  &   E      x3 /   .  1   2  E  (  E   "!  !                9  (  $       '  # (T   … t <  &  R     6   <  &    $  ) "   &    8  . .  1   # I * 2   .   #        ?  "   &      4 .      1    2  %    % 4 ? (  E   :      $  .

CDFZ=CDFN O R M [Z]       .

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 "      !   #    / .    *   4 . ! / 2   $  O    L     .      $   @ )  E   "' y2 8 3 7 1 1 10 7 6 9 1 6 9 3        #    yes  . ?   .#    "'   1          .          E  "' .

 $    "   1          L   4 .2  :  2 :      $    .      y1 1 15 14 9 1 4 6 11 15 9 6 20 16 .        $    $    9 (  # .       "     #   ( Data E d itor  # "      $   * 2  ) y2  y1             1        D 57 .3        $  > ' 6    .

  C ou nt O ccu rrence of val u es w ithin cases    H     3  :  ( :  (   L( 6   . .   y3 ." .    1        # L=    Transform  B:     " 6    H  6  8  .    1         $    *      y3  /  Targ et variab l e C         1    2    $   * .-   9 (  "   1          .       1    C ou nt     2   E   6   .    7       2 E  4 .25 22 8 5 7 7  #    # 20  6  1 2 %  ?       "      L  4 . N u meric variab l e $  6    9  *  ( E  2  (  &  . Val u es to cou nt 2  E   G #  I ..             ) "   1     %   y2  y1     1         .          .(       ) C     .L    3  Define val u es  &      E    /      "      L          2  E   C     D .    ) >    K        2       J # 1، 6، 20 2  E   $   J  L=     .

A d d  1         H   :     " 6    L 8  .  &  E   2  1  E   $     val u e (       $  6      E   1 E   $   .

•   E   # I .

A d d  &  E   6  E   $     val u e (       <      E   6  E   $   .

• (  $    $  6      E   2  ( H     $   .) R ang e     @        E      # 20  E   $   .

4 .      # Val u es to cou nt % 9   :      $  . • .20 L    R ang e 58 .   9 (        .      # val u e to C ou nt $  6    9  *  E   .

  .       # Val u es to C ou nt % 9  *    J # 20 Y    # I .    .

. /        : R ecod e into same variab l es  ?  . J      % C .N (  cou nt occu rrence of val u es w ithin    H   .  #   1    2  % "(   .K     1     .  J   2   %   1   2  E  &         2  E   .   sal ary   1        D      :  2  sal ary : 20 16 95 8 8 65 53 35 46 90 22 30 28 51 60 8 5    % $   C od e &  ) 6  * / L( 6   .4 @     7  %    . %  :     L      L   1    2  %   =  1 2 59 ' <  $ % # 24 49-25 . /  # O K  &  E  2  cases 1 8 1 :      Da t a E d i t o r    y3 15 3 0 14 7 0 9 1 1 1 1 2 4 10 0 6 7 1 11 6 1 15 9 0 9 1 1 6 6 2 20 9 1 16 3 0 25 22 2 8 5 0 7 7 0 . Val u es to cou nt  %  #    ?  9  * >   (  C ontinu e  &  E      y1 y2 y3   1    C I     ?   . K     &  /   . / . : &             ?   I    "     $   #           1        #  ?   .  R emove  &     %    1   $     C hang e  &    .      1   2  %    % $   (&  ) cod e ) 6  *  #  ?   .  J  4 . 2   E     1    2  . Data E d itor . /        : R ecod e  ?  . A d d :  (    &  E 2  val u es to C ou nt    H   $ .

( 2  E   .74 B50 3    # 75 4 Transform  R ecod e  :     " 6    <    8  .( &       ) >    K      (          3  # 2   E   &     E   6      O l d and N ew Val u es  &  E   : 2  E            3 '  .   sal ary   1          E     H    .        E   2  E (  9 6       &     /  : n ew v alu e $    * 2     rang e   @     @        E   ol d val u e  %  # $ % # 24 9  ?      $   . .   R ecod e into same variab l es    H      3 # 9 (       1                 7   N (  )  % &        4 .      into same variab l es     2   E     :  (   7     4 . O l d and N ew Val u es        H 6  .@      % )     %   &  ) 6  *         2  E    /  : o ld v alu e .@  E   2  % .@  E   N  %     .

( $  % # 24)   (  $  E   &    $   .

 /   .1 /    3  .<  "      E  $   * 2   E   6   K     :  (   val u es . ol d     H   new :  (   "      • Val u e  %  # •  % 9  * $  E   &    <      # I * 2   # A d d `  &  E   • . val u e       $  6      E   N ew ol d and new 6 0 .

  &       &   O ld . N ew Val u e  %  # @       %  # /   . J        7   N (   E   $   - O l d Val u e %  #   E    E   $   - /   .N ew F    .  R emove  &    . J      # C . J      #    1   C hang e  &   .:      "       &  *      #   .

C ontinu e  &   E   "      $    *   )    !      B:     $  . 8  . /    : R eced e into d ifferent variab l e  ?  .   9 (  Data E d itor  # sal ary   1    sal ary : 1 1 4 4 3 3 2 2 4 1 2 2 3 3 4 &     (  $   Data E d itor    E   C  &      $  % S al ary  ( ?    1    2  %  .  1    &      &   @   .  (   .   C (    .K        C (   3  2   2    E      ( ?    1    4   4 .   R ecod e in to d ifferent variab l es   H   2   .4  C (   2  .> .   =       2  ?     1     E   6   K     C hang e  E   6 K     @          E   2  E   $   * 2   O l d and N ew $   .   "     L H     $     #      S al ary   1    &     # L=   :  2  . /    N u meric Variab l e    3 # O u tp u t  % 9   S al ary   1    $ E    %  %   &      E  <   sal cat       2  !     2  N ame    # $  6      E  H   6         1    .N (  R C od es    &      1   &  ) 6  *    ?   . 2  E K    9   * &      <  <     7    / L(  ?     2   E     1    9 (  3    <    ^   1    # . C (   1   #      " 6    <    C (      1   9  * sal ary   1    &     Transform  R eced e  into d ifferent variab l es     2   E     :  (   7     4 .

    R ecod e into d ifferent variab l es    H   6 1 Val u es  &    E     •   3   "   1    K   9  * &      : (   .

   #  E d itor ("   1    L   ) categ oriz e variab l es  ?  "       $       9         1   $     2 E  )   6 2 .      H   6   (       9 6   2      )   1  (        E   2  E   3   !     : ' 0  1  .new val u e     cop y ol d val u es       ol d val u e     A l l other val u es s a la ry 2 0 16 9 5 8 8 6 5 5 3 35 4 6 9 0 2 2 30 2 8 5 1 6 0 8 5 R ecod e into    H    Data  # sal cat 2      s a lc a t 1 1 4 4 3 3 2 2 4 1 2 2 3 3 4   # C ontinu e  E       1   C I  d ifferent variab l es :    $  .

( .   categ oriz e Variab l es    H     3 #  . / . * '  # categ ories   $ %  2  E   L    ) $ ?  <      #   1    2  E  1 2 %    G    2  # .       C ateg oriz e variab l es      2    E      :  (   7     4 .( % 75 9   % 50             )   1    2  E  3 2 %    G    . /   C  ?      ( "   1    )   1    2            H   .( % 25 % 50 9   % 25             )   1    2  E  2 2 %    G    .  .5 L( 6    sal ary   1  (  4 9  *     "            2   .(    # % 75 )           2  E   4 2 %    G Transform     :      " 6    <    (sal ary   1    ) H     $    K          5 .

       1   ) name  ( 4       1   ) sal ary     1     I        C (   :  2  name A hmad S amer L oay M ahmood A yad Y assin S atar :  (    ( 4 &  sal ary 40 35 50 8 0 70 66 8 5 :      " 6    <    8  .  A u tomatic R ecod e    H    N'    (&           )            1      .    !              :       @    7  %    A u tomatic R ecod e   E (    &        1            E (    &         # 2       . @   1   C    6 3 . N ew N ame  &  E  2  N ew N ame  &      $  6      #   1    2   •  . .      .6 "    1   "   )    ) 2   E     1  (  (   &   .   E (    &         # L      1    &    L( 6  Transform       2    E     A u tomatic R ecod e   # name  sal ary      1    $    0  2  E  .:  (    Data E d itor 9   nsal ary   1    # I * 2   O K nsal ary 1 1 4 4 3 3 2 2 4 1 2 2 3 3 4    3 #  &  E    . 6   2  Variab l e  N ew  N ame  % rname  rsal ary $   * 2     ?  K     &    1      . J  H   6          1    2   (    1  -) $   *    .    )  %        (  &  2 .    R ecod e starting from L ow est val u e          "        R ecod e starting from H ig hest val u e        &   "        H     @        C      - C   (       ?  $  (     L  &    "   1    &    2   .

.      C ases      2    E     7     4 . (   reg ion .7 .     1    $   0   %  E   #     * 2   # G rou p ing Variab l es <      "   1    #        L      2     . reg ionE 6    :     " 6    <    8  .D "    #    I Transform g end er K         "    #    I sal ary . Y   .Variab l es    # S al ary N    5 O 6  *     4 .   R ank C ases    H     3  # R ank  :  (   G end er     1    ."   1   6          1   L  ) 6  *      . / 6       .   &        L       reg ion  E 6     g end er reg ion g end er sal ary 1 2 30 1 1 70 1 1 100 1 1 50 1 2 45 1 2 36 1 1 70 1 2 25 1 2 22 1 1 42 2 2 15 2 1 100 2 1 110 2 1 8 8 2 1 92 2 2 55 2 2 32 2 1 47 2 2 20 K     sal ary   ?  "   1    4        C (   :  2  : Data E d itor  #   3  ?    1       N    ) 6  *       .  /         "   1   L    @     / @     &  E    R ank C ases:  ?  "   1             5 . N     L    ) 6  .:  (       3   Data E d itor 9  *            1    C I  O K name sal ary A hmad 40 S amer 35 L oay 50 M ahmood 8 0 A yad 70 Y assin 66 S atar 8 5 rname rsal ary 1 2 5 1 3 3 4 6 2 5 7 4 6 7 5 .

A ssig n R ank 1 to    #  B y     6 4 . S mal l est Val u e        . .

H      3  R ank cases    H    # R ank Typ es  &  E        >      ! R ank L    (  6      >        7   R ank C ases:Typ es    9   * rsal ary 2   ( L      1   )     1  C I  O K reg ion g end er sal ary rsal ary 1 2 30 3 1 1 70 4 1 1 100 5 1 1 50 2 1 2 45 5 1 2 36 4 1 1 70 4 1 2 25 2 1 2 22 1 1 1 42 1 2 2 15 1 2 1 100 4 2 1 110 5 2 1 8 8 2 2 1 92 3 2 2 55 4 2 2 32 3 2 1 47 1 2 2 20 2 R eg ion "  #  I (.1 .    ^  # 4      1        ? L  ) 6  * <       "    1   $      9  *            1   L  ) 6  *    .  -R   .2 <       4   1   $       S al ary   1  (  L  ) 6  *    H     $      # Variab l es 6 5 . (2  1 ) . ) G end er "  #  I  & 2  continu e  &  E      :     $     #  Data E d itor sal ary   1  (  L  ) 6  * 2  7  .3 ! :" 3 '       &    "   1  (  L  ) 6  *    !  6 E #       "   1  (  L  ) 6  *    G rou p ing  .

"   1           %       4 . / 9 (  $    2   : F ractional R ank as % "!   #     & ?  >   $    "!   #                : su m of cases w eig hts .4   4 .   2     # "!      .) "!   #   . 0 # (   &   .     % 75 9   * % 50 2   E (  3        % 50 9  * % 25   2  E (  2      9 6    % 25   $ %        .    2  E (     ?  H  6   L    G                 $    Val u e M ean L ow H ig h seq u ential 10 1 1 1 1 15 3 2 4 2        15 3 2 4 2 15 3 2 4 2 16 5 5 5 3 20 6 6 6 4 R ank C ases : Typ es    H    #     /   L           >   ?           I 7               1    2  %    % $      ) 6  * 2   . /  #  reg ion  g end er . . 9  ?  <  &    L    1    2  E  L   6   : S avag e S cores   & ?  >    9  (    1    2  E  6            %              /  : F ractional R ank . (   & .(     9  *      &        4 .        :   .H # # % 75   4       : >   .4 .   .  & .>   $   w 6 6  * . /        "    E    : p rop ortion estimates      1    L   1    2  E     ) 6  * 2   : B l om (r − 3 8) ( w + 1 4)       $   r  "!     & .)            )           $  9 6   <    9  *   1    2  % 2   E     L  ) 6  * 2   : N til es     2  E (  1      ) 6  * 2    7  # (4    L       ) 4N til es       .3 : @      2  E (  "       .      R ank C ases    H    # B y         5 . 100  # E          L I $        5 .)  ( ?    1  (  2  E   K         "! (  L    2  3   D      H     3  . (     .   2     # "!      . ) 6            /  : R ank . R ank cases H    1  # Ties  &    E  2   ( "   @     1  (  .

7727 P ro002 : P rop ortion E stimate (R ank it) (6-1/2)/7 = 0.>   / w .7759 P ro001 : P rop ortion E stimate (Tu k ey) (6-1/3)/(7+1/3) =0.71 (6-3/8 )/(7+1/4) =0. 6/7= 0..       ?  H  6   "       - H             "!     @     /     P rop ortions :    ?  H  6       N ormal S cores L  $        $    (… R Tu k y R B l oom ) 6 7 .     1    L    ) 6  * 2   : Tu k ey ( r − 1 3) ( w + 1 3) ( r − 1 2) w      1    L    9 6   : R anK it        / r    "  / .      1    L    9 6   : Vand er w aerd en r ( w + 1)      $   r  "!     & .: N ormal S cores E stimated C u mu l ative                "     E    $   E       Z S cores     E       6   @   . x   1    ( "! ) 2  E   (     H  6   L            F I       $    X : Variab l e   1   rx : R ank (simp l e) sx : S avag e S core nx : N til es rfr001 : F ractional R ank p er001 : F ractional R ank as % n001 : S u m of case W eig hts p x : P rop ortion E stimate (B l om)  .8 571  (   (N'  )            L   0.      / w   .8 571*100= 8 5.78 57 P ro003 : P rop ortion E stimate (Vand er W aed en) 6/(7+1) = 0.7500  (              L    (              L    (              L    (              L    (              L      1    2   %    @     / N ormal S cores      L             .

?  Data  Define Dates   * $   @   $ '      &   (  (    9 (    .   (  E   Z    E       6   <  &      1   2  %   ..       .  *      (    %  . 0.$     # nx   1    2  % K   : C reate Time S eries   &   $  '    . 1)  (     (  4    4     C        (  4    .B lo m T u k e y R a n k it V a n d e r W a e d e n P rop ortion        "    E    9 (     !  B l om 1   N ormal S cores L    .2  ?         & "   # $ '        1   2  %   @     / Time S eries   &   (  (    .   Transform C omp u te 9  (  $  . / 2  %  .N O R M A L (p x. 5 '  . I DF .    6          6   <  &  (  I DF           2  2   E   6   .8  ?  $ '      & (  (  ) . ( p x   1    ) B l om 1        E stimates C u mu l ative p rob ab il ities              (        "!   !  ) 2   E   5 .   N'   "!       @      /   1     .  .

  9  ?         Differences tv 274 207 255 350 38 2 38 3 351 268 38 0 409 445 455 460 48 2 449 . l ead fu nctionR l ag   &      "   1    R ru nning M ed ians   O   #    . 17 $ '    &  (    @ &  .     .  * 2  )     year_ 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 6 8 .   "      $   tv   1     * D   : 1 $  H  # $   # L=    ( Data  Define Date  ?    &   (  (  (  T      ) .  "  (    D   )   *  #  c  L=          " 6      R M oving A verag es       6  ?  R Differences H     B:  I   .   1    month_ d ate_ 1 J A N 2002 2 F E B 2002 3 M A R 2002 4 A P R 2002 5 M A Y 2002 6 J U N 2002 7 J U L 2002 8 A U G 2002 9 S E P 2002 10O C T 2002 11N O V 2002 12DE C 2002 1 J A N 2003 2 F E B 2003 3 M A R 2003  .

( 9  ?         " %     4 .2003 2003 4 A P R 2003 5 M A Y 2003    H       3 # 38 9 398 Transform  :      " 6    <    8  . C reate time series .4 -) (  (   2 %  7  (  ( u nd erscore )   year_ 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 6 9 :  (    Data E d itor 9  * tv_ 1 2      month_ d ate_ tv tv_ 1 1 J A N 2002 274 . 2 F E B 2002 207 -67 3 M A R 2002 255 48 4 A P R 2002 350 95 5 M A Y 2002 38 2 32 6 J U N 2002 38 3 1 7 J U L 2002 351 -32 8 A U G 2002 268 -8 3 9 S E P 2002 38 0 112 10O C T 2002 409 29 11N O V 2002 445 36 12DE C 2002 455 10 1 J A N 2003 460 5 2 F E B 2003 48 2 22 3 M A R 2003 449 -33  1  C I  O K  E   N     tv  . .( tv_ 1    7  .  N ew variab l es $  6      # tv   1    2   $   0  2 E  .)   (      O rd er       Difference           t v _ 1%  &    t v  # $    o rd e r  (  ?    1    2     9  ?      L       @    /        1  (   I    # !  2  !   * .      C reate time series      2   E          8   .

    ( ?  2  E    &   E  2   N ame    #      2  !     H   6   tv _ 1 H       1   2  . O rd er         1  2   E   6   K     C hang e  &    E  2         E   3       =              c    & *  # M oving  (    year_ 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000    &   (  A verag es      6  ?  $     .2               F u nction    # 2      E   F u nction      >     1      . * E     @    (   ( ?    1     % 7   N  6     1     / tv  9  ?         H       1   / tv ∗ ) tvt∗ = tvt − tvt −1      $  ..       9  ?         #     E       %             H       1       . *  .2003 2003 4 A P R 2003 5 M A Y 2003 38 9 398 -60 9 @       K     #  ( ?    1     %   @     /       & @   #  # H       1    %  -  0  1  . C hang e .    (   &   @      $   t   ( ?    N!   9  ?         H       1   9 (  H  6   H          J # 2 4    H         "  .S p an @     $ 6    E  L( 6    6 E # 2    5  !  N   2000B1990 "   (  P rod u ct M   .    .   1     . 9   ?      # @  E    % H       1       .1 H              4 .1 4         "   .

  E    &   (  (    9 (  4        C (   d ate_ p rod u ct 1990 50.   Time series .0 1991 36.8  (  (  C entered M oving A verag es  &          6  ?  L  L( 6  C reate    H   7 0 : ( ' =    ?   3  ) 2  2 :      " 6    <    8  .      .5 1994 38 .9 1995 38 .5 1992 43.6 1997 38 .1 2000 33.7 1998 41. S p an=5 @     $ 6  . .1 1996 32.       3  # Transform  C reate Time series     2   E      :          9 (  7     4 .7 1999 41.0 1993 44.

6 1996 32.0 42.500 40.125 38 .7 41.5 + 38.0 36. ( S p an = 4  . .  # )      .7 37.9 212.9 − 50 + 38.8 25 p rod u ct_ 1     % 6    S p an=4 8     6     42.8 25 37.8 00 37.5 .1 . .9 = = 42.9 38 .8 7 1 & @     $ 6     # ..5 + 38.9 39.9 + 38.4 1998 41.0 44.4 1995 38 .2 5 5 5 @      $  6     #    L         (   6     E   8     6     $  E  .7 38 . 2000 33.0 .1 201 212.4   # 4 &     = .075 37." 6      $   Data E d itor 9   P rod u c_ 1 2  J     year_ 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 7  .5 38 .150 38 .525 37. p an @     $ 6 $   n ) n/2 /       (  (         # @  E    2  E       . .675 .775 38 .6 38 .925 39.1 32.1 38 . 43.6 1999 41. M2 = H    6   L   8     6      J # sp an is even  $       #   U ncentered M eans   &        = " 6       M & $  6    L  2  % 4 6    p rod u ct 50.3 '   (S  1  C I  O K  &  E   :  (    p rod u ct (  (  (        d ate_ p rod u ct p rod u c_ 1 1990 50.6 5 5 :  (   36. 1991 36. 1992 43.         ?       ?        8   2  M1 = 50 + 36. ( 5= @      $ 6  .5 40.5 + 43 + 44.5 43.7 41.6 38 .1 33.0 1997 38 .  # ) 8     6     L   .113 40.5 + 43 + 44.2 1994 38 .1 = = = 40.6 1993 44.8 .525 38 .725 41.425 38 .

R ep l ace M issing Val u es @  E    2  E      E        * L(  .    .     "   1    D .9    @  E   2  %     - .H   6  7   @      E  N   .

 5 . . . @  E     E      E     5 . / S P S S      #  . in c o m e 9 5 10 0 11 12 0 10 0 14 0 :      " 6    <    8  .      .2   E     :     '  ( ) *  R ep l ace M i s s i n g V a l u e s    H   Method .   1     . /  # L    : $  :  (        E       % income   1    4   .       E        E      E  L( 6  Transform  R ep l ace M issing Val u es    .

     .

n 9 * 1   .    ($ E        1    ) 9 (  (        1    ) @  #    (  (    2  %      .3 .   &   (  (  (   (    6     @  E    2  E      E  2   : S eries M ean .4    (      P red icted Val u es  O      2  E   @  E    2  E      E  : l inear trend at p oint . C hang e  &  E  2  N ame    #      2  !      2  !   . .) 6  0        2 E  .    E     # M ean of nearb y p oints L(  ?        %  :       I       E     # (      @     2  E           $      : S p an of nearb y p oints 7 2 .2 . @  E    2  E      E   #  6    $    !  L(  .5  (   (   N   % .        M ethod    # .    3 #  14 5 14 7 15 0 16 6 17 0 19 0 2 10 19 9 2 15 2 17 2 30    @      /   1  (   I    #  2  .   J  4 . @     2  E (  6     9 (         E    : M ed ian of nearb y p oints .1   2  E   6    9 (     !  @  E     E      E  2   : M ean of N earb y P oints .  @    . @  E     E   $   - 9 (  .6     L   # @      2  E      $   4 .       (  (   2 %  7  (  ( u nd erscore )   N      ( ?    1    2     9  ?      L     .   S p an     L   .    : l inear I nterp ol ation . /    1  : $   Q  7    2      E             E    >   .

0 210.0 11.0 230.2 .0 :     7 + . .1 .     .0 140. @     2  E                 : N u mb er $   $  @     % 8  /     7  .0 150. 145 147 150 166 170 190 210 199 . S p an =2     2  $     .0 100.0 145.3 215. (100 + 140 + 145 + 147) / 4 = 133 .                   +  .0 133.   &   (  (     # @  E    2  E   #  . /     E     # (  (    2  % #  $     : A l l .0 217.0 210.0 170.0 147.0 166.0 120.0 199. 215 217 230 7 3 income_ 1 95. /  #  2   J     1   C  I  R ep l ace M issing Val u es    H    # O K  &  E    :  (    Data E d itor %   9   income_ 1 income 95 100 11 120 100 140 .0 100.0 190..

     .

/ $        <  "       "        " .   "      L   # F req u encies  ?  2       :      " 6    L   1     .     .$   Tal l   1    D   <  "  / .     T a l l           Tall 8 0 8 4 7 1 7 2 3 5 9 3 9 1 7 4 6 0 6 3 7 9 8 0 7 0 6 8 9 0 9 2 8 0 7 0 6 3 7 6 4 8 9 0 9 2 8 5 8 3 7 6 6 1 9 9 8 3 8 8 7 4 7 0 6 5 5 1 7 3 7 1 7 2 9 5 8 2 7 0 3 3 3 7 3 2 4 1 4 4 4 9 4 7 5 0 5 9 5 5 5 3 5 6 5 2 6 4 6 0 6 6 7 4 D D e s c r i p ti v e S ta ti s ti c s Frequencies  ( 1 4 ) L        1    % $       D   D     ?   .       " 6 6    : 1 $  "         @   E   6 E   "      N    80 $  6 .     &      K   E  D  .

2   E   6   .   F req u encies    H     3  # K     &  5  E  H   6   Variab l es  %  # Tal l  &    E  2  (          .  K   E      .    A nal yz e  Descrip tive S tatistics  F req u encies         $  .    : Display frequency table L    .   9 (    3  4 . J     4        $    D    1    $   * 9    E    # )    ?  :  ..

O   :  ..  "  . 7      <        : S tatistics       3  5  E     R        :  (    D   (       "  . . O   D  D         %  S tatistics    H    .

$  6     9  * 1 2 %    # I * 2   # A d d  &  E   2  P ercentil es   .B oxp l ots 6   6   <   ) p ercentil es "       Q u artil es "       $ . ( L   !  E   6 $  K     $      ( 1 B 6)       # "       "(          <        #    2 %    L   N'   $ ?            .  P ercentile V alues              %  .        & .        R       R K     R $ ?   &   $      P ercentil es $   .

N     4        $     # "  / .val u es 2   E   L  N    &   .     P ercentil es Val u es  M ed ian L   … P ie R B ar " 6 6    D :           H   .   <  &    K   E  D    : Distributio n 2 E   S P S S      J # Val u es are g rou p mid p oints       <       . . /  #  C ou nts "        7 5 . R emove  &          %    1   C hang e       "          9  * "      2  E      2  E      # C u t p oints for E q u al G rou p s     - . F 6       )    !  $ .   L     : O rd ered by .        $  %           $ 6    # .        : ch art       3  5  E     : fo rm at     :  . J    # :3 '  "     (  "     &     $          1    "     .  &      &    K   E  D    :C entral T end ency . 2  E   L 4      L           $     .    K   E  D    : Dispersio n . " ..

   variables .

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  #   .                : Multiple Variables :  "    #  $  F req u en c ies    ! .

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#          %      " +     #  /  0  . .  3 4     :.    !  &  %  $ '   ( .                 +        . 0   # 12      )   3 . #     #       #  %  $ '  ( ) : C o mp are variables ) :O rg an iz e o u t p u t by variables .  .:supress tables w ith m o re th an c ateg o ries       .

E rro r K u r to s is S td .2 9 7 0.. 17 .9 0 ) :   7  ( 9  0     ) . E rro r M e d ia n M o d e S td . 00 3 4 . E rro r M in im u m M a x im u m S u m P e r c e n tile V a lid M is s in g o f M e a n tio n o f S k e w n e s s s o f K u r to s is 1 5 2 5 50 7 5 9 0 56 0 6 8 .6 2 8 3 2 9 9 3 8 17 3 2 . 3 0 Q u a r tile s ( 2 5 .7 5 ) P e r c e n tile s ( 1 . 6  F req u en c ies    !   O K 4  3  Frequencies Statistics TALL N M e a n S td . 00 8 1. 3 14 .     5     . 50 9 1. 2 5 7 0.5 . 00 7 0 17 . 3 19 -.7 0 55.5 0 . D e v ia S k e w n e s s S td . 16 2 .5 0 .6 3 9 .

76 9  0       #    : Missin g .    !      #    : V alid .

1 8 . 6 1.4 7 . 8 1. 8 3. 8 3. 0 . 8 1. 1 9 4. 8 1. 6 1. 8 1. 8 1. 8 1. 6 1. 6 1. 0 26 . 8 1.7 6 4. 8 1.1 3. 8 1. 8 1. 0 C u m u la tiv e P e rc e n t 1. 8 1. 8 3. 8 3. 8 3. 8 1. t all        2 . 6 5 . 8 1. 6 1. 8 5 . 6 1. 6 1. 8 1.2 10 0 . 8 1. 8 1. 8 1. 8 1. 8 1.9 6 9 . 8 3. 8 1. 9 8 5 . 8 1.4 1. 8 1.3 9 1. 6 21. 6 32. 8 10 0 . 1 17 . 5 39 . 2 25 . 6 1.  <  3  !  % 1   2 #    %    $     6  = 77 . 8 1. 6 3.0 7 6 . 8 1.TALL V a lid 32 33 35 37 41 44 47 48 49 5 0 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 5 5 6 5 9 6 0 6 1 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 8 7 0 7 1 7 2 7 3 7 4 7 6 7 9 8 0 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 8 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 5 9 9 T o ta l F re q u e n c y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 5 6 P e rc e n t 1. 8 1.6 7 5 . 8 5 . 8 1. 6 1. 8 7 . 8 1.4 1. 9 37 .4 8 2. 6 5 1. 7 12. 8 1. 6 9 6 . 8 3. 8 1. 6 1. 0 V a lid P e r c e n t 1.4 9 8 . 6 1. 8 1. 8 3. 8 10 0 . 8 1. 8 1. 6 1. 8 1. 6 1. 8 3. 8 1.9 10 . 9 19 . 5 14. 8 28 . 8 1. 6 3. 8 5 5 .1 3. 1 33. 8 7 . 8 1. 8 3. 6 1. 8 3. 9 44. 3 6 7 . 3 16 . 8 1. 4 23. 8 1. 8 1. 8 1. 3 41. 8 1. 6 3.7 8 9 . 8 1. 8 1. 8 1. 1 42.4 5 8 .9 6 0 . 6 3. 8 3. 1 8 3.8 8 0 . 8 3.

?      #   %         .

z sc o res . 3    0 !  /  !  &  >      ( Descriptives  ( 2 4 ) 3          0  .

   )   %       ( S P S S 5   1 D at a E d it o r    . x3 %         @       #  x1 x2 9 0 50 12 7 0 52 15 56 55 19 6 5 6 0 22 8 5 6 5 20 6 0 6 9 57 50 7 5 6 2 51 8 5 An aly z e  D at a C   : .   A      x1. x2.

    %  .   ? 1  D esc rip t ives    1 .

 0 !  >       B     ( D esc rip t ive st at ist ic s  D esc rip t ives         .  $   :     #  $  C " 3 D 1    1   +   D esc rip t ives    ! 2 #  x3  . 6   :   7  x−x .

    )   %        .

  @ & : S av e stan d ard iz ed v alues as v ariables s .     ? 1   ( ) $ E  3 E d it o r :         ! 78  3 . 6  F  3 : O ptio n s    .

C  " 3 #   )   D isp lay O rd er            .

1 G   .

 0 !  %  $ '            7   : .

  %      " .     %        .

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   .       %       .  9      .

57 .  0 !  %  $ '   ( :  "     D at a E x1 9 0 7 0 56 6 5 8 5 6 0 . 6 9 . 8 5 . 79 1 n 3 6 3   7   d it o r C A %      " . 6 2 . 7 5 . 51 . 50 .

   )   %    .

. . .34 7 -. .17 5 6 5 20 . .20 4 55 19 .4 0 8 1. .338 . -. . -1. -.   @ A      J D esc rip t ives    ! x2 x3 z x3 z x2 z x1 50 12 -1.128 . -1.234 .7 20 . . .6 4 4 -.38 7 -1.59 4 1. .338 . .8 55 6 0 22 1.4 0 2 .553 .7 17 52 15 -. 1.30 9 .58 9 -. . .0 9 0 .229 -. . -. . .58 2 . .7 8 0 .0 4 8 1. .

     .

 Pivot Tables S P S S Pivot Table    ( 1 – 5 ) .

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       .      #      J  0      .

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     #   L   #  ) 0  S P S S E d it P ivo t T a b l es       .

      ( 2– 5 ) V iew er .

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                   >    4 1 #    .

   .

  .  " .  P ivo t T ables E d it o r #   C  " 3 9   3 %    )  /        7   .S P S S V iew er. +     : 1   C ro sst abs     5        #  .  " ) An aly z e  D esc rip t ives S P S S P ivo t T able O bj ec t   E d it .

6     ( ? 1    # ! 0    #   #       #   TREAT * RECOVER Crosstabulation Count T R E A T T otal 8 0 a b a1 R E CO V E R 8 3 1 1 b1 2 9 1 1 T otal 1 0 1 2 22 :. $  $   .

    %  .   ? 1  F = 3  #  L    .

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   #  5       TREAT * RECOVER Crosstabulation Count R E CO V E R T otal 8 1 a1 b1 a T R E A T 8 2 1 0       1 : C   .   .  :     #       .

 b 3 9 1 2 T otal 1 1 1 1 22 .   .

T ray s    H !  .

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6    TREAT * RECOVER Crosstabulation Count R E CO V E R a1 T R E A T b1 T otal T R E A T T otal T R E A T T otal T otal a b 8 3 1 1 2 9 1 1 1 0 1 2 22 a b a b         (    >    4 1     F  1 D "  ) 0  ) 1 )# " .     "    A F = 3  #    :      #  .

 " !   %   3 &  N  A     :      .S P S S V iew er .

$  $        .  $   P ivo t ) An aly z e  D esc rip t ives   R eset P ivo t s t o d efau lt s    C ro sst abs    5        #  : 2   .S P S S V iew er .

P ivo t in g T ray s .  " TREAT * RECOVER * GENDER Crosstabulation Count G E N D E R f T R E A T m T otal T R E A T T otal a b a b R E CO V E R a1 b1 2 1 3 6 2 8 1 4 5 1 5 6 T otal 3 5 8 7 7 14 :  "     #    . 6     ( ? 1    # ! 0    #   #           . $  $   . " . 6  9  3   .

 .  % 1.

 (R ec o ver      ) (S t at ist ic s      ) H 0!  .

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 ).  1 .

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. a .

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  .   .  V ie w  S h o w A ll Book Marks           ( 3 – 5 ) #  %   1 .

 4   +     # " .  1 .

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 =  .

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>    %  $ '     $ '  #  #    7   1 #  9    1   2 2 : (K  0 1 K   0    #   )  "     : .  1 .

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.

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6 & :D esc riptiv es R o bu st maximu m L ik elih o o d .   9       : C o n f id en c e I n terv al f o r Mean J S k ew n ess J S t an d ard D eviat io n J Mean  0  !  /  !  &  %  $ '   .… K u rt o sis .

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     .

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1 G   3 :         ! . 6  F  3 : P lo ts    : .

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2   ) L eaf      %   $ )  .

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    .

0 3 . 1 . 0 0 1 c a s e( s ) . 0 8 9 0 0 Stem & 0 0 0 Stem w i d th : E a c h l ea f : . 0 3 . P l o t L ea f 5 7 2 5 6 0 13 0 10 . 2 . 0 1. 3 .       VAR1 Stem-a n d -L ea f F r eq u en c y 2 .

4 . +    B    ( ) : H i s to g r a m +    B    S..% .: sp read v s. .  ?4   1  . L ev el with L ev en e Test .3     <"3 .   #3 : Normality Plots with Tests. . F a c to r V a r i a bl e   1  .    !     1   >    L @   ). %  1 "  )1 . .

)    . : .  4    K       3 . $ ) <. . (<.

S td . 0% N T o ta l 56 P e rc e n t 1 00.00 2 6.16 07 .2 5 00 .   Me a n = 6 8 .2 9 4 8 72 .5 63 5 70.1727/ 56 = 2. 6  E x pl o r e E x p lo r e .172 7 3 2 ..9 01 17.62 8 .2948 .  I + ) E . ( 3 #     #! 0  1      !   OK 4  3  Case Processing Summary T A L L N V a lid 56 P e rc e n t 1 00. S td .De v i a ti o n = 17 . (.1607 63 .D e v ia tio n M in im u m M a x im u m R a n g e In te r q u a r tile R a n g e S k e w n e s s K u r to s is S ta tis tic 68.3 14 .00 9 9 .. E r r o r = SD / n = 17. 0% C a s e s M is s in g N P e rc e n t 0 .75 9 6 68.    5    .17 27 .0000 2 9 4 . 0% Descriptives T A L L M e a n 9 5 % C o n fid e n c e In te rv a l fo r M e a n L o w e r B o u n d U p p e r B o u n d 5 % T r im m e d M e a n M e d ia n V a r ia n c e S td .63 9 S ta nd a r d E r r o r .E rro r 2 .3 19 .5 618 S td .00 67.

)    .

1   .

 I + )  H  .0. E r r o r   7  :  "  B   : µ "   #     $     % 9 5            X m t.Error .025. 1   .55 * Std .) + )  E .    S td .

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025 = 0.T(0.5 5 ) =  E  D "3 d f = 5 5 p = 1-0.9 7 5  )   # #  p   7  :  "  .  " % 95 .       Tr a ns f o r m  Co m pu te I DF .9 7 5 .

55 2 90 .0.   9      D "3 = t.025.

29 4 8 =6 3.16 07 -2*2.16 07 +2*2.5 7 : .29 4 8 =7 2.U ppe r Bo u nd = 6 8 .7 5 L o w e r Bo u nd = 6 8 .

   9  !  C "3 .

   9  . 57 6 3.  Pr ( 63.57 < µ < 72. 57     1 ?   .57 ) = 9 5 % % 95 +  7 2. #  Pr   7  7   F =  3  De s c r i pti v e s :  # <=   S PS S 5  1 %    C "3 %  )0     )  4 A    J .   N 2 #   +  #.

 1     D    F o nt .   N J De c i m a l s .

$ )  .  3 J #  .

"..        S PS S V i e w e r      .   #   1 K    .… 9 3  ( 3 J Al i g nm e nt ?2   C  "3 %   ) /  F o r m a t  Ta bl e Pr o pe r ti e s      (%     ( 3 .

$ $ )       .

  )  .

 "  C "3 H 2  )1   #    .

) .

9  $    1    +   . )1 B   . F o r m a t  Ce l l Pr o pe r ti e s  Trimmed Mean % & '    ( )  $     $       #0         % 5 C "3         % 5 H     < 3 !     . " % 0 !     #  #  .

  D   +  2. 8 +       % 5   . .  1     " .    .

2 56  ta l l     2 3   #       .

 H    )1 .4  . 2 5 6 *0.9 0= 5 0.

 1       #0    .

8 C "3    . 2 2.

 $   . 8 H   :  "  . 2 2.   .

4 50.4 C   =   33 32    2 C "3   =   95 99   . 2 B   7  68.5635 50.1607* 56 − 99 − 95 − 32 − 33 − 0.8 * 35 3455.8 * 93 − 0.5992 TrimmedMean = = = 68.

  C "3   ")    " . 2 56 N   #  6 8 . .16 07 *5 6   7  C "3  "!  2 .

     ")      =   35 93 :    #     E x tr e m e s .

0 33. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .     " S PS S 5  1 %         F   Extreme Values T A L L H ig h e s t L o w e s t 91    2 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 C a s e N u m b e r 28 38 6 16 23 43 41 5 42 44 V a lu e 9 9 . 0 37 . 0 9 2. 0 35. 0 41.  . 0 32. 0 9 2.0 9 5. 0 9 3.

 *+   . )  .

    2  .

)1  C  .

Q3  2 .Q2. 3       Q1.

 =    Qu a r ti l e s % )1        2 .

  C  .

0000 Q1= 5 5 .1 000 55.5000 9 1 . 5      4    . 5 . 2 = 26 . 1  3 %  1    % 10 D  1  $ )  (25 th Pe r c e nti l e ) 25     #1   Q1 #  ?1     <"3 (5 0th Pe r c e nti l e ) 50     #1   Q2 (.  3 %  1    % 5 D  1  >       +  .     . 25 W e i g h te d Av e r a g e . 2 .    … %  1    % 90 D " < 3 !  . 3       Pe r c e nti l e s %      ( % )1   H ) #  Bo x pl o t .5000 70. Q3= 8 1.2 500 70.7000 43.3000 9 3.0000 8 1 . .  )   ?1     (7 5 th Pe r c e nti l e ) 7 5     #1   Q3 7   ?1     : %   " 5  1  %    #     #  Percentiles 5 T A L L 2 5 P e r c e n tile s 50 75 9 0 9 5 W e ig h te d T A L L 34.0000 8 1 .3000 A v e r a g e ( D e fin itio n 1 ) T u k e y 's H in g e s 1 0 55.5 5 . Q2= M e d i a n = 7 0 I n t e r q u a r t i l e R a n g e = 8 1.   ? )      %  1     % 95 D " < 3 !  .

   %     .   .   .

)1   .

05 = 2.  .    +  (n+1)*P = 5 7 *0.8 5 .

    .

" Me th o d .  !  #) <=   >       . .

   1 ?  >       .

2  E  D "3 . < 3 !     .   # !  D "3 ( E x tr e m e V a l u e s #  ) 35   3 . 3 2. 8 5  >       . 1     .

 #  / E 1     . 1     :  "           1 I nte r po l a ti o n  .   33   2 .

2 C "3 5 th Pe r c e nti l e = 33 * 0.7  .15 + 35 * 0.8 5 = 34 .

                .

     .

   .

     D  + )  E . #) .   C  S k e w ne s s /  .

1  .

 ?4   1      F      1 –0.0. 6 =     )1 .314 / 0.9 8  "  .319 = .

1   %  #       ( De s c r i pti v e s # )    .  )1 .  ?4   ?1  Ta l l     E 1 .

"    )  .

@  #1    E  (-2.2) M    @ –2 ?  .

1     #2  .

 2   1   . 1   %    (   C ) <1  </   " ?4      )  .

(  C ) <1  W /   " ?4      )  . 1   %  .    . .

)1 E 1 .

1   M-E s ti m a to r s  1   .  " .

!   %      1     B    .

1 .     .  . 1 .     1 >     3 6 =  .  F   .   .ta l l  " .  .

 3  92 .

E s tim a to ra 69.T h e w d .5 .5 37 . e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t s a r e 1.    .5 0 0 e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t i s 1.5 .40 0 . . 9 . 7.M-Estimators H u b e r 's M .5 7. 8 . 0 0 1 c a s e( s ) H is t o g ram .1469 T A L L a . 5 -8 5 5 7.5 .    +    B    #     . . 5 -4 7. . . .    #  <=   1  16 Histogram 14 12 10 8 Frequency 6 4 Std.3 8 5 9 e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t i s 1.T h e w c . a n d 8 .    S te m -a nd -L e a f S t em-and-L eaf     . .   )1 . -5 -6 7.  ?4   C   D   H @  2 # .00 0 97 . Dev = 17.3 3 9. -9 07 -1 7. Lea f 2 3 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . ? 4   ? 1         #  D  # . H a m p e l's M .   #     B    .    #  <1   <=   1  .    #!  ?  ) . -3 93 .5 67 57 5 5 . 1 4 . ( +    B    #  #! 0     4 % . 5 .17 2 Mean = 68.  /    +    )1 .      .7 0 0 .5 27 TALL .E s tim a to rc 68 . 7 . -7 5 7.T h e w b .3 40 * p i .5 47 . .  TALL Stem-a n d -Lea f P l o t F r eq u en c y Stem & 4 .97 5 4 A n d re w s ' W a v e d 69.T h e w T u k e y 's B iw e ig h tb 69. 8 . 3 . .2 N = 56.68 5 . 5 7 7 8 2 3 1 3 0 0 0 2 1 2 9 5 6 3 4 1 1 3 3 2 3 9 5 6 8 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 9 4 5 8 5 9 1 0 . 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 7 9 Stem w i d th : E a c h l ea f : 6 .3 7 49 e i g h t i n g c o n s t a n t i s 4.5 87 77 . 9 .

B o x p lo ts     9  $  .

  #     B    .   ?2    120 100 80 60 40 20 N= 56 TALL    1 %  1 "  )1 .   2  3 6 =  D  Ta l l  " Bo x pl o ts . . N 4       C  $   <1    !  .  ?4   1   .  .    . ( /    3 ) <)1 .

 ?4   1   C  .   A     L  : N o rmal it y P l o t s w it h Tes t          3    1 %  1 "  )1 .

 @ & 1 Ko l m o g r o v -S e m i r no v 1   :  % . .  ? 4 " .    N o r m a l Q-Q Pl o t De tr e nd e d N o r m a l Q-Q Pl o t   )1 .

 )    "    0  K o mo g ro v -S mirno v   )    .   ) : ( . ")=  % 1  .1   )   %   $   E 1 .

"    )  .

@  1   7  N o n-Pa r a m e tr i c G o o d ne s s o f F i t Te s t B    C "3 # !     2 .%  1   E 1 . <)1 . N 4  .

"   .

" 1  .

096 5 6 . @ 0  @  )1 .   Tests of Normality T A L L K o lm o g o r o v . .S m ir n o v a S ta tis tic d f S ig . T h i s i s a l o w e r b o u n d o f t h e t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e . ta l l    %   $   )1 .2 00* *. a .  ?4   ?1  . L illie fo r s S ig n ific a n c e C o r r e c tio n ?4   .  ?4   1  .

   D .  #  Fs (x)   7  D = sup FS ( x ) − FT ( x ) 1  .

 ! &     7  x ?       (#        )1 .  ?4  ) + 6  ?4   .

 #  FT (x)   .

(. )"  )   6 = .

)   ) n .

 %   ) .

M 1 Ko l m o g r o v #   D  . .

6  .

  M 1  )  .

20>0.  ?4   ?1  # .05   D= .  ?4    +  % 5 .  )1 .09 6   #       . @  # 1 2 C   3   P-V a l u e = 0.

.2 . N o rmal Q -Q 94 P lo t     .

?4    2 #1          C "3 .

.           . "!  %  1    9  $  #     . .

. #  R a nk Ca s e s  ? ) E x pe c te d Z S c o r e .  .

      ( . )2       )1 .  . . ta l l  "    .

)2   .

  Normal Q-Q Plot of TALL 3 2 Expected Normal 1 0 -1 -2 -3 20 40 60 80 100 120 Observed Value ? 4   %    .

 )2      .

  C "3 .          .  1 #  F = 3  . . .

.  #   C "3        C "3 %  1 "  )1 .  ?4 " .

)  %    #1   + )     C "3  )1 . N 4  ?    .  <)1 .

1  .

(-1.   9  1 %   $   $    3 .5 )    # $    .  )1 .(0.0).-1.   9  1 F = 3  # $    .  ?4   ?1  ta l l    %   $     D et rended N o rmal Q -Q P lo t     .5 .       .5 . # $ .1.%  1     ) .   E  C   $      . )  %    .    … (1.  )1 .  ?4   ?1 .   9  1 <1   ?  $  .    3 9 )1 ?  %         .5 ).   $     .3 E       .

.  " .    D   1   .

%     $      .    M  +  C  Q .%  1    5   .  . <    )1 .  +   #'      )1 . 1  1     .    3 %   .  ?4   ?1 .  (  ) S PS S 5  1   . N 4   .

              C "3 .

. "!  %   $   #    7  (    . . De tr e nd e d N o r m a l Q-Q Pl o t .

 ?4    2  3 %   $ " . )2    )1 .

)     %    # 1  + )     (-2.2) M    @ ?  ( % 90  % 95 .

 # $ .   6 ) %   P  . 1         ) $  .   .

<)1 . ?4           ?  Ta l l  " %   .  6 )   6 = F   . 95 .2) M    @ . L ! >  )  %  1 "  )1 .   % 90 .   +  ) <1   .   3 (-2.      < )4  N 4   #  . .             D "3 ( %   .

1 Dev from Normal 0..4 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Observed Value  !  .2 Detrended Normal Q-Q Plot of TALL .0 -.2 -.3 -.1 -.

1    . N 4  .     1 D  #      +   %   . . . "3 .    >   41 . .   %   $   E 1 B  . 1  Ch a r t E d i to r   L i ne a r I nte r po l a ti o n #=    . %  1 " % =    # 3    D E  <)1 .  .    .

(3 #     .    :      tall 96 8 0 8 4 7 1 7 2 3 5 9 3 9 1 7 4 60 63 7 9 8 0 7 0 68 9 0 9 2 8 0 7 0 63 7 6 48 9 0 9 2 8 5 8 3 7 6 61 9 9 8 3 8 8 7 4 7 0 65 51 7 3 7 1 7 2 9 5 8 2 7 0 3 3 3 7 3 2 41 44 49 47 50 59 55 53 56 52 64 60 66 factor A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B .

)1   .

 > 0 )  )1 . ?4   #) (  Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n .  .

 #  C  .  0  # .

G  %  1    .  22    1 3  Ta l l  "  1   #     2     .

   .

 #  .  0  # .

   .

34   %  1    C     #  A .  .

  F     9  C "3 .

3   #   ! A #" /  +    E x pl o r e % 1      !   F a c to r L i s t .

 2   (F a c to r D  ) .

 4  :    # $ 1 D 1    :   "       Da ta E d i to r   %  1  .  9  ! 1 B A   0    # ( D at a E dit o r (    *   )   ) %      E  E x pl o r e :  "  (   0  3 ) .

     <=   .  .

"  .

Extreme Values F AC T O R A T AL L H ig h e s t L o w e s t B C a s e N u m b e r 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 H ig h e s t L o w e s t :   .

   .

      .

 .

   Bo x pl o ts 6 16 7 15 22 5 21 9 19 10 28 38 23 30 24 43 41 42 44 45 V a lu e 93 92 91 90 90 35 48 60 63 63 99 95 92 8 8 8 5 32 33 37 41 44 .

 .

 120 100 80 60 TALL 40 20 5 N= 22 34 A B FACTOR ?1    3 )1  . 2 5  2  .  7  35 .

    A.

 0    Ou tl i e r 9  $ .

7 5 !  # . 5  3 4 .   3  3 #  1. 2 6 =   4 1 . 4 18 .

 1 Q1=6 6 .7 5 C  L a be l  3 .

   .

 . @  .

   5 .

.    2  ( .  1 Bo x pl o ts . ( E x pl o r e    !  1  +   >   L a be l Ca s e s by ) 4  .   Test of Homogeneity of Variances .

 2   D  A    ) .

"    .

  ( 2 – 6 )    AN OV A  1   #" /  3      1     % @ 0     .

  . $        3 .  % 2 C  #! " + '  H  K   E  .

  +   ) % = )   E  + 1 . ( %  )  .   0  (% = ) ) %  )  .

!   .

@ 0  1   3 .

 "     )  .

 1   >    )1 . @  1   7  L e v e ne Te s t   1   >   1   S PS S 5  1    G %  1       3 <1 G .

"   .

" 1  .

1       1   >    @ Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n %  1  C "3 % =   /  1  . $    %  )  #   )1 .+  @ %  )   1  >  1 . $     3 C  + '  K   E  .  ?4   . @ 0  @ # )  % =     F  .

  .  .

  F     . ?4  D    $ )  E . σ 2 )  )1 . <@  .     ( 0 7  % @ 0  97 . ε ~ N (0.

  ?4   .    . ) # #   )1 .

>   % =     3        2 C  # ! " .

!  $  9   Bo x & Co x Q 2         . ) .

   1 . )  .    %  )  .

%  1    G      #  . 2 = 3   C "3 9   ) .  3 .   7 . ( 1   >    @ + )  H  .

   G C "3 . % =     ( )1 F   Po w e r >  #  1-b   . "  .   .     3 %   . %  1 " Po w e r Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n     %  )  .

"!  %  1  #  y   7  y1-b .

   .

 1 +   #   .  !  Trans f o rmat io n P o w er S S q u a re 2 1 N o ne S q u a re R o o t 1\2 0 L o g a r i th m R e c i pr o c a l o f S q u a r e R o o t -1\2 R e c i pr o c a l -1 .        )   .

2 %    2 C  1–   Q   +   1   >        <6 : #). .

) $ lo p b -1 0 1\2 1 3\2 2  >    6 =  #  C  %  1  B  .  1 .

    3 . )  .

329     1-b >   E  0. 6 7 1 C  . "  %  )  E  0.

  #  .

") %    0 +  >  E  1 +   > V    .

    1/2   .

1 2 0. 329   .

"!  %  1 "  )1     .

D  <"3  G "  .   G "  #)  1    . 10 > I  G "    )1 . "  .

"     1  >   1   .

  A (< 1    .  .    .

6  +  )    L    1   C  . . L ev el w it h L ev en Tes t       Pl o ts    !   .   1  1   > S p read v s .

   G  1 . .  @ A L e v e ne S ta ti s ti c s    1 (%  ) ) % = )  #      7   (.     . 1 1  ? Bo x & Co x . " > 0 # ) S pr e a d –V e r s u s L e v e l Pl o t M      G #  .        C "3 (L e v e l M  ) %  )" .

2 = 3  3 .

  0  (S pr e a d 3 1  ) + )     C "3 I nte r Qu a r ti l e R a ng e  )1     1  > >   C    $  +   (S l o p=0)     .    ?  . .      .   E  3 1   M      3   1 .

< 0       % =    # .   ?   E  K  >  3 %  )  D   < "3 . 2 = 3  ) Tr e nd  3 F   .  #  . %  1  C "3 #  /   4"  %  )   1   3 %   2 #   .

B.D %  ) .2    #    +  )  1   >      12 ?  A.     1    5  1  #)   & 1 . (0 !    . "3         (  #   )1 . .C.

)1  .  %    D "3 .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 : . 1   5   #     #  :3     Tr e a tm e nts O bs 98 .

) # A 8 9 5 540 1020 470 428 620 760 B C D 1520 1610 1900 1350 980 1710 1930 43300 32800 28800 34600 27800 32800 28100 11000 8600 8260 9830 7600 9650 8900 .

25 18900 31400 39500 29000 22300 30775 6060 10200 15500 9250 7900 9395.04 J   1 . De v i a ti o n 233.8 9 10 11 12 . 4 9R . 83 Me a n S td .6 8 2326 .9 2 35 6 .> 537 845 1050 387 497 670.5 4 6 6 8 8 . 75 1960 1840 2410 1520 1685 1701.

   #"  !  J   . $   . $     "3 #   . ) J . : !       3 .

    7   (.    %  1 " .   #     ? %  )   1  >   1   . ".

    .

0 ! )     S PS S 5  1 Da ta E d i to r 9    C  %  1  # A   #    )    " .

 4     tr e a t   ( )    ) %   $   #  d e pe nd    : .

D %  )   .   ?1    ( Tr e a t.C.   ?1  %  1   > E x pl o r e    !   1  .B. A..    %  . 6  7 Ana l yz e De s c r i pti v e S ta ti s ti c s  E x pl o r e    !   Pl o ts 4    .           .

L e v e l w i th l e v e ne te s t .  4    <6 :  "  D 1  )1 Pl o ts    !  :    # $  C "3 D 1 1   +   s pr e a d v s .

  F     H .)    +  ) .    .    E x pl o r e 99      . 6  7  Po w e r E s ti m a ti o n   : 2   3        :     9 . $    <.

 Treat A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B C B C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D ep en d 8 9 5 5 4 0 1 0 2 0 4 7 0 4 2 8 6 2 0 7 6 0 5 3 7 8 4 5 1 0 5 0 3 8 7 4 9 7 1 5 2 0 1 6 1 0 1 9 0 0 1 3 5 0 9 8 0 1 7 1 0 1 9 3 0 1 9 6 0 1 8 4 0 2 4 1 0 1 5 2 0 1 6 8 5 4 3 3 0 0 3 2 8 0 0 2 8 8 0 0 3 4 6 0 0 2 7 8 0 0 3 2 8 0 0 2 8 1 0 0 1 8 9 0 0 3 1 4 0 0 3 9 5 0 0 2 9 0 0D 0 E P E N D 2 2 3 0 0 4 0 0 0 8 6 0 0 8 2 6 0 9 8 3 0 7 6 0 0 9 6 5 0 8 9 0 0 6 0 6 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 5 5 0 0 9 2 5 0 7 9 0 0 1 00 .A 3 # " Da ta E d i to r   %  1  . L e v e ne .

 ! A .

 1  1   >     ! &  1  . M    1 . . .1 ?  1     #=    $  .

(> %  1 "   =   #   N     G  1   +  ) . 2 = )  1   .2   Po w e r Tr a ns f o r m a ti o n .

2 = 3 .

 : .

1 (   1   >   )  )  .    5    C "3 #!   OK 4.   Co nti nu e 4    L ev ene   +    4   $       )    5 *  #   ( +    3    )   3  .

@  1   .

  1  F   B    L e v e ne .

  ! A    1 (  1   >    3 ).

" 1  .

    C  "3 . @ 0  @  Me a n .

 1      .

 ! &  F   .

2   7  C  "3 .

  1   .

 ! O .

1  1  .    Me d i a n . $   .000<0.05 ) ≈ (p-v a l u e .   .

  3 .

 )1 10.    . 7 8 3 %  "1   .

 " 1  .

@ 0    '  % 5 .

. M 1  )  .

 A #!     . @  (  3  .

  > 0   %  1   >   D "3    )1 .

  C "3 .   . . "   . $   .

 1   .

 ! &  .

6 2 1 d f1 3 3 10.000 . 2 3  Test of Homogeneity of Variance B a s B a s B a s w ith e d o n e d o n e d o n a d ju s M e a M e d M e d te d d n ia n ia n a n d f B a s e d o n tr im m e d m e a n L e v e n e S ta tis tic 10. L ev el P l o t             )    5 *  #    )   4 .000 .85 3 4 4 S ig .783 10.000 .779 3 d f2 4 4 4 4 15 .6 2 1 3 10.000 S p read v s . .2   1   >    3 .

.      #=       . " $  R  $  .

   >     C  . " $   #   %  1  #  .

 @ & 1 :    . .       (Po w e r e s ti m a ti o n ) .

5 6.     G  1 .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Level * Plot of LN of Spread vs LN of Level Slope = .256 %  )" .0 5.0 Spread 6.9.744 Power for transformation = . Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT 8.5 8.0 Spread vs.5 7.0 7.

256 >  .D #  ) 0 >   1 ?  0. # $  )  F  .B. 2 = 3 $  .C.7 4 4 #    . #=    L @  7    %  1  #    4=   >    b=0.  )1   M    G A.

2   .

) $  % =    # C  N  1 1-b = 0.25 6 #       3  =  .

1      .

  F     ( )1     .

" )1/2 >   1 ( G    K    0    (  +  >   0 !    .2 #) #@   5    . ) +   #   3  . (.

 ) Pl o ts    !  1   #) %  1  # 1   .    9 .

"3 >   Tr a ns f o r m e d   .

.  1 9 $ 1  Trans f o rmed         $   )   *   )        :   *             G %  )   1    C  9 .     5   .

  L 1  !  Tr a ns f o r m e d      E x pl o r e :Pl o t     ! :    # $     N a tu r a l L o g C  9 ) 1 K       .

"       .

) Po w e r #   : (  "  % G "  ) .

  %  1  . 6  OK 4   Co nti nu e 1 01 4  3 . .   .

Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT .    4    .3 .087 .2 .6 .Spread vs.5 .7 .1 6 7 8 9 10 11 Level * Data transformed using P = Slope = -.4 Spread .

   1 .   %  1 " $  . .

2 = )"  3 F    3 L @  7  .

 2     .

   %  1 "   1   >     3 .

08 7 #  .  1   >    3 .  #    #    ?.2  1-b = 1.08 7    >   E  D "3 b=-0.   +       . "  $  /0   C  $        .

" $     ).

   C "3 #!   )1     .   %  1  :    . .

"    .

078   )       . Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT 16 14 12 10 Spread 8 6 4 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Level * Data transformed using P = Slope = .     18 Spread vs.2 D  +  0. 07 8 +  #    7  D "3 % =       3  =  . 922    >   E  D "3 0.

1   5    %  2 .  )1    1 .

 +  3     1 02 . .   %  1 "  1   >   .

1 . .     0  D E  Pl o ts    !   U ntr a ns f o r m e d  " .   C "3 3 .

1  1  % G  1 ( I QR )  )1   M   .    1 .

2 = )   1 K  ( %  1  #   1 ).

..201   #) . Level Plot of DEPEND By TREAT 7000 :    # $     6000 5000 4000 3000 Spread 2000 1000 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 Level * Data transformed using P = Slope = . "!  Spread vs.          <"3  )1   M   .    1 .

%  )"  )1   M    G . 2 = )"  3 F   6 =  .    G  1 .

2 = )  #  .D  #   N        !        .

  )1  .  ( 3– 6 )   Opti o ns 4   1 9  0  <2 +     % .

0       :    O p t i o n s    ! C  "3 +  %    (%    .

  ) . " 1 .

6  E x p l o r e :   7  C a s e s L is tw is e .#): E x c l u d e .   )1 .

          F a c t o r .

 4      D e p e n d e n t )       +  9  0  .

2 . .

  )1    : E x c l u d e C a s e s P a i r w i s e .     %    =     +  9  0   2 . @  .    % .

 @ &  .

5    ( . .  0  F  .

) .

 !  .   #) 3   .

"  .

 0  .

 4     9  0      #) : R e p o r t V a l u e s : D a t a E d i to r .

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25 t= S:  "    1  -   .25 or µ .25 = 0 H 1 : µ ≠ 1.1    #   H 0 : µ = 1.1.

    t .

 ! A   x−µ s/ n n=10 .

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  ? 1   1  -    0         .   % . 6 :    # $     D 1  +   O ptio ns     !  . 6 O ptio ns  4      . $   Anal y z e  Co mpare M eans  O ne sampl e T-Test :  "   D 1  1   +   O ne sampl e t-Test     !  .

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<      C " 3 Test V ariabl es .  5    C " 3       +       '  . .#        .

 /  - : # " " .

   5     . 6 O ne sampl e T-Test     ! 12 0   O K  4   3  .

3 6 E -0 2 F    t = ( 1. D e v ia tio n . ( 2-ta i l e d ) .23 0 99% C o n f i d e n c e I n te r v a l o f th e D iffe r e n c e L o w e r U p p e r -. 16 2 S td . 12 1E .25 )/ 0.020-1.492 .0 0 1 5 M e a n D iffe r e n c e -.02 One-Sample Test T e s t V a l u e = 1 . E rro r M e a n 5 .492 d f 9 S i g . 02 0 S td .05 12 = -4.25 W E IG H T t -4.T-Te s t One-Sample Statistics W E IG H T N 10 M e a n 1.3 96 -6 .

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α   # 2  P-v al u e %     )  ..  . L @     .   .

@   ( T-d i s t r i b u t i o n 0. 4 9 2 4 .0007 5 -4 .4 9 2 12 1 0  .0007 5 0.

0007 5 + 0.P-v al u e = Pr ( t ≥ 4.492 ) + Pr ( t ≤ −4.492 ) =0.0007 5 =0. #    Pr %1 %5 .0015 Pr o babi l i ty #    .

     )  . .

   .05    1       M e an Di f f e r e n c e ?      .  @   (     P-v al u e <0.01   P-v al u e < 0.

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  9  0 .

1    !  &  #  "      #   )  . 1   Pr ( − 0. 1   1    :  "      .396 < x − µ − 0.       1   0 " .23 < −0. #  " 2 .0636 ) = 9 9 %   K    <.

  %9 9 .   9         :  "     µ ?     .

t9 .8 5 3 6 < µ < 1. 0.   9      1 Pr ( x .8536         1 ?     .1864 0.005 * (S/ n )< µ < x + t9 . 0.18 6 4 ) = 9 9 % (   n) )=9 9 % D   " 3 %9 9 +    1.005 * (S/ Pr ( 0.   ?     #     +     1  .

    .

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   9   B    ?   1.25 .

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 @   . % @  0  I n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s T-Te s t   .

         T  ( 3 8 ) /     T .

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  1  .     "   1  . ! #    <  1 12   1     B A .    #  )   H .

7 7 .4 1 1 .2 9.0 1 0 .6 7 .3 9. .2 .7 7 .4 8 .2 6 .9 1 2 .       0 ! B   9.4 8 .

 .        0  !          1  .

1  .

  .

      1  . 1    :      5     %    .

7  . 1  A   12.7 9. " .4 1 1 .7 1 1 .5 H 1 : µA ≠ µ B %  2 9.6 1 1 .5 1 0 .9 8 .     1 + )       1   .3 1 0 .3 9.6 9.6 9.   H 0 : µA = µB 122       1  .

1  #  : .

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  $    An al y z e  C o m p ar e M e an s  I n d e p e n d e n t Sam p l e s T Te s t    +    I n d e p e n d e n t Sam p l e s T Te s t     !  . 6   :  "     D 1    Te s t V ar i abl e s . 1  #            .

    2    Pr o te n      #   P 1   2     G r o u p i n g V ar i abl e .

   2   (.

.  4       ) G r o u p      7   De f i n e G r o u p s  4       .  3 B A ?      H   )  C              ) B A   4        2 D G r o u p        D   <   " 3 2 1         E         ( d i c h o to m o u s V ar i abl e   ! .

 4       % .  9    !  9   1   H      1 4      .    C u t Po i n t # !  .

.     # =    ?           M    .

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3      10 +      1   .

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3   . (N u m e r i c <  3      .  .

 4      .

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   2             #   A     : .

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13 14 1.0 0 0 0 S td .5 rro r n 26 6 4 10  4   3  . E M e a . 6  I n d e p e n d e n t s am p l e T Te s t     !   O K Group Statistics P R O T E N 123 G R O U P A B N 12 12 M e a n 10 . 4 0 0 0 9 . 8 7 4 2 S td . D e v ia tio n 1.3 .     5      .

776 t.267E .63 20 8 .9 3 6E .71 0 6 .21 5 E q u a l v a r ia n c e s n o ta s s u m e d .0 3 7 1 . E rro r D iffe r e n c e .ta i l e d ) 22 9 5 % C o n fid e n c e I n te r v a l o f th e D iffe r e n c e L o w e r U p p e r M e a n D iffe r e n c e      )    . .4 0 0 .4 0 0 S td .0 2 2.0 4 0 1 .   6  = 2 %    1   +     3 (  0  .te s t f o r E q u a l i ty o f M e a n s S ig .0 8 2.21 5 1 8 .0 2 2.63 20 7. ( 2.1 1 0 t d f 2.Independent Samples Test L e v e n e 's T e s t f o r E q u a l i ty o f V a r ia n c e s P R O T E N E q u a l v a r ia n c e s a s s u m e d F 2.7273 S ig .  9   E     )        1  +    (  0  C          M     1  .

    .

      σ 2 = σ 2 +   E   C    .

σ 2A ≠ σ B B A       +  %5 .     0  .

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. M   1  )  .

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05  E     1   >   L e v e n   1      .  @   # 1 2 C   3  P-v al u e = 0.  9   E     )        1  (+   ) > .     )    .11>0.

 2  1 .

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              T     ( 4 8 ) 7    9    (.

 3 ).

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  .

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 #            ) .    $ 3   /   0 !  9      (B A)  0 ! : . 2 %      .  .

) . 2 #    # !    .

   #    .

%5 .     %    1  B H     A    B    ! 1 M     % 3  4 A H N  4 !  1      A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 127 135 195 200 162 160 170 182 143 147 205 200 168 172 175 186 197 194 136 141 .

M   1   !   " B   &  . .

    .   +   1 .

"     .

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    %  .      0  An al y z e  C o m p ar e M e an s  Pai r e d Sam p l e s T Te s t         . 6   .   ? 1    1  .   $   :     #  $  C " 3 D 1   1   +   Pai r e d Sam p l e s T Te s t     ! 124 :     .

>  0           =  #   A .  7   b a   0 !  %    $   =    b a        : .

  .     %  .  .

4  %    $       1 3  1 Pai r e d v ar i abl e s .

     >     4 1 b        ?  Sh i f t Q  0  .    2   % 2  .     >     4 1 a        . < )             .2 . F     .  @  .

70 A B N 10 10 S td .60 S td .D e v ia tio n 2 6.3 :  "       1  .1 4 7 d f 9 S ig .8 2 9 5 % C o n fid e n c e I n te r v a l o f th e D iffe r e n c e L o w e r U p p e r -8 .2 1 t -2 . .5 8 2 4 . %1 %5 . 000 Paired Samples Test P a ir e d D iffe r e n c e s P a ir 1 A-B M e a n -3. 5    C " 3 # !  " O K  4     Paired Samples Statistics P a ir 1 M e a n 167. E rro r M e a n 1 .9 7 8 S ig .78 Paired Samples Correlations P a ir 1 N A & B 10 C o r r e la tio n .01 .    2 C         #  Pai r e d v ar i abl e s .4 0 7. D e v i a ti o n 5 .1  4     .7 4 S td . ( 2 -ta i l e d )    .80 171.E rro r M e a n 8.90 S td .

 .  1  .      7   .9 7 8          1 .06 0 +  H 0 : µA = µB  )  . #   )  . M   1 + )   0.

05 .06 0>0.  @   # 1 2 C   3  P-v al u e =0.

  2  E  T   1  .

1   1 . .

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 )  %   =    3 125 .

   .

  .

   Analysis of Variance %    1    .

3    "   %  ) 1    N       1 .

!    .

AN O V A Tabl e     1   #  "   # 1 H  )  #   #  "    5    R  "  .  @     %   "  )     1   #  "  1 !    .

0 "    F   !  C  %   )   1 H  )  %   )    .

3   %  .   +    .

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!    One Way ANOVA   .

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  . #  %     .

= 1 \       )  N B .

3  ! : 1#      . .

) 1   %     :    #       .

1    .

   5 0 3 4 8 2 1 47 55 61 64 64 55 52 52 49 55 45 41 44 50  1   .   .

    .

  2   .

  3   .

  4   .

  J    1 .

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M   . .

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 3  !    .    1   0  .

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   +    1 .    .2 .  %  .       . ..1 .

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    .

 @  0    1   +  # 2   C " 3      .  .   +     3 C " 3 R H 0 : µ1 = µ 2 = µ 3 = µ 4     .

"  1  .

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  )  .       .   #    F = 3  #       .

" ?     . .    .   #    µ   7   .

 . #  126 .

: .

  ? 1     1   #  "   /    :     #  $  C " 3 Data E d i to r .     %  .

6  :  7  <   1         . 2    %    1  #   A m e th o d 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 p ro 5 4 4 5 6 6 5 4 5 5 4 4 5 7 d u c t 8 5            4 An al y z e 4 5 C o m p ar e M e an s  O n e -W ay N O V A    +    O n e -W ay AN O V A      ! 9 :  "     D 1   1 2 0 4 1   .  #          .

1    .

<  3 . 1 D  <  " 3 .   #     )        #    : De p e n d e n t Li s t F       Fac to r %    )   > 0 (%       )  )                     . De p e n d e n t .

     .

 @   %       3   1    1   #  "   #    3 C " 3 # !  .

  #          .

 3  !  .

           :        1   #  "   # 5    1  (  ) O K  4   3  ANOVA PRODUCT S u m S q u a 4 0 2 1 5 2 5 5 4 B e tw e e n G ro u p s W ith in G r o u p s To t a l  )  .    .N u m e r i c <  3 <          .  N #    %   0  H   )    #  )   +   #          #    : Fac to r .

0 5 3 S ig .0 1 2   .0 . 0 0 0 1 9 .0 f s 0 0 0 0 0 0 d f 3 8 1 1 M e a n S q u a re 1 34 .0 0 0 F 7 . .0 .05   # 2  F .  o re .  @   ( 127   ?  . 0.

   !  & .

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? 1    .   2   .

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M   . .

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 )    1  . Po s t H o c     ! : .

D.      1 C o m p ar i s o n s  .S.     %  . 6   O n e -W ay AN O V A     ! :  "     D 1    Po s t H o c  4    +   M u l ti p l e c o m p ar i s o n s .   N  1 E 1 Du n n e tt L.2  9     I .     .

1   1 Du n n e tt LSD   $ E 1   2 7   9 )   %      " 9  3   . 6  = .

   .    Fi r s t      2 ( Fi r s t .     . Las t ) C o n tr o l C ate g o r y 9  .

        . 1 . 3      . N    ?   .    H  .   )   1  .

" .     9  .      .    .

  C   . " . Si g n i f i c an c e Le v e l   %5 .   .    .

 )   M      <     . Te s t : .

5 3. 0 0 9 . 21 21.0 0 11. 21 . 0 15 .2. 0 0 -5 .8 9 6 .0 8 5 . 21 17 . 0 0 5 . 21 -7 . 128 S ig . 21 10 .0 0 2 . 21 17 .     %      C " 3 # !  O K  4   C o n ti n u e Multiple Comparisons  4   3  Dependent Variable: PRODUCT ( I ) M E TH OD 1 L S D 2 3 4 Du nnett t ( 2. 0 0 2.7 9 1. and c o m pare all o th er g ro u ps ag ains t it. 0 0 2. 5 3. 40 9 9 5 % L o w er B o - - - - - - Co nf idenc e I nterv u nd Upper B 19 . 0 15 .3. 5 3.16 . 5 3.0 0 11. 5 3. 21 2. 21 . E rro 3.0 8 5 . Th e m ean dif f erenc e is s ig nif ic ant at th e . 0 0 -7 .2. 19 8 .7 9 15 . 25 . 5 3.6 . 19 8 .0 0 16 . 21 15 . 5 r 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 a. 0 37 . 21 13. 5 3. 5 3.s ided) a 2 3 4 ( J ) M E TH OD 2 3 4 1 3 4 1 2 4 1 2 3 1 1 1 *. 21 19 . Du nnett t. 7 9 . 21 13. 21 10 . 5 3.0 0 7 .1. 0 0 -9 . 21 3.0 0 2 .7 5 .0 0 -5 .7 9 7 . 7 9 6 . 0 0 . 21 24. 5 3.tes ts treat o ne g ro u p as a c o ntro l. 25 15 . 21 -.7 9 .8 . 0 35 . 5 3.5 9 0 . 21 24. 21 . 25 5 .0 0 * * * * * * * S td. . 25 12. 25 al o u nd . 5 3. 0 5 lev el. M ean Dif f erenc e (I-J ) .5 9 0 . 5 3. 0 35 .0 0 .11. 5 3.

%  .     1 %5.

M   1 . .

6   LSD .  )     %  .

   . #   )   1 D  6  =  ∗.

 P-V al u e .  = 3 ?  0.05   # 2  Si g .

  2 %   7   (4 2)J(3 2)J (2 1) %   )   . %  .       C " 3 C   .

   .   .     1 %5.

. M   1 .

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3       1 3  1 C   .

   .  1 .

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6  O n e W ay AN O V A     ! : ! "    O p ti o n s  4   3 .    .  :          !  .… +    )   H    . J  1     .   #   .

   1   #  "   /      .  0 !  >       (       1 (#               .  ) %   )      1  > .

: H o m o g e n e i ty -o f -V ar i an c e  0       1   >    1 )  7   . Le v e n e .   ( )1 ( :  7   ) : De s c r i p ti v e     1  .  .

  #    . %   )   .   (  ) : M e an s p l o t .  .    !  A .

    ) 1   : E x c l u d e C as e s An al y s i s by An al y s i s .#                !   O K  4   F = 3       !   C o n ti n u e  4   3 : .  $   %      " 9  0  <   2 +      % . %           +  9  0  <   2 +      % .   #  "    1 . 9  0    2 C " 3 %    1  /     )          +    $ E   .  .    ) 1   : E x c l u d e C as e s Li s tw i s e O n e -W ay . .

    5     (  3   AN O V A  Test of Homogeneity of Variances > PRODUCT L e v e n e S ta tis tic .6 6 7 d f1 3     3 ).

"  1  .

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 @     1   .

    1  F = 3  B     .

5 9 6 >0.   @   #  1 2 C   3  P-V al u e =0.05 .

  2   7   Le v e n e .

   !  A      1 (    1   . ( Le v e n e .

%    1   > M e a n s Pl o t s 129  1 .    !  A #  E x p l o r e     ?   ).

"      )  : .

 )  #   1     .   #        . .    .

70 Mean of PRODUCT 60 50 40 1 2 3 4 METHOD Orthogonal Comparisons  .

 ( 11– 9 )             .     G  %   )   ( ) 1   1 .

    /   E 1 7   1   .     6 )    C o n tr as t     1 H   )  .  .

"      %         t-1         D E  t   3 ( %  3   ) %   )  ]Q = ∑ Ci Yi. w i th : .

    .

 .   .

2 = )    E  +   (% = 1   ) ∑ Ci = 0             C o e f f i c i e n ts % =    )    Ci   i .

E  Q2 = ∑ C 2i Yi.   Q1 = ∑ C1i Yi.   7   O r th o g o n al (      )  )   "          .  )   N   #    Yi.    .

  D +   SSt%   )   %  ) 1   N                  D  " 3 ∑ C1i C 2i = 0    A #   .

 )    1       &  1    9   .

   .

  .  #  .

"     %         t-1 C  t-1 .

9  C " 3 %       F     :2 #    .    :     #       E  1    L  @  .

 ) 1  E 1  4    3 %    1 % "  ^   0   C " 3   = )    N   .

      E  .

   .

    16 8 18 8 16 8 17 2 144 40 42 46 43 36 W e i g h t . 1   %    Yi.

 42 47 44 45 37 40 48 42 42 36     #    %  6 N #  %      46 51 36 42 35  1 2 3 4 5                           : .

     .

 :  .  ." . 56   :  "    .     1   0  . . %   )   %  .

− Y2.  )    1  . − Y3. − Y5. − Y4. = 0 13 0 : .   1   #  "   /    Q1 = 4Y1.

    t-1 .

"     .

) 1    %       .

1 .  )    1   .2 .

+ Y3. − Y4. − Y5. − Y5. = 0 Q3 = Y2. = 0 Q4 = Y4. − Y3.Q2 = Y2. = 0 tr e at 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 :  "     Data E d i to r .

2  C  %    1  #   A   .

  1    w e ig h t :        .

6   O n e -W ay AN O V A       !    C o n tr as ts  4    #    A    C    .    4 6 4 0         4 2    !  " #  A n a l y z e  C o m p a r e M e a n s  O n e -W a y A N O V A 4 0 :  % &   '  O n e -W a y A N O V A  $ 5 1 4 8 4 7 4 2 3 6 4 2 4 4 4 6 4 2 4 2 4 5 4 3 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 6       !   .

     " .

=   )  4#   )   . 1   1  M     "  9   %       #   P 1   7   C o n t r a s t s  :  "      .

  @ A    A d d  4      4  2   .    C o e f f i c i e n ts .

 "      ? 1       . # 0      #  .    C  • .#   )   .

  @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n ts .

# 0      #  .  .  "      ? 1      -1  2   .    C  1 • .#   )   .

  @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n ts .

  .#   )   .  "      ? 1      -1  2   .    C  1 • . # 0      #  .

  @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n t s .

#   )   .  "      ? 1      -1  2   .    C  1 • .  . # 0      #  .

  @ A    A d d  4       C o e f f i c i e n t s .

   C  1 • 131 .  .  "      ? 1      -1  2   . # 0      #  .

N e x t  4    .

    .

     % =   )  #   & . C   .

     % =   )  .

    "   2     . 1  . 6  . %       .

C   .   1     .

     % =   )  #   A .

   . > 0 1 % =   )   #   P 1  1    :  "     C o n t r a s t s     !   <=   C   .

P r e v i o u s  4     .      % =   )  .

 1   .

    C  9 ) " N e x t  4    .

    .

6 6 7 F 7 . .0 0 0 8 .0 f d f s 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 5 1 9 M e a n S q u a re 6 2 .      C  #    = 5     1      O n e -W a y A N O V A     !   O K  4   C o n tin u e  4    :     B     (  )1  ANOVA WEIGHT S u m S q u a 2 48 1 3 0 3 7 8 B e t w e e n Gr o u p s Wi t h i n Gr o u p s To t a l o re . %1 %5 .0 .0 .1 5 4 S ig .0 0 2 .

    1   0  . M   1 (  = )  ) %   )   %  . .

 )  C    $  F   1     Contrast Coefficients C o n tra s t 1 2 3 4 1 4 0 0 0 2 -1 1 1 0 T R E A T 3 -1 1 -1 0 4 -1 -1 0 1 5 -1 -1 0 -1 %        .

.   )  t  1     1       #    .

) 1    %       % =   )    1  F = 3  #  .

05   %5 .   1    P-V al u e =1 > 0.

. M   1 (Q1=0).

 )    G C   .

       L @  D  .

05   %5 .       P-V al u e < 0.

M   1 ( 0 !   3 <    H "  ) . .

 %       :  "     B     V al u e o f C o n tr as t .  )   .

     .

4       . %    1   +    ( V al u e o f C o n tr as t = ∑ Ci Yi. / r .   2    " )  ?  .

         .

  : 132     : r .

00 2 . E rror W E I G H T A ssu m e e q u al v ari anc e 1s .08 D oe s not assu m e e q u al1 .00 2 .00 2 .5 8 2 1 0.08 4 7 .Contrast Tests V al u e of Contrast Contrast S td .9 7 3 5 .9 4 3 5 .3 9 v ari anc e s 2 1 0.00 2 .8 6 4 7 .8 2 7   … .00 2 .00 6 .00 6 .00 .

tai l e d ) 1 .8 5 .03 0 1 5 . ( 2.4 02 .1 3 2 00 .7 5 0 .000 .7 6 .000 1 5 Trend Analysis  .8 S i g .004 1 5 .5 7 3 d f 4 .000 1 5 . 1)   J 3 2 3 3 1 8 t .3 6 3 .3 6 5 .8 4 .004 2 7 1 .000 .3 9 7 .000 2 3 .01 2 8 0 .

 ( 219) .

   .

    J .

.  % 1   C  %  )   % ) 1  N   .

4      #   "          0    %   )   3 #    t   7   t-1 +    Polynomial   )   .

        .

      . 0 "    %           <=      #   ) %       3 9   1 3  .   %   )         .

     .

0!  .

1    3 9        (   .

0"   % 1    .

>    #  )    #    M         1 .      )  .  )   1   H .

)   M   D   +  5-1=4 +       )   .

.   E   1    #    " %   )   %  ) 1   N   #  "      7   .

 ) 1  .

    J .

1)   J .

   .

    J .

.   .

Contrasts %       %  0 !    1 > 0  .  . 1    C "3 # !      & 1 :  "     Contrasts     !   6  . @ ) 1  3 ..

"        %  1     F     <  " 3     )   .

    Polynomial        ) 1 Coef f icients % =   )   .

1    C  B    .

   C "3 # !  133 O ne-w ay AN O VA     !   O K  4   Continu e  4   3 .4th : .

   .

18 5 5 . 429 130 . 5 7 1 5 3. . 6 0 0 3 9 2. 0 29 1. 5 7 1 26 .6 7 4 .6 6 7 10 . 6 8 1 3. 429 5 1. 0 5 9 . 429 8 . 9 34 5 .0 7 7 . 0 0 10 2.0 0 4 48 . 5 33 5 .0 0 5 . 40 0 145 . 5 14 1. 6 0 0 5 1. 0 28 ?  . 15 4 11. 8 15 S ig . 0 0 0 10 2.0 0 9 9 2. 429 5 1. 6 0 0 5 1.0 0 2 .6 0 0 .o r d e r Te r m C o n tr ia tr ia tr a s tio a s tio a s t t t n n f 0 4 1 M e a n S q u a re 6 2. 40 C o n tra s t D e v ia tio n C o n D e v C u b i c Te r m C o n D e v 4t h . 9 34 . 0 28 . 0 0 0 37 8 .ANOVA WEIGHT B e tw e e n Gr o u p s ( C o m b in e d ) L i n e a r Te r m Q u a d r a tic Te r m Wi t h i n Gr o u p s To t a l S u m o S q u a re 248 . 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 s d f 15 19 F 7 .

) 1    %  1     C " 3 Betw een Grou ps %   )     1 %  ) 1    N   ?  4    D  6  - .

M    1   1  3 .  .

6 % 1    ?      .  )  %  .

1   #  9   .

  .

 / . Cu bic term . 3  .

 1  )    .

1      3 % 5 Tw o W ay AN O V A         .

 (29) C   .

  +    1      )   1  # "    0  R CB .  @ A #   #  )  %  )  % .

  $ )  .

    !  .  "   % 3 .        !    Desig n : 3#    K          0    1 +      #  C "3 # !     . .   B         #  )  % .   +    1  .

 $ 3 .

"  % 3 . 2 .

1    (#   #    )  ) %     . &     N   .

) 1   %      2 .

 )  .

 ) %   .   : !   (    )               (  #  )    1)  % 3 . 2 ) 1 (   )         )  .     ? .

) 1  %     D C B A 0 -1 -1 -3 -4 1 1 0 4 -2 -2 -4 -5 1 0 0 ( )  1 2 3 4 " #            .

              .

  :  . 83 #  1984                  ! " N    % .     1   0  .

 )   1 . % 5 . G   .  )   1  # "  #       7  1  .

M    1 car%       N     1   0  . .

&  :  "     Data E ditor  2 %    1  #   P 1   .  )  K   Tyre %    .

  1    134 .

car A A A A B B B B C C C C D D D D tyre 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4   .

1     %  @ th in 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 -5 -1 -1 -3 -4 0 -2 -2 -4 :              .

  $  .

 *   %  :        +   Analyze G ener al L i near M o d el  U ni v ar i at e :   .

% +  &  #  '  U ni v ar i at e  $   !  " #  . 2 #   )  %   )  .

       1  3  C " 3 Fixed Factors     "   )   "   %  1    #    )    6  .. R andom Factors .

  #  )     E  #   )  %   )    .

 3    .

    .  7   O ne-W ay AN O VA .

    . G  .     D  >  )  C " 3 <  4   <               Fixed Factor K  Fu ll Factorial   <. <  3 <      Factor       . 6   M odel  4    I nteraction # 3  0    .  " . 1 Cu stom     J M odel     !    ) (car*tyre)     1   #  "   #   :  "     D 1     ) 1 M odel     ! . 6  7   1   E. 6   .

 .

    B   F  13 1  )  #  "   #       . 6 A       E f f ects %     E   N    )  #  )     Bu ild Terms .   %    .   B      % 1         @  C " 3 #  )  I nclu de I ntercept in M odel   $ E    7   .

        1 M odel .

  C  Factors & 135 Cov ariates.

    car tyre         #  1   2 7      1   .

      E   ) 1 ) M ain E f f ects .

( M ain ef f ects        @   Bu ild Terms . 6  .      %     E    .

37 5 a 14 . 8 96 1.0 0 . TYR E + S S .0 0 2 9 7 3 :  6    #      :  "     Tw o-W ay AN O VA     )  1    1  #  "   #    (. 0 0 0 10 . Total –S S . 938 df 6 1 3 3 9 16 15 M ean S q u are 11.0 0 . 8 5 7 ( A dj u s ted R S q u ared = . 5 63 14 . 5 63 95 .0 0 . Corrected M odel = S S . 68 8 38 . R S q u ared = . 0 38 a. 2 2 9 12 . 962 10 . 0 63 10 . I ntercept #     . .  #  N U niv ariate     !   O K   Continu e  4   3  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: THIN S o u rc e C o rrec ted M o del Interc ept TY R E C A R E rro r To tal C o rrec ted To tal Ty pe III S u m o f S q u ares 69. 7 62 ) S S . 0 0 0 8 0 .   B    R S ig . 94 6 7 . CAR S S . 2 8 5 F 9. 68 8 11. Corrected Total = S S .   1          B    +   GL M   )   . 0 63 30 .   :    B     C "3 # !  Between-Subjects Factors T Y R E CAR A B C D 1 2 3 4  4          4 1  .

. % 5  . 6 8 8 1 1 . . 0 38 S ig .      #   # !  ?   ) Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: THIN S o u rc e TY R E C A R E rro r C o rrec ted To tal Ty pe III S u m o f S q u ares 30 .5 6 3 8 0 . 6 8 8 38 .2 2 9 .0 0 3 car  #    %   . 96 2 1 0 .2 8 5 F 7 .0 0 7 . 938 . 8 96 .  /     df M ean S q 1 0 1 2 1 u are .  tyer  #  $  %   &  # '     ( ) *   +   .

 0   ) #     . F .

 2 C "3 # !  136 3 3 9 1 5  D  <  " 3 ) car tyre :     1 # 3 0   . 6 & :.

    %  .   ? 1  (.

1 .     %   .

      !   I nteraction     Bu ild Terms .

    # 0     tyre        1 ) % 2  > 0   Factors & D    .      • Cov ariates.

(car         ?  S h if t Q   0  .  @    . M odel .      car tyre             • .M odel .

  B    #  )       . M odel     !  4    •  )   .      )     1   #  "   /      GL M (.2   Fu ll Factorial       1 4       1 /  $  > 0   <  " 3 .   C                 #  .

         .  1    9  #  9   $        #    ?       )     1   #  "   ) : 4 #    S h elf L ocation H    ?  2  .

"  "  .

 3 1    %  )  1   #        #            #         $  %    2 (    #   )  ) S tore S iz e       ( #   #   )  ) S h elf L ocation H   ? 2  D 48 53 60 57 7 1 7 5 #   3 %  )  % .    1  C 65 7 1 7 3 8 0 8 2 8 9  0  .

 )   B 56 63 69 7 8 7 5 8 2 1  ?    )       S iz e : .

    A_ 45 S mall 50 57 M ediu m 65 7 0 L arg e 7 8  1  # "  #     .  . ".

 . M    1 S iz e*L ocation # 3  0   .

<    1 K  L  @  ?  % 5 location A S A S A M A M A L A L B S B S B M B M B L B L C S C S C M C M C L C L D S D S D M D M D L D L 137 size m all m all ed iu m ed iu m ar g e ar g e m all m all ed iu m ed iu m ar g e ar g e m all m all ed iu m ed iu m ar g e ar g e m all m all ed iu m ed iu m ar g e ar g e sales 4 5 5 0 5 7 6 5 7 0 7 8 5 6 6 3 6 9 7 8 7 5 8 2 6 5 7 1 7 3 8 0 8 2 8 9 4 8 5 3 6 0 5 7 7 1 7 5 :  "     Data E ditor   %    1  #   P 1   .  )    1    L ocation ? 2   %   )    1 S iz e    .

  1    :      . $ .          Analyze :        +   G ener al L i near M o d el  U ni v ar i at e :   ..

% +  &  #  '  U ni v ar i at e  $   !  " #  . .

G    Fu ll Factorial     M odel  4    .I nteraction # 3  0   C " 3 # !     .  " .   $ )  E.

   %        3    <   " 3 (.

        6  B        )        " .  .       Fu ll Factorial #   =  D " 1             C " 3 siz e       %    D   #    . G   %    A ) .    3  Plots  4     Prof ile Plots       !    .   %     E       Cu stom    %     E     / 4         .  1 " . 6   L ocation        " ?   1    %  . Def au lt  @     .

   %  .     .

H oriz ontal Axis .     D   0    +   I nteraction Plot :  "   :  "   F = 3   !    %     #  A   .

  C  Factors .

S eparate L ines .     siz e       #      Plot .

  C  L ocation       #   • .

 )  L 1 !  Add  4    6  =   • .   #  3    .    C  siz e*location # 3  0   H  @   F    <.   0     S eparate Plots .  . 7   #   3 %        M    #  3 .# 0   .

U niv ariate    ! C  N  " Continu e  4    #  3  0  " E stimated M arg inal M eans .    2    .

    %  .      ( :     #  $  1 O ptions     ! 138 •   ) O ptions  4        6  7   location*siz e .

. .

333a 10 8 27 2. 9 38 17 . 0 8 3 8 8 . 5 14 . 5 0 0 11 1 3 2 6 12 24 23 F 12.0 4 2 . 8 19 21. 9 21 ( Adj u s ted R Sq u ared = . R Sq u ared = .5 0 0 %    )    1 K   L ocation #   )  %   )    1 . 7 67 5 0 35 . 0 9 0 4 2.0 0 0 . 5    #    #       Tests of Between-Subjects Effects :  "    1  # "  Dependent Variable: SALES So u rc e LO C AT I O N SI Z E LO C AT I O N * SI Z E Erro r C o rrec ted T o tal T y pe I I I Su m o f Sq u ares 1 1 0 2. 333 1 8 28 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 . 0 0 0 327 7 . 333 18 28 . 333 df M ean Sq u are 27 4 . 0 4 2 14 .   B   "    . 9 17 25 8 . 0 0 0 327 7 . . 0 0 0 1115 5 0 . 667 110 2. 667 367 . 68 9 Sig . 4 8 5 10 8 27 2. 333 df M ean Sq 367 9 1 4 1 4 21 3 2 6 1 2 23 u are .0 0 0 . 0 8 3 8 8 .   1      &  1   )   .9 1 7 25 8 . 8 4 9 ) B    ?  <   =      D . 4 4 4 9 14 . 663 a.    5   C "3 # !  U niv ariate     !   O K   Continu e  4   3  Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: SALES So u rc e C o rrec ted M o del I nterc ept LO C AT I O N SI Z E LO C AT I O N * SI Z E Erro r T o tal C o rrec ted T o tal T y pe I I I Su m o f Sq u ares 30 19 .8 1 9 .4 4 4 .

05  % 5 . . 68 9 Sig . p-Valu e = 0. 663 C A  $  F  1    .0 9 0 4 2.  )  %  2   F 1 7 . 5 1 4 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 . 663> 0.

. M    1 # 3  0    .

6      1 siz e #   )  Esti m a te d M a r g i n a l M e a n s LOCATION * SIZE Dependent Variable: SALES LO CAT I O N A B C D 139 SI Z E Larg e M ediu m Sm all Larg e M ediu m Sm all Larg e M ediu m Sm all Larg e M ediu m Sm all M ean 7 4 .6 4 4 .5 0 7 6 .5 0 5 9 .3 6 0 .5 0 8 5 .2 7 3 .3 7 1 .6 4 4 .5 0 5 0 .2 7 3 .5 0 7 8 .5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Std.3 nf idenc e I nterv nd U pper Bo 5 6 8 1 5 6 6 8 5 6 5 4 5 6 8 5 5 6 8 0 5 6 6 6 5 6 9 2 5 6 8 3 5 6 7 5 5 6 8 0 5 6 6 5 5 6 5 7 al u nd .  )   .1 4 4 .8 4 0 .2 7 3 .1 4 4 .2 7 3 .2 7 3 .8 5 1 .6 4 4 .6 4 4 .5 0 6 8 .6 4 4 .2 7 3 .8 5 3 .2 7 3 .2 7 3 .3 5 2 .1 4 4 .8 6 5 .2 7 3 .5 0 7 3 .0 0 6 1 .2 7 3 .6 4 4 .6 4 4 .3 6 6 .2 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 r 9 5 % Co Lo w er Bo u 6 6 .3 6 9 .2 7 3 .0 0 7 3 .3 4 3 .0 0 5 8 .3 7 8 .6 4 4 . Erro 3 .0 0 4 7 .1 4 4 .

 .     6   =  7    S iz e L ocation   "    )    1 # 3  0   ..

   1      .    . .

                 1      .  .? 2        0    C    $     < 1     .   4     .

 4    .  1 D    " !     3     location siz e   "   )    1 # 3  0   3  $ '  P r o f i l e P l o ts 90 Estimated Marginal Means of SALES Estimated Marginal Means 80 70 LOCATION 60 A B 50 C 40 Large Medium Small D SIZE Covariance Analysis  . F   1      1 .

  ( 3– 9) (.

1    !  ) .

        !      1   #  "   D      #   $      . "      #    3 K      . 4    Cov ariates (%   )   ) . "3 %  )    E > 2    9   6  C "3  '     X 4    1  . 4    .

  G     3    E  >   2 3 <=   Dependent Variable   )          Y 4    1   1 /   " D 1   M  C "3  '  .

1   .

 1   X      4  E Y      4 9 4 C "3   )    " .

 %   A   . .   4    1 % =  .

  -           R "   ( .  )  ? .

1   .

. .   7  1   E   .

1    .

  1    4      3   /         3 .

  (.

1    .

 !   : 5 #   4 9    4 C  " 3 .  1  # "   1 ?   .   . "   K  $    1  # "     X .    . .

0 "    (%   )   )   = 3 .

) 1      E  .

    ^      .

    C " 3 .

1   %    .

 . .    Y ^     4   9 4   1    # .

)  #  %   $  .

 %     ^    . .

1   .

 1 3 X ^     4  1   .

1   140 .

O bserv ations      2 9 1 5 1 33 1 6 7 2 1 1 5 6 2 0 1 30 2 5 1 7 0 2 0 1 8 0 2 6 1 6 1 2 0 1 7 1 29 172 36 1 8 9 30 160 2 8 1 4 2 35 190 35 1 9 3 35 138 30 2 00 X.

 1    .

   1     4     .

   1   0  .  4 A ) 1 %  #  1   X Y X 31 2 4 1 6 9 1 8 0 Y 32 X 34 1 5 6 189 Y X 32 4 1 1 7 3 2 01 Y )   % .

"   ) :     #  $  1 Data E ditor .  )   1  . 2 7 1 7 0 30 1 6 5 141 X 30 27 20 21 33 29 24 31 20 26 20 25 34 32 35 35 30 29 41 32 30 35 28 36 Y 165 170 130 156 167 151 180 169 171 161 180 170 156 189 138 190 160 172 201 173 200 193 142 189 treat T1 T2 T3 T4 ". (K   $      1   #  "   .  .

2    #  %    1 .   treat T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T3 T3 T3 T3 T3 T3 T4 T4 T4 T4 T4 T4   (  .

 1    :          /  +      .

            Analyze G ener al L i near M o d el U ni v ar i at e :     % &    '  U ni v ar i at e  $   ! :    *    2  1 .   $  .  .

 . ! $  O K 0    1  " #  .

133 . 2 1 5 ) % 5 . 9 S o u rc e C o rrec ted M o del I nterc ept X T R E A T E rro r T o tal C o rrec ted T o tal 5 6 a df 0 2 31 9 5 0 2 0 0 5 8 4 1 1 3 19 2 4 2 3 a. 46 9 1. .0 7 1 .8 16 0 9 .5 7 9 F 1 .5 7 2 2 5 .1 5 7 a. 5 32 2 7 6 .5 9 7 df M ean S q u are 1 9 2 2 3 5 36 . 9 40 S ig . 2 15 ) M ean S q u are 7 11. 5 32 2 7 6 .Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: Y T y pe I I I S u m o f S q u ares 2 8 45 .0 0 2 6 8 6 4 . 0 8 10 0 . R S q u ared = .5 7 9 :  "   K  $    1  # "  9  ! F 2 . 9 6 9 38 . R S q u ared = . 5 5 2 5 5 . 48 9 6 9 38 . 35 1 ( A dj u s ted R S q u ared = .9 4 0 S ig . 8 31 5 36 . 15 7      F = 3  #   .5 9 5 5 2 5 5 . .0 0 0 . 35 1 ( A dj u s ted R S q u ared = . 6 0 2 6 8 2 .0 8 7 2 .0 6 9 9 32 3. 6 6 8 2 .  1 2 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: Y S o u rc e T R E A T E rro r T o tal+ E rro r T y pe I I I S u m o f S q u ares a 1 6 0 9 .

. M    1  )  .

 @   # 1 2 C   3     P-Valu e= 0 . 05 . 157 > 0.

X .  !         .   2   6  =  .

4 A ) 1  = )    .

) 1   N    % .   +   C "3 R 142     .

    .

          .

 Correlation & Regression Analysis Correlat ion  .

  ( 1  10 )  . #     1 .   .  1     K = .

 1   . 1       6   1 . 2 = )  <=   Correlation .

2 = )  C    .

) "   )  N  0         (.

  . .

 1   .   <  " 3 (.    9   4 C  + '   0  #  9   4     .     2 . 2 = 3 ) %     ? "     D  = .     G  L inear <  .

   3 .

 " 3 .    C  + '    Correlation . " . .  1   . 2 = 3 )  .   1   . #    )  1 H  )  .

N on L inear .  >    +         >        . (−1 ≤ r ≤ 1) 1 C  1–   1 D    2 Q     r D 4    Coef f icients ?  S im p le L inear Correlat ion   .

      .

 %           1 .  ( 2  10 ) .

.  .

1 .  1   . 2= 3 (  1 . #  )  .              1 .   .

2 = 3  3  )  . ( 0 !    .#   )     .

1   2 ) 9    ! .

1 ) .  2 C "3 # !      ")  .   G . (  .

   .

    .

2= 3   %    @        1    L ang .

      %    #    . 10  . = .   "    1      .

    %    1  L ang 6 0 6 8 6 0 7 4 8 0 8 4 8 0 7 2 6 2 8 2 M ath 5 6 :  "     S PS S 5    1 Data E ditor .

   . #   )   . % 5 .  1   .   .  1    #   )  J Pearson  .   . 6  M ath 6 0 6 4 8 2 7 6 7 2 7 4 6 6 6 4 8 6 :  " . 2     . ".   1   . S pearman  .

. #  )  . M   1 . 1 .

 )   1        ! 143 :1 #    : .

  ? 1 F = 3  .  .1 .2  +   Biv ariate Correlation .  $   .    0   . 6   Analyz e  Correlate Biv ariate :  "   D 1        .    %  .

: .

    %       Correlation Coef f icients #     @   . .

 1   .   .     %       " . #   )  B      .   1   .: Pearson .

   #   )    1 .       R anks .

 #   )  B      .  1 .   " )  =    .:K endall’s Tau   .  1   .

   #  )          +   @    D    . .

 #  )       . 1  9  ! 1 . 1 .

1G   .

 4    .

 3  !  < 1    . 3 A       (.   .

.    %       %   )          G    =         6  M  A .

 " !         <. 1       6 " 9  6     .    #   A    .

K endall #   )  .    F     .

1   1 #        . S pearman Pearson          $  2    1   .   " .   .  1    #   )   : S pearman ..     .

 @  0    1   . O ne Tailed  $ '   H  .Tw o Tailed        $  Test sig nif icance #     .   .

 @  0  . ( S tar .

6 A ) .  = 3   .

 )   %  .   " )  : Flag S ig nif icance Correlation : .  1   .

6  O K Correlations L A NG M A T H P e a rs o n S ig .000 .ta N C o r r e la tio n ile d ) C o r r e la tio n ile d ) L A NG 1.7 7 6 * * .01 l e v e l ( 2 . 10 .( 2 .000 .    5    .008 10 1.7 7 6 * * .( 2 .ta ile d ) .  4   3 M A T H .ta N P e a rs o n S ig .008 10 * * . 10 . C o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.

  . #   )  .  @  0    1   .r = 0. 776   M ATH L AN G   1     1  .  1   .

    1    ) .   2   H 0: ρ = 0 H1 : ρ ≠ 0 144  : (    .

    .

 3 k ?       #    n   7   n-k .

   .

 1 T ?  4  ? 1      T .

   !  A     T =r P.776 10 − 2 1 − 0.776 2 # !   K      "      T ?  4  .C " 3 n−k 1− r2 = 0.

 )     .

05 . 008<0.   C    $  P-Valu e=0. %     = 3.   1   .48 Compu te     # =    Valu e    1 .   #   )      Transf orm .

 ) % 5 .48.008 +  )  H =    .  1 2   .T (3. (1 − CDF .8)) * 2 = 0.

M    1  0 !   3 <  )  H "    %   @           . .

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(< @   % 1 .  .

7 8 6 * * .7 8 6 * * .000 .( 2 .007 10 1.t a i l e d ) . C o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .   . M    1 :    1 .000 . L A NG 1.007 10 M A T H .ta ile d ) r r e la tio n C o e ffic ie n t .01 l e v e l ( 2 . . 1  #  )  #      B     Nonparametric Correlations Correlations S p e a r m a n 's r h o L A NG M A T H C o S ig N C o S ig N r r e la tio n C o e ffic ie n t .( 2 . 10 S pearman #    )  H1 : ρ ≠ 0 .ta ile d ) * * . 10 .

 "  1  .

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 1    #   )  .  @     1   S pearman .

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         .

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  .

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  145 .1 .

( 1.7 7 6 * * . 48 +   M A T H . # !       3. 10   .    1 .01 l e v e l ( 1.7 7 6 * * .000 .t a N P e a rs o n S i g .004 10 C o r r e la tio n ile d ) C o r r e la tio n ile d ) * * .000 . C o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.t a N L A NG 1. . ( 1.t a i l e d ) .004 10 1. 10 .Correlations L A NG M A T H P e a rs o n S i g .

 0 T .    .

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   .

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 #  )  . 1  9    . 1 .

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 % =   )  .   ) . M    1 (    . .  1   .

6   Analyz e Correlate  Partial : #   .  $    +   Partial Correlation :#   .3      ! 146  .  "  "   D 1        . ".  )   1    .

.

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   .

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 1   .   1  . .285   7   F = 3  #     ..x3 = 0.T . 6  +      2 #   10  2     6  .  )    1   - b e c o m p u t e d r yx 2. #   )    1   .

   !  A  2 T   df = n – k = 13-3 = 10 7   T   1   .

 4 =  .

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 0  !    3 <  )  H "    >  0     ρ ?     .

0 0 0 0 0 ) P = .  " )   E    . . F . ) i f a / 2 -t a i l e d c o e f f i c i e n t S i g n i f i c a n c e ) c a n n o t . 2 3 3 8 ( 9 ) P = . . % 5 . P-Valu e=0. 4 8 9 X 2 . 369 > :     #  $  C " 3 Partial Correlations     ! CO R R E L ATI O N Controlling f or. 2 3 3 8 9 ) P = . 6  C I E N T S . 0 0 0 0 ( 0 ) P = . ( C o e f f i c i e n t / ( i s p r i n t e d 148 :  "   5    . 4 8 9 1 . X 3 CO E FF I 1 .- ( ( D .

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 1   . #   )  B           . Z ero O rder Correlations        $ E    Partial Correlations . 6  D  :     O ptions  4    1 Pearson  .   2   b e c o m p u t e d r yx 2.x3 x 4    .   1  .

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 B     #          C " 3 B    M        R eg ressors  I ndependent Variables . 2 = 3  3  1 )     .

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 $ %       &     #   '     .

(  .

  .

)   .

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 + $    L i n ea r Reg res s i o n        OK "     + 5 Coefficientsa U n s ta n d a r d i z e d C o e f f i c i e n ts M o d e l 1 ( C o n s ta n t) X B 85.052 .53 0 5.19 .9 00 9 5% t 8.   . D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y S td E rro 9 .044 1.846 S ig .00002 7 .0003 8 C o n f i d e n c e I n te r v a l fo r B L o w e r Bo u n d 6 2 .9 7 . r 0 5 S ta n r d iz C o e ie n d a e d ffic ts Be ta .6 9 0 U p p e r Bo u n d 108.03 6 1.589 :  "     B    .140 a .    . .

 @ yˆ = 85.140      1   . 195) 9 4 C  + '  9   .140 x (9.044 + 1. 1        F = 3  #  # =    1. 97) (0.

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.   .

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) %  1    % 8 1   K    0   @   . "  %   .

 %       K       E  .  .

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    154 .

S S T .       .

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 $  . #  $ .     .   2 C " 3 # !        .  yˆ . . .

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S PS S Ch a rt E d i to r .   C  D   & Pre_ 1          .

$  $ C  #    =      .            C   Ref eren ce L i n e . .

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   $ )  E .    .      1  > 155    3 .

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  %        . .

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0 -1.    # =    D   Dependent Variable: Y 1. . > 0 C     +         $  .5 : 1    .0 -.   C  Z R E S I D  " !  +   B     .0 . #  $ .   ( Scatterplot Regression Standardized Residual 1.5 110 Y 156  3    L i n ea r Reg res s i o n 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 . .5 -1.5 0.

" .   ) . 1          (>     .  C   :       .

 ?  4     1      N 4    /   .    $ )  /  .  I  )  1 .     E   (-2.      % 95 % ) 2     . 2) M     @   C "3 #  /  .

5.     )   /  .    !  # =  D  (-1. 5) M   M )   . 1.

    )   /  .      J <  )  1 .  3   #      .   (      .  .      6  = +    No rm a l p ro b a b i l i ty Pl o t . .

    .

 I  )  1 .  ?  4   C " 3 #            .    .50 .00 .  2 ?    < 1     .     6 )    6  = .75 1.    (  )  7   P l o t     !   F  $  Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Residual 1.   .00 Dependent Variable: Y Expected Cum Prob .50 . .00 Observed Cum Prob /   .     . . N 4   /  .   )  1 .75 .25 0.00 0.    : 5    1   0  3    .25 .

   $ )  Weighted Least Squares Method  .

     1  >   .     ( 2 4 10 ) H o m o s ced a s ti ci ty   $ )  E .

@       3 .

   .

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  4  #  =   Y Q      #      4  ?    4   C K = .   .    1    9     .

  4   7  1   <=   6      1 .

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    .

  !    E     . B   W = 1 / Y       1 .

               B      "       $ )  E    .     $ )  E .      1  %  1       &  1    :     B        1   7   C B0 e = + B1 + Y Y Y     "        .   . L     1     $ )  E .   )       .             1    e 1 1 2 2 .  " % 1      1  C " 3  " !    +  var = var e = σ Y =σ2 Y Y2 Y2 157 .

#    .    " )  ?  .

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6  =  B      .    1    S PS S 5    1 H   )  . " !   B        )   F               B        )   .

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    3 . M   !  %  ) 1    .

1 Y C " 3 C     .    .

 )  B       .1      var e = σ 2Y 2 .

    .

   . B         .        G    $ )  E .      1    (      1 . 1    > .    1           $ )  E . 2 = )  1 Y ?  .2 .

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         .

2 .

: #   2  1    #       .

) 1    %  .   > 0 1 OL S .

      1  >    3 .    . 6) (0.   1   .      .0 + 0. 27) E  .788Yd (4 4 9. B           .97 Cˆ = 1408.1 :     B    C  # !     R 2 = 0. 1 .

"  $    1   . #  $          C " 3 Cˆ   )        " .   #    >  2   #     2    /   ..       $  .   )  " +    )   E .

 ' 1       #     1   <    1    $ )  :.

  ? 1  K    0  J S ta n d a rd i z ed Res i d u a l s +  )      C " 3 .     %  .

  $   An a l yz e  Reg res s i o n        $   !       S a v e  !     " .     )   L i n ea r   ! L   0      .

         5    1  (  L i n ea r    L  0  !       S a v e  4      Reg res s i o n 5  )    Pred i cted Va l u es #      U n s ta n d a rd i z ed S ta n d a rd i z ed        $    ( Pre-1   E 1 .

6  ) D a ta ed i to r . $  $     .

$  $   Cˆ   )         ! . 6  ) . ( Zre-1   E 1  .

       S ca tterPl o ts . 6   G ra p h s  S ca tter  S i m p l e            .    5    1  (  )    Res i d u a l s #        . Y-a xi s #   C  Zre-1       #   . X-Axi s #   C  Pre-1       #   .     )   /  .    $    :  "      !     . OK  4    5 • • • :  "     D  A Ref eren ce L i n e .

. #  $ .   @ A ) 1     .      1  >    3 . 6   3 2 1 Standardized Residual 0 -1 -2 -3 10000 12000 14000 Unstandardized Predicted Value 16000 18000 20000 E .  $  .     .   )  .      1  9   4   <   3      K      0 !  #    6   1 N 4   .  .     6  = .   E .

"  $  C    $     Yˆ %  4   "     $ )  159 .

  "  var e = σ 2Y 2 .  1.

    .

2 = )  1 Y #            ?  .2     .      1    (      1 .    1   W = 1 / y 2    1   . "     4   . 1    E .

4   M   !  %  ) 1    .

F = 3  #       D a ta E d i to r .    .

 /    %  . 6  7    .      . WL S  4   ) 1 WL S Wei g h t .  :  "   D 1  .  > 0  1 . $  $ C  D    @ A Tra n s f o rm  ) 1 L i n ea r Reg res s i o n     !  Co m p u te     1        .

D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : C b .0 25 S ta n d a r d i z e d C o e ffic ie n ts Be ta .49 6 . .W e i g h te d b y W t 3 . 6  OK  4   3 5 Coefficientsa.b M o d e l 1 ( C o n s ta n t) Y D U n s ta n d a r C o e ffic ie B S 1421. W e i g h te d L e a s t S q u a r e s R e g r e s s i o n .     W  4       #   P 1   2   6  :     B      .9 86 a . E r r o r 3 9 5 .5 11 S ig .278 .0 0 1 .5 9 4 3 1.0 0 0 :  "     .79 2 d iz e d n ts td .

4   M   !  %  ) 1    .

   . 1 9     .

 )   .

278 + 0. 25) N 4    %    1       E  " . 1        Cˆ = 1421. 4 96) (0.792Yd R 2 = 0.97 (3 95.

    )   /  .    1 .

          .

   $ )  E .   $ #  $ 1    .      1  %  1      1  0 !  #      . 2 = )   $  . #  $       #   .

  ( 3– 4 10 ) : .

    .

  !    )   ..   B      E  y = β 0 + β1X 1 + β 2 X 2 + . + β k X k + e 16 0   7  ..

% 1      #    : β0 .. .

  4  #     Pa rti a l reg res s i o n Co ef f i ci en ts .

.   : e    .... β 2 .    $ )  E . % =   )  : β1. β k .   4     .

  B      )  3    7   . "      %        3 #    K) P = K+1    )   . (B     3 .

(M u l ti co l l i n ea ri ty) .   1  B    %   @    .  @   K  C  H  @  .   B    %   @     .  0   )     .

 1    .  . "      %          1 )    .

1   ) x1 .

 3   4     .

"   )  9   .

H  ) y  0  #    @       #  : 5   . 1  D a ta y 6 8 8 7 7 12 9 8 9 10 10 11 9 10 11 ?  ( .

$  $   %    1  % "   2 .19 8 13 .

   .

15  x2     "   " )   %   .    (.

   x1 9 10 8 7 10 4 5 5 6 8 7 4 9 5 8 :     #       E d i to r x2 8 13 11 10 12 16 10 10 12 14 12 16 14 10 12 : . 5        0  x2 x1 C " 3 y     . " .   .

% =   )   .    .  )  .

 )    1    ANOVA    1   #  "   #     . D W .

 . !  A     1 #  "      . 1 .

" $   1       !  . 6   An a l yz e  : .

D ep en d en t .    +   L i n ea r Reg res s i o n .     0  Reg res s i o n  L i n ea r          .   ? 1  9      .     %  .   $   :      .   .

I n d ep en d en t .   C  D "   Y          .

E n ter . X2          $  .   C    . "   X1.

 .     3 .

   .       . .

N    E  M eth o d .    .

    .2 .3 5 • • •  1982   .1 . 17 2  16 1 .

   .

         .

3 .

6   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n    !   Statistics    :  "     #   $ E  1   .7   Statistics    ! . .

    %  /  !  &  B      )    : E stim ate : .

   5   ( .A N O V A R2   : M o d e l Fit .D W .

9 4 6 Coefficientsa M o d e l 1 ( C o n s ta n t) X 1 X 2 a .0 1 D u r b in .    !  A .833a RS q u a re .120 S ta n d a r d i z e d C o e ffic ie n ts Be ta .015 .E rro r o f th e E s tim a te 1. X 2 . X 1 b . ..331 .4 61 .. P r e d ic to r s : ( C o n s ta n t) . E r r o r 6.6 9 3 a .4 5 3 .006 .6 4 2 S td .133 .W a ts o n .2.    : D u r b in .37 6 .615 t 3. D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y A d ju s te d RS q u a re .203 1. D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y U n s ta n d a r d i z e d C o e f f i c i e n ts B S td .7 8 6 S ig . B   .8 34 3.W atso n 3    L ine ar r e g r e ssio n    !   O K 4  3  Model Summaryb M o d e l 1 R .8 62 .003 :  "     )      .

1    .

120)         %1   1 .  )      yˆ = 6.133) (0.376 X 1 + 0.453 X 2 R 2 = 0.203 − 0.64 (1.862) (0.

3  4    .

"   )  M   .

1  9   4   C   $  X1      .

 " )  9    4      X2      %  1  ( J X1      %  1  (     1 . 37 6   1 0  #      !  C  + '  .

453   1 0  #  9   4 C  + '  9   . "   )  M       1 .

B   " .    .    " )   %   .

.        9 C A  $  R 2 .

  2          SST .

 %  ) 1  N   #  "       1   #  "   # .      ( E .  "   %     .         %   ) 1  N   SSR   = 9   )  %  ) 1   N   C  ∑ ( y − y ) 2   )        : .

    .

 @ 0   1       .   0       F .

           . SSE H 0 : β1 = β 2 = 0 H1 : β1 ≠ β 2 ≠ 0 :        1   #  "   # C " 3 # !      .    .    !  A . B0 ? .

 " )  #  $  .F  1      6  - 162 .

X 2.272 (SST )4 0 a .001< 0.p ) 12 (n .05 . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y d f (p . X 1 b .728 (SSE )12.1) 14 P-V al u e = 0. P r e d i c t o r s : (C o n s t a n t ).ANOVAb M o d e l 1 Re g r e s s i o n Re s i d u a l T o ta l Su m o f Sq u a r e s (SSR)27.1) 2 (n .

.    2  .

  )    M e a n Sq u a r e (M SR) 13 .86 4 (M SE ) 1.5 5 7 F = M SR/ M SE Si g .0 23 F 13 . .   +  %5 .0 0 1a #   n  )   3 #   P = 3   7    "                 +  )     .

. M    1  )  .

 @  (   C   3  H  "    B2 B1    .   )    .    " )    # 2   C " 3 9        . 0 !   3 <  )  #  ) t   1    C   E " . C " 3 + )    E    .

  0  9  ! 1   )        C " 3 #        #    E  .

 )  D  " 3 %5 .

M    1 X2 X1   #  #       " )  . .

  .   1 P 1 C !     '         =   . B       .  )  L @   D  (C " 3     C o e f f icie nts .

   .

  1 %5 .

 . M     1 .

 1  .  1    3 . .  I       .     $ )  /   .

   $ )  /  .      .      .  1   C   $  .

1     D W .

  )   .    !  A    p = 3 n =15 (   B   # @        ?  /  .

"  $   1    ) :6 #    .

 2    % "      X1. X3 . X2.

 . "     %       Y   )          @   4    #  Y 43 63 71 61 81 44 58 71 72 67 64 69 68 X1 5 9 10 8 11 12 9 7 8 13 4 10 11 X2 3 5 7 4 6 5 4 7 5 8 5 9 10 X3 18 27 34 24 33 22 28 32 23 20 21 36 30 :  "     D ata E d ito r X4 12 9 11 10 6 8 9 7 8 5 4 10 11 . )     .     .

 )   . .

"     %         1 M u l tico l l ine ar ity  .   )   .

"  $  1    . "  E 1    . Ste pwise Re g r e ssio n .

 )  # @    : .

    %  .   ? 1  #           #     1 " .     0  .2 7 7 " 163  1988       .

3 .1 .1  !         .            .2 .

 4 .                   .

 $   L ine ar 5 :      .   +   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n . 6   A nal y ze  Re g r e ssio n          . D e pe nd e nt .     ! .

  C  D "   Y      $  . I nd e pe nd e nt .

X3 %       $  . E nte r .   C   . "   X1. X2.

    3 . .

     .  . .

N    E  M e th o d .  .

6   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n    ! • • •   Statistics 4    "     #   $ E  1   7   5 .     Statistics     ! . .

 . .  1  .   )   . % =   )    : Par t & .     %  /  !  &  B      )    : E stim ate .A N O V A R2   : M o d e l Fit .

" $  R : .

5 02 .06 .007 Z e ro o rd e r C o lli n e a r i ty S ta ti s ti c s C o r r e la ti o n s .65 1 .476 .19 1.1 . X 3 ..08 8 .2 .. X 4 .9 2 8 :  "     )      ..03 a .9 5 0 S ta n d a rd iz e d C o e f fic ie n ts Be ta .68 2 .064 3 .43 1..604 P a rt Tolerance . B   ..445 .0 1.    5   ( Par tial C o r r e l atio ns   $  : C o l l ine ar ity D iag no stics 3    L ine ar r e g r e ssio n    !   O K 4  3  Model Summary M o d e l 1 A d ju s te d RS q u a re .. X 1.63 1 . .E rro r o f th e E s tim a te 7 .462 t S ig .5 40 .42 5 .167 .4 84 R RS q u a re .2 .. P r e d i c t o r s : ( C o n s t a n t ) .2 3 2 .149 . X 2 S td .2 74 .6 5 6 a .63 3 . E rro r 13 .010 1. D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b le : Y 0 9 3 8 S td .713 .63 4 .15 .104 .8 07 2 .48 6 .2 10 .3 3 1 P a r ti a l .042 .42 3 ...443 .810a .5 2 0 .611 .7 2 Coefficientsa U n s ta n d a r d i z e d C o e f f i c i e n ts M o d e l 1 ( C o n s ta n t) X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 B 47.

 )  .

01) (1.038 X 4 R 2 = 0.48 (13) (1.199 X 2 + 1.486) (0.43 X 1 + 1.950)    !    .476) (0. 3 E  $         2   9   9     2 9   4   C   $  X1      . 1        yˆ = 47.06 − 0.153 X 3 − 2.

 " )    .

  1   0     .

5 8 0 1. X3 X2 164        %  1  (     1 9  0.430   1   )        . B      )  V IF 1.077 .403 1.9 2 5 1.  .  > 0 1 .

.

 X3      . 6 2 .   )  % .

 " )    t .

   !  & .

    P-v al u e .

  2 # =    6  =  <  1  .

@ 0    L  !       #   )  .

  2      . (% 1      .

 " )  C  .

  @ &  1 ) %5 .

9  9  ! 1 . M    1 . .

  .  .

B      C   $  :  "     %  .  1  .   N   . 2 = )   3 1 )  .

 1  .   1  . (M    .   )        #            1    1 . #   )  : Par tial C o r r e l atio n . #   )  : Z e r o -o r d e r C o r r e l atio n %        %  1  1 ) #            )          1   4  .  1  .  =  B         .

 #           3 . #   )  :Par t C o r r e l atio n . "     %            ) 1    1 #            )          1 / 4  .  1  . .

"       )        .

"     %         #    1 .

 1  .   )  )      .   4  %  . B     D  "  t .

   !  & .

  1    . #   )  .    .   2 C " 3  D    D  " 3   )        ?    4 . B     )       X4    #  To l e r ance #   )   .  1   #   )  C " 3  D X3   6  = .   1  .  )        #            1 .  1  .

  .  1  .   1       )     . .

"  $  R   $  (  To l e r ance = 1.  7   .

"     %       #    )  ? 1  #    R 2   7   R2 X i .others #        #  V I F #   )  B       .others X i . .

"     %       .

VIF =   7   (V ar iance I nf l atio n Facto r ) Tolerance N  0   1  . 1   E   <      #    )       1  )  .   )   .  1  .  1 i #            1 )    .

"  $  4     ) #          .

 " )     1  9   4 C " 3 .

"     %         1 .           G   1 t .  1  .

   !  A .

  2 (  0   .

  .

 )  .

6  3     1 B      )     1   5   3  4  .  " )    .

"     %         V I F #   )  .

    2   $  B    %      V I F .   2 C " 3 # !     . (B      <  .

  2  .  .   )   .

"  $  1  E   .

    .

 " )       C   $  10 .

   )   .  0  !     X )   .

"  $  R .  .   )   .

 +   E   3 C    $    X ′X . "  $  1  .

 0 !  9 4              )   .

"   $  C  " 3 #     .  0 !    .

1  2 9 4      9 3 .

   0  ( .

"     %       C o nd itio n .

    #   1 H )    #  )    .

  <=    9 4           #  C " 3 4     1   ..  .  1    1   . "     %         1  .  .

   Condition Index = 4.813 :  "     .813 =1 4.   2 # !    )  1      3 9  1 3  I nd e x :  "   % 1   " #     .     X1     " .

1   1 condition Index = 165 4.813 = 7.020 0.09868 .

 3 %  4   A   .  .   )   .

"  $  .

    A C " 3 $ '    .  15  3 #   .

  2 %  4     .

    A +  16   #  " .

  2 1     6  =         1  .

. 1       #    .

 30 .  C " 3 $ '    . . "  $   9  .

" $   #     V ar iance Pr o po r tio n  1 H )     .

"  $  "    >     .

"   $   1  )  7    4     #       Pr incipl e C o m po ne nt           .

.   1  0         <  1  ? 0   C o nd itio n I nd e x .

  )   >                  #          .   #                      A 9  '   . .

"     %                    1    .

     9  ! 1 C  " 3  1  #  $ 1 9  '   .   )   .

0 0 . "  $  1  )  . .0 0 .86 8 16 .7 1 . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y     ! C o n d itio n In d e x 1.0 0 .0 5 .6 8 .0 8 .30 .0 1 .0 0 .345E .18 .0 1 .  X3         1    9  1  9  ! 1      :     #    L @      %    1  Collinearity Diagnosticsa M o d e l 1 D im e n s io n 1 2 3 4 5 E ig e n v a lu e 4.29 .26 .7 6 8E .9 83 V a r ia n c e P r o p o r tio n s (C o n s ta n t) X 1 X 2 X 3 .6 3 .0 1 :  "     )      = .0 2 a .35 .7 0 X 4 .0 0 .0 2 1.9 0 7 E .22 .525 12.28 .0 0 0 7 .  .0 0 .0 20 10 .6 6 9 E .17 .0 1 .0 6 .813 9 .0 2 2.0 2 4.

    3 . 6   A nal y ze  Re g r e ssio n  L ine ar         .  $   :      .   ? 1  #       7    . %  . " .   +   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n . D e pe nd e nt .    0  .

  C  D "   Y      $  . I nd e pe nd e nt .

X2. X3 %       $  B    #  @       .   C   . "   X1.

6   # 0  I D     .     %      .     M e th o d .

"    )   .   0  +    3 . .     • • • :    . B   C  . (  .

"     %       .

   #   A : E nte r  ) 1     ?   B     C  A .

"   "    %  .  1    ) 1 <   %       #   A : Ste pwise . %       .

B      9   9 .  1 .  1 1 9  '   G L 1 !     %       .

 .    G %        ) 1    : Re m o v e .

 .  1    ) 1 <   9  '    G %        ) 1    : Back war d L 1  !     %        ) 1       . B    C     ) 1 <   %       #   A : Fo r war d . "  "    %  . ( . B      ) 1     9  '   G .  # @   1  )  ) Ste pwise   .

3 .4 .  . N    166 5 • .1 .2 .5 .

Statistics     ! . . 6   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n    !   Statistics 4    "     #   $ E  1   7    .

1  1       F .     %  /  !  &  B      )    : E stim ate    O ptio ns    ! . 6   L ine ar Re g r e ssio n    !   O ptio ns 4   :  "   ) 1     #   A  . A N O V A R2   : M o d e l Fit .

  2  .

 )   M       C  Ste pwise .

 #            +   .  . B     :             . B      %       #    & 9  .  1 K  Ste pping M e th o d cr ite r ia #    .

 )   M       : U se Pr o b ab il ity o f F •  ) 1     .

M      # 2       . .  %       #   & .

.  M      %        ) 1     1   3  ) 1   .. E ntr y .

  2   4 B         %         @  . Re m o v al . D       %       .

 #          +   F .   2   # " 2 B      %           %         ) 1    #   & 9 .

%        ) 1   .F .   2    : U se F V al u e •     %         @  .

  2   C " 3       .  %       #   & F .

  2 .

E ntr y .    2    4 B        %          1   3  ) 1   ..

Re m o v al +    Par tial F Te st    4  F  1     %        ) 1    #             1   .   2   # " 2 B      .  9   .        .

 " )  .

 )   1             B      )    / 4 .

0  @     %  ) 1   N   .  )   1            E $ 1  2 C  # !    B    C  #           .

 )   1   .    1    #   )    .

 9   . .<     <         F  1   .     t  1   .        " 3 J B      D   1  F  ) 1    .

 " )  .

10 #    O 0.05 +  U se Pr o b ab il ity o f F #       " .F 0.  )   1   .

) 1 = 167 .   @    .        3   .

: .

to .F . a .o f.10 0 ) .10 0 ) . b ility .o 0 . b ility .e n te r 0 .   <   " 3 B     C      ) 1 <   .to . p w b a .o f. 2 X4 .r e m o v = .0 5 b a th o d r ite r ia : f-F -to -e n te r f-F -to -re m o v p w b a .0 5 b a is e ( C r ite r ia : b ility .F .    5   ( 3    L ine ar r e g r e ssio n    !   O K 4  3  Variables Entered/Removeda M o d e l 1 V a r ia b le s E n te re d V a r ia b le s R e m o v e d X3 . D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : Y S te P ro < = P ro e > S te P ro < = P ro e > M e is e ( C b ility .o = .

) 1   %       #       Ste pwise .

M    %       1 D   )   3 %  1    A .  1 .  . .

     ) 1   = .  =  %  .

  1 .  1   #   )  1   D   B    C  . @ 3 #            )        ?  .

"    %       #  X3     .

  2   6   = C o e f f icie nts     =  #        . t .

     !  & .

( E ntr y #   O .     2   1         1   .

.  M    ) 0.05   # 2    0.02 +    t .

   !  & .

    B    L 1 !  yˆ = 33.007 + 1.158 X 3 %   1  1    )        ?    4 .) B    C  X3 #   P 1 L    :  "     C   9 .     P-V al u e D  " 3 (   4  F  1    <     a       F  "  )    +   t  1      6  .  1   #   )  C " 3  D +        #   A    .

    #     ) D T .     9 .

   !  A .    1      .

   X4       X3      ( E ntr y #   O .  .  )     E   <.

.05   # 2    0.  M    )0.033 +    t .

   !  & .

    P-V al u e   =  :     #  $  C " 3 L 1 !  B    C  X4 #   P 1 L      .  yˆ = 46.345 X 3 − 2.147 X 4 1    .152 + 1.

    +  X4 X3       " t .

   !  & # 2   .

    .

.  M    ) 0.10   # 2    0.033 +    F = 3  B      X4    " %   2 t .

   !  & .

 B     F = 3  B      .05 . ( Re m o v al  ) 1   = X2 X1          @   . B             =  C 1    . 0.     P-V al u e .    B   # @   #       .

 1   C " 3  D +        . M    1   )        1 . .

6   7   .  )  .  B    C  # !        1         B       1      #  168 .    .

15 8 .020 .2.Coefficientsa M o d e l 1 2 ( C o n s ta n t) X 3 ( C o n s ta n t) X 3 X 4 S ta n d a r d i z e d C o e ffic ie n ts Be ta U n s ta n d a r d i z e d C o e f f i c i e n ts B S td .2.720 4 .002 .737 . D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y (   .34 5 .6 4 8 1.4 6 6 S ig .4 26 4 6 .735 .011 1.033 #   B    (1) t2    1     .36 0 .6 34 .007 11.14 7 .4 8 6 a .8 34 2..8 71 . E r r o r 33.004 . .19 1 3.  )     B    (2) t 2.15 2 11.016 .

    E  Ste pping M e th o d C r ite r ia   U se F V al u e      .

    : .

B           /  1 1 L     A     #   A )   ) 1   . 6  =  #   1 L   t2 > F (E nte r ) %   . #   O F .

   !  & 9    .

03 4 .108 .027a .9 09 . B    C       :     #          #       ) 1         %         1      #  Excluded Variablesc M o d e l 1 2 X 1 X 2 X 4 X 1 X 2 B e ta I n .3 6 9 .05 8 . P r e d i c to r s i n th e M o d e l : ( C o n s ta n t) .6 8 2 .2.019 .012b .28 5 .9 5 5 .175 b t .23 4 C o llin e a r it y S ta ti s ti c s T o le r a n c e . X 4 c .26 7a .. D e p e n d e n tV a r ia b le : Y P a r ti a l C o r r e l a ti o n . X 3 . X 3 b .9 4 1 . .9 15 .9 5 5 ..9 16 ..4 8 6 a .721 S ig .4 6 6 .6 6 3 .6 15 ..03 3 .     t2 > F(Re m o v e ) %     A     B   A 3 ..4 8 9 a . . P r e d i c to r s i n th e M o d e l : ( C o n s ta n t) .

 =  9 .     B    C  #           " .

   )   .

 " )   #    Be ta in   7   169 .

  .

       Factor Analysis   .

 ( 1– 11)     3 .

'         Facto r s #   )    .

 Re spo nse V ar iab l e s . H . 3      C   "   )  #  "     .

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fac _ 2 = ∑ fac _ 1 * fac _ 2 = 0 0 ! .2 +     . D o t Pr o d u ct .       %       #  !   N    +  178 fac _ 1.

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   .

         1  F = 3 #  "      %  ) 1 $   %  ) 1  N     6  =   1  .

1 E x tr a c tio n S u m s o f S q u a r e d L o a d in g s T o ta l % o f V a r ia n c e C u m u la tiv e % 1.7 56 7 1.413 28 .138 42.254 28 .009 .254 2.

      %     .

  .   .

      %     .

M     K   I n it ial e ig e n v al u e s D  0  Ex t r act io n Su ms Sq u ar e d L o ad in g s  0      1   .   .

1     #   R   .

! "      .

         1 H=       6 3      &  .

      0   "       #   )  %  ) 1 $  %  ) 1  N   .   .         <=    F = 3 #    L @      :  "     F   #   )  .

71E − 02 2 = 1.333 2 + 0.999 2 + 0.413 1.275 2 − 8.413 / 5*100 = 28.  0 !  0.254%   #   #   )  F  0    .469 2 + 0.

2 f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d .0 2 2 .3 3 3 .4 0 3 90 4 6 4 1 6 8 E x tr a c tio n M e th o d : M a x im u m L ik e lih o o d . a .6 .4 6 9 . 14 i t e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d . 1    Factor Matrixa G D L IT H IG D O H O P IR A H E C T S P 1 C Y D U C O R S B E D F a c to r .999 .8 .27 5 . 1 #       %     .9.8 .7 1E .4 9E .8 .

.  0 !  R   > 0  .

! "      #   )  .

 0 !    F = 3 .

 0 !   Goodness-of-fit Test C h i.S q u a r e 1. .337 d f 1 S ig .2 4 7 %     1   #    #     .

    .

! "      #   )    1 .

"      )  .

%     1   #     #     .  @ 0   1    #    F = 3 #   2 .

! "      #   )  .

  0   ) 1 .

"     .

"  1  .

 @ 0  @ (%  .  1     )   )  .

  @  # 1 2 C   3  P-v al u e =0.247 .

  2   7   χ 2 .

%      180 .    !   (     .

%       %     1   #     #         ! "        "    )  .

  0  1   "    +  % 5 % 1 .

. . M    1 .

      %     .

.      .   G  1   .   .

 :. 1    .

6  =  %         .

 .  .

   %    " .

1   1 #        F act o r Sco r e s #   )  %     %     .

9   .   .

    F act o r s co r e s C o e f f icie n t s % =   )     . 1 .   .

   )   .

       . 1    .    6 3      &  . 3 K   .

  . .

   . 1   1      (#   3  )   K  . .

6  )  "      .  F   .        3  .  F      #   ) " #   1 .

 =  C " 3 # !  : ( F act o r A n al y s is    ! #    )    1 )    .       # 2  .  1  . #   )  ? 1  +       1  0 ! .

!    #   )  %  ) 1  N     0 ! 0  ! 181   . . #   )  % =   )    Sco r e s 4  .     .

      #   )  9     +    .    #   )  : R e g r e s s io n . .     .

    .    #   )  : B ar t l e t t +     . .

   #   )    7   1 B ar t l e t t .

(.      : A n d e r s o n -R u bin s .   .

1    G ) . .

"     #   )       +    +   )  H   .

.

                  Non Parametric Tests .

  " )   ?       )  C " 3  .    1   . .

   !  A   )  .%   1      .

    C   )  .     V ar ian ce    1    M e an . . %    1 "   ?  4  (  0  .     @   H )    .   " )  =  %   1   .     .

1    . #   )    .   " )  =  %   1   .   <=    . D is t r ibu t io n – F r e e t e s t s   ?  4   %   1    1 ?  4     < 1  2 ?     %    1 N 4     .

 1 .   " )   %   1   .

$        3 3 #   )   . !    %   @ 0     3 E " . .

)   $ .

  " )   %   1   .    T  1      1 .    . $  .  . 9     F     <  " 3 .  .  $        1 # .      .  3  )  1 .

 C      .   . 1 .   " )  =  %   1   .

$    . !    .

    .

 D     .   " )   %   1   . #   )    .

  " )   %   1   .  "      .

  < <  1  < 3 SPSS 5   1  . .  .   .   " )  =   1   .

  " )  =  %   1   .   .

 F   ( Obs e r v e d ) 1   0  . %   1   . 2 .

 0   L  @  C h i -Square       ( 1  12 ) f r e q u e n cie s %    0 "    $          1 .

   " C h i-Sq u ar e  1    #  )    %             E  .  )  .

     Ex pe ct e d F r e q u e n cie s  .   . ? 2        +     :  "     C . )   1   .  @  >    C " 3 .

"  )     C h i-Sq u ar e .

 .    !    E  K   3 k (Oi − Ei ) 2 2 = χ ∑ Ei i =1  1   .

  .

   ? 2        #    Ei     $       #    Oi   7   : .

    %  0 !  C " 3 # !      ) $      0 !   .  .

1     Oi .

           t y pe        439 16 8 133 6 0 . 3 75  8 0 0    .

 .

   1    .

  3    .

               2 4 1979               .

    .

: % 5 .

M    1 . .

     )  .

P3 = . " . P 4 = 16 16 16 16 . P2 = .  @   1    . k-1 :1 #    .   H 0 : P1 = 182 9 3 3 1 .

.

0 !  .

1  #    P1 <=   ) .   F    3 H"    5       C " 3 R : .

  C h i-Sq u ar e  1     1 .     %  .   . t y pe 1 2 3 4 .

  4      H1 .

"  1  .

 @ 0     .     ( 0   1   C   9      .

 @ 0   1   - :  "     D at a Ed it o r .

2    %    1  .       Obs e r v e d 439 168 133 60 %       ?  #   )   .

    A  ) Ty pe + )       1 %  0 !   3  @ )      6  -       C  V al u e Obs e r v e d  L abe l .

      3 .

  @ A     &  1 D   " )  ?  %  0 !  /       .

.     A  3 +           .

 3 K     % . 1 %     #           3 ( )    Ty pe          .  "  "      2     <.  "   4 E            2 #  )    .

(W e ig h t C as e s by )         .  $   D at a  W e ig h t C as e s .   #      $       #       !    W e ig h t C as e s by     $ '   ) 1      .

  C  Obs e r v e d      #   A   W e ig h t C as e s   . t e s t V ar iabl e L is t .  $   :  "     D 1   +   C h i-Sq u ar e Te s t    !  . 6   A n al y z e  No n par ame t r ic Te s t s  C h i-Sq u ar e         .

  C  Ty pe       "     6  - :       Ex pe ct e d V al u e s .

.     .

1   > 0  .  ? 2        > 0  . %   0  ?   : A l l cat e g o r ie s e q u al C   .

    ( .   H"        1 ) ? 2        H"      3         $ E     : V al u e s :  "      )  .

  % "     #          #        M   9 .  @    9    .

      V al u e .      .

      P1 = = 0.5625 C   .  "      #  .

    #    16 . (     2  1 /  $  > 0 ) v al u e .

 "   # 0   H @   A d d 4     ) 1 0. 5625 : .

   5   C "3 # !  183 OK 4  3 .1 .2  .

0 18 . 0 . 0   "      #   N  " .17 .TYPE 1 2 3 4 T o ta l O b s e rv e d N 439 16 8 133 6 0 8 0 0 E x n p n p n p n p p e c te d N 1 45 0 2 15 0 3 15 0 4 5 0 R e s id u a l . 0 10 .11.

 ) 2    .

    .     <=    .

) 2    9   $       #    F = 3 #  D  0  .

) 2       " .

T h e m i n i m u m e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c y i s 50 .S q u a r e a d f A s y m p .0 9 6 a .n P1=800*0. T Y P E 6.  )     E  D  " 3 1 +    .0 .356 3 . P-v al u e .   N     6  .0 % ) h a v e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s l e s s t h a n 5. 0 c e l l s ( . Test Statistics C h i.5625=450 9  $    " .S ig .

   2   6. 356 +     C h i-Sq u ar e .

    !  A .

   2  E   F =  3 #       )  .

  # 1 2 +  % 5 .  @    9   .

. M    1  )  .

096.  @  # 1 2 C   3  0.

     .

   ! < 1     1  3 1 ?   4  .

     .

096 : 2 #        5      %   He ad  !  3 % 1   9  #    9  1 0 0 0  ? . 2 .356. 3) =. : +   ? 1  1-C D F .C HI SQ (6.   #   )      Tr an s f o r m C o mpu t e      P-V al u e B      K    .

   %    : ( D at a Ed it o r .

  A ) 1 ) h e ad n o o bs e r v e d 0 38 1 144 2 342 3 287 4 164 5 25 ?   4  ?  1   9  !   . 2     . 6 %   3  E 1 .

"     .

% 5 .  @ 0  1    C h i-Sq u ar e  1          1 .

M    1 B in o mial #    . .

G o o d n e s s o f F it .    1     .

      1    1 H)    C h i-Sq u ar e  1      :.  1  .

  ? 1      1    #       .     %  .

) 1    .

  . 6    .   $   :  "     D 1   +   ( 1    #    " D  0 ) C h i-Sq u ar e Te s t    ! 184 .   ( 4  ) A n al y z e  No n par ame t r ic Te s t s  C h i-Sq u ar e           .  > 0 1 Obs e r v e d      1 % .

Te s t V ar iabl e L is t ..

  C  h e ad n o      #   %    .

    C  0 !   9  !   . 6 #      .    bin o mial ?  4  .

03125 0. o f h e ad s 0 1 2 3 4 5 • 9   F = 3 (% .3125 0. ) .3125 0.03125 v al u e s .  #  )    • :  "   5   No .   #     Ex pe ct e d Pr o babil it y 0.15623 0.15623 0.    .

    v al u e s       : .

8 . 6 312.8 -6 .    5   C "3 # !  • . 6 7 .2 :  "     (0 ! +     !  3) <=   C   . 2 29 . 2 31. 2 156 .25. 2 1000.12. 4 . 2 312. 0 R e s id u a l 6 . 6 156 . M    ) 1 OK 4  3 5 HEADNO O b s e rv e d N 38 144 342 287 16 4 25 1000 0 1 2 3 4 5 T o ta l E x p e c te d N = 1000* P r 31.

1 1 2 a .920 5 .= 1000*0. T h e m i n i m u m e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c y i s 3 1 . H E A D N O 8.03125=31. 0 c e l l s ( .S ig .  0 " ? 2        B     Ex pe ct e d F r e q u e n cy .S q u a r e a d f A s y m p .0% ) h a v e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s l e s s t h a n 5.25 Test Statistics C h i.2.   !   3   +  % 5 .

 . M    1  )  .

 @  # 1 2 C   3  P-v al u e =.112 .

  2   . B in o mial ?  4  ? 1     $   .

  0  #  .    1     #        0  %    0  .

       <. 1 %   0    M         :.

6  =   0     .

    F     (5S1=  !  3) .

  1    >    %   0  1  0    (0 =  !  3)C   C h i-s q u ar e    !   Ex pe ct e d V al u e s .

  %   0  F  . H  1  .    .    1    #       (6S0)  !  ) .  4  1 #     .     (5S1) . % .

  "   2      Te s t 185 .    . " 1     % .

4    Ex pe ct e d V al u e s .

R e mo v e .     0.     $ E  1 0=  !  ) # 1     . 03125 +    #     .

    %   0    M           1   (5S1) %    .

     .

  1    %   0      1 Ex pe ct e d Uppe r .

   2 1 +     L o w e r .

   2 #    A   Us e Spe cif ie d R an g e      $ E  1 R an g e : .

   .

6 .9 -6 . 4 28 7 310 . 1 25 31.0 Two Independent Samples tests             . 1 31.11. 1 342 310 . 4 8 .   C "3 # !  OK 4  3 J 5 +    Frequencies C a te g o ry 1 2 3 4 5 T o ta l 1 2 3 4 5 H E A D N O O b s e rv e d N E x p e c te d N 144 155. 0 9 6 2 9 6 2 R e s id u a l .23. 4 16 4 155.

    .

( 2  1 2 )    T   1    #  )    7      "         3  .    .

   T  1   .

1    %   1   . .K   3 T ?  4  ? 1    1   .    #   )        . $    )   1   . F   ?   4   .

   !  A   .

  %    1   . SPSS 5    1   7   .

 C  E " K      )   )     )  1 .   " )  =  %   1   .  : .

   .

3 Ko l mo g o r o v -Smir n o v Z  1    .1 M o s e s Ex t r e me R e act io n s  1    .  ")  =  M an n -W h it n e y U  1    .

4   $ I 8   1 C      "         3 #    .2 .      (1   . 4    )/   !   R    D   <  " 3 G r o u p       .  @  R W al d -W o l f w it z R u n s  1    .

    %    1  : 3#      $        3    (24    )C @   R   $ I 10   1 d s e as e    )    . " 1    2 .

    He al t h y   )   . " 1    1 .

V al u e L abe l .     )        .

 R             % 2  >   2   2 ( B   &  #         3 <.   @ A  . 6    D at a Ed it o r . 1    )  .

6       )     R t im e 10 14 6 8 4 8 10 9 9 0 8 4 0 9 7 8 10 0 2 1110 8 6 4 6 3 6 6 3 8 7 0 8 7 8 6 6 0 0 13 20 7 5 0 5 9 4 7 5 0 186 g ro u p 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  $ #  ( Time      ) : SPSS 5   1 .  $  $      "      %     1   .

% 5 .

 . M     1 ?      >  0      1        )   E 1 .

"      )  .

" .  .  @   1    .

 " 1   @ µ1 = µ 2 .

      )  .

 @ 0   1      C )  1 ) M an n -W h it n e y  1          1 . ( µ1 ≠ µ 2 : .

 $   :       !   2 I n d e pe n d e n t s ampl e s Te s t       .     %  .   ? 1  K    0  A n al y z e  No n Par ame t r ic Te s t s  2 I n d e pe n d e n t s ampl e s         .

6    Te s t V ar iabl e L is t .  .

    (     )  %    $  #    +   ) Time       "     6       3   H )  .

 4       G r o u pin g C  @   V ar iabl e .

   G F  "     g r o u p         .

 3   G r o u p1 : 1 /    !   .

M an n -W h it n e y U  1     $ E    <    . G r o u p2 :2 : .  3   H3   D e f in e G r o u p 4        .

0 0 S u m o f R a n k s 1 0 1 .0 0 7 0 .6 3 7 .0 0 9   .     5     . 6  OK 4  3  Ranks T IM E G R O U P h e a lth y d s e a s e T o ta l N 1 0 8 1 8 M e a n R a n k 1 2 .

 3   (C @   /   !   )     )  5     7   R an ks .    C " 3  1   .    N   ) .      )  .

 3 #  .   N        .

  2 #  .

1   /  . 3 <  3 !  .

   .

    187     F =   3 #             ( 7 0 C   @   .  )    2 .      .     N     101 /     !   : .

    .

  !  1 M an n -W h it n e y U .

   !  A N ( N 1) U = N1 N 2 + 1 1+ − T1 2 .

M   . .

  )     #    N2 ( N1=8 C    .( T1=101) Su m o f R an ks C    .   )    )    +    #    N1   7        #   .

 )  .   N   #    T1   (N2=10 .

    ) .

    !  A C   .

   @ &  1 C    .

 1 .   )  %    . )  C  " 3    3.

1      U .

   !  A .

  2 +    U   .

  )   ?  4  .

 .  )  .

     Z .

U .   2 B     ..

   !  & .

   U .     B     7   µ= N1 N 2 = 40 2 σ = N1 N 2 ( N1+ N 2 + 1) = 11. .        W il co x o n W :  "     ?  4  " +   )   H  .25 12 B          D  " 3 <  1      )         "   )  1 .  ?  4   .

 ?        4  " .   )   ?  4           "                  )  1 .

         )   .

          .

      P-V al u e .

222 #   )    1 Tr an s f o r m C o mpu t e    1 Z . 25 = − 2 .    2 B       K    Z = (U − µ ) / σ = (15 − 40 ) / 11 .

   !  & .

M     1  )  .  .

 @  (   C   3   1      )  1 .  ?  4  " P-v al u e =0.026 .

    1   .   2   7   (    .  ?  4   . ) 2*C D F NOR M (-2.0263  "            )  1 .222)=0.

C @   R   $ I       % 2  . G r o u p in g V a r ia b le : G R O U P U #  .ta ile d ) . b .  .) ] W itn e y U ig .t a i l e d T IM E 15.000 7 0.     3 <   H"    /   !   R 0  1     % 5  $ I . (    / 0       T2 #   &   #   '   (        )  * . 1  .  R   Test Statisticsb M a n n -W h W ilc o x o n Z A s y m p .02 6 .       ?     > 0    1         )    +  #  1  ( .     #     2   /  U #  . [ 2 * ( 1.S E x a c t S ig S i g .000 .            % 2  . N o t c o r r e c te d fo r tie s .2 2 2 .02 7 a a .( 2 .2 .

 /    U .     : # $  %  :  "   N 2 ( N 2 + 1) − T2 2      1   .   * +  .

   !  & .

   )   .

    B      1 9  1   .

 )    #    N2 U = N1 N 2 + . .

 1    .

   > 0 C  # !   K.Related Samples Tests    .

        .

K        ( 3  12 )   1         "           ) T   1   .

   " )  .

   .

 1     Kr u s kal l -W al l is    T  1   .W ay A NOV A  M an n -W h it n e y  1          )     1   #  "     " )  . On e .        .

 4 =  . $       3 .

    K  T  1    #  )              G     3  1    188 .

       .

    .

  " )  =  %   1   .   /        .

   F     R an ks . C o ch r an ’s Q . F r ie d man  1    . Ke n d al l ’s W .    3 9  1 3 %    1  : SPSS 5   1 .

 1    ) c b a.

   1 .   %  4 0   " B    .

 =  .   R D at a Ed it o r .

6     5 . $  $   .3 : 4 #  b 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3  ) c : SPSS 5   1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 .

"      )  .

% 5 . " .   .  @   1    .

. M    1 F r ie d man  1          1 : .

 $   :  "     D 1   +   Te s t s f o r s e v e r al R e l at e d Sampl e s    ! D an ie l W .     %  . pp.2  !   1 Th e r apis t s   !    .(1978) . 189  1    .   ? 1  K    0   No n par ame t r ic Te s t s  K-R e l at e d s ampl e s         . 2nd Ed it io n .W . B io s t at is t ics : A Scie n ce s .398 .

)     2 : .

   5   C "3 # !  5  1    5     %   ( 3 2    1     .  "  C   #  @ 0   .

 C  1 $  1 Th e r ap a 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 2 8 1 9 1 .

  =   B     " #  @ 0   .

   .

 )  %  2  A n al y z e . 6   OK 4  3 f o r an al y s is in Th e 5 5 He al t h .1 F o u n d at io n .

5 6 #  "   D 1 $  F = 3 .67 2 .N P a r T e s ts F r ie d m a n T e s t Ranks A B C M e a n R a n k 1.78 1.

1      . .

   #    M e an R an k   7   R an d o miz e d .  =   B       #    .    .

w ay A NOV A     )     1   #     H 0  !    Tr e at me n t s %    )   (B      ) 9  3  #    7   B l o cks Ex pe r ime n t .     .   ?  1   .     $ )  %   3 .        )     1   #  "   /    <   =  F r ie d man  1    1  )  7   B l o cks %  3 .       !  1 H )     Tw o .

       F r ie d man .

   !  A   # 2     Or d in al .

  R an ks : "     . " .     J-1 .  1    %    1       .

  .

J=3 K=9  +  . ) H 0 !  3 #   K  7  .  1 χ 2 ?  4  χ2 = 12 ∑ T 2  − 3K ( J + 1) = 8.2 KJ ( J + 1)  i  ( #    Ti  (9  3 ) % )   3 #   J  (%3.

   N      C    3      . )  #  .

    P-V al u e .

 2 F r iedm an .

  !  A .

 2  1  F   #  . .

 =   B  " #  @ 0   .

   .

 )  <2  K    +  % 5 .

M   1  )  . .

S ig . F r ie d m a n T e s t 190 9 8 . a .0 1 6 . 222 2 .  @  Test Statisticsa N C h i.S q u a r e d f A s y m p .

  .

   1        0 !  / !  &  %   . (            CHARTS  3 .  .

.  9   .

 ..  B ar s .   1  )  .   1  %.

   1  9  3  .

 .    .   %. 9 1 )  ..

 1  . .

1 .   .

    %  &  ( )    # ! 0      #   …dPies .   !  &  %  1      %=  .

  1     Lin es .

.   1  .

  1      .

)  #     S PS S 5  1    Bar Charts  .

 ( 113) : 1 #   y ear 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 : Y ear %   . B ar C har t .  %  '   M  & S al es %)  1    1     #  s al es 5 0 5 2 5 5 6 0 6 5 .

" .   3 .   1  9 3  .  2 B ar C har t     ! : ..

6   .  :   F  1   F       #  # 1   Data in C har t ar e . $  .    % .G r ap hs  B ar         .  ?1  K    0  .

  . %. 1   S im p l e     2 S tack edJ C l u s ter ed J S im p l e   %  .  2   V al u es o f in div idu al cas es     2 .

 =  .

   Defin e S im p l e B ar    ! 191 . 6   1       !   Defin e 4  3 :    D 1   +    .

     . . $ 1 #   D  2  .. .:  7  .

        C " 3 . " % 0    3  : C atego r y Label s .  2 #  + 3     : B ar s R ep r es en t :  "   @   (       )   1  ..

  "  )  .

   2  ( )  : C as e n u m ber      )         C " 3           )  .

.   .    F              2 ( )  : V ar iabl e ..   1 .   3 3 <9 $ 1  . M   %. s u btitl e.     3 ( ) :Titl e .d Titl e . F o o tn o te . ( Y ear s      #    .

. 2 # ) :Tem p l ate :  "   S PS S V iew er   .   ( T itle L in e 1 Line2 Subtitle F o o tn o te 192 3    O K 4  3  1  2  .  ..  )  %0 !   +    .

Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 70 Value SALES 60 50 40 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands)    . .   C " 3 %=  )  /     S PS S C har t E dito r         ..   (  )  7      >   4 1    F  1 .

    :  "   S PS S C har t E dito r C har t E dito r .

$ $        .M       %=  )   .

  ) .

    ) 1 +  C har t E dito r .    %=  )   /     7  : (    >   4 1    ..

 $ $   +   %=  )        )  "   K    0     : 9 3       : (F = 3 #  $     .

    >   4 1 9 3       C har t E dito r .       F o r m at  C o l o r 193 .

 $    . $ $        .1 .

. $   :  7  . $ " . .:  "   C o l o r s    ! . 6   %   . $  / = A      : F il l .

          : B o r der     >   4 1 F  1  4    "     <=    4    "  C  . C o l o r s    !  .. 6  .  Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 70 Value SALES 60 50 40 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) :    . 9 3        A p p l y 4     F il l     $ E    E    ) 1  " C l o s e 4   :  " 2  2  . $  / = A         9  3       ) 1 .   ..

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   :  "   ?1  K    0  : B ar S ty l e 9 3  .. (9 3    <.         F o r m at  B ar S ty l e     C har t E dito r . 1 .  0 "          .

 $  :        ! 194 .  $ $          . 6   %   . $    .

    .2 .

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  =  9 3  . 6  A p p l y A l l 4        >   4 1 F  1 3-D effect     3  :  "   ) 1   3       Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 70 Value SALES 60 50 40 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) :.

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    5  2  ..: O K 4   ) 1  "   .  Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 Value SALES 70 65 60 60 50 50 40 1990 52 1991 55 1992 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) Axis Title Axis Label :. 6   ..

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= 3 .

J  3    1  .      H  # !   .  @ A   ) :10 0 0 S S ep ar ato r . 6  ..    : B ar O r igin Lin e . .K   .  O r igin Lin e # !   . (Per io d .     .

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57 .6  2  .  Establishment Sales by Years Value SALES 70 for Period 1990-1994 65 60 60 52 50 50 40 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) ..

  . .   7          " #  1    F   .  3 O r igin Lin e  .  F = 3     !   Defin itio n . 6   Der iv ed A xis 4    S cal e A xis Der iv ed A xis       #  1   S cal e A xis  " !        9  #  # )     R atio Match :  "   .     @ A       (     ! ) : Dis p l ay Der iv ed A xis   Dis p l ay Der iv ed A xis  $ E  1 K     H "    >    D     " !   :  "   Der iv ed A xis    ! .

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.  Establishment Sales by Years 70 for Period 1990-1994 140 65 Value SALES 60 60 50 50 40 120 110 55 52 130 100 90 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 80 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands)      C  " 3 .7  2  .

  2 #    6  = . L  @   (  .

Der iv ed A xis   $       C " 3 H ) @  .  1 $  K   Label s   )   0 @  2 . " 1    " !    "  !          #  C " 3 (      )   0 "       2    1 L    Match     70 .

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   C " 3 # !  1 U n its 70 V al u e O K 4   C o n tin u e 4  3 8  2  .  Establishment Sales by Years 70 for Period 1990-1994 90 65 Value SALES 60 60 50 40 1990 55 52 50 1991 1992 70 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) ..  2 . "   $       C " 3 U n its E q u al Der iv ed A xis V al u e E q u al 50 :    .. # $ %  … 2 0 0 8 0    80 ! 6 0    7 0    !  50          ..  1 .

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 $ :  "   .  Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 1990 1991 1992 YEAR 1993 1994 40 50 60 70 Value SALES Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) :      .       F o r m at  S w ap A xis        ...      10  2  . 6  D E  1  2  .

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.  "  @   .   #     R ep l ace    12  2  .   . ( Mu l tip l e   .  Establishment Sales by Years 70 for Period 1990-1994 Value SALES 60 50 40 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) %   ...  $   : .  @    (    ) :  "   Lin e C  . )   .S im p l e    ) C har ts .

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13  2  ..  Establishment Sales by Years 70 for Period 1990-1994 Value SALES 60 50 40 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 YEAR Iraqi Dinars (Thousands)      ! :  "   ?1  .

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.      . 6   . $ $         .

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  Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 70 Value SALES 60 50 40 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 YEAR .. = )          A p p l y 4    14  2  .A 2 0 5 Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) p p ly A ll         !     " #         (    )    .

          :  .

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.  Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 1990 1994 1991 1993 1992 Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) .     .. 6   G al l er y  Pie         .   #     R ep l ace     S im p l e       15  2  . $ $         .. $  :  "   Pie C  .

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. C har t E dito r :    ..        F o r m at  E xp l o de S l ice         .   Establishment Sales 16  2  .      D   " 3    C  # ! 0   ?.  by Years for Period 1990-1994 1994 1990 1991 1993 1992 Iraqi Dinars (Thousands)             >    4  1 ? .   9 3 . $  5 . 2 0 6 .

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4% 19.0% 1993 21." . 2002S8199 %  "  " 1 %     % ! I m p o ts 180 2 0 0 2 15 2 30 2 4 4 : 2 #   #      #  :  "   . .3% 1990 17.7% 1991 1992 18.5% Iraqi Dinars (Thousands) y ear 1998 1999 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 E xp o r ts 190 2 2 0 2 19 2 4 5 2 5 0 .17 $ % & & '  Establishment Sales by Years for Period 1990-1994 1994 23. C l u s ter ed B ar s .

 3.  (.

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.:    ..  0 .  5 240 220 200 Value 180 EXPORTS 160 # 1 S tack ed   2 0 9 IMPORTS 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 YEAR 7  2  2  9 .   C " 3 # !  260 O k 4  3 18  2  .   3 .

.    0  .   C " 3 # !  7  B ar C har ts    !   C l u s ter ed .2 :    .  ?1  S tack ed B ar ..  1   % .

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  .

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2 1$% & & '  260 250 240 230 220 210 Value 200 EXPORTS 190 1999 2000 2001 IMPORTS 2002 YEAR :  C  " 3 # !        #    .

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o f Cases . . M in. .2 D   B ar Ch ar t s        ! :  "   D 1 213     !   .   300 200 Mean 100 0 30 X1 X2 . M o d e. M ax. Val u e.   . 30 +        "  1     ?  1  x2 x1       " ( b a)     %  . No .    x1  )  N  0      .    Cl u st er ed B ar  3  . M ed ian.   N  @    . Val u e … #   M    :    B     C "3 # !  O K 400 300  4   3 5 22  2  .     x2  )  N  0      300 +        "  1     . 6  G r ap h  : . .     0  .

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( Su mmar ies o f G r o u p s o f Cases   '   )  * ) : 4  gend er 3      d eg   2           1   2        *     sal ar y 1    " . .   5 400 367 300 200 200 Mean 100 0 20 a 37 b X1 X2 G . .    C "3 # !  O k  4   3 23  2  .:    .

        "      d eg gend er sal ar y F ir st M al e 9 0 F ir st F emal e 70 T h ir d M al e 56 Seco nd M al e 65 F ir st M al e 8 5 Seco nd F emal e 60 Seco nd M al e 69 T h ir d M al e 57 T h ir d F emal e 50 F ir st F emal e 75 Seco nd F emal e 62 T h ir d F emal e 51 F ir st M al e 8 5 214 .

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0 6  .

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0 6 .

 #  # 1        !  . 6  F = 3       !   Def ine  4   3 :  "     .    +   Def ine Cl u st er ed B ar : Su mmar ies f o r G r o u p o f Cases :   & & '   ) * " .  O K    * 5 25 $ % & & '  90 87 80 73 70 67 Mean SALARY 60 61 57 50 51 40 First DEG 216 5 Second Third GENDER Female Male .

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0 85.0 90.0 Cl asses 7  8 2   "  .2 0 N = 56.0 95.:   5   6    ( * $  O K    * 26 $ % & & '  5 10 8 6 4 2 Std.0 75.0 35.0 65.0 55.0 60.00 30.0 TALL 40.0 100.0 70.0 80.0 50. Dev = 17.0 45.17 Mean = 68.

1 .     <       )  * M id p o int s 7  8 2      "  .   .

  ?  @ @  2    . I nt er v al Wid t h  8 2   "  &       =        7  8 2      *  =  *    <  .   $  9       :   :       7   & '   > . !      <       *       ) * 218 . . Ch ar t E d it o r  #  # )   "         H ist o gr am & & '      :      /   . 1 0 .

       !  . 6  F   3 Def ine  4  4 0   I nt er v al s .

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