§1.

Ability: can, could, be able to Can We use can to say that someone has the ability or opportunity to do something. The negative of can is cannot (contraction: can't). Can you swim? He can play the guitar. It's nice today. We can sit in the garden. I can't open this bottle. Can usually expresses the idea that something is possible because certain characteristics or conditions exist. Can combines the ideas of possibility and ability. Tom is strong. He can lift that heavy box. (It is possible for Tom to lift that box because he is strong.) I can play the piano. I've taken lessons for many years. (It is possible for me to play the piano because I have acquired that ability.) That race car can go very fast. (It is possible for that car to go fast because of its special characteristics.) Can you meet me tomorrow evening? (Is it possible for you to meet me? Will you be free?) We can use be able to instead of can eg Are you able to swim? but can is more common. Could and was/were able to We can use could to say that someone had the general ability to do something in the past. I could swim when I was 4 years old. My sister could talk when she was 15 months old. We also use was/were able to with this meaning. I was able to swim when I was 4 years old. But when we want to say that someone had the ability to do something, and that they did it in a particular situation, we must use was/were able to (could is not possible). Even though I'd hurt my leg, I was able to swim back to the boat. (Not: ... I could swim back ...) The manager wasn't in the office for very long, but we were able to speak to him for a few minutes. (Not: we could ayeak to him ...) We can use managed to (+ infinitive) or succeeded in (+ -ing form) instead of was/were able to in this meaning. Even though I'd hurt my leg, I managed to swim back to the boat/I succeeded in swimming back to the boat. We normally use managed to or succeeded in when the action was difficult to do. There is an exception with the verbs of perception see, hear, smell, taste, feel, and some verbs of thinking eg understand, remember. We use could with these verbs when we actually did these things in particular situations. We could see a man in the garden. I could hear a noise outside my bedroom door. We use could not (contraction: couldn't) for both general ability and particular situations. My grandmother couldn't dance. He tried very hard, but he couldn't swim back to the boat. Could have ... We use could have + past participle to say that someone had the ability or the opportunity to do something in the past but did not do it. You could have helped me. Why didn't you? I could have gone to China on holiday last year, but I decided not to. Expressing ability in other forms: be able to Can has no infinitive, -ing form or participles. So, when necessary, we make these forms with be able to. I'd like to be able to play the piano. (We cannot say I'd like to can play ... ) In the future, people will be able to live on other planets. (We cannot say ... people will can live ... ) She enjoys being able to speak foreign languages. (We cannot say Ghe enjoys canning ...) I've been able to drive since I was 18. (We cannot say I've could ...) Possibility: can We use can to talk about 'theoretical possibility'. You can ski on the hills. (= It is possible to ski, i.e. circumstances permit: there is enough snow. ) Anyone can learn to swim. (= It is possible for anyone to learn to swim.) We can't bathe here on account of the sharks. (It isn't safe.) Can you get to the top of the mountain in one day? (Is it possible?) In this use, can often has a similar meaning to 'sometimes'.

My brother can be very nice. (= My brother is sometimes very nice.) The Straits of Dover can be very rough. (= It is possible for the Straits to be rough; this sometimes happens.) We use could to talk about theoretical possibility in the past. My brother could be really horrible when he was a child. Activities /. Supply can, can't, could, couldn't, was/were able to, managed to. Alternatives are possible. I. A good 1500-metre runner ... run the race in under four minutes. 2. Bill is so unfit he ... run at all."3. Our baby is - only nine months and he ... already stand up. 4. When I was younger, I... speak Italian much better than I... now. 5. He ... draw or paint at all when he was a boy, but now he's a famous artist. 6. ... she speak German very well? — No, she ... speak German at all. 7. After weeks of training, I ... swim a length of the baths underwater. 8. It took a long time, but in the end Tony ... save enough to buy his own hi-fi. 9. Did you buy any fresh fish in the market? — No, I ... get any. 10. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they saw them and ... reach them without too much trouble.. II. Rewrite these sentences using can, can't, could or couldn't. 1. Do you see that man over there? 2. I smell something burning. 3.1 understood what he said. 4. Did you understand what he said? 5. I don't see anyone. 6. I didn't understand what he said. 7. I don't remember his name. 8. Did you hear any noise at night? 9. Do you see a bird in that tree? III. Supply suitable forms of be able to in these sentences. 1. Our teacher says we ... speak English fluently in a few months. 2. I've been trying for hours, but so far I (not) ... get through on the phone. 3. If he had asked me earlier, I ... help him. 4. I'm sure she would have helped you if she ... 5. I think I ... play tennis better after a bit of practice. 6. You ... ski when you go to Geneva. 7. It's nice ... go to the opera. 8. He has managed to live in England for years without ... speak English. 9. I'm practising hard because I want to ... pass my driving test first time. 10. If I ... sing, I would have loved to be an opera singer. 11. It's been a quiet day, I ... get some work done. IV. Fill the following spaces, using can for present, could for past and shall/will be able for future. There is no need to use other able forms in this section. Put to where necessary before the infinitives. 1. ... you stand on your head? — I ... when I was at school but I (not) ... now. 2. When I've passed my driving test I ... hire a car from our local garage. 3. At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous telephone bill which he (not) ... pay. 4. I (not) ... remember the address. — ... (not) you even remember the street? 5. When the fog lifts we ... see where we are. 6. You've put too much in your rucksack; you never ... carry all that. 7. When I was a child I (not) ... understand adults, and now that I am an adult I (not)... understand children. 8. When you have taken your degree you ... work as an interpreter? 9. Don't try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise when you get home you (not) ... remember any of them. 10. When I first went to Spain I... read Spanish but I (not) ... speak it. 11. ... you type? — Yes, I... type but I (not)... do shorthand. 12. I'm locked in. I (not) ... get out! — ... you (not) squeeze between the bars? - No! I ... ; I'm too fat. V. Complete the sentences using could or was/were able to. Sometimes either form is possible, 1. He was very strong; he ... ski all day and dance all night. 2. The car plunged into the river. The driver ... get out but the passengers were drowned. 3. I was a long way from the stage. I ... see all right but I (not) ... hear very well. 4. We ... borrow umbrellas, so we didn't get wet. 5. ... you walk or did they have to carry you? 6. I had no key so I (not) ... lock the door. 7. I knew the town so I ... advise him where to go. 8. When the garage had repaired our car we ... continue our journey. 9. At five years old he ... read quite well. 10. When I arrived everyone was asleep. Fortunately I ... wake my sister and she let me in. 11. The swimmer was very tired but he ... reach the shore before he collapsed. 12. The police were suspicious at first but I... convince them that we were innocent. 13. We ... put out the fire before much damage was done. 14. My daughter ... walk when she was only 11 months old. 15.1 ... finish all the work you wanted me to do yesterday. 16. ... you speak French before you went to live in Paris? — I (not) ... speak it very well. 17. They were talking quite loudly. I ... hear everything they said. 18. I looked everywhere for the book but I (not) ... find it. 19. He had hurt his leg, so he (not) ... walk very well. 20. She wasn't at home when I phoned but I ... contact her at the office. 21.1 looked very carefully and I... see a figure in the distance. 22. They didn't have any tomatoes in the first shop I went to, but I... get some in the next shop. 23. The boy fell into the river but fortunately we ... rescue him. 24. Did you persuade them? — Yes. It was difficult but we ... persuade them. 25. Did they find your house? — Yes. It took them a long time but they ... find it. 26. He (not) ... come to the meeting last week. He was sick. VI. Complete the sentences using can or could where possible. If can or could is not possible, use a form of be able to. 1. When Robert was younger he ... run quite fast. 2. Look! You ... see the mountains from this window. 3. How long ... you ... play the guitar? 4. Look! I ... lift this chair with one hand. 5. I'm sorry but I (not) ... come to the party on Saturday. 6. I (not) ... sleep very well recently. 7. Tom ... drive but he hasn't got a car. 8. I can't understand Martin. I ... never... understand him. 9. I used ... stand on my head but I can't do it now. 10. Ask Ann about your problem. I think she ... help you. 11. Did you win the match? — Yes. It wasn't easy but I ... win it. 12. I (not) ... swim very far these days but ten years ago I ... swim from one side of the lake to the other. 13. I ... read a book by moonlight but I (not) ... read in sunlight. 14. Where are the keys? I (not) ... find them last night. 15. The theatre seats were awful. We

(not) ... see the stage. 16. The show is very popular but luckily I ... get two seats for Saturday. 17. My car broke down and I (not) ... drive it for a week. 18. The exam was easy. I ... do all the questions. 19. It's nice ... sleep on Sundays. 20. After the accident he (not) ... smell or taste anything. 21.1 lost all my money but fortunately I... borrow some from my friends. 22. When Lynn was younger she (not) ... afford to buy a camera, but she has a good job now, and she ... afford several cameras. 23. By the way, ... you ... find that tie you borrowed last night? — Uh ... no. If I (not) ... find it, I'll buy you a new one. OK? — It was my favourite tie. — I know, Dad. I've looked everywhere, and I (not) ... find it. But I'll keep looking. 24. If they (not) ... fix the car today, they can fix it tomorrow. 25. Mr Wilson is taking a course in Computer Programming. At the moment he (not) ... write complicated programs, but soon he ... write them quite well. 26. Julie is taking a typing course. She knows she ... pass her secretarial exams next year unless she improves her typing speed. She's doing well, and soon she ... type 60 words a minute. VII. Substitute could for the italicized verbs if possible. 1. We had a good time yesterday. We went to the zoo. The children enjoyed themselves very much. They saw polar bears and elephants. (No substitution of 'could' is possible.) 2. When I lived in St. Louis, I went to the zoo whenever I wanted to, but now I live in a small town and the nearest zoo is a long way away. ('/ could go' can be used instead of 'I went' to give the idea of 'used to be able to.') 3. Usually I don't have much time to watch TV, but last night I watched the news while I was eating dinner. I heard the news about the political situation in my country. 4. When I lived at home with my parents, I watched TV every day if I wanted to, but now while I'm going to school, I live in a small apartment and don't have a television set. 5. When I worked as a secretary, I was able to type 60 words a minute without making a mistake. My typing skills aren't nearly as good now. 6. Yesterday I typed these reports for my boss. I don't type very well, but I was able to finish the reports without making too many mistakes. 7. When I went to my favourite fishing hole last Saturday, I caught two fish. I brought them home and cooked them for dinner. 8. When I was a child, the river that flows through our town had plenty of fish. My mother used to go fishing two or three times a week. Usually she caught enough for our dinner within an hour or so. 9. Last night Mark and I had an argument about politics. Finally, I managed to convince him that I was right. 10. My grandfather was a merchant all his life. He knew how to make a sale by using psychology. He was able to convince anyone to buy anything whether they needed it or not. 11. The game we went to yesterday was exciting. The other team played good defence, but my favourite player managed to score two goals. 12. When I ran into Mrs Forks yesterday, I recognized her even though I hadn't seen her for years. VIII. Complete the sentences with could and the verb in parentheses if possible. If the use of could is not possible, provide any other appropriate completion. 1. When I was younger, I ... up late without getting sleepy, but now I always go to bed early, (stay) 2. Last night we ... to a restaurant. The food was delicious, (go) 3. The teacher gave the students plenty of time for the test yesterday. All of them ... it before the time was up. (complete) 4. I was tired, but I ... my work before I went to bed last night, (finish) 5. Last night I ... TV for a couple of hours. Then I studied, (watch) 6. I like to ride my bicycle. I ... it to work when we lived on First Street but now I can't. Now I have to drive because we live too far away, (ride) 7. Susan ... her bicycle to work yesterday instead of walking, (ride) 8. The picnic yesterday was a lot of fun. All of us ... it a lot. (enjoy) 9. After years of devoted work, Mr Bailey finally ... a raise in salary last April, (get) 10. I ... long distances when I was a teenager, (swim) 11. I had to put together my daughter's tricycle. It came from the factory unassembled. It was a struggle and took me a long time, but in the end I ... it together, (get). IX. Respond using can or can't. Example Is it possible to buy sweets at Buckingham Palace? No, you can't buy sweets at Buckingham Palace. Example. Is it possible to go to the top of the Post Office Tower? Yes, you can go to the top of the Post Office Tower. 1. Is it possible to buy sweets at Buckingham Palace? 2. Is it possible to go to the top of the Post Office Tower? 3. Is it possible to have clothes washed at the hairdresser's? 4. Is it possible to put all your clothes in a handbag? 5. Is it possible to go by train from London to Bristol? 6. Is it possible to swim in a boat? 7. Is it possible to swim when the tide is in? 8. Is it possible to book seats at the theatre? 9. Is it possible to have clothes made at the launderette? 10. Is it possible to get medicine at the newsagent's? X. Complete the sentences using can or could and the verbs in the box. Use each verb only once. grow be make reach live survive cross Example Tigers can be dangerous. 1. Elephants ... for up to 70 years. 2. Temperatures near the South Pole ... minus 43 degrees centigrade.

. 5.. 2. for up to 17 weeks in the desert without water.. I couldn't have gone to university. as in the example.. 6. After their climb. Anne: Me too. And the weather needs to be cooler to climb mountains — I'm so hot . When Robert was 26 he could have got married. XII. 6. Stephen and his friends were all very hungry. A hundred years ago ships . Write the most appropriate 'wish' for the people in the sentences below. 5. XI.. 5. .... John and Anne were so tired they .. He was often helpful when he wanted to be. never . 1.' 2. Students taking an English exam:'__________________' 4. Winter here is often really cold. understand cakes find dictionaries afford a job 1.. Even if I hadn't gone to university. tired. hot. . If my brother had worked harder. Sometimes he feels that he has wasted his life. XVI. he could have bought a car.. to do sums in my head. Anyone .. I could have worked for this firm.. but I was so thirsty I . Read about Robert.. 2. 3. He had the opportunity to start his own business once.. Camels . Julie: The mountains are so beautiful. Rewrite these sentences with can or could be. he could have gone to university too. He had the intelligence to pass his final exams at school. 5.. managed to or an appropriate form of able to in each gap. 1. He was often naughty when he was a boy.. The sea is often rough in the harbour.. I could have stayed for three more years. 8. 1. I couldn't have gone to university. 2.. Robert Wells is 52 years old. Dinosaurs . ... Use could with items in the box to complete their exclamations: drink 8 bottles of lemonade sleep for 24 eat a kilo of rice melt hours look at them all day Stephen: I'm so hungry I could eat a kilo of rice! Julie: I'm not hungry. If my parents had had more money. I wouldn't have been able to go to university. Someone locked out of their house:'_________________' 3. He had the chance to emigrate to Australia a few years ago. 6. 3. XIII. 1. I . An unemployed person:'___________________________' 6. I couldn't have passed my exams. though. Paraphrase using 'be able to' instead of 'can'. 4... 4. She is bad tempered at times. Robert had the ability to go to university. It is often cold here in winter. but I'm so thirsty . up to 5 meters long. but he decided not to. Later. though. my parents couldn't have afforded to send me. If I hadn't studied hard.. but he didn't want to go. I'm so tired . 3. Continue her letter.. Write could (have). and happy. mistakes. The mountains were so beautiful. 7. but he didn't take them. XV. but he decided not to.. Replace the words in italics with could have . If I hadn't done well at school.. Someone on a diet: 'I wish I could eat cakes.. thirsty.... 4. but he decided not to.. If John hadn't given Mary so many presents. Some people who have just bought a new computer:'____' XIV. She was often rude when she was a girl. Julie wrote a postcard to her parents. and described how everyone had felt: Stephen was so hungry he could have eaten a kilo of rice.. the Atlantic in 10 days. If he had bought a car. he could have taken his friends to Italy in it. I . Example-. 7. If I hadn't won a scholarship. Someone whose car won't start:'____________________' 5. drive has changed my whole life. What's forty-eight divided by eight? I . using the words in the table: eat the instructions get my key use a new car I wish I/ we could.. 4. writing the other sentences in the same way: I wasn't hungry.3. but he didn't want to. but he didn't try. Example: When Robert was 26 he had the chance to get married. . A lot of people thought he had the ability to be a professional footballer when he was younger. John: I didn't sleep well last night. If I hadn't done well at school. If I hadn't done well at school... . 2. and Anne was so hot she .

can you play the piano? Kevin: No. Sarah: Well.. I'm Bruce Horn. 22. (take) my holiday in June if I wanted to. see right across the valley to the hills in the distance. or anything. 6. but I jumped in and . the guitar. 31. 28.. Mr Horn: Miss Abe? Keiko: Yes. the new music teacher... then . Вы можете подождать до завтра? 25. если бы ты мог пойти с нами. Я мог бы прийти пораньше. Director of Personnel. и мы могли гулять в парке каждое утро.. If I'd had enough money. and I know about five words in Spanish — adios. 15. Mary speaks German and she . Mr Horn: So. Miss Conrad: Well.. я попытаюсь сделать это сегодня. of course. (not understand) a word he said. Он сказал. что не сможет дать ответ. not the piano.. Вы сможете отвезти меня завтра в аэропорт? — Конечно.. Keiko: I'm pleased to meet you. He was a nice man and I would have invited him home if I . but I'm quite good at tennis. 7.. I can play the recorder. Когда он приехал в Лондон. Он сказал. (take) me home in his car. Я смогу перевести эту статью. Well. если ты дашь мне хороший словарь. I can . walk again in a few weeks. (be) English from his appearance. 6. когда был ребенком. but the German gentleman was staying near where I live so he .. Хорошо.. я бы смог помочь тебе. When I was at school I . 12. если бы попытались.. (go) to Florida. you want to be a secretary at United Bank. I can play tennis. Ребенок сможет ходить через несколько недель.. 3. что мы ничего не видели.. The doctors say she . . что потерял паспорт и не мог выехать из страны. Было так темно. I had my last vacation in July. (climb) in. swim since I was six. Она много занималась. 1. Miss Conrad. что брата нет дома.Now I can go wherever I want without having to worry about public transport. After the party my car wouldn't start. Study and practise the following texts. a good cook! Now. 10. Mr Horn: Please come in. He invited me to Germany next summer and I would go if I . Miss Conrad: That's great! Now we need a guitar and a trumpet! 3. I can't speak Spanish! And I can't play any musical instruments. 7. 5. A girl was drowning.. Это можно и нужно сделать. Боже мой! Тебя могли убить. XIX. because I have one at work and I use it all the time. languages. Вы могли бы вести дела самостоятельно? 27. Anna's operation was very successful. I usually win when I play with my friends. (go) to the cinema but we decided to stay at home. он смог объяснить. Он смог вас встретить? — Да.. 4. 35.. what about the recorder? Kevin: Yes. пока не обдумает вопрос как следует. Keiko: Thank you. не могу. just good . 9. yes.. The view was breathtaking. Когда я был молодым. I can speak French and German. он не выходит из дома. Он бывал очень капризным. 24.. 8.. but she's very good at music. wants to start a school orchestra. 26. I'm learning Russian because I want . what instruments can you play? Kevin.. Speak about your skills and achievements. I found I didn't have a key.. Mr Horn: Please sit down. I think I'm a very good. Зима здесь бывает очень холодной.. And I can cook. 13. Я не могу заплатить вам сегодня. Then. sing as well as you. I certainly can't ski. Он сможет свободно говорить по-французски. Он бы смог помочь тебе. и ей удалось сдать экзамен. Report the conversations. Miss Conrad: Well now .. как произошел несчастный случай. Несмотря на шторм... 19. Если бы ты попросил меня. — Я попытаюсь. And I can swim. он смог доплыть до берега. We . Ты не сможешь . talk to people when I go there next year. there are a lot of things I can't do! I can't draw and I can't drive a car. 23. 5.. I don't know any Italian at all. in fact he . но он не смог отвезти нас в гостиницу.. I had a row with Sheila last night about nuclear arms. 16. You . 21. что вы смогли бы уговорить его.. Complete these sentences using an appropriate form of could or be able to (sometimes both are possible). 20. (tell) me that he was staying in England only for a few days. не прочитав всей статьи. 1. (speak) German quite well. (understand) him better. Почему ты не сказал мне раньше? — Я бы мог купить эту книгу в Лондоне.. Miss Conrad. если проведет пару лет в Париже. I can type and I can use a word processor. He spoke a little English and he . no. Well. Эту книгу можно купить в любом магазине. understand the point she was trying to make.. 11. 8. и мы могли бы погулять. 4. 18.. 11. 2. Я был тогда свободен. manana. Miss Conrad: Oh! Can she play the piano? Kevin: Yes she can.. do it if you tried.. I . 3. если нужно... but last week I met a German at a party and I .. I . Мы смогли перевезти все товары в течение десяти дней. XVIII. 34. Жаль.. он мог вести переговоры с фирмами без переводчика. (come) with me if I went. XVII. Погода сегодня хорошая... Я думаю. что произошло. but I still didn't agree. 9. Хотя пилот был тяжело ранен. He didn't look German. paella — no.. 14. I can't. 32. 30. — К сожалению. Почему ты не попросил у меня? 29. Why don't you stop smoking? You . Translate from Russian into English. Мы не смогли вчера достать билеты на матч. but I want to have lessons. Miss Conrad: Good! Kevin: My friend Barbara's away today. Я бы мог одолжить тебе денег. My boss said that I . but the kitchen window was open so I . I would join the opera. 10. перевести название.. 2. С тех пор. я мог пройти 30 километров в день. If I . We didn't go out last night. I. Мы смогли достать билеты на матч вчера.. Ты смог починить телевизор вчера? — Нет.. well. (afford) it. 17.. Mark: I can play the recorder too. when I got home. save her.. 33.. What about sports? Mm... Погода была хорошая.

Petra was flying a helicopter over the Peruvian jungle when suddenly there was a huge storm. Olga: Ouch! Eddie: What's the matter? Did you hurt yourself? Olga: I cut myself. Retell the text. Eddie: Those are all Isabel's things. Mr Horn: But you can type. survive for long without water.. find a river because she had been on a survival training course.. and it was lucky that young Tommy is such a good swimmer for his age too. She . can you? Mrs Jones: But one has to try. I know you can swim but you shouldn't swim out too far in such cold water. I'm 19 years old. check with your father. Rescue parties searched the jungle for several days. Petra was able to send smoke signals and finally . don't you? Mrs Smith: That's right. I can type about sixty words a minute. to find enough to eat for several days at a time.. Why don't you help your sister clean the living room? There are records and books everywhere... Susan: Don't worry about me. but they .. It'll take too long.000 metres. The jungle was so dense that the rescuers . so she built a shelter.. One would have it on one's conscience for the rest of one's life. defend herself against wild animals. I think he's ready to paint the kitchen. those little bays are so dangerous. Even radar equipment. Olga: Well. It's quite deep. Anyway. so she . Olga: Were you able to fix the lawn mower? Eddie: No. to have a narrow escape — едва избежать опасности. Mrs Jones: Just think! If anything ever happened.. see through the trees.. I can't... don't you think? * Note-. I'm all right. . Mrs Smith: Yes..Can you tell me a little about yourself? Keiko: Well. She was hungry and exhausted. David: All right then. to recognize the poisonous plants. Susan: It's really great here in this lake. XXI. Mrs Jones: I hear your grandchildren and Mrs Tailor's boys had a narrow escape* at the beach last Sunday. The water's so warm.. write what you think happened to Petra next. She was very ill and she couldn't move for two days. find either Petra or the helicopter. but I'm getting out. She realized that she . And I'm studying English and Business at school.. survive the fall. David: Susan! Be careful. like this: Petra was bitten by a dangerous insect. but I'd like to learn about computers. He won't be able to do it by himself. A. Use couldn't. bring the helicopter under control and seconds later the helicopter crashed to the ground. and I like to swim. Complete the account of the climb with could/couldn't wherever possible — otherwise use was/were able to. And it's so clean. At first Petra .. Mr Horn: Do you have any hobbies or special skills? Keiko: I like to read. was able to and managed to. Mrs Jones: It was lucky you were able to find that man with the motor-boat. B. if one takes one's responsibilities as a parent seriously. We never dreamed anything like that could happen. and it's too big for him to paint alone. In a short paragraph. Eddie: Do you want some help? Olga: No. find any food that was safe to eat. but you can't watch them every single minute of the day. I can swim for miles without getting tired. Eddie: Do I have to? Olga: Yes. find her. I can finish it myself..) XX. Keiko: Thank you. 6. Complete the sentences with couldn't or was able to... I can see the bottom.. Petra fell 5. one would never be able to forgive oneself. yes. That is how she . and I came here about a year ago. you have to. When she felt better she decided to light a large fire. She had studied botany at University. She .. Mr Horn: Can you use a computer? Keiko: No. Luckily she managed to find some plants and some fruit to eat. Luckily she was strapped to her seat. Take turns to read your paragraph to the class.... Petra knew that she . I can't swim as fast as you and I can't stand being beaten by a girl! 5. wasn't it? Mrs Smith: Yes.. she doesn't want help. They could easily have been drowned. Mrs Smith. Retell the text.п.. so I couldn't mow the lawn. wouldn't one? Mrs Smith: Yes. can't you? Keiko: Oh. She . I was born in Japan. быть на волосок (от смерти и т. Mr Horn: You can speak English very well.. Work with a partner. 4. Mrs Jones: You only have to take your eyes off children for a moment.

communicate with the chief. 'I was educated at Oxford University. of course. Past: Years ago you could park your car anywhere. there was a difficult section. could. Can is the commonest and most informal: Can I borrow your umbrella (please)? 2.'... Retell the text. We can also use must not. I was allowed to leave work early yesterday.. could. and they .. What's the matter? . depending on the situation. For a general permission in the past we use either could or was/were allowed to: I could always stay (OR I was allowed to stay) up late as a child.. To do this we use can. Compare questions with may and be allowed to: May I take a photo of you? (Asking for permission: 'Will you allow it?') Are we allowed to take photos? (Asking about permission: 'What is the rule?') Activities I.' The rest of the climb was easier.' the young man replied.) This is like the difference between could and was/ were able to. Put in suitable forms which express ability. The journey to Western Papua had been very hard. We can add possibly and use the expressions like Do you think and I wonder if to make requests even more polite: Can/Could/May/Might I possibly borrow your umbrella? Do you think I could/Do you think I might (possibly) borrow your umbrella? I wonder if I could/I wonder if I might (possibly) borrow your umbrella? Giving and refusing permission We use can or may to give permission (but not could or might). but we .. After two months' journey. you speak English?' I asked hopefully. In the end. Study and practise the following dialogues. There was a boiling river in front of us. and they . We . Welcome to my village!' §2. more respectful than can and could: May I borrow your umbrella (please)? 4. Permission: can. reach the top by 12 o'clock. but Julie is not so tall and .... — Yes.. A.. We can also use be allowed to: Present: Passengers are allowed to take one bag onto the plane. Could I borrow your calculator? — Of course you can. Soon. and we use could for the past: Present: Each passenger can take one bag onto the plane. might. To refuse permission we use the negative forms. speak the local language.. You may watch TV for as long as you like. On a climb... Could is more polite than can: Could I borrow your umbrella (please)? 3. reach it by standing on her friend's shoulders. she .. 1. I'm Chief Naga. At last we approached the village and wondered how we . 'I . reach the hold. You can wait in my office if you like. May is more formal. climb this easily. Bicycles may not (OR must not) be left here..' he said.. 'Never mind.. but you can't picnic here. Might is the most polite but the least common: Might I borrow your umbrella (please)? 5. — Could I go home early.. May is formal and not often used in speech. dignified and smiling man approached us. It was warm and sunny. we . Future: Will I be allowed to record the interview on tape? Past: We weren't allowed to feed the animals at the zoo yesterday. Stephen has long arms and . We use can to talk about the present or the future. may and might to ask for permission... be allowed to Asking for permission We use can. get up this bit the first time I tried. make much progress in the heavy rain. 'Of course... may. But we cannot use could when we mean that an action really happened at a time in the past.. 1. I'm sorry. a young.Stephen and Julie were spending a few days camping with some friends in Snowdonia. cross it by using a rope bridge we had brought with us. Future: I can't have another day off tomorrow. None of us . Talking about permission We sometimes talk about rules made by someone else. (Not: I could leave . Steve? I don't feel very well. could and be allowed to.. see the whole of Snowdonia. Have you ever had any experience of this sort? Could you tell about it? XXII.. Members may not bring more than two visitors into the club. see smoke in the distance and knew we must be near a village.

Write formal versions. Sorry. sorry. 3. Example. please don't. No parking_____________________________________ 7. 8. doctor? — I'm afraid you can't. 5. or can I. Courts__________only____________by members of the tennis club. 12.. Do not walk on the grass___________________________ 11. of: 1. 7. 6. 5. You can't take dogs into this restaurant. Don't smoke in the classrooms! Students________________. I haven't finished it yet.) has a book. Sorry. — May I bring a friend with me this afternoon? — Sure. — Might I use your bicycle? — No. — Could I borrow your car tonight? — Actually. we can't sell alcoholic drinks to anyone under 18. 14. May I sit Do you think I could in? a look at your magazine? this close Could I have Can I try on? here? your bike for half an May I come Can I borrow hour? the window? III.' 1. — Can I speak to Emily? — I'm afraid you can't. 3. could I. 11.. — Could I possibly use your phone? — Sure. I need it myself. — Do you think I could close the window? — Please do. No camping or picnicking_________________________ 3. 2. Ask for permission using the words in the box. 4. Campers welcome________________________________ 5. — May I take this book? — No. Rephrase these notices to give or refuse permission. — Can I see my sister. Children under 12________________enter unless accompanied by an adult. Use may I.. — Could I have a look at your magazine? — Yes. You want to see it for a minute. She's out. Sorry. No stopping____________________________________ 10. Ask a classmate a polite question. Private-Keep Out________________________________ 6. 2. . VI. You may not smoke. Leave your litter here____________________________ 9. Do not feed the animals__________________________ IV. — Can (May) I come in for a moment? — Please do. You ought to finish the report. You can only book a court if you're a member of the tennis club. — I wonder if I might take the day off? — No. 4. II.. 9. 13. 10. I'm afraid not. 15. Begin each sentence with 'You .— I feel dizzy. with may (not). of course. Dogs may not be taken into this restaurant. Children under 12 can't enter unless they're with a grownup. (. — Can I go swimming now? — Please don't. We regret that alcoholic drinks______________sold to anyone under 18. — Could I possibly borrow your bike for half an hour? — Of course you can. — Can I stay here for a while? — Certainly. Fishing strictly forbidden__________________________ 4. She's being examined by the professor now. 2. Do not lean out of the window_____________________ 8. Thank you for not smoking.

8./Sure. In a library (X) eat or drink 1.. please?' 6.. It costs a fortune if you send it to the garage. On a motorway (X) cycle 6. ask and answer about Britain.. I am not allowed to go out at night with either a boy or a . No smoking in the toilets. VII. drive a car things' 17 ride a moped 16 buy cigarettes .. do this exercise. 9. (. I make an appointment to see you. Read about legal ages in Britain.. I phoned the Gas Board because I thought I .) has a pen.) has a dictionary.. Example I.. 6. to be able. 12.) is your waiter/waitress. Read the instructions below. 7. You want to use something that a classmate has. You are speaking to one of your teachers. You want to borrow it. Say what they mean. 4.. In my country you . 6. You want to see it for a minute. (. who talks about growing up in England. Is that the dentist? .. 3. If you . 1.. 2.. see very well. No more than one piece of hand luggage./ etc. STUDENT A: Thank you. You want to leave class early today. You want to see something that a classmate has. vote in England until 1922. The forms are positive and negative.. Make rules for the places or situations. You're not allowed to eat or drink in a library. No pipes or cigars. You want to see it for a minute. 7. 13. you're very clever! VIII. 1. Women . You're not allowed to take more than one piece of hand luggage. You have finished your meal.. could. The verbs are can. get married when you are 16. X. 2. 2. Last night I. In a restaurant (X) wear beach clothes 3. You are at (.) has a calculator. 4. In a theatre (X) smoke 5.. On a motorway (X) drive over 120 kmph XL Read about Ranjit../Thanks. but they have a highly developed sense of smell.. IN THE AIRPORT HALL 1. They are very strict. 2. 8. A: When are you allowed to drive a car? B: (You're allowed to drive a car) when you're seventeen. Passengers may check in at any British Airways desk. 5. 10. get into my house because I had forgotten my key. 'My parents are devoted Sikhs. Many night animals .STUDENT A: May/Could/Can I (please) see your book for a minute? STUDENT B: Of course. to service my own car.) has a camera. (.)'s house. Now ask and answer about your country. a sixteen-year-old Indian girl. (. 'Hello.. smell gas. You are at a restaurant. Put an appropriate verb in its correct form into each gap.. A: What about a moped? B: You're not allowed to ride a moped until you are sixteen. You are visiting a friend and you want to make yourself some coffee.. using not allowed to or allowed to. ON THE PLANE 4. I'm learning car mechanics because I want. Passengers may smoke in rows 16—20. You are visiting an acquaintance and want to use the lavatory.. You want to use the phone. IX.... 16 vote in elections 18 join the army 16 get married with your parents' permission 16 get married without your parents' permission 18 In pairs. (. ABOUT LEGAL AGES IN BRITAIN These are the legal ages when you are allowed to do in Britain. You want to borrow something that a classmate has. 2. You want to use it for a minute.. 11. 3.. 5. which is very dangerous. No passengers beyond this point without a boarding card. You are visiting a friend and want to borrow his new car. 5.... In a petrol station (X) light a cigarette 4. You want the check.

только не знаю.. Я еще не закончил его. 17. 21. please? Customer: All right. 7. It's cold in this classroom. or wear it loose. ему разрешалось делать все. You may keep them longer but you must renew them first..' A. Enrico: May I leave early this afternoon. Вы можете взять любую из этих книг. — Конечно. но только не купайтесь слишком долго. Teacher: Here's another sheet. Mrs Wilkins: What do you think. что вам разрешат пользоваться лабораторией. straight away? Librarian: Yes. 24. But if you drive round the corner you can park there for thirty minutes without any problems. travel freely between most countries without a passport.. could I have another sheet of paper? I've spoiled this one. Liz. Driver: Excuse me. Johnny: Excuse me. что я могу пользоваться его телефоном. you may leave now. Могу я взглянуть на твое сочинение? — Боюсь. Translate from Russian into English.. When I was 18. Librarian: Could you fill this form in. После аварии ему не разрешается водить машину. Вчера детям разрешили не идти в школу из-за погоды. Ему только что разрешили пойти домой после того как он провел три часа в полицейском участке. of course you can. 6. please? I want to go with Enrico. Customer: I'd like to join the library. sir. что нет. please get on with your work. all right then. Johnny: Sir... Close it quickly and then sit down and get on with the test. мне можно купаться в море? — Да. Juan: Can we all leave early? Jill: No. Johnny. смогу ли я на него ответить. Until the 19th century. Can I go to Henley Youth Hostel this weekend? Mr Wilkins: Who with? Kevin: Mark and Barbara. Mr Wilkins: Oh. Dad. Врач сказал. можешь уйти прямо сейчас. Когда он был ребенком. 5. Он спросил. 3. XIV. XIII. And of course I'm not allowed either to smoke cigarettes or to drink alcohol. 2. Kevin: Oh..00. 4. Скажите ей. Это очень опасно. Можно мне взять ваш словарь? — Боюсь. 9.. можно ли нам осмотреть спортивный зал. Study and practise. Complete the sentences using could or was/were allowed to. 1. Now. Mr Wilkins: Mmm. Здесь курить не разрешается.. Kevin: Well? Can I? Mr Wilkins: No you can't. что ему захочется. So I can't go into pubs or anything like that. watch the film on TV last night. of course. Можно ли детям пойти на каток? — Нет. Вам разрешается пользоваться словарем? 12. it's because of our religion. 19. 1. 10. We're are going to a lecture at the University. Dad! Why not? Mr Wilkins: Because you can't! Kevin: Mum. 5. Jill: Yes. 1. что я могу позвонить ему после 5. можно ли ему оставить у вас книгу.. borrow my parents' car whenever I wanted to.. How many books may I take out? Librarian: You can have up to five books for two weeks. please? Jill: Yes. leave school early yesterday because he wasn't feeling well. there's a lot of work to do in the garden. Can I park here for five minutes while I wait for a friend? Traffic warden: No. 2. Stan? Mr Wilkins: Well. I . too. что она может прислать мне телеграмму. 7. Her son has to wear a uniform in his new school. 2. Andrew . если понадобится моя помощь. 11. Босс сказал. Stan. 4. Sometimes either form is possible. but in his old school he . Maria: Can I leave now. 3. 15. 18. I . Можно мне задать вопрос? — Конечно. Kevin? Kevin: Dad . borrow my parents' car last night. 20. Здесь нельзя переходить улицу.. уже слишком поздно. About you Were your parents very strict when you were younger or were you allowed to do what you wanted? What things were you not allowed to do? XII. Спроси тренера. Вы можете пользоваться моей библиотекой. Mrs Wilkins: But we can do it.1. Он мне нужен самой. I'm afraid you can't. 13. 22. Customer: May I take five books with me today... These double yellow lines mean that no parking is allowed. что нет. We've almost finished our work for today. Kevin: Dad! Mr Wilkins: Yes. Kevin: Thanks. 3. Johnny: Sir! Sir! Could I just leave the room for a . 8. У меня была виза.girlfriend. Можно мне уйти с урока пораньше? — А в чем дело? — У меня болеет мать. Нельзя переговариваться во время контрольной работы.. Я думаю.. That's not because I'm not old enough.. Eventually my parents will choose a husband for me. see him for a few moments yesterday. Sue's children . 6. и мне разрешили пересечь границу. people . I'm afraid you can't. can I go to Henley Youth Hostel with Barbara and Mark? Mrs Wilkins: When? Kevin: This weekend. Можно им прийти навестить вас? 23. 4. wear whatever he liked. 16.. Could I close the window? Teacher: OK. 5. 14. Доктор. My parents don't mind if I wear English clothes but I am not allowed to cut my hair short. in fact.

They wanted to look at the equipment. They wanted to stay until the tests were over. as you know. The tests showed that it was an egg of the extinct elephant bird and that it was at least two thousand years old. you can. Dad.' 'They can't have it!' said Patrick. This is what they said: 'Could you please help us to find out about our egg? May we bring it to show you? Would you please do some tests and tell us what's inside it? Are children allowed to visit your laboratory? If they are. One day. Patrick's friend added. Make their requests with 'Could you . They asked the scientist to find out what was inside. Son: But I'm taking Dave to see his girlfriend in hospital. We will pay you some money. my father can't walk very well. you can't. Children aren't allowed to use the equipment. 7. Mr Roberts: Well. He buried the egg in the sand again and he still refuses to tell anyone where it is. A. They began to plan how they would spend the money. . 'If we can't have it. They wanted to take the results home. But it was all too good to be true. nobody can. if that's the case I suppose you should. 6. you will be able to eat what you like after two months of this diet. It was over a hundred times bigger than a chicken's egg. Mrs Wilkins is on a strict diet.. I need it. They asked the scientist to tell them how old the egg was. Patrick wanted to help with the tests. Work with a partner. 4. He wouldn't be able to go if I wasn't there to help him. 'Perhaps your fingernails were longer in those days!' 9. But don't worry. 'Can we keep it?' Patrick asked. The children and their egg soon became famous. or No. 3. Son: Thanks a lot.' Patrick was very angry. the other partner is the scientist. 'I still can't touch my toes as I could before we were married. They wanted the scientist to tell them all about the elephant bird. He won't be able to go if I don't give him a lift. After two months' diet and exercise she said to her husband.' 'Don't worry. They appeared on television and someone offered them 75. They wanted the scientist to tell them what kind of egg it was. while they were playing in the sand near their home in New Zealand. Father: I told you. We are sorry but you will have to give the egg to us. I won't be home late. sir. Give or refuse permission with can. 'I'm afraid not. 5. When Patrick and his friends took their egg to the laboratory.' Mrs Wilkins was very determined and took a lot of exercise as well. could we please come soon?' Patrick and his friends were allowed to take their egg for laboratory tests. Patrick wanted to see the results on the computer screen. can't or be allowed to. You aren't allowed to smoke. I need it.000 dollars for it. Patrick: Can/May I look through the microscopes? Scientist: Yes. You are allowed to eat and drink if you don't make a noise. 2. Mr Thomas: I'd be terribly grateful. Ask their questions using can or may. I'll make up the time. Patrick and his friends asked for permission to do the following things in the laboratory. You are not allowed to keep things which belong to the State. You can only have half a grapefruit and a glass of water.few minutes? Teacher: Why didn't you go before you began the exam? Johnny: I didn't want to go then. They asked the scientist to find out what the eggshell was made of. What a surprise! 'We will be allowed to keep it. Ask for permission to do the things in (B). nine-year-old Patrick and two friends found a giant egg. 5. You can't eat any kind of fat and you are not allowed to eat biscuits or sweets.?' Say your answers. Son: Oh. 'Of course you can.' The children wanted to know all about their egg. C. in a cinema stand up during the film/eat and drink/smoke? You aren't allowed to stand up during the film. I was wondering if I could have a day off work? Mr Roberts: It's not a very convenient time at the moment.. won't we. my love.' said his father. so they wrote a letter to a scientific laboratory. They wanted the scientist to explain the tests to them. I'm sorry you can't. Mr Thomas: Mr Roberts? Could I have a word with you? Mr Roberts: Yes. and he needs to go into hospital. Father: All right. One day. 4. can I have the car tonight? Father: No. 'I once found some old coins and I was allowed to keep them. they asked a scientist to find out lots of things. Can/May we look through the microscopes? 1. Could you please tell us how old the egg is? 1. please. B. a government letter arrived which said: 'The egg is public property. The exercise will do me good. but only a small amount. One partner is Patrick. Dad?' Patrick asked. Mrs Wilkins. 3. 8. 'Am I allowed to eat toast and butter for breakfast?' she asked the doctor. I promise. Mr Thomas: That's very kind. They wanted to look through the microscopes. 2. What are you allowed to do where? Say what you think. I suppose I can walk.' he said kindly. what is it? Mr Thomas: Well. Son: Dad.

Of course. a nod or shake of the head.polite request consists of an se. The degree of politeness. Can I is usually not considered as polite as may I or could I. Sure. . the salt? Would you is more common and is often considered more polite. in a museum take photographs/touch things/talk to the museum attendants? 4. Often the response to a Yes. is often determined by the speaker's tone of voice. will. (b) Could I borrow They are equally polite. Requests: can. at school eat during lessons/listen to music/shout? §3. might Polite requests with 'I' as the subject MAY I (a) May I (please) borrow May I and could I are COULD I your pen? used to request permission. in a library talk loudly/run about/ sit and read? 2. not a past meaning. (informal) action. of cour. however. certainly. would. in a public park pick the flowers/play football/ drop litter? 5.' Polite requests with 'You' as the subject WOULD YOU (a) Would you pass The meaning of would you WILL YOU the salt (please)? (b) and will you in a polite Will you (please) pass request is the same. could has a present or future meaning. especially if the speaker is talking to someone s/he knows fairy well.1. may. could. Yes.* your pen (please)? Note in {b}: In a polite request. on a plane play a radio/open the door/talk to the pilot? 3. TYPICAL RESPONSES: Certainly. CAN I (c) Can I borrow your pen? Can I is used informally to request permission. or a simple 'uh-huh.

Sure. I'd (I would) be happy to. and is it possible for you to do this? Could you and would you are equally polite. Activities /. (informal) Polite requests with would you. The meaning in (c): I don't want to cause you any trouble. but would you please close the window? Would that cause you any inconvenience? TYPICAL RESPONSES No.. I'd be happy to. A person usually responds in the affirmative to a polite request. that 'unh-unh. I'd be glad to. It usually sounds less polite than could you or would you.' meaning no.'). would be fine. I'd be glad to.* the window? (b) Would you The meaning in (a): May I close mind if I used the phone? the window? Is it all right if I close the window? Will it cause you any trouble or discomfort if I close the window? TYPICAL RESPONSES No. Study and practise. 2. could you and would you have the same meaning. CAN YOU (d) Can you pass the salt? TYPICAL RESPONSES: Yes. — Will/Would you be able to fix my brakes today? — I'm sorry.COULD YOU (c) Could you pass the salt? Basically. but. Can you is often used informally. of course not. Certainly. ASKING SOMEONE ELSE TO DO SOMETHING (c) Would you mind closing the window? (d) Excuse me? Would you mind repeating that? Notice in (c): would you mind is followed Ъу-ing (a gerund). (eg. If a negative response is necessary. I'll ask Tom to pass it to you.'. Yes. No. 'I'd like to pass the salt. mind ASKING PERMISSION Notice in (a): would you mind if (a) Would you mind if I closed I is followed by the simple past. — Can/Could you possibly check my oil today? . I'd like to.. Not Another typical response might be at all. The difference is slight: would you = Do you want to do this please? could you = Do you want to do this please. 1. I won't be able to do it until tomorrow. No. but I can't reach it. a person might begin by saying. Not at all.

11. 14. Can you change them? — Oh. 15. 7. indeed. 23. — Would you mind mailing these letters for me? — All right. — I'm dying of thirst. — And could you bring me some biscuits? — Yes. 5. — Certainly. — Yes. and Anita. please? — Yes. I'd love a cup of coffee. — Sure. 21. — No. Can I borrow your dictionary? I'll only need it for about an hour. — Mom! — Yes. I bought these here two days ago and the heel's broken. Oh. 22. madam. of course. I'm just going to read it myself. — Turn that wretched music down. It's very stuffy in here. 16. — Excuse me. I'll put the kettle on. It doesn't matter. — Would you mind if I borrowed your paper? — Actually. — Thank you. will you come here a minute? Could you get me the file on sales in France? I just need to check something. — Excuse me? . will you? Or better still. 17.— Sure. Would you make a cup of tea? — OK. Can I help you? —Yes. — Excuse me. Is that your motorcycle outside? — Yes. all right. Could you open the door for me. 13. — I wonder if you could tell me where the library is. really? — Yes. — All right. Would you drop me at the station? 9. — Sorry. turn it off! — Oh. 20. — Never mind. 10. Do you think you could gift-wrap it for me? — Yes. I am. — I wonder if you'd mind moving it. but it's not mine. I'll do it when I go downtown this afternoon. — You know. It's blocking my car. I'll just take the price off. I want to hear the weather report. I'll go outside. it is. please? — Certainly. in a minute. — OK. I'm so sorry. sir. I'll bring it straight away. — Would you mind not smoking here? — OK. honey. — Can you help me with my homework? I really can't understand these history questions. — Yes. are you going to the cafeteria? — Yes. — That's great. Mr Parkinson. not at all. —I'll give you a lift if you like. — Excuse me. It's just round the corner. Sorry. — Thank you very much. Please do. — It's a present. please? — I'm sorry. — Yes. 4. dear. this book is difficult to read! — Oh. it is. 12. 8. — Would you mind opening the window? — Not at all. 19. I'm using it. Could you move your bag. I can do it right away. 6. I'll just see if we've got another pair for you. — Do you mind if I open the window? It's a bit stuffy in here. if that's at all possible. — Is that the six o'clock news? — Yes. — Would you mind turning up the TV? I can't hear it. 3. I'll open the new packet. — Anita. — Uh. I'll park it across the street. 18. — Could I have the bill. — Could you get me a soda from the machine? I'm really thirsty.

You want to leave class early. You want (. You and (. Change the following sentences into polite requests using the words in parentheses. You'd like to have a picture of the two of you together. No luggage can be left in reception for security reasons. You want your teacher to read it and correct the mistakes. I want you to open the door for me. — Is it all right if I leave my bags here for a moment? — Of course. You're speaking to her secretary. You knock on your professor's half-open door.).) to meet you in front of the library at three this afternoon. — It's only for a short time. 25. Would you mind (open) if I opened the window? B: Not at all. sir. I have to make a phone call.. You're at your friend's apartment. go on. You want a stranger to tell you the time. You are in your chemistry class. You're speaking to your instructor. 1. (would) 7. I want you to hand me that book. You call your friend. A: It's hot in here... You want your friend to hand you (something). Here you are. (could) 3.)'s dictionary for a minute. A: It's hot in here. I want to use your bicycle tomorrow. I want to leave early. fill in the blank either with if 1+ the past tense or with the -ing form of the verb. On page 100 there is a formula which you do not understand. 24. (can) 6. (may) 5. 17. (•••) is going to the library. You wrote a letter to a university. I'm sorry.1 want to have a cup of coffee. /Sure. where is it? — On the television... 15. but it's really urgent. 2.. 1.. You want to go in. (would you mind) ///. (informal) 26. No. //.. 14. Someone else answers the phone. that's very kind. I wonder if you could help me? Would you mind if I left my bags here just for one minute. You want to ask your teacher a question. — OK. 6. You want him to pick you up at the airport when you arrive home..) to tape something on the VCR tonight while you're away at a meeting. — Mmm. I want to borrow your wheelbarrow.. 8. You want the attendant to check the oil.. — Er . 1. It's not allowed.) are on vacation together.1 want you to give me some advice about buying a computer. You want to see (. 13. Go right ahead. He's sitting at his desk.) are sitting at the dinner table. Would you mind (open) opening the window? B: Not at all. 11. 18. 2. — Hello.— Yes? — Would you mind if I went before you? I have to make a very quick call. 3. — Oh.. — Hello. Using the verb in parentheses. 7. You want him/her to return a book for you. I think it's hot in here. go ahead. You are at a gas station. — It's against the rules. You want a stranger in an airport to keep her eye on your luggage while you get a drink of water. Her name is (. 27. would/could/will/can you please pass me the butter? Student B: Certainly./ I'd be glad to. 10. Thank you. You want the butter. 19. I'd be glad to. 12. A: Would you mind (take)_________the took back . You're looking at your textbook. You want to make an appointment to see Dr North. — No. too. — Megan.1 want you to read over my composition for spelling errors. er . You want to use the phone. Student В Give a typical response. (could) 4. 5.. — May I come in? — By all means. You see a stranger who looks friendly. 16. Student A Make a polite request for the given situation. You want your professor to explain this formula to you. You and (. 4. You want (. — Could you do something for me? Can you see the paper over there? Could you get it for me? — Sorry.. Student A: (Anna). IV. that's fine. In some of the sentences. (would) Would you please hand me that book? 2.. You want her to take a picture of you. either response is possible but the meaning is different.. 9. (would you mind) 8. 3. You're speaking on the phone to your brother..

Would you mind (stay)___________home? A: Of course not. A: Excuse me. Would you mind (speak)__________a lit. The music is a bit soft and you would like to turn the volume up. That'd be fine. Grandpa. В: Sure. A: Are you coming with us? B: I know I promised to go with you. It's in Africa. I'd be happy to. I'd appreciate it. 1. You would like your English teacher to speak more slowly. A: You have an atlas. 15. Would you mind (open) ______the window? B: No. A: Would you mind (use)___________your name as a reference on this job application? B: Not at all. 6. A: I don't like this TV program. 18. but would you mind (ask)___________you a personal question? B: It depends. A: I still don't understand how to work this algebra problem. Would you mind speaking a little more slowly? 2. Why don't you go and rest? I'll finish it up. B: I'd be happy to. 19. ?' or 'Do you mind?'. I'll wait right here. I forgot my notebook.• tie more slowly? I didn't catch what you said. but I'm not feeling very good.. Here's the atlas. Look it up for yourself. A: Would you mind (mail)__________this letter for me? B: Not at all. B: I'd be happy to. A: I'm feeling kind of tired and worn out. don't you? Would you mind (borrow) ___________it for a minute? I need to settle an argument. A: Since this is the first time you've owned a computer. My friend says Timbuktu is in Asia. You would like your friend to type a letter for you. and I say it's in Australia. 5. 11. 16. Do___________________________________________? 3. Would you mind (dry) ____________them. A: Are you going to the post office? B: Yes.to the library for me? B: Not at all. A: I'm getting tired. This heavy work in the hot sun is hard on me. VI. A: Would you mind (wait)____________here for just a minute? I need to run back to the classroom. 10. 17. Would you mind (show)________it to my English teacher? B: Go right ahead. Go ahead. Would you mind (change) __________the channel? B: Unh-unh. A: This story you wrote is really good. A: This is probably none of my business. 14. You are in a friend's house and you would like to make yourself a cup of tea. A: It's getting hot in here. A: I'll wash the dishes. 9. That would help me a lot. would you mind (give)___________you some advice? B: Not at all. Would you mind (explain)__________it again? B: Not at all. (You have lost the original one. Would you mind (leave)_____________early? B: Not at all. 5. A: Would you mind (smoke)________? B: I'd really rather you didn't. Change these sentences into polite requests beginning with Would you mind . Would you mind (finish)____________the work by yourself? B: No problem. 8. B: You're both wrong. You would like your landlady to take any messages for you while you are out. In fact. I'd like to go home and go to bed. The room is cold and you would like to turn the heating on. V.. 12. Study very polite ways of asking permission and requesting: Could you possibly do me a favour? Do you think you could help me with a problem I've got? .) 7. 13. 6. 7. 4. You would like the telephone company to send you another bill. ask them to call me. 4.

You call your friend. b) You want someone to drive you What time? to the airport. I'm sorry. 8. B: OK. B: All right. sure. You want her to hand it to you. but I'm busy. Pair work. I can't right now. A: . but I'm c) You want someone to help you only free in the afternoon. You want her to stop at the next mailbox so you can mail a letter. 3. Mr Wilson asks his boss if he can leave the office an hour earlier than usual. e) You want to use someone's A: . Someone else answers and tells you that he's out. . 4. 3. move on Saturday. Use a more direct form in two of them. Use any appropriate modal (may. few days. Go ahead! telephone. You ask your host for permission to use his phone. The window is closed. Julie and two of her friends ask their typing teacher for permission to leave early. You want your pen. You ask someone you hardly know for a lift into town. sorry. 8. Your friend is driving. could you? Use each form once in the following situations. You're in class. tomorrow. B: Sorry. not working right. 5. 1. Go round the class and make your requests. VIII. as it's blocking the entrance to your garage. 7. You want some more coffee. 10. Mrs Wilson would like Julie to do some shopping for her.. Class activity. All right.m.. if she has time. Ask polite questions in the following situations. You ask a stranger next to you in a train if you can look at his newspaper. A: . a) You want to borrow someone's A: Would you mind . I'd be glad to! OK. You are checking out of a hotel. How many people accepted and how many refused? Accepting a request Refusing a request Oh. You want an apple. You want to leave a message. a camera. problem! By all means.. Most formal VII. go ahead. 6. Oh. I'm going to d) You want someone to lend you use it later. Sure! No sorry.. and want to pay your bill. Your roommate is playing his music tapes very loudly. 1. You couldn't possibly lend me £20. Stephen asks his guitar teacher to lend him his guitar for the evening. I'd rather not. Mr Wilson wants his neighbour to help him carry a cupboard upstairs. You're trying to study. You can't reach it. Of What? You must be kidding! Please course. You're at a restaurant. A bowl of fruit is sitting on the table. 4. don't. It's typewriter. could. 5. You ask someone to move his car. Then practise them. 9.. A: . 6.. B: Gee. 2. Make requests with modals or if-clauses using the cues below..... 7. You're in a car. that'll be fine. etc. would. and this is bothering you. You want your friend to take you to the station. I'm I'll do that.).I was wondering if you could lend me some money for a. Your train leaves at 6 p. B: Sure. You're sitting at your friend's house. You're hot. Less formal Can you please lend me $ 100? Could you let me use your car? Would you be able to mail this letter? Would you mind letting me use your Walkman? Would it be OK if I borrowed your car? Would you mind if I used it? I wonder if you'd mind lending me your cassette player. but your friend can. 2.

could you help me fix the typewriter that's on Mr Adams' desk? Woman: No. Isabel: Could you pass the salt and pepper? Thanks. I'm taking my four-year-old niece to see Bambi! (Some time later) . 16. Вы не возражаете. чтобы попасть на стадион. Я уезжаю в командировку. 18. You ask the clerk to tell you how much it costs. could you bring me the stapler that's on my desk? Bob: Of course. You're in the middle of the city. Sandy: Are you hungry? Isabel: Yeah. Sandy: Oh. I haven't had lunch yet. You want to make a telephone call. если я открою окно? Здесь очень душно. You call your boss's house. but do you know what time this train gets to Paddington? Man: 10. I've finished with it. Не мог бы ты помочь мне упаковать вещи? — С удовольствием. Isabel is at Sandy's house. Could you make me a sandwich? Sandy: Sure. too? Sandy: Yeah. but you don't have any change. Уже поздно и пора ложиться спать. Ты не можешь зайти ко мне сегодня вечером? 9. 4. чтобы я пользовался вашим компьютером? 29. You want to talk to him. Пожалуйста. 26. пожалуйста. certainly. Я буду рад. Можно мне сесть рядом с вами? — Да. Вы не поможете мне с чемоданами? — Конечно. Вы не передадите мне соль? — Вот. The sandwich is delicious. All you have is (a one-dollar bill). Man: Tickets. please. 13. Пожалуйста. Вы не могли бы помочь мне при переезде на новую квартиру? — Боюсь. что нет.35. Не могли бы вы показать нам свой город? — С удовольствием. 12. could I possibly borrow your newspaper for a moment? Woman: Yes. You need to know what time it is. Можно мне оставить свой портфель в гардеробе? — Да. You're at a restaurant. Вы ничего не имеете против того. actually. but you can't find the price tag. You're lost. He могли бы вы дать мне консультацию сегодня? 2. Приходите после обеда. пожалуйста. Bob: Maria. Ты не поможешь мне перевести эту статью? 5. 13. подожди меня немного. You stop someone on the street to ask for directions. 23. где я должен выйти. You're walking down the hall of the classroom building.9. You're the teacher. Можно мне взять на минуту ваш бинокль? Я хочу рассмотреть лицо певца. You ask a student you've never met. 12. Study and practise the following conversations. Пожалуйста. I just wanted to check the times of a film I'm going to see this afternoon. madam. not at all. IX. 15. Sandy: Thanks. Translate from Russian into English. 14. 17. It is rather hot. брось письмо в почтовый ящик по дороге на работу. Isabel: And could you get me something to drink. Вы не возражаете > если я верну вам остальные деньги через неделю? — Хорошо. — Хорошо. Liz: Thanks. Вы не могли бы отнести мою книгу в библиотеку? X. Liz: Thank you. помогите мне выбрать подарок жене. что не смогу. 6. You've finished your meal and are ready to leave. 14. 25. His wife answers the phone. I'll make it for you in a minute. You ask a clerk for change. Mr Adams. 7. Let me get it. You want to help her set the dinner table. хорошо? 15. Пожалуйста. 1. Можно мне включить телевизор? — Боюсь. You're in a store and have to use a pay phone. 27. 20. 19. You're at your friend's house. Будьте добры. 22. By all means. You want to know what time Flight 62 arrives. His name is Mr Smith. Покажите мне расписание поездов. You find a sweater that you like. Вы не будете возражать. 1. You call the airport. Не принесете ли вы мне стакан воды? 3. Mr Adams: Bob. если я оставлю свои вещи до возращения? — Нисколько. would you please get me the report that's in my outbox? Bob: Of course. Woman: Are you going to see anything interesting? Liz: Well. You're trying to find the bus station. 28. Mr Adams. Could you show me your English homework while you're eating? Isabel: Sure. скажите мне. 21. You ask the waiter for the check. Liz: Excuse me. Isabel: Here. Вы не возражаете. позвони в кассу и закажи билеты на самолет. Mr Adams: Bob. Er. You're in a department store. You want a student to shut the door. 11. Вы не могли бы подвезти меня на вокзал? — С удовольствием. Вы не против. 18. если я возьму ваш зонтик? — Нет конечно. если я приглашу своих друзей? — Конечно нет. could you lend me a pen? I can't find mine. Не могли бы вы одолжить мне немного денег? 30. 17. Вы ничего не имеете против того. 8. 10. 2. 11. 24. пожалуйста. 10. чтобы мы пообедали в кухне? В столовой слишком холодно.

3. I'd like to lend it to you but . 4. 5.?'.. Exchange notes and write a reply accepting or declining the requests.00 tomorrow morning. Obligation and necessity (1): must. You would like to use the phone. You wonder if your neighbour could lend you a pencil. Bob. 3. — You have a portable radio with you which you and your friends would like to play. A woman in the corner has got her walkman on very loud.. 2. 1. Henry. Ask polite requests beginning with 'Do you think you could . Tell her you won't play it very loud. You are on an aeroplane. You are in a cafe. D.) I've got a terrible pain in my I have to go and see the doctor back. You feel a little chilly. A.Man: Any more tickets? Liz: Oh. XI. madam. Your suitcase is on the rack and you would like the person opposite to lift it down. You notice a place next to a woman and ask if you can sit there. I'm taking my boss and her husband out to dinner on Saturday. — The woman doesn't realize that you are talking to her and you repeat your request. Do you mind if I . You can pick it up at .. You feel it polite to ask permission to do this.. 2. 6. but do you think you could help me with my case? Man: Certainly. 1. You are in a hospital waiting room where there is a TV. — You then notice that a woman has a magazine on the seat beside her and you ask politely if she could lend it to you. 3. There you are! Liz: Thanks very much. You want your friend to lend you his camera for the weekend. On the train you want to do the crossword in your newspaper. — You are in the departure area at a ferry terminal after your ferry has been delayed. You would like to change the channel. ?' 1. Of course you can borrow my car on Saturday. Write a dialogue for the following situation. I must go and see the at 9.. You want your teacher to check a letter you have written in English. You want to buy a newspaper and you ask another passenger to look after your bag. You want a shop-assistant to change a £5 note for you.) by 10 o'clock. 5. Would you mind if I borrowed your car? I promise to drive very carefully. A: Would you mind looking after my bag? B: I'm sorry? A: Could you possibly look after my bag? B: Oh yes. Mother: You must be home Daughter: I have to be home by 10 o'clock. of course. 4. About my red bow tie. You are in the reception area of a hotel. A. You want to buy a newspaper and you ask another passenger to look after your bag. You are making a train journey.. Could you let me know as soon as possible? Thanks! Henry B. and I want to make a good impression. Write a note to a friend or classmate asking for several favours and explain why you need help.. You are in a dentist's waiting room. And I wonder if you'd mind lending me that red bow tie of yours. (I insist. You would like the person next to the window to close it a little. Pair work. B. You would like her to turn it down a little. You would prefer to sit in the aisle seat. No problem. the speaker. Bob §4. You would like to turn the radio on. 4. C. Ask for permission in different situations beginning with 'Excuse me. You want a friend to answer the phone while you are out. 2. You want your landlady to forward your post when you leave. 5. have got to Must and have to We use both must and have to to express obligation or necessity. (I have . excuse me. You ask the assistant at the newspaper kiosk to give you a fifty pence in the change. but there is sometimes a difference between them: We normally use must when We normally use have to when the the authority comes from authority comes from outside the speaker. (My parents insist. Make polite requests. have to. You want to borrow the salt and pepper from another table..

learn how to drive when her local station is closed. come. take. Park notice: All dogs . Use each verb only once. I'll have to work late tomorrow..) in Britain.: Cyclists must dismount.1. in bed for the next few days. He hates having to get up early.. Mrs Woods.. She's had to work hard all her life. Employer: You . work at weekends. Notice above petrol pump: All engines .. your temperature is a little high.... I . etc. Mother to daughter: You . be carried. we normally use had to.. do what Mummy says. We've got plenty of time. 5.) We tend to prefer must: — when we refer to ourselves (with I/we): I really must weed this garden. 17. 31. be switched off.... To talk about the past... 9. Have to is used in both formal and informal English. . 19... I couldn't go to the party last night because I . so you . The children . go now. it three times a day after meals. get a taxi. wear glasses since he was a child. 27.. practise the piano for three hours a day. pay him quite a lot of money. 25. When we talk about past obligation or necessity. Activities I.got an appointment.. Notice beside escalators: Dogs and push chairs . 30. She . 2. in bed for the next few days.. Father to small son: You . 4.. be left at the desk. I'm not allowed to get up at the moment. Have got to is more informal and is used primarily in spoken English.. 10. play in the streets till their mothers get home from work. 22. What time do you have to start work? We don't have to hurry. Mr Pitt . If you go to a dentist with a private practice you. be here by six.. 11. not had got to. She felt ill and . get up early tomorrow morning. carry everything home ourselves... Must has no infinitive.1 don't like . -ing form or participles.) You must drive careYou have to drive on the left fully. It's getting late. Doctor: I can't come now.. And I . You must repair that fence. sticks and umbrellas .. We only use must (+infinitive) to talk about the present and the future. English children . to take it for the next ten days. 7. (I insist. My neighbour's child ..... 15... come in earlier at night. I always . we use had to. Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras.. The shops here don't deliver. 21.) sary. when necessary.1 never remember his address. //. Complete the sentences using must or a form of have to. babysit for my sister. 13. and I'm allowed to eat whatever I like. — in public notices. We .. Mrs Woods: The doctor gave me some medicine... (That is the law. cook his own meals... 6. It's really excellent....doctor..... 20. (ii) Now Mrs Woods is explaining the doctor's instructions to Mr Woods. 8.. Complete what Mrs Woods says using have to and the verbs drink. 16.. Railway notice: Passengers ... read this book.. it three times a day after meals.. I had to work late last night. Doctor: Well. to take it for the next ten days.. take. I . I . 18. I .. not have got to. Do evening.. You . And you .. look it up. His wife is away. The buses were all full. 14. often. Compare: I always have to work late I've got to work late this on Wednesday evenings.1... We . — With you to express urgency: You must phone home at once. I have to hurry.. pay by cheque. stay at school till the age of 16... do all the typing at my office. Mr Mason . — (= Can't you stop yourself?): Must you interrupt? — pressing invitations or advice: You must come and see us. stay and continue. for things that happen repeatedly. stay in bed yesterday because I wasn't very well. plenty of liquids... 29. Use each verb only once.. especially when we use one-word adverbs of frequency eg always.. but you . I had to work late yesterday. 1. You can eat whatever you like. we make these forms with have to. ? Have you got to get you have to get up early' up early tomorrow? We use got mostly in the present. 12. (I think it is neces. but I ... 28. 26. (i) Mrs Woods isn't very well.. I insist on it. plenty of liquids. Did you have to walk home last night? Have got to We often use have got to instead of have to to talk about obligation and necessity.. try harder if he wants to win the prize. Caller: You . So. You . Tell her that she . The doctor is speaking to her. He .. Note that in questions and negatives with have to we use do/does in the present simple and did in the past simple.. get a visa to visit the United States. 3.. 23.. And I'll give you some medicine.. he's terribly ill. Complete what the doctor says using must and the verbs drink.. 24. Do you have I've got to hurry.. You . come to work in time. Sometimes two answers are possible. Oh. leave early. Have you to go? got to go? We normally use have to.. stay and continue.1 hadn't enough money and I.... be kept on leads.

' 'What time_____________________________________?' 8. Make questions with have to.cross the line by the footbridge. the wall that you say is unsafe .' 'Why________________________________________?' 10.... 32. throw them away? 3. dress/glass of water/money I have got to go to the shop because I need a dress.... move to another flat. these old curtains . the money ..' 'Why_________________________________________?' IV.. yes.. the carpet . If you buy that television set you .. hand it in? 5. wash them up? 14... sweep it up? 4... Whenever the dog wants to go out I . 1. — do we have to .' 'What time_____________________________________?' 6.. 'George had to pay a parking fine.. earn your own living from now on... III.. A: About this parcel — do we have to tie it up? B: Oh. 36.... 'He will have to work hard next month. roll it up? 7... 'We had to answer a lot of questions at the examination.' 'Why__________________________________?' 'Why did he have to go to the police station?' 1. 'We had to wait for ages. 35. dress/glass of water/money .' 'How often_________________________________ ?' 7. When I changed my job I . put it off? V. this broken glass . this watch we are giving him . 34.. wrap it up? 8. carry them out? 15. 'She'll have to go by bus. 1. 'I have to leave tomorrow morning. pay it back? 13. this information ...' 'What time exactly______________________________?' 2. 'We have to dine out.. 'We had to get up early to catch the bus. the dishes . 33. fill them up? 12. get up and open the door.... the documents .. ask a policeman the way.' 'How long______________________________________?' 9... Jane is going to the food/money/wine bank. Example 'Tom had to go to the police station. the instructions . these books . About .' 'How much_____________________________________?' 4. this wallet we've found . the meeting .' 'Why__________________________________________?' 5.'.. 'Peter had to stay in bed for a week... this notice . 'My mother has to go abroad a lot. Say 'why'. Examples: Jane is going food/money/wine to the bank. pass it on? 9. write them down? 11. Make up short dialogues. I am going to the shop. I am going to the shop. you . 'I have to take my car to the garage... lock them up? 17. Father to son: I can't support you any longer.' 'Why__________________________________ ?' 11.. pull it down? 16. his orders . She has got to go to the bank because she needs some money. put it up? 10.. 'Ann has to leave tomorrow.... take them back? 2. buy a license for it. take them down? 6.' 'How many questions_____________________________?' 3. it must be tied up... these forms .. I got lost and . these old newspapers .. 'Why_________________________________________?' 12. 2.

Listen to them. It isn't dirty. Mum! I won't. They are phoning Direcbook/telephone number/room tory Enquiries. you have a Susan: I'm on holiday. Jim is going to backpack around the world for a year. We are going to the car/room/holiday hotel now. I've got a timetable. I bad cold. something. We mustn't/haven't got to make any noise going into the house. II. §5. ) You mustn't wash that You don't have to wash that sweater. I can stay a bit longer if you want me. 10. (choice) We can also use don't need to. Use the cues and must or mustn't. (= It is dry-cleaned. 1. I've already told her. You needn't pay me back the money you owe me until next week. (= Do not get up. You are going to the food/telephone/presents dining-room.) Activities /. You mustn't/needn't tell Nicki about the party. but his mother is worried. Obligation and necessity (2): mustn't. You mustn't/don't need to phone the station about the time of the trains. don't have to. 6. You mustn't get up don't have to get up early now. 3. 9. traveller's cheques 4. . 5. 4. Mum: You mustn't lose your passport! Jim: No. I mustn't/haven't got to go now.) (= It is not necessary to get up early. Simon is asking for bath/hot dog/girl-friend some money. It has to be shirt. ) wash it. The man is stopping at newspaper/tyre/scarf the newsagent's. I don't need to get up today. Mr and Mrs Hunt are sleep/whisky/holiday going to bed. 6. mustn't — prohibition don't have to = absence (lack) of necessity Life belts must not be reTomorrow is a holiday. (= Do not not necessary to wash it. We've got plenty of time. We mustn't/don't have to hurry. (no choice) don't have to go to class. don't need to. Mustn't means 'it's forbidden'. It's very late and everybody is asleep. Mum: You must write to us every week! Jim: Yes. 5. I haven't got to get up today. haven't got to or needn't to say that it is not necessary to do something. You mustn't/ needn't be late again tomorrow. 2.) We use mustn't when We use don't have to when there is an obligation it is not necessary to do not to do something. Make similar dialogues between Jim and his mother. You've been late for work twice this week. Choose the correct form. 3. today. haven't got to. Note that we often use needn't when the speaker gives someone permission not to do something. Peter is stopping at the perfume/petrol/medicine garage. We moved. I needn't get up today. needn't Compare mustn't and don't have to: Father: Annie. (= I give you permission not to pay me back the money until then. 8. Work in pairs. 7.Peter is going to the stamps/parcel labels/ post office. Mum! I will.

' 1. go to the doctor. she (not) ... I . be rude to a customer. she ... 'Did you get up early this morning?' 'No.. We've already met. Joe has agreed to do it for me.. buy a new dress go to bed early.. 'Does Jack shave?' 'No. 4. go to the store after all.. 10. study tonight. Why (Tom) . 'Do you work?' 'No. He . I'm feeling much better. Harry has got a lot of money. buy a round-trip ticket when he went to Egypt? 9. he's got a beard so___________' 3. I (not) . 'Did you have to hire a taxi?' 'No. the boss is free so_________' V.. Jane has not got to go to bed early.. forget to take my key with me. Complete the sentences with any appropriate form of have to... The life of a student isn't easy! 11. return these books to the library today? Aren't they due? 12.. do any of her regular chores. 1. look for a flat 3. introduce me to Dr Gray. We have bought a house in the go to bed early country.. You have already booked a table. Example: 'Did they have to change trains?' 'No... I'm extremely rich so___________' 5. 'Will you have to walk?' 'No. Complete the utterances using haven't got to and the prompts in the right column. it was a through train so they didn't have to change (trains). Sheila has buy any food this week got a lot of clothes. 5. Johnny! You . I have got six airletters. I . . (John)... We have hired a car. In order to be a good salesclerk.... rely on an interpreter when she's there. leave so early? B: I'm afraid I do. Sheila has not got to buy a new dress. teach English part-time so that she'll have enough to support herself. 2. so I . I . she speaks Russian. 4.. phone the restaurant 4. water the garden later today.. in the hotel. go to a snack-bar 8. 1... my sister is a doctor so______________________________________' 7. it's my day off so____________________________________________' 4... 5. write three term papers since the beginning of the semester.. Joan travels to Russia frequently. take eight examinations in five days. the hotel is not far from the station so______________________________' 8. IV. and her mother let her choose anything she wanted to eat for dinner. This time make negative sentences with have to. finish before I go to bed tonight..— look after your money — go out when it's dark — make sure you eat well — phone us if you're in trouble — talk to strangers — drink too much beer — have a bath regularly — go anywhere that's dangerous III. 1. leave work early yesterday? 7. phone them tonight 9. Luckily.. buy a new dress 7. Mrs Hunt has got a lot of cash a cheque today food in the house. Sheila has got a lot of clothes.. I've already finished all my work. By the time this week is finished. we had free tickets so we_____________________' 2. You . Because it was Emily's birthday yesterday. go to the post office yet 10 They have already had dinner buy a car .. 'Did you have to ask a doctor in?' 'No.. (You. apply for a special work visa? Or can she work part-time on a student visa? 13. not) ... wear glasses ever since he was ten years old. 5. If Jean stays in Brazil much longer. go to the meeting last night too? 3. Examples: Jane is not tired. Use must not or do not have to in the following sentences. we have a car so________' 6. (You) . 6. so she (not) . go to a meeting. Jane is not tired. 2. I . 'Shall I have to wait?' 'No... A: (You) . Matt is nearsighted. 8. (She) . Last night Jack ... I have some work I . 6. I have written to the Blakes. 2. 6.. There is plenty. VI. I found some milk in the refrigerator so we (not) . 3. you .... Include any words in parentheses.. 'Did you pay to get into the concert?' 'No.

It's necessary You mustn't . Write his reactions.. The soup is too hot. That's not a nice word. Here. 21. 6. 4. have a visa if you are from an EEC (Common Market) country. make any noise or we'll wake the baby..... A: You . IX.... What do you say to the other person in these situations. B: Why do you have to get up at 5. You . let it pass. We . We . 21. 16.. Notice in cinema: Exit doors . 30. you . 5. It's forbidden You needn't . A: Listen to me carefully. answer it. be locked during performances. She . You ... You ... using must. 10. You . 1. We . Police notice: Cars . the room is full of gas. declare any restricted goods at the customs. 27. You are talking to a little girl. strike a match. say anything.. show any signs of fear.. You can have a sandwich if you like.... 7. 8... You . put salt in any of his dishes. . you . reheat the pie. eat it all.. 8. 7.. 5. 35. it is a good idea to be a few minutes early... . I'll lend you the money and you . It's up to you. Tomorrow will do.. open the lion's cage.. We . . We . You ... 12. 7... have a passport. it is more likely to bite a person. pick up the receiver and dial 8081.. 13. In fact. 14.. 12. You are warm enough. 8. stand up and walk around. When the phone rings. If you encounter a growling dog..... — You .. you . 25. tell lies. Response You mustn't play with those matches. It is contrary to Zoo regulations. drive fast. X.. write to him for he will be here tomorrow. 3. eat it yet. 17. 15. 17.. 2. I... take guns into Britain. 22.. You can see he is going to forget his umbrella.. You . Mr Morgan is very rich. drive fast. You . unnecessary. Response You needn't speak so slowly. You must... you . use the horn on your car except in an emergency... 26. if you want to stay a long time. You .... Mrs Wilson is telling her husband what has been happening. ring the bell.. 10. 9. You . 5.. or forbidden. so now she usually drives to work. Ten sentences will be enough. Situation Someone is speaking English to you very slowly. Your taxi driver is willing to wait but it is not necessary. Do you understand? B: Yes.. talk to other candidates during the exam. There is plenty of food in the house. You . 24. mustn't or needn't + one of these expressions. Someone is shouting at you but you are not deaf..... have a visa.. 14. we can see very well from here. do it today. 7.. say that word... get in the car.. stop at pedestrian crossings unless someone is on them. It's not polite. Mother to child: You .. I have a key.. Mother to child: You . be late the first day. pay me back till next month.... We . work for a living. A: Thanks. 9. declare cigarettes up to a certain limit.. You .. take anything out of a shop without paying for it. play with matches. Your friend is going to park his car where there is a sign saying 'No Parking'. He .. bring books into the examination room. ask a woman her age. smoke in a non-smoking compartment. You . If you are in a canoe. Your secretary is willing to work late. You ...play with sharp knives.. Situation. There are things that are necessary. you .. there is a speed limit here. I . 34... go to the post office to buy stamps. 20.. 4... We . Salt is very bad for him. the canoe will probably turn over..... I want this letter typed but you .. You .30. You've given me too much. 8. .. drink this: it is poison. Use need't or mustn't. Wait for it to cool. Your friend is willing to drive you somewhere. . Candidates . It isn't going to rain... do all the exercise. 2. make your bed.30? A: I'm going to meet Ron at 6:00. forget to set my alarm for 5. there are plenty of regulations to worry about. forget to shut the lift gates. When you have a new job. Mother to child: You ... 13. VIII. She is playing with some matches... but it might be good... Tommy. We're going fishing. get married in order to lead a happy >. 11. 6.... Never get in a car with a stranger. 1.. 11. . It's not necessary When you arrive in Britain. 15.. and a tag question. we have plenty now... 18.. You .. If a stranger offers you a ride.. You are willing to walk. . the shop will send it. Use the modals above to complete the following statements. 33. If you want the time. be parked here. interrupt when I am speaking.. Church notice: Visitors .. take the bus. go to the shops today. 32. You .. 3. A person . Now I .. turn on the light.. They are going to turn the heating up.. 3.. Use must not or need not to fill the spaces in the following sentences. 1. We must act. bring an umbrella. . you . The maid will do it.nd fulfilling life. You are in a petrol station. We can eat it cold. 16. You can do without her... You . 19. bring animals into Britain. Annie. This is an opportunity that comes once in a lifetime. walk about the church during a service... 2. 6. climb any higher.. You . I can see quite well. Do you promise? B: I promise. If you do. we have plenty of time. You are in someone's house.. We . carry that parcel home yourself. 20. We .. 9. make any more sandwiches. 10... You . drive on the left... 22. The window-cleaner is coming tomorrow. 18. VII.. 19. A: Do you have a stamp? B: Uh-huh. Liz finally got a car.. Mom. ... Your friend is going out and it is going to rain. you . 31. 29. have soup for lunch.. tell Jim about the surprise birthday party. clean the windows.. 23.. go to the concert if you don't want to. 28. Someone is smoking. 4.

4. Supply mustn't or needn't/don't have to/haven't got to. a) got to b) do c) must 5.. try to talk to each other during the exam. sit when I tell you to! 2. 1.. use the cues below to make rules for the gym. Choose the correct verb in these exchanges. She can go when she is ready. The owners of the house across the road want to open a gambling club.... She . We must make him change his mind. It worries your parents.. Stephen has hurt his knee playing football: The doctor says I .. finish some letters. I can't go to the disco tonight. Complete the sentences using must. using must always and mustn't.. sign it as soon as you get it. sauna. Mrs Wilson is offering more cake to a guest at a tea party: You . We . ..30 p. 5. wear shoes in the gym. You .. 6. enter the laboratories without permission. The doctor has told Gran to rest completely. 6. 7. 1. Nobody's forcing you.. a) don't b) haven't got to c) mustn't 3.__________? 3....buy anything too expensive do any housework be stopped be paid immediately make him change his mind . leave your car overnight play your car radio loudly XIII.. wear a uniform. 1. It ______________________. It says 'No entry'. It's not obligatory. She________. 1. The telephone bill has arrived — the final date for payment is in two weeks... as long as it gets done . don't have to and haven't got to in place of each other to mean it isn't necessary: I needn't/ don't have to/haven't got to go to the office tomorrow.. You really . He ... 2. Stephen has announced that he is going to drop out of school. It was a lovely party. Visitors .. 8. IN THE GYM: You must always wear sports shoes and sports clothes.. a) don't b) didn't c) mustn't XIV. They .. leave the office last. 3.. The immigration officer notices that a traveller hasn't signed his new passport: You . waste money like that.. a) mustn't b) I've got c) will 2.m.m. In pairs.. 3.. trying to train her dog: You . They________________________. get up early tomorrow. go to the party if you don't want to. drive so fast. Mr Wilson explains why he is taking a pill: I . The doctor to a nurse about a patient with a bad heart: He . I'm afraid I . talk too much. and carpark... IN THE GYM: wear sports shoes and sports clothes smoke use the equipment without a teacher use training bicycles for more than twenty minutes clean the equipment after using it IN THE SAUNA: wear a swimming costume remove any jewellery read newspapers use the sauna after 8 p. You . The teacher who is invigilating Stephen's exam: You . mustn't.. play for three weeks. They___________:___________. do the job today. Julie.. have to or will have to. You work in a gym club.. You're driving at 120 kph. IN THE CAR PARK: lock your car make any noise after 9.._____________? XI. 4. take these pills for my blood pressure. a) Don't b) Not c) You mustn't to 3..____________? 4._____________? 5.. 5. They have been invited to a wedding. Mr Wilson phones his wife at 6 pm: I'm afraid I'm going to be late — I . have some more cake._______________. write and thank them.... mustn't we? 2. and .. and will have to buy a present. stay in bed for several weeks. You really . go through that door. XII. Note: We can use needn't.. You mustn't smoke.

for a start.' 10. Question forms and negatives are also included.. Was it necessary for you to wait a long time for your bus? 3. XV.(= It was not necessary to make so much food. XVI. 9.. Is it necessary for people to go everywhere by boat in Venice? 17.... Will it be necessary for me to send a present? Shall I have to send a present? 1. I . 5. I don't think a career in the army would suit me. Rewrite each of the sentences below using mustn't. In Britain it isn't necessary for men to do military service. 5. 10. It will be necessary for them to get up early when they go out to work every day. I needn't have made so much food for the party. Were you required to make a speech? XVII... Then it won't be necessary to live at home if I don't want to.. I've been invited to a wedding. 'Did you know enough English to ask for your ticket?' 'It wasn't necessary to say anything. You .. though. You . (He . It wasn't necessary to walk. It's confidential. Nobody was very hungry. You ..' 11. Is it essential for you to finish tonight? 16. or a negative or interrogative have to form.' 14. need.. New teacher to his class: It isn't necessary for you to call me 'Sir'. 11. 'Don't forget to post my letter. never .) I needn't have told Kate what happened. Will it be necessary for me to sleep under a mosquito net? 18. We .. winter mornings. Small boy to friend: It won't be necessary for you to work hard when you come to my school. so we ..) 7.. It wasn't necessary for me to do anything. 3... or we'll be cut off. 4. I... Surely we . He has already reached retiring age. 7.. It's impossible to be served in an English pub if you're under eighteen. I can look after myself. take things so personally. 21... The teachers aren't very strict. I . It's wonderful! You . 13. She already knew. Needn't have and didn't need to Needn't have + past participle says that someone did something. I . 5. It isn't necessary for me to water my tomato plants every day. 6. I have an interview for a job next week. I got something for my cough from the chemist's. 'I shan't require you tomorrow.. You won't earn any more.. I missed one day of the exam. 3. leave for the airport?' 'It's only a thirty-minute drive. 15. (We . we .. The airline gave it to us.' 'I . (We . (= It was not necessary to tell Kate.30. Everything was done for me. 30.. attend the meeting tomorrow. 4.. tell you this.. §6... worry about me. learn to look after your toys. It wasn't necessary for them to hurry. I bought my ticket at a machine.. Will it be necessary for me to take the whole exam again? 31. It isn't necessary for you to drive me to the station. My employer said. but you've just got a parking ticket. ) 2. When I was your age. but I can't go. You . I. I was late for the opera. 25.. It's impossible to learn a language properly in just a few weeks. have a medical examination. 22. I'm sure she didn't mean to upset you.. leave home yet. 7. What time was it necessary for you to leave home? 29. It isn't necessary for him to go on working. There's a new Indian restaurant just opened that you . It isn't necessary to buy a license for a bicycle in England. call me 'Bill'. Is it necessary for you to take your dog everywhere? 28. You . . He took us in his car.. When you buy something on the installment system you are not required to pay the whole price at once. We had to stop at the frontier but we were not required to open our cases. 2. watch what I eat in future.' his doctor said.. go to. He's just phoned to say he's all right.' she said to him. book.. as appropriate. attend the meeting tomorrow. He's not going to work next Monday because it's a public holiday... Is it obligatory for us to vote? 23. You're not allowed to smoke on the lower deck of a bus in Britain.some time this week. 14. Our plane was delayed so we had lunch at the airport.. 'Don't put on any more weight. It is never necessary for me to work on Saturdays. so I . I have perfect teeth. I can get a taxi. I already know what it says.When you were a child were you required to practise the piano? 24. but I did. 6.. 9. 4. 1. 8. can't and don't/doesn't have to. Are French children obliged to go to school on Saturdays? 34. It's for union officials only. He repaired my old watch so it wasn't necessary for me to buy a new one after all. How did you damage your bike? You .. but before the interview I . 'Are you going to read the report?' — 'No. In Britain it isn't necessary for people to carry identity cards..1 saw the accident but fortunately it wasn't necessary for me to give evidence as there were plenty of other witnesses. do my packing.) Didn't need to + infinitive says that something was not necessary (but it does not say if someone did it or not). It's not important.... Most people think that civil servants are not required to work very hard. 9. get up on cold.. You .) 15.. I . I. wear a uniform. go until about 3.. It's far too early to go to the station. 33. Replace the words in bold type by need not/need I? etc.. 20. I hate . 8..' (You .. smoke in the toilets. Will it be necessary for us to report this accident to the police? 12. 7.. drive me to the station. clean my bike every night. I haven't started yet!' 2. 6. I'd much rather go on foot. 8. Is it really necessary for you to practise the violin at 3 a. forget to pay the electricity bill. But it wasn't necessary to pay for the lunch.. — Was it necessary for you to wait till the end of the first act before finding your seat? 35. They had plenty of time. Passengers . I brought my passport but I wasn't required to show it to anyone. because it's so popular already. but it was not necessary. work such long hours. have a single filling. You . Supply must.. worry about Tom. 13. 10. but I did. come. We were able to wade across. 36.. 'What time .) 8. I think I've put on weight. 11. go to the doctor's..... When I am eighteen I'll be of age. or a form of have to. 'Are you going to read the report?' — 'No... I hate ... 26. It wasn't necessary to swim. 27. 12.....? 32. 19.m. 12.. 13.

Compare: She needn't have waited. (= She didn't need to wait. (= It was not necessary to wait, It was not necessary to but she did.) wait; we don't know if she did or not.) They needn't have worried. They didn't need to worry. (= It was not necessary to (= It was not necessary to worry, but they did.) worry; we don't know if they did or not.) When we use didn't need to, it often means that someone did not do something (because it was not necessary). I didn't need to unlock the door because it was already unlocked. I didn't need to write to you so I phoned you instead. But we can also use didn't need to (with stress on need) when something was not necessary but someone did it. I didn't 'need to write to you, but I wrote to you anyway. Activities /. Respond using needn't have done/could have done. A: You sent the sheets to the laundry, I suppose? (wash them myself) B: No, I washed them myself. C: You needn't have washed them yourself. You. could have sent them to the laundry. 1. You went by taxi, I suppose? (take a bus) 2. You went by bus, I suppose? (walk) 3. You took the lift, I suppose? (walk up the stairs) 4. You phoned him, I suppose? (write) 5. You got the tube tickets from a machine, I suppose? (stand in a queue) 6. You borrowed the books, I suppose? (buy) 7. You asked the shop to send the parcels home, I suppose? (carry them) 8. You painted the car yourself, I suppose?(have it sprayed) 9. You sewed it by hand, I suppose? (use the machine) 10. You walked up the ski-slope, I suppose? (take the ski-lift) 11. You paid by cheque, I suppose? (pay by cash) 12. You dialled the Paris number direct, I suppose? (ask the exchange to get) 13. You replaced the bulb yourself, I suppose? (send for the electrician) 14. When the curtain caught fire you put it out yourself, I suppose? (ring for the Fire Brigade) 15. You covered the grand piano with a sheet before you painted the ceiling, I suppose? (moved it out of the room) 16. You went second class, I suppose? (go first class) 17. You left your heavy case at the station, I suppose? (take it with me) 18. As you needed a copy you used a carbon, I suppose? (type it twice) //. Complete the sentences using needn't have where possible. If needn't have is not possible, use didn't need to. I. 'Did you water the garden?' 'Yes, but I... (do) it. Just after I'd finished it started to rain!' 2.1 didn't wear my coat when I went out. I... (wear) it. It wasn't cold. 3. He was very anxious before the exam, but he ... (worry). It wasn't as difficult as he'd expected. 4. She ... (pay) the man, but she gave him some money anyway. 5. She ... (pay) the man, so she didn't give him any money. 6. Thank you very much for the flowers, but you really ... (buy) them for me. 7. I ... (phone) the plumber. I learnt later that John had already phoned him. 8. You ... (bring) your umbrella after all. It hasn't rained. 9. The forecast was for fine weather so I knew I ... (bring) my umbrella. 10. I ... (wash) these clothes. I didn't know they had already been washed. II. I ... (cook) a meal last night because we went out and the food I prepared was uneaten. 12. She had rich parents, and she ... (work) for a living and spent her time travelling. 13. She knew that the exam would be easy, and as she ... (worry) she was very relaxed. 14. He bought a loaf of bread, but he ... (buy) one because his wife had already bought one. 15. They ... (pay) for their son on the train because he was only two years old. 16. Brian had no money, so he sold his car. A few days later he won a lot of money in a competition. He ... (sell) his car. 17. Jack was very angry with Jill and threw a book at her. Later Jill said, 'I know you were very angry but you ... (throw) the book at me.' HI. Complete this text using needn't have or didn't need to. 1. I ... (take) a taxi to the station because Mr Peters took me there in his car. We were held up in a traffic jam and I thought we would miss the train, but we ... (worry) because it was half an hour late anyway. There was a restaurant car on the train but I... (have) a meal because I had had a good breakfast. I ... (take) any luggage with me because I was coming back the same day. I took a book to read but I ... (bother) because I didn't even open it. The firm had booked a seat for me but they ... (do) so because the train was half empty. When I got to the meeting they told me I... (come) because the matter had already been dealt with. That night, when I got home I found no key, but I ... (wake) my wife because she was still up.

§7. Obligation and arrangement, part of a plan: be to, be supposed to Be to The be + infinitive construction, eg I am to go, is extremely important and can be used in the following ways: 1. To convey orders or instructions: No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police, (no one must leave) He is to stay here till we return, (he must stay) This is a rather impersonal way of giving instructions and is chiefly used with the third person. When used with you it often implies that the speaker is passing on instructions issued by someone else. The difference between (a) Stay here, Tom and (b) You are to stay here, Tom is that in (a) the speaker himself is ordering Tom to stay, while in (b) he may be merely conveying to Tom the wishes of another person. This distinction disappears of course in indirect speech, and the be + infinitive construction is an extremely useful way of expressing indirect commands, particularly when the introductory verb is in the present tense: He says, 'Wait till I come.' = He says that we are to wait till he comes. or when there is a clause in front of the imperative: He said, 'If I fall asleep at the wheel wake me up.' = He said that if he fell asleep at the wheel she was to wake him up. It is also used in reporting requests for instructions: 'Where shall I put it, sir?' he asked. = He asked - where he was to put it. 2. To convey a plan( an arrangement): She is to be married next month. The expedition is to start in a week's time. This construction is very much used in newspapers: The Prime Minister is to make a statement tomorrow. In headlines the verb be is often omitted to save space: Prime Minister to make statement tomorrow. Past forms: He was to go. (present infinitive) He was to have gone, (perfect infinitive) The first of these doesn't tell us whether the plan was carried out or not. The second is used for unfulfilled plan, i.e. one which was not carried out: The Lord Mayor was to have laid the foundation stone but was taken ill last night so the Lady Mayoress is doing it instead. was/were + infinitive can express an idea of destiny: He received a blow on the head. It didn't worry him at the time but was to be troublesome later, (turned out to be/proved troublesome) They said goodbye, little knowing that they were never to meet again, (were destined never to meet) Compare: must, have to and be to. a) In order to graduate you must pass your exams. must = obligation, absolute necessity with no freedom of choice b) You have (got) to go now or else you'll miss your train. have (got) to = necessity arising out of circums______________tances_______________________ b) We are to start tomorrow morning. be to = obligation arising out of arrangement Be supposed to We can use supposed to to talk about what people are expected to do because of an arrangement, a rule, or a duty. You're supposed to start work at 8.00 every morning. I'm supposed to see Maria this afternoon. Note: Both fee supposed to and be to express expectations about scheduled events or correct procedures. Be to is stronger, more definite than fee supposed to. Compare: (a) The game is supposed to begin at 10.00. (b) The game is to begin at 10.00. (c) The committee is supposed to meet tomorrow. (d) The committee is to meet tomorrow. We use not supposed to to express prohibitions. You know you're not supposed to eat in the classroom. There is often a difference between what is supposed to happen and what really happens. I'm supposed to see Maria this afternoon, but I'm not going to have enough time. Put those sweets away! You know you're not

supposed to eat in the classroom. He was supposed to phone me yesterday, but he didn't. Note that we also use supposed to to mean 'said to' eg I'd like to read that book. It's supposed to be very good. Activities /. Explain the meanings and forms of be to in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian. I. We were to act as guides to the party. 2. Now will you please show me the room where I am to work. 3. The children are not to touch anything in the room. 4. There was a special order that no one was to come to the station to see the battalion off. 5. Norman said I was to leave you alone. 6. The plane was not to take off at night as the weather was too bad. 7. The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad. 8. It was the first and the last ceremony I was to see. 9. What do you want with my things? Am I to be moved to another cell? 10. I want to know on what terms the girl is to be here. Is she to have any wages? And what is to become of her when you've finished your teaching? You must look ahead a little. 11. Eliza, you are to live here for the next six months, learning how to speak beautifully. 12. He was to have had a music lesson in the morning but the teacher called up to cancel it. 13. It is evident that we are to have a backward season for grains. 14. 'My dear Trot!' cried my aunt in a terrified whisper, 'I don't know what I am to do.' 15. Why are you late? You were to have come an hour ago. 16. The order came that we were not to leave the village before dawn. 17. We were not to have left the village before dawn, but by the time the order came we were two miles away from it. 18. Renny grinned: 'If we are to be neighbours for life — if you are to marry into a family I'm attached to — we should be on friendly terms.' 19. Sorry, but I must be off. I am to have tea with Betty this afternoon. 20. All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once. 21. He said you were to go to the police-station, did he? 22. Tell them they are not to stop work just now to talk about football. 23. He knew that he was to be punished for his crime sooner or later. 24. I didn't see Mike at the appointed place and I wasn't surprised. We were to have met at 6 sharp. 25. What's the matter? The luggage is not packed yet. — Ann was to have packed it an hour ago. It's all her fault. 26. Classes were to begin within two days and the past week had seen a steady stream of new arrivals. 27. The meeting was to take place in a public room, at a hotel. 28.1 was to tell you she is sorry you are not free. 29. But I tell you, you are to come down, miss, this minute: your mother says so. 30. He was going to meet for the first time the people with whom he was to work for the next few years. //. Translate the following sentences into Russian. 1. The building custodian is supposed to unlock the classrooms every morning. 2. You're not supposed to open that door. 3. Where are we supposed to meet? 4.1 have a meeting at seven tonight. I am supposed to be there early to discuss the agenda. 5. When we go to the store, Annie, you are not supposed to handle the glassware. It might break, and then you'd have to pay for it out of your allowance. III. It is evening and a group of people engaged in a team activity have been given their instructions .for the next day. Martin wants to know what the others have been told to do. They always use Jack's name in their reply. A: You went with John today, didn't you? B: Yes, but I'm to go with Jack tomorrow. A: Bill carried John's equipment today, didn't he? B: Yes, but he's to carry Jack's equipment tomorrow. 1. Ann looked after Peter's children today, didn't she? 2. Peter and Mary worked with Tom's group today, didn't they? 3. You followed Bill's car today, didn't you? 4. You drove Bill's car today, didn't you? 5. Mary led Tom's team today, didn't she? 6. George rode Peter's horse today, didn't he? 7. They took their orders from Bill today, didn't they? 8. You trained with Peter today, didn't you? 9. You stood in front of Bill today, didn't you? 10. They tested Peter today, didn't they? 11. Mary filmed Andrew's group today, didn't she? 12. You and Hugo gave Charles a lift today, didn't you? IV. Pretend you are taking a bus load of students (ages 12 to 16) on a trip to a nearby town. You are the supervisor. Make a list of rules you want the students to follow. Use be to in your list. 1. You don't want the students to bring glass containers onto the bus. For safety reasons, students are not to bring glass containers onto the bus. 2. You want the students to keep the bus clean. 3. You don't want the students to lean out of the windows. 4. You don't want the students to toss anything from the bus. 5. You want the students to store personal items under the seats. 6. You don't want the students to yell, scream, or shout on the bus. 7. You want the students to stay in their seats at all times while the bus is moving. 8. (Make additional rules you want the students to follow.) V. Restate the following rules in sentences with be to. 1. NO SMOKING. —*• You are not to smoke.

We .. so I'm not supposed to eat cream cakes... FOCUS Not allowed to This is used when the speaker is giving a definite rule: We're not allowed to go in the theatre. visiting people in hospital 6. I . Peter .e. What behaviour is expected of us? (We are to . Please keep our city clean. Jack's back hurt. No parking between 08. Example: I'm on a diet. 1.. Can you tell us what she expects of you? 5. Tell us what he is to do and what he is not to do... The committee is writing a list of rules.. You are in charge of some children at a playground. (Supply an assignment.) 8. She gave him some instructions. i. but our plane was delayed. Note: In the positive allowed to = have permission to. 4. 8. MOVE TO THE REAR OF THE BUS. DO NOT USE THE ELEVATOR. -*• 3. to work yesterday. You are on a committee to make rules for this school. You're not supposed to stand up until the plane comes to a complete halt. You want to make sure they understand the rules you set. Make up several sentences using be to for each of the following situations. Tell us what the students are to do. a one-hour lunch break. 7. Possible response.. (Children. your car here at any time. A: What were your instructions about phoning Bill? B: I was to phone him at 6. Example: The teacher gave the students a writing assignment. ) 7.30./ They are not to write it in pencil. SLOWER TRAFFIC KEEP RIGHT. but supposed to = have an obligation to.. 6. NO EATING OR DRINKING IN THIS ROOM.. in your school Look at the signs below and state the rules connected with them using not allowed to and not supposed to. but he sometimes takes a bit longer. 4. them until your birthday! 2..2. Complete the sentences using the correct form of be supposed to and the verbs in the box. KEEP OFF THE GRASS. You have a new job as a cook. you are to . VI. Your boss told you what she expects of you. 1. Practise using be to. in Manchester at 6 o'clock this morning. NO LITTERING. in a library 5./ They are to write about a person they admire. DO NOT JOKE WITH AIRPORT PERSONNEL WHILE YOUR HAND LUGGAGE IS BEING INSPECTED.. They are to write a composition. What were your Instructions about . Not supposed to This is often used when talking about a rule which people sometimes break: You're not supposed to block the street.. All of us use the library. What is he to do? 4. Make up short dialogues. You .. 2./They are to write it in ink. in an aeroplane 2. 3. In an aeroplane you're not allowed to smoke in the toilets. USE THE STAIRS IN CASE OF FIRE.. . so he went to a doctor. it is expected behaviour. What does this list include? 6. on a motorway 4. What are you doing with your birthday presents? You . Don't drop litter./ They are to hand it in next Tuesday. Tell them the rules. arrive not eat go not open not park have 1. in a petrol station 3. No right turn Don't drop litter! £20 fine Thank you for not smoking in this office. Who lives in an apartment building or dormitory? What is expected of its residents? VII. 5. This is your assignment for the next class. 5.) Can you repeat to me what you are to do? 3. Your son has some jobs to do before he can go outside and play. Write restrictions and rules for the following places or situations. I.. Please do not talk to the driver. It is illegal to travel without a ticket. but I couldn't because I was ill in bed.00. IX.00 and 18. VIII.

. 18. She is (take) to her very first party. to say what I thought of them. 16. 20.. He always puts off doing what he . 25.When are they (dock)? Have they written? 12.. to be moved out of his room so that it could be re-let. I did not know who . and I . 18. 6. 3.. Am I (stay) here all this time? 15.. We . Fill in the blanks with have to or be to in the correct tense forms.. Did you . 8.... bathe by moonlight? 15. reporting? 2.. Remember that we are (be) at his place not later than eight. It's clear that we are (have) a very cold and rainy spring. to take place on the day of his mother's arrival. • to load three hundred bags of coffee.. swim before breakfast? 2. I had a pupil waiting for an English lesson and I . Ba-teman remembered the winter at the end of which Isabel and Edward were (marry). to remain as it was. They . or must. disappear....1 told you expressly that Miss Adeline was not (ride) at any more horse shows this autumn. not to tell him about it if you don't want to. According to the state plan. 4.. and I really forgot all about it. a winter of dances and theatre-parties. (work) hard to achieve good results. .. There is nothing strange in what he did. I promised to go to a club in Whitechapel with her last Tuesday. get up at dawn? 4. 16. to light a fire to cook their supper. XII. to be had he seemed capable to do without. 2. The Finnish woman who . meeting George? 4.. not to be. search for the sunken treasure-ship? 6.. to stay in bed. I just mention it because you said I was (give) you all the details I could. Nobody met me at the airfield as I .. however. (not joke) about it. You are (not have) any wages the first six months.. He set off to the school where he . You . camp on the beach? 10.1... seeing the agents? 6. to remain as it was. Combine the modal verb be to with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets. Just your keep..... to work for Finch has not arrived yet. 10.. XI. have sing-songs round the camp fire? 8.. inspecting the camp? 10. 17.. She is very excited today. hire a boat? 11. not to do the cooking.. We agreed that the one who came first.. 3. to leave on Monday. starting? 12.. They hoped to spend the summer together. but I couldn't get a ticket for it. spend a week there? 16...... water-ski? 3... I stood at the window. (build) this year. We were to have borrowed a car but the plan fell through. but because of a two days' delay with the visas we . Nobody met me when I came. What ... 5. At nightfall the ship put in at a small port where they .. 4. Uncle Nick's things . There was a violent storm that night and the Albatros which was (arrive) at the port in the morning had to drop anchor near an island a hundred miles off the port. 6. 24. 9. 10. We .... paying the workmen? 9. contacting Ann? 5. make a film of the seabirds? becue? X. You knew exactly what you were (get) when you took on the job. invite everyone to a bar9.. 15. 2.. For the next few weeks I .. to be expected. opening the doors? A: Did you borrow a car? B: No. you ...1 don't like the idea. to write examinations for entry to the University. to meet his brother for a ride. 3. joining? 7. We were (play) a duet together. 7. good-bye!' I was not (see) them for nearly five years. to be done. 2. I was (arrive) by the ten o'clock train. but that . It was too late to change the plan and it .. explore the caves? 14. It . 5. Fill in the blanks with be to.. to return in the afternoon to collect it... But who is (tell) her about it? 14. Everyone came to visit me. to be done? We can't sit around like this the whole day.. to give your views and I. leaving? 8. Hot compresses were (apply) all night to the knee. and my heart kept repeating 'Good-bye.. 19. to do until it. When no food . 23. 1... She . 1. The children . 13. That day. (become) of the . 11.. to reserve seats for the rest of us. What . anchor in the bay? 13. 6. It was too late to change the plan and it .' Mr Hudson said to the nurse. 5. using the correct form of the infinitive. 9.. 'It is eight o'clock. When I got home I found I had left my olive oil in front of the noticeboard and I . He made all arrangements for the marriage which . have to. (go) to bed at eight o'clock to be up in time for the first train. to cut my visit short.. cook over open fires? 17. Eden went to the wood where he .. take photographs under water? 7. posting the documents? 3.. 7. 1.. climb the cliffs? 5.. 21. Everything has been arranged. to have arrived a day later and could not warn any of my friends of the change. 14. The arrangement was that you . I wondered what . 12. Why are you so late? Didn't you get my letter saying that we were (meet) at 4? 7. 4. go to bed.. 1. What am I (do) if she starts crying? 8.. 17. (be) my travelling companion. many new dwelling houses ... taking off? 11.. You ... not to tell him anything about it before you get further instructions. This is serious.. I to do it all by myself? 22. to happen to us. 11. to book tickets for Wednesday. That is that. 13.. and brought me presents. visit the island? 12. looking at them.

He told me that I . Peter? Peter: Not yet. (stay) the night with us because he has missed the last bus. 16.. 17. begin as early as possible or we shan't finish it today.. и мне нужно поторопиться. Дети..1. (not tell) me. Магазин бы доставил их. Мне не нужно будет сдавать этот экзамен. 22. 12. Почему Тому пришлось вчера уйти с работы так рано? 26. 29.. 35. Я был несколько удивлен. I know it's time for you to catch your train. My mother says that I . 36. Если вы приходите сюда работать.. (take) the dog along with them because there is no one who could look after it. Study and practise. Тебе придется взять пальто... 28. (pass) the night in the country. I refuse to help her in future. Mike . 14. (be) off. 35.' 9. вы не должны играть со спичками. Холодает. (happen). 23.. He told me that I . he's a born gentleman.. (learn) by heart some twenty lines every day to know English well. (not tell) my husband such things.. 19. (learn) to do things for herself. My bike is under repair and I .. 31. 12. Cokane (to Trench): How . 39. но был отложен из-за болезни дирижера. 25. (cross) the river.. 2. Я должна выздороветь. (not repeat) what I had heard. XIV.... 33. I'll have to contact my friend before I can make any definite arrangements. Концерт должен был состояться пятого февраля. Susan: That was quick! . 20.. 8. Мне не нужно было говорить. Вы должны сейчас же спуститься вниз. I . что не нужно брать машину. I'll have tea by myself. Он обязан (ему полагается) знать это. Оказалось. I must water the garden first. (go). Susan: Do you have to water it now? Peter: I'm afraid I must. 38. то ему не нужно принимать лекарство.. ты должна послать за мной.. 11. which we did on the craziest ferry-boat you can imagine. 21. I know. 28. He . что за ребенком нужно хорошо ухаживать. так как сейчас без двадцати минут два. 26.. 23. который не любил ходить пешком.. то вы обязаны работать. Разве тебе не нужно сегодня вернуть книги в библиотеку? 27.' said the missionary. 32. 18. Вы должны сделать работу к четвергу.. Если бы я не приготовил все заранее... Он сказал. 1.. Автобус №8 довозит прямо до моего дома. Look at it! It's terribly dry. He told me I.. We . Susan: What a nuisance! Peter: Last summer it was very dry. Я должен быть дома в два часа. Ты должен научиться серьезно относиться к жизни. she (pay) anything? 8.. 15..' 22. 10. She . где я должен был выступать. Meat . Мне пришлось отвести детей в школу. и опять работа продвигалась медленно. Если у тебя будут неприятности. Тебе не надо было делать пересадку. 13. (go).. (start) on my new job on Monday. После обеда они должны были пойти в кино. 'She's sinned and she . too. 33. но что-то задержало его и ему пришлось ехать вечерним поездом.. кто он. 25. Незачем было нести эти свертки самой. 'She has a lot to put up with. На небе ни облачка. так много людей. потому что кому-то надо было говорить. 30. Ты должен ждать их здесь... I had to water it every day.. Ты можешь подождать полчаса? — Нет. My bike is under repair and I . (not hurry) home because she herself is out playing bridge. Извини за опоздание..girl? . 34. Один из гостей сел около меня. 5. У него хорошие способности к языкам. 32. You must fill in the form as soon as you can... XIII. 14.. (not be) out after eleven o'clock. Озеро было так близко. Через десять минут вы должны сдать контрольные работы. I won't let him drive to the country in this rain. 18. (suffer).. But I can see we'll have to move more quickly if we want to travel in July. 34. 29. They . мне нужно было бы сделать это сейчас. Presently we . No need to worry about the children. 37... Это слишком дорого обходится Барту. 17. что я могу не оплачивать счет до 31 числа.' 'You . They . не могу. 24. He . 16. Sir Peter (looks at his watch): This is the time I .. (stay) the night with us. 'I've told my husband he . Мне придется обдумать это и принять решение. This can take up to three weeks so you must apply earlyCustomer: Thank you.. Комунибудь придется ее проводить. 13. Стивен. не нужно. 7.. 1. 31. 10. 11. My bike was under repair and I . (break) the news to his mother. обнаружив в зале. anybody (know) that you are well brought up if you don't show it by your manners? 27. согласился. что они встречались раньше. sir.. 19.. (take) the dog away. 3. Я должен встретить их на вокзале? — Нет. Опять ему пришлось работать по ночам.' 'And I.. 15. (collect) it yesterday. Объявление гласило. What a pity you . The doctor told her that she . 30. Я рассказал эту историю. Врач сказал. (not smoke) in the living room. (not use) words which I didn't know.. Я устал исправлять ваши орфографические ошибки. 9. Customer: I wonder if you can tell me what the special requirements are for a visit to Poland? Official: First you have to arrange a visa. 20. Не полагается разговаривать во время контрольной работы.1 did not expect that the worst . I won't have it here any longer.. He .. (eat) chocolate. 21.. Susan: Can't you come and have tea now.. 24..... и ему не приходится много заниматься.. что Алан. I want to go to bed.. Незачем брать зонтик.. (walk) here this morning.. Руди пригласили на обед к Мэри. Official: Yes.. Вы должны пользоваться словарем. (collect) it that afternoon. что ему не надо никому ничего объяснять. (stay) the night with us and tomorrow he sets off on his tour to Europe... (keep) in a refrigerator or it will spoil. Если боль прошла. Он знал. dear. если бы вы попросили. Translate from Russian into English. 6. 2. Susan: Well. Мне не пришлось их знакомить. Я сам не смогу. but I . 4. She must know all about it already. Он должен был уехать утренним поездом. You .. мисс: так говорит ваша мать. что посетители не должны кормить животных. poor girl.

I'd have my secretary do it only. 4. Judy: I'll have to eat it at my desk while I make a few more phone calls to check on some sales figures before the meeting. Look. want to come to lunch with me? Judy: Oh. dear. you don't. often./No. fine. I have to get started on this report. Do you know anyone who has been a tour guide? Do you think it is an exciting job? C. lunch would be great right now. Maria: Hey. teacher 2. So is everything all right for Monday? Josh: Yes. How much does he have to know about each city in Europe? 3. a model 6. Josh: Ah. I know. Maria. In pairs. A: Do you have to carry an ID card all the time? B: Yes. Do things ever go wrong on these trips? Clare: Oh. In fact he nearly died and the hotel owner was very worried because he didn't want a death in his hotel! The doctor forgot to bring any alcohol to sterilise his needles and he had to use some local brandy from the hotel bar! You have to be on your toes all the time in this job!' A. Maria. Maria: Oh.. Look out of the window. In pairs. There are just too many important things to do before this meeting this afternoon. 3. Do you have to: — carry an ID (identity) card all the time? — show an ID card to buy alcohol? — do military service if you are a man? — pay for water? — pay when you visit the doctor? — buy your own books at school? — pay traffic fines on the spot (immediately)? 5. Clare: They use local guides. Clare: OK. You have to sort out problems quickly. yes. Have you ever had any problems on a school trip. Peter: That was a pleasant surprise. Josh has now got a job as a tour guide through Work International. just one thing. Judy: Well. 1. a hairdresser 7. For example. Maria: Sure. What is Josh's first job? 2. I have this three o'clock sales meeting with the vice president and I have to finish typing my report before I do another thing. you do. I can't talk any more.. could you bring me back a sandwich? Maria: Sure. 'All sorts of things can go wrong on these tours. choose three adjectives from the box to describe the qualities most needed for each of the jobs below. instead.. with this deadline. I just can't trust him to type it fast enough. It means I can have tea. that's good. Oh. a personal assistan 3. but. use the list below to ask and answer about laws in your country. That means you needn't water the garden. guided tour or package holiday? B. John Byron is a tour guide who takes coach parties through Europe. you arrive late at the hotel and there are only thirty beds when you've got forty people on the bus! You have to be very resourceful. What sort of person does a tour guide have to be? B. A teacher has to be . but I just don't have the time. You have to be quite resourceful! A. Susan: Good heavens! It's raining.Have you finished already? Peter: Yes. The man couldn't breathe. How much do I have to know about each city? Clare: You don't have to be an expert but it helps if you know a little.. I want to do it myself so I know it's done right. a writer 4. Josh: I see. I. an engineer reliable resourceful patient efficient attractive smart creative friendly kind hardworking intelligent practical . Last year in Austria a man in my party had an asthma attack in the middle of the night and I had to call a doctor. but why can't your secretary help finish the report? Judy: Well. His first job is to take a coach party around Europe. but this is the third time this week you've skipped lunch. An English-speaking friend is interested in the way you live in your country. There is always one big drama during a tour. Judy. One of the worst problems is when the bookings are wrong. 1. a nurse 5. Listen. but this is just too important to miss.

I=Interviewer M=Megan L=Laura I: What are some of the good things about being a teenager... Barbara or Malcolm? What about your family? Is there a division between what the men do and what the women do in your family? 7. adults have to worry about bills and looking after their family. We . and I've got to feed the cat. 7. You can't use a pencil in the examination. Maggie.. Rewrite these sentences with have (n't) got to or must not as appropriate. What are some of the school rules? M:Huh! We have to wear a stupid school uniform. Tessa hasn't seen Maggie for a long time and would like her to come round to her flat. I've got to visit my aunt in hospital. I: They have responsibilities. for a start. 3. Tessa: Oh. M:One problem is that you never have enough money.. f. Laura's parents are called Malcolm and Barbara.6. e. tell me about school. I don't know.. You . go out with your friends. When he gets in at 7. Goodbye.30. I'm coming back on Sunday. 5.. Another thing is we don't have to do the housework and the washing and cleaning. cooking. d. and we aren't allowed to chew gum! I: And if you break one of the rules. 4. Molly. L: So do I. We . If you want to take the exam you've got to sign your name.. Everybody must answer question I. She doesn't have to work on Thursdays and Fridays. A. and do the washing. Write a list of things you've got (haven't got) to do today. We can't wear make-up. She's always rushing around and she has to go to work as well. well. Molly Morgan is going to her sister's house for a week. go shopping.... but you needn't answer question 2... a.. What about Tuesday evening? Maggie: Tuesday's bad for me as well. It's very long. I: So do you think Dad has the easier life? L: Well.. and he drives over a thousand miles a week. Mick: And have I got to cut the grass? Molly: Yes. but you can if you want to. Monday's difficult for me.. They can't do what they want when they want. Are you free on Sunday evening? Maggie: I'm sorry. M: But I always have to tell my Mum and Dad where I'm going first.. 6. c. Tessa: It would be nice to see you again. and we're not allowed to wear white socks. and all that stuff. j. Example: If you want to take the exam it is necessary to sign your name. Mick! What have you got to do while I'm away? Mick: I've got to hoover the carpet . not an adult? M:Um . go out to work. It isn't necessary to answer all the questions. g.. but it's never enough. tell my Mum and Dad where I'm going. er . you don't have to go out to work.. 1. wnat are some of the things they have to do. If you finish half an hour early it isn't necessary to wait until the end. buy what you want. they have to be black. It is forbidden to leave the room during the first hour of the exam. b.. but she has loads of different things to do in a day. which is really boring.. You . I: What do you think it's like being an adult? L: Well... You . go to the cinema. I always ... worry about bills. like shopping. There's lots of food in the fridge. i. I feel more sorry for my Mum. chew gum! B. He has to work full-time.. that's a pity. Mick: OK. and some of the things they don't have to do? Who do you think has an easier life. You . do the housework. It isn't necessary to answer the questions in numerical order. h. Have I got to do the shopping? Molly: No you haven't. What are some of the things Megan and Laura like a don't like about being a teenager? Complete the gaps. I've got to go to a . Molly: Now. you get a Friday afternoon detention! A. taking me to dancing and swimming. It is necessary to answer at least three questions or you'll fail. wear make up. everything's been done! I: Urn. but he doesn't have to do anything in the house. You needn't spend half an hour on every question. 8. You can go out with your friends. L: And you don't have to pay bills. We . We get some money from our parents. Oh .. you mean? L: Yeah.. Adults . B. if you don't want to.. pay bills. g. 2. We . wear a stupid school uniform. I'm not. You aren't allowed to buy what you want. you have.

' my wife answered.. I'm tied up on Tuesday. John: Okay. Try and keep an evening free for me. 9. Somehow I think I've already got something scheduled for Wednesday. and it's essential that I keep it. Would you like to have lunch some day next week? Steve: Sure. Tessa: Fine.' she protested. It wasn't a very pleasant conversation.meeting. Tessa: Have you got to? Can't you get out of it? Maggie: I'm afraid not. let's get together soon.' she answered. but I really need to go now.' 2. In fact. Tessa: Well .' and Wilson answers: 'That's very kind of you. She offered to get some aspirins for him from the canteen.' 'I find it beautiful.Margaret says: 'I'll go to the canteen now. I really must. Are you free on Wednesday? John: Wednesday? Let's see. yes! I've got an appointment with my dentist to have my teeth cleaned. Where should we meet? John: You know I really must be going now or I'll be very late..When Margaret went into Wilson's office. It was always best to begin such conversations casually. How about you? Steve: Friday sounds good. Wednesday's out for me I'm afraid. 'I'll post those letters. Steve: Well. Sorry I have to rush off like this. 'As usual. I have to meet Stephen in ten minutes. I can go there myself. Hmm. John: I'd love to continue this conversation. I've got to go out for dinner on Friday. She tried to think of something casual to say first. John: Good-bye. Wilson thanked her and gave her some money for the aspirins. 'Oh. Tessa: Wednesday then? Maggie: No. 'Do you call that a hat?' I said to my wife.' 4.. Til solve the problem for you. I am sorry Tessa. Ring me next week sometime.' my wife answered as she looked at herself in the mirror. I regretted saying it almost at once.' 'And a woman can't have too many hats. 'We mustn't buy things we don't need. I'm afraid Thursday is out for me. he said I was spending too much..' 6. It's no trouble. 'I'll dial the number for you. it looks as if we'll have to wait till next week then.' I remarked suddenly. you're looking a bit tired. . Margaret began to feel sorry for him. I can go there myself. he looked awful. She left. unfortunately. but I'm going to the canteen anyway. I can't make Thursday.' 5. 'I'll take care of this matter. Oh. 'You needn't have said that.' What are his answers if she says: 1.' he said. She knew it was not a good time to ask for a rise. Speak to you then. I've simply got to go. John: So that leaves Friday. I don't have any obligations or commitments on Friday. she noticed that he looked very tired. I must go now. Then he mentioned that he had a headache. Make up similar dialogues. Steve: Can you give me a call tomorrow and we'll decide? John: Fine. She had forgotten to ask for the rise! A. Well. Steve: So long. 'A man can never have too many ties. It was only after she had closed the door behind her that she realised something. lO. I've got to stay in and do some work. I sat down on one of those modern chairs with holes in it and waited. I'm expected to attend a meeting of our personnel committee. I've got to fly to Chicago on business. but she felt she had to. Look.' 3. He told her he had just seen the Financial Controller. Steve: Well'. 'You needn't be so rude about it. I understand. that's a shame. 'Steve: Well. and it's very important for me to be there.' he said. the man who told everybody at the EBC how much they could spend. 'You needn't bother. but you needn't bother. I'm afraid I can't make it on Monday. I have to get back to the office. A. We had been in the hat shop for half an hour and my wife was still in front of the mirror. 'I'll carry that bag for you. Friday? Maggie: I'm awfully sorry. Tessa: Oh.' 11. How about Monday? John: Hmm. Wilson sighed.' I said. Til type that letter. I'm supposed to have lunch with an important visitor from out of town. Steve: That's okay. Maggie: Yes. and I don't think there's any way I can get out of it.' she said. 'Uh . 'I need not remind you of that terrible tie you bought yesterday.

All the others were too tired. Mum: That car's only meant to take five people. or was not allowed to. The Doctor said I... though we found we needn't have hurried because take off had been delayed for an hour. you've had four already. or you'll break the springs.Ten minutes later we walked out of the shop together. Mum? Mum: So that's the price of my French wine.. A few souvenirs.. or your father and I will be worried to death that you've had a crash.. Mike: Do you think I can borrow the car tonight. The firm paid so I . be away all night. 4. but it was a lightning visit. stay the night because there was a fast train home in the evening.. I . you're not to take the car tonight. 2. go first class because the firm was trying to economise on fares. Mum: If you're late in. The discussions only lasted a few hours and I. and besides it's against the law.. By the way. Put mustn't. be in London by 10 o'clock. And you're not to drink any alcohol or the police will stop you and you'll lose your license. You . no one else wanted to come. we have the other one. A: I can't take the car tonight. you must think I'm 9 years old... 6. You are not to go far in it. Mum: Didn't anyone else go with you? Mike: No. I... which would have saved me a lot of time. Mike: For god's sake. but England were lucky not to lose. make any sandwiches for me. When we got there.. not 19! A.. I don't often buy you presents. and we got to the hotel at about seven o'clock.. I'm not hungry. Mike: We're only going to a party at Topsham... We're going to the annual general meeting at the bridge club. or she'll get upset. is it? A. I wanted to stay and see a show but my wife wasn't well and she said that I.1. Mike: Mum. Mike: Well. open any letters marked 'personal'. 5. some postcards. Did you enjoy the weekend in Paris? Mike: Yes. Mum: Tell me about it. Anyway there are only seven of us this week. but I don't often go to Paris either.. My tea was already sweetened. Mum? Mum: No. Complete the sentences using had to. Mum: Thank you. 1. The match was drawn. You . Mum: Where else did you go? Didn't you look round the Louvre? Mike: Yes. needn't or needn't have in the gaps in the following sentences. take any more aspirins. But you needn't have gone to that expense. She .. 10. answered the questions. and of course we watched the international rugby match in the afternoon. meet a very important client from New York. I'll drive slowly and gently. Nothing much else because I ran out of money. She . get up early to catch the train in the morning. it was great. mention this to Kate. can I? B: No. Mike... And. 8. Then on Saturday morning we did some shopping.. 13.. Tim and I went to a nightclub. was not to. Make up similar dialogues. I . Mum: Well. my leg is all right.. 1. Mum: What else did you buy then? Mike: Let me see . give Freddy any more sweets or he won't eat any tea. Mike: Well Pete's car had broken down. 11. rush to the station to .. 9. the party will hardly have started by midnight. A: Mike's got to come back before twelve o'clock.. We were told we were not to be late for check-in at the airport and we had to rush like mad. Tell her she . You . dear. After the meeting I . so I... Your father and I will be using it. What did you do with yourself? Mike: Well. fill in a new application form. go to London last week for a meeting.. stayed if you hadn't wanted to12. Mike: But they aren't holding the meeting tonight..... Mum: Aren't they? How do you know? Mike: I heard Dad telling Mr Jones it had been postponed for a month. Mum: Another of those parties! You're to be home at midnight. didn't have to. you are not to make a noise . you can't... If that's the case you can use the car.. 7... a bottle of perfume for Janet . My wife was wearing a hat that looked like a lighthouse! A. I . I've brought you back some wine. but you're not to cram it with too many of your friends again.. That's lovely. she was only away for one day. But we didn't have time for much else. The boss said I . and then Olive. Just go to sleep and forget about me.... can you lend me a couple of pounds until next week. Mum.. of course. Mum:Hello. he didn't mention it to me..we went up the Eiffel Tower too. and here are some cigarettes for Dad. Mum. be late because I . but I did and made it too sweet. Look.. 3.. so ours was the only available. There must have been eight or nine of you in it last week. put any sugar in it.. buy the train ticket. he's to come back before twelve o'clock. go back to the hospital.. hasn't he? B: Yes. You'll spoil the upholstery. bring a doctor's certificate. We had a super dinner. we had quite a good flight.. You . Look at the examples below. You .

The education of children starts as soon as they are born. Are your parents strict? Say what you are (not) allowed (supposed) to do. Nobody seems to mind very much if you're a bit late back. A. Had better often suggests a kind of threat or warning of possible bad consequences and is stronger than should or ought to. Failure is a kind of punishment. (If he steals he will be put into prison.) I'm really tired this morning. Alex. go outside.. We form the negative with had better not. not allowed to not has to didn't have have to supposed to was allowed to to I've got a new job as a security guard and it's a big change. or what they ought not to do. Alex: Here he is! Later Alex: Well at least I got his autograph! Do you want to come and have a coffee? Nick: O.but after ought. A man must not steal. We're . I'm going to an interview tomorrow. start until eight o'clock. but I forgot.. take an afternoon off every two weeks but here we don't get any half days. or if they don't do what they must do. Also in my last job . we use to+ infinitive eg to learn. You shouldn't tell lies.) You must study your lessons.. Complete the text by Inserting one of the verb phrases below..30 but in my last job we . We're . but must is often obligation with the sense of command. had better Should and ought to We can use both should and ought to to talk about obligation and duty. They're strict about smoking too but I think that's good. You'd better take care of that cut on your hand soon. to ask for and give advice.. We use should have/ought to have + past participle to say that someone did the wrong thing in the past. You know you're not supposed to block the street.catch the train. but the meaning is present or future. §8.. Obligation and advice: should. and. move on. you lot. admonition. Anyone who wants to smoke . What do you think I should do?/ What do you think I ought to do? Should and ought to are very similar in meaning. Note that after should. 14. Man: Come on. But they're not so strict about the lunch hour. People are often punished if they do what they must not do.K. We'd better riot be late.... clock in at 7. smoke anywhere in the building. boys play with guns and girls play with dolls. girls wear pink and boys wear blue. in general. Boys are allowed to make more noise and cause more trouble. (You did not do it. This kind of education prepares boys for power in the world but for little else. and ought to is a little more emphatic. I shouldn't have stayed up so late last night. take more than an hour off but everyone does. Alex: Oh. but we often prefer ought to to talk about authority which comes from outside the speaker eg from laws or rules. (I did not post it. 15. ('d better =had better) We always use had (not have) with better in this structure./You ought to learn to swim. are not always punished.) Had better Had better (+ infinitive without to) expresses a strong recommendation in a particular situation. Nick: Hello. to say what is right or good.) Haven't you finished your homework yet? You ought to have done it last night. or it will get infected. A. while the meaning of obligation in should and ought to is weakened to advice. It's going to be cold tonight. Nick: Why don't you go in? Alex: We're not allowed to. recommendation. we use the infinitive without to eg learn.. I'm supposed to be revising. to tell. while girls are supposed to be more interested in talking to and understanding people. Should/Ought to and Must compared All of them are used to express obligation. hi Nick! Nick: What's happening? Alex: We're waiting to see Timothy Dalton. ought to. But I'll have to be quick. (I stayed up late. (If you do not study you will not pass your exams. tell. should/ought to — mild obligation) Must also expresses duty but is a much stronger word than should or ought to. We .. (must = strong obligation.) But people who do what they should not do. I'd better iron my shirt. We'd better turn on the heating. You should learn to swim./ You oughtn't to tell lies. I should have posted this letter yesterday. We have to wait until he comes out. . Should is a little more common. I want to get his autograph. not past..

young man. You went out without your mac yesterday. 'She is not thinking of me — why should she? She's young. He looked more than ever out of place.' 9. Everyone is shocked. 'You ought to stop smoking. you know. (But many of us forget to clean our teeth.' 10. I completely forgot. Should and ought to are used when must would sound too peremptory.' 9. 8.' 11. or we have no time to clean them. Rules and regulations usually make use of must. But . Frank Martin has not been feeling very well lately. Mrs Wilson: It's raining. They didn't go back to work when she came in. Mr Wilson: You're right. They shouldn't have been drinking tea. 'that I oughtn't to refuse straight out — in your own best interests. You should have sheltered under a tree.' I said to Percy. Must indicates an obligation. 3. 7. and we are not punished. 'You ought to have stopped at the traffic lights. He has been talking for six minutes and the operator has just asked him to put some more money in. Young Dr Pildare is drunk. required or expected to take a certain action but is free to avoid it. He has not got any. He should have stopped the ball. The supervisor was furious.We should (ought to) clean our teeth after every meal. he drives there.20. yet when she went into the packing-department she found all the girls there were not working. 11. There is also a dirty black cigar in his mouth. Analyse the meanings expressed by should and ought to. The doctor has been examining him. Susan and Ron have just had an accident. but he spends a lot of time on the beach swimming and sunbathing. 'You should come here often.' said Eden. 4. Must differs from should and ought to in that the person or thing concerned is not considered free to avoid the required or expected action.) Should and ought to suggest that the person or thing concerned is advised. usually one that comes from outside. if you're worried you ought to see Dr Devit. He shouldn't be smoking. my boy. The goal-keeper suddenly decided to have a rest.' 10. 6. 'You ought to get married yourself. It wasn't tea-time. the feeling of obligation that comes from inside us. You shouldn't (oughtn't to) have been driving so fast.' 8.' he is saying. Look. Betty says it's a kid's game anyway and I ought to be ashamed of myself flying a kite at my age. He is a sensible doctor.' 7.' he said to Shelton. Tony is typical of many young men today. 3. You shouldn't be spending all your time on the beach. 'Look. I'd better leave for work.' I said. His mother says. 'You'd better take things easy for a while. 'I've come to tell you that I'm sorry. it's 8. You should go to bed. Ought to and should are often used to indicate moral obligation. We'd better pay it soon. They shouldn't have laughed at her. 'You ought to come here often. 4. With must this action is imagined as inevitable. that's all.' 'You ought to be.' he is saying to the person in Canada. 'I'm sorry. 'I'm not sure. Observe the forms of the infinitive.' he repeated to Shelton.' 2. He thought. They were having a cup of tea. Activities /. The doctor has told him to get more exercise and to walk as much as possible. Perhaps he should take up tennis or golf. He is overweight and he never gets any exercise. Illustrative Situations 1. The worst thing is that he has just come into the operating theatre without a mask on. you'd better not go without a coat. Luckily neither of them was hurt. 5. He has been working a lot overtime because he wants to buy a new car. 'I think I'd better hang up now. In fact. When it started raining you didn't even shelter under a tree. One of the forwards shot the ball into the net. He should walk when he goes to the corner shop. He should have been standing up. She smiled. Even if he wants a packet of cigarettes from the corner shop. Peter is making a long-distance call to Canada. 'You ought to be studying for your exam. He should get more exercise. He knows all this is strictly forbidden.' 'You should be. 6. You'd better not work so hard. they laughed at her. His wife says. Susan says. He should be wearing a mask. Mrs Wilson: Did you remember to pay the phone bill? Mr Wilson: No. It's late. 'You ought to be careful not to make a fool of yourself. he should have stayed at home. He sat down in front of the goal and didn't even bother to get up when the other team attacked. 'You've been working too hard. 5. You ought to have done that long ago. 1. He simply watched. 2. Jack smokes and coughs a lot. or they'll cut us off! Well.' 12. Translate the sentences into Russian. He drives everywhere. Robert has an important examination in a few days. You should have been wearing your mac.

. I acted very wrongly indeed. Student: Yes. The responsibility is entirely mine. I don't know about that. 32. You'd better stop taking these pills. I'm the head of the noblest branch of the family and I ought to live up to it. The student knows that he isn't working hard enough. 28. 38. Now if you took a holiday . 13. Aunt Milly took it into her head that I ought to become an engineer. Mr Fox: __________________________________? Mrs Fox: Well . He knew he ought to tell Gorin and allow him to take other plans. Student: _______________________________________. Tutor: Furthermore. 34. 26. Tutor: This essay is useless. Mr Fox: I don't know what's the matter with me. Why should you miss the music? 16. On the other hand. II. Complete the conversations using ought to. Why should I know anything about them? 19. He ought never to have married a woman eighteen years younger than himself. 'I ought to have told Soames. 'Well. You should have gone to the concert.' 36. You should have left me alone..' said Mrs Sunbury still upset. They ought not to drive cars and buses. I think you should.' 'You should report it to the credit card company immediately. I ought not to have let this relationship start. But have you told the director you're worried about work? Mr Fox: ______________________________________? Mrs Fox: That's up to you. You need a break.' 'You ought to have been told before.' 29. Some people are colour blind.. Small children ought not to play in the streets. Oh. He is talking to his wife. There were fifteen equally good reasons why she should not have played bridge. 39.' 2. 'Mr Davidson thinks that such a costume should be prohibited by law. 40. he came up and said.' 'You ought to report it to the credit card company immediately. you should not have done what you did. Mrs Fox: Too much work.' 3. 'When is he going back?' 'How should I know?' 33. you are marvellous! I don't know what I'd do without you . Why not see a doctor? Mr Fox: _______________________________. Renny.. 25. Roleplay the conversations. I think you ought to show some respect for the dead.. 'Are you sure you ought to be doing that?' 31.. 23. Perhaps you'd better tell them I will do it — just as a matter of duty.' 'I think you/sell it. 24. Work can affect your health. 'I'm bored with my job. 'that I think him comic. Example: 'I've lost my credit card. 14. 2. 27. Student:________________________________________.' Michael mumbled. 'I can't wake up in the 'Perhaps you /look for another mornings.. a rest.' said his wife. the editor of Euromode. Mr Fox: Ought I to take a holiday.' job.' said Mr Sunbury to change the conversation. They should be taught a lesson. I understand you go out every night. 17. It's all I'm fit for. do you think? Mrs Fox: It would be a good idea. Her interest in singing should be encouraged. 20. 'I'm very glad to know at last what it was all about. Mr Fox: ______________________________________? Mrs Fox: Yes. but it won't do any harm. Oughtn't you to be more careful? 30. 1. 35. find the advice for the problems. 'And so he ought to be. but he continued to postpone the decision.' 'Don't you think you/apologize . 18. you know. Mr Fox. I know I ought to write more. Your daughter has a good voice. works very hard and feels that he might be in danger of having a nervous breakdown because of the pressure of his work. 15. III. then you could relax a bit more. They both thought it an opportunity that shouldn't be missed. You ought to get an assistant you know. Tutor: It's typical. do you think? Mrs Fox: Yes. Mr Fox: Oh. a doctor ought to marry. perhaps getting a new job would help you. One should always eat muffins quite calmly. 22. Perhaps I ought to do it. 37. When Charles saw Ann playing tennis. 'He was pleased with his present. there's absolutely no evidence of any background reading. something to stop you worrying.' Problems Advice 1.' he thought. 21. 'I've lost my credit card. Harry. It is the only way to eat them. Perhaps it is one's duty. You simply haven't written enough. Another thing is that you do too much yourself.. She will expect you to marry.she was too young to know that wisdom shouldn't be spoken about when you are happy. A university tutor is talking to one of her students. Complete the advice using should or ought to. Mr Fox:______________________________________? Mrs Fox: A change is as good as a rest you know. The doctor told her she ought to go to a sanatorium. Now if you stopped working for a bit .

' 7. fixed the aerial 19. Transform in the same way. mended the fuse 18. I'm really fed up with my job. decided 3. I'd better wash my clothes today. A: I haven't told Tom yet. 4. 9.. Give advice to the people in the following situations. Perhaps the bus will come early. 'My sister's birthday is only a month away. (HAD here is normally contracted. 2. V.. It looks like rain. 1. I had better study tonight. 4.. VIII. Complete the following sentences. ought to. 'I have a toothache. should (ought to. I think I'm catching a cold. I'm supposed to pick him up.. 3. I'm cold. done the ironing 11.. VII. enrolled 15.1 don't feel good. I'm homesick. If you do . I have the flue. 'I was very rude to my parents. It's a beautiful day. applied 14. Give advice in the following situations by using should. If . reported the accident 9. seen Tom about it VI. Criticize somebody you know using shouldn't or oughtn't. ' 6. 5. My roommate snores and I can't get to sleep. 13.1 can't see the blackboard when I sit in the back row.. 8.. booked the seats 5..' 8. 9. 4. You'd better obey the speed limit. 10. 8. 1..'I think you/buy a present/beforehand. Perhaps someone will attack me. There's no food in my house.. If I don't .' 'You/report it to the credit card company immediately.' to them?' 'Perhaps you/buy a new alarm clock. I want to study.' 'Perhaps you/take some aspirin. ordered the coal 6. and some guests are coming to dinner tonight. suggested it 4. Perhaps it will rain. 14. 3. I want to borrow some money. finished my essay 16. or had better. advertised the house 7. I can't stop yawning. Our teacher ought not to give us so much work. 3. 6. I never have any money. I'm writing a composition. I have only twenty-five cents in my pocket. 1. IX. returned the books 2.. 'My car keeps on breaking down. 11. I should wash my clothes today. but .. ought to. and my mother is coming to visit me tomorrow.. 6. 'I want to have your name and address. 2. Make up short dialogues using had better. 7.. My apartment is in a mess. My library book is due today. I want to put on my overcoat. If you're going out. We ought to . 7.' 'You/go/to a dentist. I want to take this umbrella.. Perhaps there'll be a test tomorrow..' — I think I'd better have your name and address just in case I need them. I should study tonight because . Examples: You shouldn't eat so much. you'd better . Use should. You shouldn't stay up late tonight because . Response You. 7.) I haven't . I want to take the bag. I want to borrow your revolver. answered his letter 8. I ought to study tonight because . 15.1 need to improve my English. or . 17.. and there is a word I don't know how to spell. apologized 12... had better) study tonight. yet. Perhaps I'll need them. I have a toothache. You'd better not stay up late tonight. My friend is arriving at the airport this evening. 12.. 6. I want to leave now. but I need some money to go out tonight. 2. 5. renewed my license 10. 5. 1. paid the rent 20. Perhaps it'll get colder.' .. 16. Perhaps I'll need some. 10.' 5. Perhaps I'll do some shopping. explained 13. washed the car 17. or had better. 4.. but I've forgotten what time his plane gets in. B: Then you'd better tell him today. Example I have a test tomorrow.' IV. 'I've got a terrible headache..

Now she is very sick./ I oughtn't to have gone to a movie. William's parents expect him to work in the family business. but he didn't marry her. Ellen is having a lot of trouble in her chemistry class. 4.. You don't have any food for dinner because you didn't go to the grocery store. Make up short dialogues. He's expected at a formal reception this evening. I told her to see a doctor. You had to pay a fine because your library book was overdue. 20. Now he has discovered that he is paying a lot more money than he expected. You are cold because you didn't wear a coat. but she doesn't like candy. 1. and now you are sorry. Should he skip some less important historical events./I ought to have studied. She's failed the last two tests. You misspelled a word because you didn't look up in the dictionary. and he married her. You've been an international student. a shoe store. Alice is planning to drive across the country by herself this summer. 3. Mr Rice is behind schedule in the history class he's teaching. He made a mistake. This exercise could also be done with ought to (have) and oughtn't to (have). XI. 10. but you decided not to go. 4. 1. You overslept this morning because you didn't set your alarm clock.. The little girl told a lie. Mary sold her car. but you stayed inside all day. 17. Example You failed the test because you didn't study. I'm sorry I didn't invite him. The Taylors' daughter is very excited about going to Denmark to live and study for four months. have messed up the house. 7. Mike can't understand what's going on in his English class. Richard's roommate stays up very late studying. 2.). That made him feel bad. Note-. Virginia doesn't really have enough money saved for a vacation. but she didn't. What should George do? X. Response I shouldn't have gone to a movie. Response I should have studied. both teenagers. John loved Mary. 15. Sam and Tim. You didn't stop for gas. but he wants to be an architect. 6.1. Ann would like to make some new friends. Ann didn't feel well a couple of days ago. Look at that man correcting exercises in the bus! 3. but George's car won't start. 23. Your friends went to (New Orleans) over vacation. he listens to loud music. 6. Ron is wearing jeans. 7. 10. 24. You didn't have a cup of coffee. 5.) fell asleep on the overnight train from (place name) to (place name). You are broke now because you spent all your money foolishly. She got into a lot of trouble. or should he give the students longer assignments? 13. —»• I think she should join some clubs so she can meet people who have similar interests. 9. You didn't go with them. 9. Look at that woman doing her nails in the bus queue! 2. That was a mistake.1 didn't invite Sam to my party. Alex signed a contract to buy some furniture without reading it thoroughly. That was a mistake because now she can't take trips to see her friends and relatives. There was an important meeting yesterday afternoon. John loved Mary. but you went to class anyway. but s/he had an accident because s/he was driving on the wrong side of the road. 3. Maria is expecting George to meet her when she arrives at the airport in an hour. A: Look at that man shaving while he drives! B: He shouldn't be shaving now. Look at that man polishing his shoes in the bus! 4. but she wants to go someplace. Now you are sleepy. The weather was beautiful yesterday. Use should have or ought to have + past participle in your response. 16. Do you know of any inexpensive but wonderful place she could go? 12. 5. 19. They had a good time. Now he is unhappy.. Today you feel worse. 13. and Richard can't get to sleep. You lent your car to (. Your friend is upset because you didn't write him a letter. 8. You bought your girlfriend a box of candy for her birthday. 21. But now he is unhappy. but she's never changed a flat tire or even pumped her own gas. 8.. 18. 14. Look at that boy tying his shoelaces as he goes into school! 5. The room is full of flies because you opened the window. 11. Example: You didn't study because you went to a movie. haven't you? Could you give her some advice? 11. That was a mistake. You have a stomach ache because you ate (five hamburgers). Pierre is feeling really homesick these days. While his roommate is studying. 25. and then you ran out of gas on the highway. her purse was stolen. 2. and their parents are coming home soon. He should have shaved before he left the house. 12. Look at that woman putting on her earrings on the stairs! . 22. When (. You were sick yesterday.

Andrew was arrested last night. listening to records (b) At . 7.... A: I'll remove the old newspapers tomorrow.15 .15 .30 programme 10..30—8. typing her lecture notes 15.00 6. which doesn't please the boss.00—7. B: She shouldn't be sleeping.30 3. I'll . check the cash 12. refill your 2. lunch rest work in garden (play) tennis tea 5. Look at that woman cleaning her glasses while she drives! 13.00—7.45 . 5.30—9.. Look at those children doing their homework in the bus! 14.30 get dressed 7.T. empty your waste-paper the diary 15.. Look at that man eating his breakfast as he walks down the path! 8. 5. She was walking home alone..15 .e. test 3. one in the positive and one in the negative.00 watch television 8... Look at that boy combing his hair in the classroom! 12.. Look at that girl putting on her make-up in the bus queue! 9. 2.45 .45 .00 (have) breakfast 8. write up 5..15 .. and Ann is .00— programme 10. having breakfast i... working in the garden 10.00—1.. She shouldn't have been walking home alone..7. 1. The robber shot him in the leg. playing tennis 8. 1.15 .45 Ann was getting up. 3. 1. 6.15 . tomorrow.15 .30 practise the piano rehearse play supper type lecture notes read in library lights out...30 4.00 1. 2. and he'd had too much to drink.. rehearsing the play 13.. 8. having supper 14. (a) A: It's 7. 7.20 yesterday Ann was sleeping. Look at that man brushing his coat in the lift! 10. Example: Margaret was mugged last night. (a) B: But they should be removed every day. plants wind your clock combination of the safe 14.. Look at that man putting in his false teeth in the street! Ann..00 11.00 (attend) (do) P.. has the following programme: 7..00 . basket wash your coffee exercise the guard dogs 7. But perhaps the secretary has too many duties. doing P. watching television 6. 12.. She should have been getting dressed.45 . 1. practising the piano 12..30—10... a student at a summer school.(phy-sical training) lectures 12.30 wash up 8.30.T. your desk tidy your cigar-box 11..30—3. washing up 4.00—7. 9. 2.30—4. listening to a lecture 7..45 .. The secretary is inclined to leave everything till Friday. 2.8. books water your pot the alarm system 13.00—6. 12.30—12. At 7. He was driving home after a party.. Write two sentences. change the 4.00 help with lunch (have).30—5.6. 8. clear your out-tray 10.00—10.00—2. Look at that girl sewing on a button in the library! 7. open your windows dust 9. (b) A: At 7.. cup clean your office 8..20 and Ann is sleeping.00 8.00—9.30 2. 10. She should be getting dressed.30 7. as in (a) but replacing IS by WAS It is Thursday evening..00 7. Look at that man putting in his contact lenses on the escalator! 11.. XII...45 . file the copies 16. (a) It's . 6. getting up 3.30— 9. Graham was wounded when he tried to stop a man robbing a post office. for each of the following situations. Ann was . She should have gone with someone or taken a taxi. B: She shouldn't have been sleeping.00 2. . resting 9..30 discuss 8.. (b) B: But they should have been removed today.00—2. having tea 11.

touch electrical appliances if you've got wet hands. then he would have passed the exams. work at weekends. Charles: I really . My briefcase was stolen from my car yesterday... 7.. 11. darling. 2. I. Now answer as Robert Wilson does here. No one likes ... work so hard.. You'll make yourself ill.. have had to. It was in her bag.. You weren't working. but I don't think he'll mind. 1. Naturally. XVII. 9. 3. Barbara: You . then you wouldn't have missed the train. Yesterday the office manager was away. Think of more examples! XIV. Careful. (help) his wife. 4. eat too many sweets or potatoes.. 5. I threw some of them away.... 8. Charles: I'd like to take a holiday. I have a really bad memory for phone numbers. as well.. but her bag wasn't fastened.. Everybody hated it.. 6. Someone ought to repair this broken window. have to. The verbs are must. . You . 10.. finish these plans by the end of the month. so they've lost everything. and I'm afraid the window had been left open.. 5. have a holiday. 4. get your hair cut. And I've been looking through your letters. ask Mr Peters first. I was taking a nap when you came in. giving more than one answer where possible... The office manager came back in the middle of it. The forms are positive. but I simply .. There was a fire at Henry's house yesterday... Use should(n't). 1.. Can't we have a long weekend in Paris? Charles: All right.. I've read them. 2. 8. 4. People should save pandas from extinction. (work) harder. must (n't) haven't got to. 6. You .. XVI. 5.. They . Change the following sentences to the passive. Jenny was caught travelling on a train without a ticket... I haven't even started it. I was reading them when you came in. (meet) Mary at 5 o'clock.. You were dancing. you . 5. shouldn't have been doing. You could kill yourself. (visit) his mother-in-law on Saturday so he missed the match. two secretaries and the office boy used his office to have a party. (buy) a house last year when the prices were lower. ought (not) to. and gerund. 3. The doctor said I .. Graham didn't play squash because he .. 7. 6. You didn't stop when he came in. pay my employees. But today's the day I . I've been using your phone. James .. I'd left it lying on the passenger seat while I got out to do some shopping. 1. You asked him if he wanted to dance. Bill ... We . Barbara: Good.. so you. I'm overweight. A: Why have you got so much money on you? You . Charles: I'll .. People must obey all traffic laws. should. but I feel too tired. XV.. get up early. and she left it unattended for a few minutes while she bought a newspaper. he was furious. 6.. (take) a taxi. 3.. Transfer You work in an office. Unfortunately the flat wasn't insured.. etc. When I was at school we . come with me if you don't want to.. Describe all the things you should have done. But if we are going. do one day's work in the whole of her life.. Someone had better take this garbage to the dump soon. Someone should have supplied the hotel guests with clean towels.. never . 3. XIII.. negative. remember to buy her a present and a card... finish them by next week. 7. (sell) their car last month in order to pay their debts. It's my mother's birthday next week. wear a uniform. But I . My wife suddenly became ill in the middle of the night and I . Robert: Really? You should've finished it! Linda: I've been working on something else.. I really do think you . had to. You . book the seats today. Complete these sentences using had to or ought to have.. She . (know) better... and he set fire to the furniture... 4. I left the office early because I.. 8. He opened all the windows but he .... but you . They're too dangerous.... 2. Barbara: Yes. Put an appropriate verb of obligation in its correct form into each gap. Linda: I haven't finished the report yet. You . I used it yesterday. 2. —*• Pandas should be saved from extinction.3. Robert: Really? You shouldn't have been working on something else! 1. do some work tonight. call the doctor. 13. I like Saturdays because I . Their son Max was playing with matches. or have to. stay longer than next Tuesday or I'll never finish my work on time. play with matches. I think you . I. You stay here if you like. 12. 5. She has a private income.. 4. B: I know. I don't mind going on my own... keep it in the bank. Annie lost her purse yesterday. look them up in the book every time.

. Study and practise. и он должен знать такие вещи. 21. 1. You needn't worry. and the words in brackets.. It's our big chance. Here are five situations where you will be able to use the modals you have been practising. 16. Почему вы не пришли вчера? Вы должны были позвонить мне. You don't know if I'm working or not. Мне не следовало это говорить. You think your friend works too hard. 24. Нам бы лучше не говорить об этом Энн.) (You/relax/more. Она рассердится. Mother: Kathryn. 15. что если это долг. XVIII. Тебе не следовало жениться на мне.. boys. что мне не следовало поступать подобным образом. 26. 29. Kathryn: I think you should leave me alone. Someone has to finish this work today. We shouldn't make so much noise. Coach: No. 36. если вы были заняты. 33. 14. Advise your friend to see it before it's too late. 2. вам следует проявлять больше уважения к старшим. You must train harder than ever. XX. Она уже пришла. must/mustn't/ought to/needn't/'d better 1. Необходимо сообщить ей эту новость как можно скорее. Translate from Russian into English. or ought(n't) to have . XXI. 18. вы были правы.) (She/stay/in bed. 7. Тебе следует самому зарабатывать на жизнь.) I should clean it more often. 34. should(n't) have . We've got the big competition in front of us now.. Он сказал. как им сказали. 23. You ought to turn it . Trainer: OK. Не следует разрешать ставить здесь на стоянку автомобили: улица слишком узкая. (She/not go/to work yesterday. 25. ought(n't) to . Похоже. 27. Ему следовало развестись с вами. Дэвид. 2. 31. we oughtn't to overdo it. Jenny: Nick. 2. 8. 28. то его следует исполнить./I ought to clean it more often. You tell him/her: (You/not work/so hard. We'll become stale and tired. Она должна заплатить за это.) 4. I think you should stay at home and do some work.. да. His boss said to him: (You/buy/an alarm clock!) 3. We should teach children to respect their elders. Tell him it isn't necessary for him to bring any tennis balls as the club supply them. 10. Моррис сказал. — Не нужно было печатать его дважды. Example: My car is always dirty. 3. Мне нужна была копия этого письма. Нельзя вставать так рано. Это его вина. что же.. Оно тебе идет. Tell your Venezuelan friend that she needs a visa to get into France. 17. Your friend overslept this morning and was late for work. 22. What's the problem now? Mother: You know you don't have a job and you're getting money from Social Security. 7. You are going to play tennis with a friend at the tennis club. Someone is supposed to tell Fred about the meeting. чтобы сообщить мне об этом.) XIX.6.. Она бросила меня. как вы поедете в Лондон. 9. когда он мог это сделать. 9. что я не должен открывать дверь. I want to talk to you about something. Use each modal only once. Я подумал.) (He/look/first. There's a fantastic film on at the Odeon.) 2. 1. 6. 3. поэтому я напечатала его два раза. Следует ли ей заняться спортом всерьез? — Думаю. Это было большой ошибкой. Я думаю. не так ли? 35. We ought to be quiet.. 10. Нельзя зажигать спичку. Have you got a minute? Kathryn: OK.. Player: We're going to do that. 1. 5. Не надо звонить ей. Тебе следовало выбрать более подходящее время. Advise him to telephone the bank. 3. Я прошу прощения. 13. It's not your business. Ты выглядишь усталой. 20. В комнате много газа. Она сказала. 32. Тебе должно быть стыдно за такие злые слова. Ну. Тебе бы лучше туда одной не ходить. Они должны действовать так. But I think we ought to practise more often together this week. Он юрист. Тебе следует поехать за город на выходные. Mother: Kathryn! You shouldn't talk to me like that! I'm your mother. Когда он возвращается? — Откуда мне знать? 11. 4. You said you wanted to prepare for your exams. Он сказал. 30. Nick: Did you say something? Jenny: The music is too loud. Ты всех разбудишь. Не надо портить глаза. Зажги свет. Вам не следовало упоминать об этом в его присутствии. Давно нужно было сообщить ей эту новость. 37. Mum has a headache. Тебе следует купить это платье. 12. Тебе бы лучше остаться дома. 4. Мне не так надо было сделать это. You shouldn't put bananas in the freezer. Tell your friend not to drive her car till it's insured. Вы должны носить форму на дежурстве. Мне следовало пригласить его тоже. Someone ought to have reported this accident to the police. Kate didn't feel well yesterday. (I/clean/ it more often. He's sure it's incorrect. 5. будет дождь. Вам следовало бы поговорить с директором еще раз перед тем. We shouldn't risk that. Вы могли воспользоваться копиркой. Your friend has just received his bank statement. 8. Вам бы лучше пойти и поговорить с ним сейчас же. 19. Mr Woods walked straight out into the road without looking. (He/not walk/into the road without looking. He was nearly killed by a bus. пока он еще не ушел. что мы должны встретить его на вокзале.. что тебе следовало бы знать об этом. but she went to work and now she feels really terrible. Make sentences using should(n't) .

Yon Mi: Well. Susan: Good idea! A. 6. She likes to listen to music. Susan likes to drive fast. It's too small and impractical. I'm tired. 1. I'm exhausted. I can't find anything. 2. A. it's your choice. I've got spots. Oh. and it isn't too expensive. 5. Nick. I can't . Nick! Shut up! And turn the music down! Nick: Yes. sive car. She has to drive her aunt and h. Make up your mind. She thinks big cars are safer b. Jenny: No. My room is so untidy. 4. I've already been to town. 8. And I really can't afford it. 7. That's good advice. I'm confused. 9. 1. summer. Susan: Hmm. She shouldn't get a small car. But this is an important decision. We can sit and talk about it and come back later. g. I haven't got many friends. Lucy. 6. You ought to go to bed earlier. Gina: Susan. Gina: What about that green car? It's a lot bigger. too. My old bicycle needs repairing again. c. Susan: Maybe you're right. 2. She should get a car with air conditioning. Some of your friends have problems. I'm too fat. 4. Oh. Give advice with ought to. Your music. 3. I think I'll buy the green one. Turn down your music! Nick: hear you. I never have enough money. 10. She should buy an economical than small cars. B. but you shouldn't decide too quickly. Nick: I can't hear you! Jenny: Don't shout. I don't know what to do. Gas is expensive. but you're right. car. She shouldn't buy an expensive foreign car. The music's too loud. 3. Susan: I know. You should think about the future and buy a family car. She should get a sports car. She shouldn't get a two-door car. My eyes are sometimes red and sore. Let's go and get a cup of coffee.down. Maybe I'll look at that one. d. Lucy: Wait a minute! You won't be single forever. The red sports car is nice. a. Susan: Oh. She isn't a very good driver. you/wear a seat belt when people/cross the street when the you drive light is red . I've had a quarrel with my parents. I don't know. My school marks are bad. She should get a car with a good radio. Dallas is very hot in the e. please. 7. My hair looks terrible. What should or shouldn't Susan do? Match each sentence on the left with the best response. 4. 5. you know. uncle to work. She should practise a lot. The red one is nice. too. Ask and answer questions as in the examples. She can't afford an expenf . Use these or your own ideas: go to bed earlier talk to them join a club work harder see a doctor wear glasses get a job save money for a new one go on a diet get it cut tidy it I'm always tired. which one should I buy? Yon Mi: Susan. you're young! Why don't you buy a sports car? Sports cars are fun. 8.

. you/stand under a tree gers when you drive during a storm 4. and the Louvre. make hotel reservations. Give more pieces of advice. the Eiffel Tower. you ought to make them as soon as possible. and I don't know anything about the city. they shouldn't. people/drive slowly when A: B: 5. You must get a passport. Ellen: You shouldn't worry about that. you/look at your passen7. They (should/shouldn't) plan to visit Notre Dame.. It's really beautiful. check the weather.. 1. check on visas. A lot of people speak English in France. What is the travel agent's advice? Choose the appropriate word in parentheses. pack too many clothes... the Eiffel Tower. and the Louvre. get traveller's checks. 2... Simon: But we don't speak French.. e) . then. a) . What advice would you give tourists planning to visit your city or country? What time of the year should they visit? What kinds of clothing do you think they ought to bring? Where should they stay? What places should they visit? What should they see? Is there anything they shouldn't do? What other advice would you give them? 6. b) . 5. carry your wallet in a back pocket.. Ellen: Well. Should people cross the street when the light is red? No. B. if you have time you ought to drive to Versailles for a day. you/cover your mouth when ded street you sneeze 3. especially in the hotels and restaurants.. They (should/shouldn't) make their reservations as soon as possible. i) . f) . 4. but you ought to visit Notre Dame.. you/drive fast on a crow6. Nell: Oh dear! How did you manage to do that? OK. 6. and the weather is perfect this time of the year. Simon: Where should we stay? Do you have any suggestions? Ellen: I'll find an inexpensive hotel for you. children/disagree with traffic signs when they their parents drive 5.. They (should/shouldn't) stay in an inexpensive hotel. You'll love Paris. g) .. it rains 2. A. haven't you? Simon: No. Group work. . h) . Pair work. you really ought to go. Also. Ellen: You and your wife have been to France before. 1. 3. you should. Ellen: I'll give you some brochures. They (should/shouldn't) try to visit Versailles.. get health insurance.. get a passport. You'd better let me have a look... You shouldn't pack too many clothes. we haven't. c) . buy a roundtrip ticket. drivers/pay attention to 8. They (should/shouldn't) worry about speaking French. j) . You/swim after you eat ... d) .. j) .. Give advice for someone who is thinking of taking a vacation abroad.A: Should you wear a seat belt when you drive? B: Yes. a travel agent... Simon: Should we make our reservations now? Ellen: Well. Simon: Do you have any brochures? I don't know anyone in Paris. Chris: Nell! I was digging in the garden and I've just cut my foot with the spade. Simon is talking to Ellen Change. Simon and Lucy (should/shouldn't) go to France. carry lots of cash. take a lot of luggage.

13. I'd better not have any. Gina: I know. be so strict. work parents Her ought to harder. we've got a problem.. Frank: I'd better get a part-time job. I can work at the office during the day and then do something else at night. Sylvia is supposed to do her homework every night but she goes out with her friends instead. I know I shouldn't.. Maggie? Maggie: Well.. I'd better not be late.. I'm on a diet. her parents and her friends should do to improve the situation? Say sentences from the table. I'd better check the newspaper right now. I've got to . trust Sylvia.. A: Victor. They say she ought to do more at school. You can't get ahead without English... Sylvia Her should shouldn't talk to her parents. Possible response: I'd better write my mother a letter. Gina: Frank. I haven't done my homework yet.30. a class. I'm supposed to . be more tolerant. Sylvia's mother says that they are very rude.. Nell: It doesn't look too good.. I must not .. Nick: I think they had better start listening before it's too late. Aunt: Some bread and butter for you.. (Reason: If I don't. but I think I will have one.Chris: Ouch! It really hurts a lot.. you can't stop studying English.) 1. Frank: Do you think you'll get it? Gina: I don't know... 11. Pretend you have something to do (a date. a meeting. Nick: Perhaps her parents ought to trust her more. WHAT DO YOU THINK? a. ask her friends home. I must . would you like one? Maggie: Well.. Although she's almost sixteen. She knows she should work harder for the exams. She says she wants to leave home. I guess I'd better ask Mom and Dad for a loan. I'd better. She might regret it. We don't have enough money to pay the rent this month. It's important. I'm on a diet.. listen to Sylvia. I should . A. What do you think Sylvia. or I have a date at 3. leave friends home. 8.. there will be a bad result: she'll be angry or start worrying about me or feel hurt. encourage Sylvia to leave home. I know I shouldn't... I shouldn't . Gina: And I'd better ask my boss for a raise. Aunt: What about you Maggie.. But maybe I'd better not take another English course for a while. 8.. Why don't they like her friends? Jane: I'm not sure. There could be germs in the wound. A: I'd better go. it's 3. 10. They shouldn't treat her like a child. You'd better have an injection. leave school. I have to . Complete the following and discuss the meaning you wish to express by giving reasons for your statement.. 7. Frank: Gina. 7. 4.. Frank: I know. This is an English-speaking country.. I'd better not have one. Sylvia should/ought to talk to her parents. I am to .. Aunt: Would you like some bread and butter Daisy? Daisy: No thank you. I think you'd better go along to the Out-patients Department at the hospital. 9. 12. 9. In fact. 2.00. she's supposed to be home every night by eight o'clock. Aunt: How about a cake then. but I think I will have some. They don't do any school work. Daisy? Daisy: No thank you. Example. A. Gina and Frank are having lunch. Ask the time and then give yourself some advice.). I'd better . . A. etc. have you got the time? B: Yeah. I'm supposed to ... I ought to . Jane: Sylvia is having trouble with her parents.. but she's angry because her parents don't like her friends. I don't have to . Jane: But her parents just complain and never listen. 3. be rude to her parents. 5. 6. I'd better not . Maggie and Daisy are having tea with Daisy's aunt in the country. Nick: She had better not do that.

Sylvia wants to go away for the weekend with some friends. Sylvia's exams are in two weeks' time. You'd better go to the local police tomorrow morning. Her parents are worried about her. A. Work with a partner. What is Liza's job? 2.b. her friends and Sylvia's parents ought to/should do or shouldn't do? Write five more suggestions. . Liza: Yes. She had better do some work. 4. Which of the following things are you (not) supposed to do? Say your answers. She had better not waste time. so you ought to ring them to check first. That's what I'm really worried about. Liza: Perhaps I could go to the embassy on Saturday? Mrs Ross: They might not be open on a Saturday. Mrs Ross: Well. What else did she lose? 5. You'd better go to the local police station tomorrow morning. it's not the end of the world. Take turns to read them to the class. They don't want her to go. Mrs Ross: Oh.. B. 3. Questions: 1. 5.. Sylvia is supposed to be home by eight o'clock every evening. What ought she to do first? B. Sylvia wants to invite her friends to a party. What happened to her in the Portobello Road? 3. but you mustn't leave it too long.. Where must she go on Monday? Why? 7. You ought to ring them. you needn't go tomorrow. What do you think they should do in the following situations? Say a sentence with had better and a sentence with had better not for each situation. Mrs Ross: What's the matter dear? Liza: Something awful happened. Liza: I'd better go tomorrow. Sylvia's friends want to go to the cinema. I couldn't find a policeman. WHAT ARE YOU SUPPOSED TO DO? a. 6. 1. One Sunday evening she came back from London looking very upset. Liza is Mrs Ross's au pair. I'll do it tomorrow. Interview him/her about what he/ she is supposed to do at home. are you always supposed to ask your parents? PARTNER I am supposed to ask them if I want to stay overnight at a friend's house. dear. Did you report it to the police? Liza: No. tell your parents the truth park your bicycle in the living-room help at home sometimes tell your parents where you are going every time you go out be punctual for meals tell your parents if you will be home later than usual eat everything that's on your plate sit at table in silence during meals stay out all night without permission take all your friends home to meet your parents stay in bed until lunchtime at weekends wear dirty shoes inside the house play loud music late at night go everywhere with your parents b. Where can she get a new one? 6. Sylvia's parents want to watch television. but my passport was in the bag. only a few pounds. What else do you think Sylvia. but Sylvia is playing very loud music in her room. Mrs Ross: No. Liza: Yes? Mrs Ross: Don't be too upset . Mrs Ross: And Liza . We went to the Portobello Road and someone stole my handbag.. YOU If you want to go out. Look at these ideas: You must tell your embassy. I am not supposed to park my bicycle in the living-room. I am supposed to tell my parents the truth. Sylvia has decided to try to explain to her parents why she isn't happy at home. 2. Sylvia's friend Anne wants Sylvia to go on holiday with her and her family. Mrs Ross: You must tell your embassy about it and I think they'll issue you with a new one. 10. When might she go to the embassy? 8. Sylvia's parents should try to get to know her friends better. you must report that it's been stolen and give the police a description of your handbag. c. Did she lose much money? 4. did you lose a lot of money? Liza: No.

I didn't post that letter to the bank. Oh. Bother. A visitor to the zoo pay at the entrance/feed the monkeys 7.. complain/manager 4. I sent the money off for those theatre tickets two weeks ago. Look at this pattern: tomorrow/you can go on Saturday You needn't go tomorrow. tell Jack/deal with it 8. The milkman forgot to deliver any milk today. Idea for discussion . door/we'll be back in a few moments 4. umbrella/isn't going to rain 6.. What other things needn't your friend do? 1. you can go on Saturday. Give your friend some advice in the following situations. A bus driver drive too fast/drive very carefully 8. A referee know the rules of the game/be afraid of making unpopular decisions 10. and the performance is on Friday. A doctor study for a long time/practise without being qualified 3. F. money now/ you can pay me later 7.. stamps/ I found some E. reserve seats/ it's not a very popular play 10. A passenger on British Rail have a ticket/travel without a ticket 6. 5. your key/I've got mine 3. dear. 8. 1. 1. see/dentist/tomorrow 2. 4.. but by changing them we alter the meaning of the sentence. Look at this pattern: A professional footballer train very hard/smoke A professional footballer must train very hard. You are speaking to a friend. 6. Oh. telephone/hotel 10. send her/telegram 9. I forgot to send my sister a birthday card and it's her birthday tomorrow. Make up three sentences for each situation below. 7. a hospital nurse be kind and understanding/too upset at the sight of blood 5.. 2. any coffee/we have plenty 2. The driver of a car have a licence/drive without a licence 2. A shop assistant be rude to the customers/be familiar with the goods she's selling 9. 3.. A professional footballer mustn't smoke. I forgot to take that book to the library. Use you'd better .1 only bought these shoes last week and this heel has come off already. speak/doctor/about it 3. I still haven't heard anything. coffee for me/I've just had my tea 8. lock . get . wait . though it is usually an order. have/a few days off C.Note that all three of these are interchangeable. A teacher of English for foreigners speak too fast/ speak clearly 4.. 1. It's some time since this suit was cleaned. YOU MUST TELL YOUR EMBASSY ABOUT IT is an urgent recommendation in this text. take it back/shop 5. This tooth hurts when I drink anything cold. Say what these people must or mustn't do. ask/day off 7.. landlady/you can leave her a note 5. YOU'D BETTER INFORM YOUR EMBASSY is a piece of advice. A policeman accept bribes/be honest D. write/to him tomorrow 6. YOU OUGHT TO INFORM YOUR EMBASSY is a strong recommendation. any money/the shops will all be closed 9.

During the exam he panicked and started looking at other students' test papers. Ann didn't cancel her plans with Carl. for the circumstances demanded that. Donna lent him nearly all of her savings. she shouldn't have arrived late for the interview. I guess I shouldn't have got married so young. 'Jumbo must weigh a few tons. Last Christmas. 4.. the circus owner. He should have stopped cheating after the first warning. but we shouldn't have invited my wife's boss. Well. take) you to the concert. Though Jimmy agreed to go at once. but as he has a good record. 12. A policeman approached Jimmy and told him he ought to have gone along a side-street as Jumbo was holding up the traffic. and they often steal from foreign visitors. Julie was shocked when he came home that evening and told her the news. Jumbo refused to move. he was so much upset but I really (. she stopped at a cafe where her boyfriend worked. and within three weeks he spent it all on his car.' said a policeman afterwards. You (. which he immediately accepted. What does she realize now? 3. he set off down the main street of the city riding a baby elephant called Jumbo. What should she have told more about? 5. In addition. Supply the correct form of should. Carl waited for three hours at the library. do) so. Larry was fired from his job and had no money to support himself while he looked for another one. had good jobs as professionals in New York City. What advice would you give your young brother or sister.. Donna had been saving her money for three years for a trip abroad. so the two of them decided to go to a movie. but she did. Ann agreed to meet her friend Carl at the library to help him with his chemistry homework. She shouldn't have smoked a lot in the interviewer's office. What would you have done in this situation? B. In your opinion. clothes. The police had a difficult time. And she definitely shouldn't have asked so many questions about vacations and sick days. we should arrest him. I didn't go shopping this morning as I (. what should Gloria do the next time she has a job interview? C. John was offered a high paying job in Chicago. A: Oh. John and his wife.. On the way. see) him dance! You have missed a lot. Do you sometimes wish you had done things differently in your life? Think of three things and talk about them. and expensive restaurants.. He shouldn't have started cheating.. How should she have spoken? 4. She warned him once to stop cheating. The teacher should have ripped Tom's paper and sent him out of the room the first time she saw him cheating. Discuss or write what you think the people in the following situations should have done and should not have done. and she did not want to move away and look for another job. ought to. Questions 1. And she probably should have worn more conservative clothes. decided to take some presents to a children's hospital. As a result. and she realizes now that she should have done a few things differently. told him to leave the room. What should she have worn? 6. I probably should have gone to a different university. We couldn't get him to leave! A: Really? How late did he stay? В: Until two o'clock in the morning! And we both had to work the next day.In big cities there are thieves. more clothes.. He didn't think the teacher saw him. the teacher took Tom's paper. Of course. I (. He shouldn't have panicked during the test. and entertainment. In addition. He should have known that the police would never allow this sort of thing. do) the housework. She didn't get the job. He should have known the teacher would see him cheating. Gloria will certainly do a few things differently the next time she has a job interview! A. Her brother Larry had a good job but spent all of his money on expensive cars. who was going abroad for the first time? Are there special places where a visitor must be careful? Is it more dangerous at night? How much cash should one carry? What is the advantage of having traveller's cheques? 11. She should have spoken more confidently. 2.' A. Suddenly. Jimmy Gates. 2. 13. You (. Gloria didn't do as well as she should have at a job interview today. I would have asked him to leave earlier. She should have told more about her previous experience. A: That's good.. and failed him on the exam. Her boyfriend told her he could get off work early that night. ask) for permission before you left the table. Julie. Tom didn't study for the test. 1.. B: Yeah. 4.. we shall let him off this time. what shouldn't she have done? B. How did Gloria do at a job interview today? 2. 3. not tell) him this news. A: How was your dinner party? B: I think it went pretty well. B: Well. he shouldn't have stayed so late. . 'so it was fortunate that we didn't have to carry him. it's really difficult to say that to your boss! A. but he continued. but they were most amused. Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a 'guard of honour' of six pretty girls.. 1. She liked her job and the people she worked with. Fifteen policemen had to push very hard to get him off the main street. 3. Tom should have studied for the test.. That was really inconsiderate. I (.. or have to in these sentences.

return) to the library by tomorrow.' (= Perhaps he is in the living room. I finished all of my homework this afternoon.' Mrs Collins says. I realize now I (. could Present and future possibility We use may. I had a pupil waiting for an English lesson and I (. 'It is very wicked of you. but not could not. 11... (= Perhaps we will go to the beach.. be) ashamed of yourself. invite) to the party. They might have been painted by Rembrandt.' 'You could have left it at home.' You were stupid to try to climb that tree. but I doubt it. The people interviewing Julie for the job can't understand why she is so late. each with the name of 'Rembrandt' at the bottom. I (..' (= Perhaps you left/ have left it at home.. Jeff? Jeff: No.. the style is right and it has been established through various tests that the paintings are the right age. Perhaps her watch is slow. 14. Someone could have stolen it. Do you think Russia will win the cup? Stephen: They might win the cup. (= Perhaps they are having dinner. 'Don't come over then. 12. might and could to talk about present or future possibility. Pam: Do you think Steve will have it? Jeff: Yes.' 'She might not have seen you... Mrs Collins usually has a driving lesson every afternoon.) We also use could and might (but not may) with have + past participle to say that something was possible in the past but did not happen. I'll see and speak to Maurice. however. He cannot be sure about them yet. 'Where was Sally last night?' 'I think she may have been at the cinema. 2. (= Perhaps he missed/ has missed his train. If she has a driving lesson at all tomorrow it will be from 2 to 3 o'clock.' (=Perhaps it is Sarah..' 'You were lucky. 'You (. Her instructor isn't sure if he can give her one tomorrow. An art expert is examining the paintings now. She might have one tomorrow. cut) my visit short. I know it's time for you to catch your train. It could have been stolen. 'I might be having a driving lesson.. go).. What a pity you (.) We aren't sure what we are going to do tomorrow.. They may be having dinner at the moment.. Lady Crocker casually left her car with the keys still in the door. 3.' (= Perhaps she didn't see you. he may know it. -ing. I don't. Among her scanty belongings two large paintings were discovered. Illustrative Situations 1.) Possibility in the past We can use may/might/could + have + past participle to talk about possibility in the past. You might have killed yourself.' 6.' 4. Ring him. One of Mrs Collins's friends has just rung up and has said she wants to come over at 2. Activities /. it's Wednesday.. (= Perhaps he is not in the living room.) 'I can't find my wallet anywhere..5.) 'Peter is late.. let) your parents know we are here. A: Why isn't Miss Wilson here? B: She may be ill — or she might be too nervous. It was still there when she got back. not study) tonight. He (. Could is normally less sure than may or might. 13. (= Perhaps we will not go to the beach. They may not be home until after 9 o'clock. Simon may not be in the living room. Jill may be at her evening class. Certainly. What other possible explanations do the interviewers think of? Use may/might (not): 1. We might go to the beach. not say) anything. It may not be her fault.) Note the form: may /might /could + be + . Jim: Do you? I wonder if Charlie Watts will play for England. might.) Might is normally a little less sure than may.. He is her freind. Jim: I wonder what's going to happen. That day. Stephen and Jim are talking about football and the different matches. 10. Oh..) 'Where's Simon?' 'He could be in the living room. 2. Pam (Rings the number.) 'She walked straight past me without saying hello. 8. +++ may ++ might + could We use the negatives may not and might not (contraction: mightn't) with this meaning. however. It's World Cup time. 9. After she had gone I found myself wondering whether I . not behave) like that..' 'He might have missed his train. §9. These books (. Jeff: And Steve said he might have to work late. 'I forgot to lock my car last night.): No reply. I think I (. do anything for her. 7. He (.. 3..' (= I think perhaps she was at the cinema.' she said. 'There's someone at the door. Perhaps she doesn't know the way.. sorry.30. . Perhaps her train is late. Two weeks ago an old woman was found dead in her attic in Amsterdam. Possibility or uncertainty: may. 5.) We might not go to the beach. Stephen: He might play for England but I doubt it.' 'It may be Sarah. Pam: Do you know the Bartons' new address.

Can you come to the party? 2.25 next Saturday morning 11 o'clock in the morning on a warm day next summer this time next year V. but I doubt it. travel? fly/go by car 2. It depends on the traffic.00 A: When do you think you'll be back home? B: I might be back at 6. How/you/find/money to buy a car? Bank loan.) was right. I may be able to save it. We might go to Greece. Can you carry this case? III. //. When/you/be/back home? 6.4. It could be a coin. S/he . I was thinking of the keys in my pocket. Example: (. When . There's a slight possibility that she doesn't want the job after all..) 3. It may/might/could be in her book bag.. 4. or we might go to Italy.. It could be some keys. you/pass/exam? 2. 7. What's the weather going to be like tomorrow? VI. 3. Listen to the clues. 1. When/your book/be/ready for publication? In six months' time. Peter/get/promotion he wants? 3. The dentist isn't sure if he can save the tooth but he hopes to.. Respond by using 'I don't know' + may/might/could.00.. It may be a small pocket knife.15 tomorrow evening 10. has wheels and a motor ... Make up similar dialogues using the prompts. (.) 2. stay? hotel/rent a house 3. TEACHER: I'm thinking of something made of metal that you can find in my pocket. How long . It might be a paper clip..' What do you say in the same situation if someone asks you: 1.. there/be/nuclear war? 4. Who . 1. we/find/cure for cancer? 2. Perhaps there's a traffic jam. 8. TEACHER: (.. Can you do this work? 3. Example made of metal and you keep it in a pocket. ? July/August 5. Perhaps she's not feeling well today.. Use could. 3.. It's just possible she thinks it's on another day. A: Where are you going for your holidays this year? B: We haven't decided yet. He says: 'Well. Can you repair the damage? 5.. S/he . James/win/tennis championship? A: Do you think James will win the tennis championship? B: Well. How old . What are some of the things you might be doing at these times: 7.30 tomorrow morning 6. 6. Where is s/he? (/ don't know. What could it be? STUDENTS: It could be a pen.) live? (I don't know. It's just possible she has a good reason.. with? friends/alone IV. Can you learn all these words? 4.) isn't in class today. Student A Ask В the questions. Do you know where it is? 6. 1. I can't find my pen. 5. I don't know. 2. What kind of watch is (.? for a week/for a fortnight 4. Maybe she feels the salary is too low. 1.. How long /your trip around the world/take you? A couple of years... may and might.) wearing? 5. then make guesses. What are you going to do tomorrow? 8..)'s grammar book isn't on her desk. He hasn't been playing very well recently. 1. 9.do you think (someone famous) is? 7.. Student В You haven't made up your mind! 1. Where does (. Where is it? Response-. he might. Who/get job of Director? Henry. What do you think I have in my briefcase/pocket/purse? 4..

Note This exercise can be done with might /could instead of may.2... she tore it up. he may be working for Jones. if he does. he is listening at the keyhole... they were wondering to do. something delayed them.. they are working overtime. is made of plastic and can be found in my purse/pocket 3. 3.e. i. 13. I know it rained yesterday and today. 10. 8. their car broke down. 1. has (three) stories/storeys and is made of (brick) 8. 18. Note This exercise can be done with might/could. [> The speakers are wondering what happened to certain things/people. A: Perhaps she took it with her. be suitable for you or it . 6. she sold it. she is telling his fortune. he is waiting for 1. 9. but it may be fine tomorrow. is played with a ball on a large field 7. someone. be the cause of terrible illness. Jamie may ask for a sweet. is green and we can see it out of that window 10. 2. 2. he ate it. Suppose you have saved money for the future. just as in (a). they hid it in the attic. be your last. The students may answer the questions in any order they like. 14. never be certain whether we are right or wrong. The person you marry . she may have taken it away with her. and is in this room 4. You think you have a healthy diet. he threw it away. Decisions! Decisions! But we . B: Yes. 5.. 3. but the food you eat .. 1. but one of them .. Experience is the quality that allows us to go on making the same mistakes with more confidence! VIII. you lost it. Put in suitable forms which express uncertainty or possibility. he is showing her the way.don't learn from experience. they are watching television. she is trying to confuse us. Replace may by might or can. be a perfect match or . took the wrong drug. placing IS/ARE by WAS/ 5. he advised them not to 16. (b) Perhaps . My father says I may go to the party as long as I get home by midnight. he is looking for another job. is white. as appropriate. he 15.. she drank it. Perhaps you travel a lot by plane.. he fell overboard. 7.. 13. 4.. she is doing exercises.. what to do. 14. 6. 4. B: He may have been working for Jones. Perhaps . The trains may not be running. . (a) Perhaps . he is learning karate... (a) A: Perhaps he is working for Jones. 2. but we . but re4. They may come with us. You may leave as soon as you have finished. We make decisions all the time... You . they are wondering what 2.. 11. but I think they're too busy. lose the lot in a foolish moment.. they got lost. they had an accident... is made of leather. has four legs and is found on a farm 9. 6.. IX. 3. 5. they are window-shopping. I know you don't like television but you may enjoy this programme.. he may have one. The work you choose to do .. 9. 7. he was waiting for someone. 10. actually be very bad for you and . I suppose. invest it wisely so that it grows in value or you . 9.. he burnt it. 7. is flat and rectangular 5. The snow is getting deeper. she is expecting a letter WERE from us. is sweet and you can eat it VII. 1. Make up short dialogues. Visitors to Britain may not work in the country without a permit. 12. is brown. 12. he is following us. he stole it. 8.. he was murdered.. be the worst possible choice. 8. 17. All the flights you make are routine. 11. come. hard and in this room 6. not. B: Well. (b) A: Perhaps he was working for Jones. she left it at home.

didn't send it by air. And book my tickets before lunch.. 8. (she/ phone/her boyfriend) 2. Wilson is speaking to his secretary. Wilson: My airline ticket still hasn't arrived. 5. the airline sent it to the wrong person 3. didn't label it clearly. didn't post the packet promptly. Here is some advice that the travel agent gave Mr Wilson before he went to a foreign country. Why did you tell me to turn down the music? (the neighbours/try to sleep) 3. There was a strange sound outside the sitting room window last night. Margaret: Well. it may/might not have been treated as urgent. 2. 10. didn't stamp it sufficiently. 9. I may have typed them all by then. Complete it with may/ might (not) + phrases from the list: get ill stop have to pay a lot ask be a lot of traffic have been washed 1. it has come in this morning's post 5. didn't insure it. and you must make all these-phone calls before I get back. Margaret: Well. There's a possibility that they didn't get our invitation. 2. You'd better leave for the airport early — there______. Mind how you cross the road when you're there — the traffic______even if the lights are red. Take your passport everywhere with you — the police ______to see it. I phoned her but her number was engaged. 17. 3. Don't eat salad in restaurants — it ______. 6. 1. Wilson says: 1. Wilson: Can you type all these letters? I must have them before 6. (someone/try to break in) 4. the airline has forgotten to post it 4. not Tuesday. 5. he is taking drugs.) 1. Finish all this work by this evening. 3. 4. You weren't in when I called yesterday. A: Perhaps they didn't treat this order as urgent. It's possible their car has broken down. (I/sit in the garden) XII. Type this interview before noon. B: Yes. I can't be sure. it's possible and maybe. 4. (Remember that the only difference between may and might is that might is weaker. it may have got lost in the post. didn't deal with the order at once. (she/try to phone you) 5. It's possible they've lost our address. I don't know who she was talking to for so long. Margaret Dobson. 2. A: He was found wandering around the house at three in the morning. 4. didn't address it correctly. didn't mark it urgent. Draw possible conclusions. Ann and Bill are worried about a packet they are expecting from a not very efficient firm. . 1. the postman delivered it to the office downstairs 2. Or maybe they thought it said Thursday. What does she say if she thinks that perhaps: 1. she has put it on his desk 6. didn't tie it up properly. Reply as Margaret did. 2. X.. Perhaps they have forgotten where we live. Here. 5. didn't register it. Don't drink water from the taps — you______. Rewrite these sentences using may/might (not) or may/ might (not) have instead of perhaps. 4.15. (he/sleepwalk) B: He might have been sleepwalking. they are burying something. It was sent five days ago. 16. Perhaps they. 7. they are helping the police. 3. 5. 6. Oh. Do you think you can do it before 5? 3. someone has taken it away by mistake XI. You'd better take out medical insurance — you______ otherwise. XIII.

She started on Tuesday. 7. 2. What time does the train leave? 5. And so. They paid me on Tuesday. 12. 3. XV.7. What time did the train leave last night? 6. I phoned him on Tuesday.______________________. 3. 6. He was working today.______________________._________________________________. Make up short dialogues. Where was Jim yesterday? 3. 2. 1. travelled round the world. For some reason. 4. You are sure you could have done all these things. 2. She leaves at nine. Where's Jim today? He may/might/could be at home. etc. 1. XIV. 9. He didn't tell the captain. She has left. Imagine you are an old man or woman. 10. 1. You say. 6. A: The other ship didn't help. 5. became a famous film star. XVIII.____________________. 5. B: In other words. . He may-might could be at home now. either. 7. Now answer as В does here. 7. What has John had for breakfast? 11. 8. 4. He is working today. What a pity. 2. He has been working all day . He will be at home tomorrow. Perhaps they have been held up by a traffic jam in the centre. He sent in his application on Tuesday. The Titanic didn't avoid the iceberg even though it saw it in good time. You are looking back at all the things you never did when you were younger. 8. She will leave tomorrow. Write uncertain answers to these questions. He is at home now______. Where has Ann parked the car? 12. A: I drove very fast but I didn't have an accident. the other ship could have helped but it didn't. B: Couldn't you have got there before? (=Wouldn't this have been possible?) 1. For example: you never learned Chinese. 3. He was at home yesterday.____________________. the other ship didn't stop. XIX._______________________. 5. What has Sue been doing this week? 10. What's Sue doing at the moment? . She will have left by nine. She wrote on Tuesday. 4. I posted it on Tuesday._________________________. all those people were never saved. Where will Jim be tomorrow? 4. He brought it back on Tuesday. He will be working today. 3. I didn't lock my car last night but it wasn't stolen. We left on Tuesday. Some passengers didn't escape even though there was some room in the lifeboats. 2. What was Sue doing yesterday? 8.____________________________. They didn't even get into the boats.____________________________. I shouted at the boss but he did not sack me. The telegraph operator knew there were icebergs around. Think of more things you might say. B: Yes. She left last night. They moved out on Tuesday. XVII. 4._______________________. A: I got there on Tuesday. 9. but I didn't. I could have become rich.___________________________. What did the car cost? XVI. 11. Imagine you are talking to someone who has written a book on the Titanic disaster. I ran out into the street without looking and nothing happened to me. 6. I didn't set the alarm clock and I didn't oversleep the next morning. They built the house with very cheap materials and it didn't fall down. It just sailed away.1 drank five bottles of whisky and I did not die afterwards. Turn these 'certain' statements into 'possible/less than certain' statements. What will Sue be doing tomorrow? 9.6. Or maybe someone telephoned them when they were leaving. 5. 6. but you might have had an accident! That's why you shouldn't have driven so fast! 1. Example You never became rich.

19. У меня вчера было собеседование в одной инженерной фирме. Интересно. We invited him on Tuesday. 22. Возможно. 8. 9. On the other hand.10. (be) for Henry. 29. 2. What a pity we didn't bring our swimming costumes! If______. Возможно. He encouraged me to start. не заметил тебя. 6. Они. но меня не было дома. He applied on Tuesday. может быть. and twenty-five people drowned. Интересно. как добраться сюда. might.. Я подумал. They . 11. give her a ring next week. то и деньги могли оказаться там же. подождем немного. (think) of going there on holiday... Уже пять часов. 17. I wonder why Helen has got all these books on Greece from the library. It's a lovely day. 21. Виктора и Хелен нет дома. Sorry. I always think that he . I've got terrible toothache. (forget). (try) to phone me while I'm phoning her. Ann: Goodness! When is she going back to Australia? Clare: I'm not sure. Complete the following sentences in an appropriate way. в библиотеке. и заходил ко мне вчера. Он ведь очень близорук. If I don't have too much work tonight. 5. Они.1 wonder why Alan didn't buy me anything for my birthday. 1. Clare: I'm sure she'd love to. Translate from Russian into English. It's very annoying. 11. If it's a nice day on Sunday. он может скоро прийти. — Возможно. I gave her the message on Tuesday.. он не поверит вам. 3. 3. придется ждать на границе. 1.. 5... he can't have forgotten! He .. If the dentist decides I've got a bad tooth. 31. 18. 7. 16. Often all three are possible... Он. I______. К вечеру может пойти дождь. I'll give him a ring. Не возвращайте пока книгу в библиотеку. she . 12. возможно. Wait a minute! It's Tuesday today. They reported it to the police on Tuesday. телевизор уже починили. он эмигрирует.. Она боялась. XXI. что он. 24. using either might or could + an infinitive (present or past). we______. Ann: Good. She may try to get a job here in England for a while. Возможно. Oh. 7. and the sea's beautifully warm. If they had had a smoke detector. возможно. I suppose he . I don't like to be reminded of my advancing years. Собрание могло уже закончиться. Он сказал. He booked the tickets on Tuesday. If I earned more money I______. 20. ее не пригласили. 20.______. 16. (lie) on the side of the road with ambulances and police cars all about him. 26. 14. 6.. (plan) a surprise party. 10. они еще не приехали. simple or continuous) in each gap. I think she's going to Ireland next week. 4. I______. я слушала музыку. Я знал. I made the arrangements on Tuesday. Может быть. I can't help worrying when Jack is late back home. The ship had no life boats.. Возможно. but pay attention to the form of the infinitive. Or he . (give) me a present this evening when I see him. I suppose she . (think) that now I'm getting on. 12. Я не слышала. но он мог и ошибиться. 8. isn't it? He works late some Tuesdays. 19. Хорошая новость! Мне. 18. Perhaps she'd like to have lunch with me one day. XXII. в пабе. что если его часы были там. I told them about it on Tuesday. 13. I know it's irrational. as he did last year. и мы сможем посмотреть этот фильм. If______. or could with an appropriate infinitive (present or past. 10. 4. On the other hand. 1. Возможно. and that he . 4. 9. работают над этой же проблемой. возможно. она не получила нашу телеграмму..______. возможно. I started writing poetry after I'd met a famous poet at a cocktail party. не поздоровавшись.. 28. он не сам ведет машину. I'll wait a while. возьмет напрокат автомобиль. Four people died in a fire at their home. My car's being repaired at the moment. Возможно. 3. He . она может вам понадобиться для доклада. я не смогу пойти сегодня на концерт. We re-addressed the letters on Tuesday.. (not leave) the office yet. 25. — Возможно. 15. он и видел ее на концерте. 14. just look at that sky! I think we're going to have a lovely autumn. 17. .. Где Том? — Он. What a disaster that was! I hope he isn't doing it again! 2. Ее не было на вечере. 23. Он. XX. может быть. поэтому и прошел. (have) an accident. Mum. If you were more understanding of other people. что могла забыть выключить утюг перед уходом. I cancelled the tickets on Tuesday. не было вчера в городе. Возможно. Вы думаете самолет прибудет вовремя? — Не знаю. ее обидел твой тон. If I had it. что нам.. Ты должен быть тактичнее. (write) a project on Greece for his geography course. I got back on Tuesday. Every time I phone Jane. Том одолжит мне деньги. Возможно. 13. I answered his letter on Tuesday. Может быть. but she might not be here... Их. он все еще ждет автобус. Write may. Oh no! He . If______. возможно. возможно. 15. как звонит телефон. Возможно. Почему его нет? — Возможно. 27. он не знает... он слышал это от Джона. it's engaged. I suppose she . Возможно. (not get) them out for herself.. Вы думаете. откуда Том узнал о помолвке Энн. почему нет Билла. 2.. Он может опоздать из-за тумана. он не сможет расплатиться? 30. вскоре предложат работу. возможно. they______. He .

Pierre: Where are you and Simon going to go for your vacation? Lucy: We haven't decided yet. Simon isn't interested in going to a beach. and all the students are wondering why. 4. Read the statements about Lucy and Simon. no one knows for sure. there's even a theory that they could have been destroyed by aliens from outer space.. We might go to Paris. Pierre: Has your husband ever been there? Lucy: No. 7. Natasha thinks he might have gotten sick.. Work in groups and make comments about each statement with might (not) or may (not).15. Mr and Mrs Ramirez think that one of George's children may have been sick. A. have you learned why the dinosaurs disappeared? A: Well. Madrid might be warmer. Pierre: Well. They can't go on a long vacation. Madrid is very nice. and all the students in the class are wondering why. etc. some matches get lost get hungry need to light a fire want to do some birdwatching want to take some photos get cold B. A: You know. 6. A: Shall I take a sweater? B: Yes.. A: Yeah. Simon and Lucy aren't going to take many suitcases on their vacation. What's the next article of clothing you are going to buy? 4. Mr and Mrs Sato think he might have gone to the airport to meet his relatives who are arriving from overseas. I have to check with my travel agent. or his car has broken down. you might get cold. My family was from Spain originally so I've travelled in Spain and Portugal. might have. or has had an accident. B: They may prefer travelling light. 1. A: That sounds crazy to me! A. B: Oh. You have arranged to meet a friend in front of a coffee shop at 4 o'clock. and they're a little concerned.. or could have. Lucy and Simon don't want to spend a lot of money for their plane tickets. ______thinks______. They're going for only a week. B: Uh-huh. I was there a couple of years ago. George didn't come to his English class yesterday evening. And Maria thinks he may have decided to study in another school. It is 4. Lynn: Have you ever been to France? Lucy: No. Of course. What are you going to do at the weekend? 2. In pairs. or we might go to Madrid. A: They might not like carrying a lot of things. that's one theory. What's the next film you are going to see? 5. Pierre: Oh. . too. say why you should take certain things on a walking trip. Paris might be a nice place for a vacation. All the students are curious about why George didn't come to English class yesterday evening . 8.A. The temperature might have gotten cooler and killed them off. Our English teacher didn't come to class today. Paris is an interesting city. A: Where do you think you'll go for your next holiday? B: I think I might go to Thailand. What do you think the weather will be like tomorrow? 6. You are there but your friend is not. What are you going to do about your English studies after this course? 3. Lucy isn't interested in going to the country. They want to go to a big city. It may not be very nice. a bar of chocolate 6. It's really interesting. but I've never gone to France. 3. Lynn: What's the weather like this time of the year? Lucy: I don't know. ask and answer questions about possible future events. Tell a story using this model as a guide. we're studying dinosaurs in science class. 2. It's beautiful. A. Henry thinks he might have had a doctor's appointment.. another idea is that they may have run out of food. 5. For example: perhaps he forgot about it. C: They may not need a lot of clothes. And you know. I haven't. In pairs. a camera 3. 1. a sweater 4. Simon's never been there either. a compass 5. Why? Think of possible explanations with may have. Nicole thinks he may have had to work overtime. B: I thought it had something to do with the climate. They're worried about going to Paris. yeah? Hey. a pair of binoculars 2. I have to check that. but it may be expensive. too. It's very romantic! Lucy: Yeah. that's nice. 1.

She must have failed to recogДолжно быть. We use must/can't + have + past participle for deductions about the past. она тебя не nize you. You must have been inatТы. Deduction (certainty): must. and could have in questions about past possibility. The letter must have never Письмо. instead of can't have . (= I am sure that you are feeling tired.) We also use can in questions about possibility.. He will probably feel lonely.) Mrs Woods must know London very well. and can't have . -ing. должно быть. so he can't he going on his own. был невниtentive. He must have had no chance Вероятно. It's not very warm and you're not wearing a coat. Instead of the modal verb the adverbs probably. The letter must have been Должно быть. меня. We use can't in deductions to say that something is impossible. мателен. будет чувствовать Evidently the weather will себя одиноко. погода скоро soon.) Note the form: must/can't + be + ..) We use can't (not mustn't) as the negative of must in this meaning. (= It is impossible that she is asleep.) You can't have been at the swimming pool yesterday! The swimming pool was closed all day yesterday! (= It is impossible that you were at the swimming pool!) We can use couldn't have . can t We use must in deductions to say that we are sure (certain) about something. у него не было возможto warn you.) Annie can't be asleep. получит стипендию.. She has lived there all her life. (= I am sure that you are cold. He is sure to win a изменится. вероятно. (=1 am sure that she knows London very well. (= I am sure that they were expensive. Those shoes you bought are very nice. не reached them. Where can she be? Must have . There are several ways of expressing the negative meaning of probability in such sentences: by negative affixes. Он обязательно scholarship. They must have been expensive.. (= It is impossible that he is far away. Where can they have gone? Sally is very late. Peter was here a moment ago. be sure are used. What could have happened to her? Could the bank have made a mistake? Note]. 'Can this be Mr Darcy?' thought she. so he can't be far away. должно быть. §10.. дошло до них. Вероятно is likely (unlikely) to change (навряд ли). You must have misunderТы.. here. We're all curious why our English teacher didn't come to class today . There's a light on in her bedroom. Он... Note 2: Must is not used to express deductions in negative sentences. and we're a little concerned.) Simon has bought two tickets for the concert. You must be cold. не понял stood me... evidently and the word combinations be likely (unlikely). должно быть. погода change tomorrow. or negative pronouns or lexically.______thinks______... can't Must. Who can that be? Sally is late. You couldn't have been at the swimming pool yesterday! The swimming pool was closed all day yesterday! We use can have .. The weather завтра изменится. You've been working hard all day. узнала.. ности предупредить тебя. The telephone is ringing. (=It is impossible that he is going on his own. письмо оставили . You must be feeling tired.-Must is not used to express deductions with reference to the future. Очевидно. And I think______.

They could be in the park. He drove through a red light at the busiest intersection in town. football? He can't be unaware of it.35. Rita: Oh! You must mean the man with the red bicycle! Yes. он не заметил меня. Jenny: Let me have a look. Her name's Maria. Probably he didn't catch Вероятно. без ответа. he didn't hit anybody. 'She can't be telling the truth. Fortunately. He could have caused a terrible accident. The police have established that he was murdered at 2.. I don't think I know him.left unanswered. They are questioning his secretary now. Man: What on earth could that be? Woman: It's that couple upstairs. Rita: Oh. Only an hour ago the director of a large firm was found dead in his office with a bullet in his head. He's such a joker. I've seen him but I didn't know he was a friend of yours. 5. You must have seen him running round your area in all weathers. John: Really! That must be next door to my friend Malcolm. like football? Can you dislike чтобы он не знал об этом. не может быть. Look at his uniform. вечерний поезд в город. I don't recognize it. she doesn't have a car. It's so untidy that I can hardly read it. Can he have failed to understand me? FOCUS Drawing definite conclusions He must be a policeman. Gary must have been daydreaming while he was driving to work yesterday. it must be for us. никто не видел there. It could have been Sue. me. and she was out driving last night. 'The canteen was closed at 2. John: You must know him! He's a fanatical runner. 4.35. look at this letter. I bet it's from Uncle Joe. Their names aren't on the envelope. They often play there. Gary was pretty lucky. They know the way here. Note3: The Russian negative sentences of the type — неужели он не . 3. Illustrative Situations 1. Неужели он не понял меня? Didn't he understand me? He can't have misunderstood me. Evidently he didn't notice Очевидно. Nick: Well. I wonder who did it. He's sent us tickets for a. Nick: It is from Uncle Joe.' he tells one of the detectives. Activities . It can't be for Mum and Dad. 2.' The handwriting is so strange.. он не успел на the night train to town. • It couldn't have been Jane.. Drawing possible conclusions She might be Spanish. Someone ran into the tree in front of our house. she has a car. Man: An argument? They must be having a battle. чтобы он не . 'I was in the canteen having lunch at that time. she was out driving last night. The office manager is listening. Open with care. can be translated into English in different ways: Неужели вы не видели его? Haven't you seen him? Can you Неужели тебе не нравится have failed to see him? Don't you футбол? Не может быть. They must be having another argument. It must have been Ann. It says 'For the young Bells.' she has just said. and she doesn't know how to drive. and today her car has a big dent ( вмятина) in front.' 6. helicopter flight over London! He always has such great ideas. John: Where do you live? Rita: In Elm Street — at number 6. Nick: Jenny. No one must have seen him Должно быть. Let's open it. They can't be lost. Jenny: And it can't be a bill. его там..

A: The door's open! B: Peter must have left it open. (. Martin notices various changes.. Tom knows all about French politics and there are lots of French newspapers in his room. 2. (. He is sitting in the office now. The steps are unusually clean! (sweep) 7. My torch isn't here! (borrow) 2. A: Paula fell asleep in class this morning. How shiny the furniture looks! (polish) 6. Make sentences with must do or must be doing for these situations. Every night there is a long line of people waiting to get into (a particular movie). 3. 3... 9. b) I almost fell asleep during the film. 13. Why? 7. 1. III. We felt fed up. The clock is going again! (wind) 12. Example: Alice always gets the best grades in the class. You may have to change the person. 7. The girl on the beach has her ear next to the radio.. 5.) is sneezing and coughing. 4.1 worked overtime every evening last week. (.. The teapot is in pieces! (drop) 5.. 1./. I can't believe it. A man's breath always smells of whisky. A: . Look./She must be intelligent. The bath's overflowing! (leave the tap on) V.) is crying. 11. There is a restaurant in town ( в центре города) that is always packed (full). Why? 5.. There was a robbery. Did you hear? Mike's wife's gone off to Australia. 2.) is smiling. The only kinds of bottles in his dustbin are always empty champagne bottles. Don't look at your watch. His/her hands are shaking. (. too late last night. You can see the man now. She was glad to get away from the cold weather. there's a crowd outside the bank. He (be) . Max is asleep but his lips are moving and you can hear a few words. 12. Why? 2.) is wearing a wedding ring. Why? 8. 14. Two Chinese are there and you hear the words 'Mao Tse Tung' several times. 1. A priest is walking down the road. IV.. In his library he has books in six different languages.. The plates are all clean! (wash up) 3. 5. B: Whew! That's a big audience. 1.. You can hear a typewriter upstairs. 10. He was given a pay rise. And there's no whisky left! (drink) 10.. 2.. Cigarette smoke is hanging over your young son's head. He's gone out. Why? Response She must study hard. 6. Susan failed her exam. but now he/ she wants another. who shares the house with them. nervous. as in example a). There are no biscuits left! (eat) 9.) has already had two glasses of water. The car is in a terrible state! (drive into a wall) 11.. It made me feel very tired. The computer at the office broke down yesterday. Martin and Simon have just come back to their house after a weekend. Simon thinks these must be the result of actions by Peter. make your'best guess' by using must.. She misread a question. using 'must've'. What time is it? 11. What are all these books doing here? (leave) 4.. Why? 6. My wife and I had a meal in the best restaurant in town. It cost a lot. The beautiful woman in the airport lounge is holding a Pan Am ticket to Los Angeles. Why? 4. His hands are behind his back. b) It must've been very boring. 7. Why? 9... I've phoned him twice but there's no reply.) is yawning. (. Why? 3. Complete the dialogues. You go to bed rather late every evening. It is midnight and he is just turning that light off! 10. You hear a strange language behind you. There is a small book in his hands and his lips are moving. 15. Use an appropriate form of must with the verbs in parentheses. Rewrite the second sentence in each pair below. B: She (stay up) . (. 4. Answers: a) You must've felt fed up. I wonder why. You mentioned the President's name. but when you do there is always a light on in the man's house across the street. A: George had to give a speech in front of 500 people. There are some sandwiches on the kitchen table! (make) 8. From the given information.. Peter bought a new car last week. It was very boring. You know a writer lives there. (. 1. Everything went wrong. The man in the bus is wearing blue overalls with the word 'Ford' on them. 6. 8. You have just come into a room. 8. The man you were talking to called him by his first name.) is going to get married in five minutes. Examples: a) It rained during the whole holiday.

11.. богат. Remembering that must in the meaning of probability is not used with reference to the future or in the negative form. He seems to be a very quiet child. but nobody could tell. I see some changes in the design. but they must have had no chance to warn me about their departure. Эта статья.. I wonder why. VIII. проголодался. 12. 5.) 1. должно быть. Он проснулся только к ленчу.. it doesn't start until eight o'clock. оставил вам записку. Должно быть. Он. or something like that. должно быть. 11. принял снотворное вчера ночью. 6. Such a possibility must have never occurred to him. He must have failed to see his mistake. find a suitable way of translating the following sentences into English. Он. 8. вероятно. They must have missed the train. много занимаешься сейчас. вероятно. 14. A: It wasn't at all. ждет меня где-то здесь. У него дом в Лондоне и еще один дом в Париже. 5. должно быть. around eight o'clock. — Почему обязательно Том? И другие люди пользуются той квартирой. мы ждали под разными часами. The news must have never reached him. и когда я уже думал. должно быть. He must have done something about it. 10. VII. A: My favourite magazine doesn't come in the mail any more. 6. но я не слышал его. забыл его выключить. Интересно. 15. A: Yes. I've looked everywhere. 14. You (misunderstand) . 9. . Я. They had left too late. They must have misunderstood our intentions. но я не видел тебя! Очевидно. но знал. 15. Она училась в школе вместе с моей сестрой. 21. 3. 5.... вероятно. живет где-то рядом. She must have bolted the door forgetting that I was to come later. Я наделал много шуму. Ты. шутишь! 9. 4. Какой прекрасный телевизор! Должно быть. он. 11. She must be very patient with children. Она все знала о наших планах. Mr Stone. 19. Have you looked there? A: Yes. we came at seven. He must have been very experienced in sailing navigation. Everybody must have noticed that he was not used to speaking in public. 10. for he nodded his head. 8. because the names of the stations they were passing seemed unfamiliar. B: It did. They must have caught the train. She must have been quite conscious of having made a mistake. 3. The dog must have recognized his master. The telegram must have certainly come in time. 15. Она. The student must have given the right answer. 12. and I have deserved a good rest. Кроме него там никого не было. I. He must have written to them of his arrival in due time. 4. (See Exercise VII.. Я давно не вижу Джима. 8. Должно быть.. He thought that he must have taken the wrong train. горел свет. 16. это Том. He must have given you no trouble at all. слышал меня. Он. B: You (work) . 18. он дорого стоил. They must have been unwilling to leave so early. подслушала наш разговор. He must have refused the offer. наверное. Я. 9. Я подождал с полчаса. 23. The man must have understood me. Я слышал . 10. Когда я проснулся сегодня утром. They treated our offer with suspicion.. наверное. Телефон звонил. Ты. wrong with your hearing.. вероятно. 2. Я не видел Джима. B: That (be) . 7. A: I have passed the exams successfully. for he didn't stop to correct it. dull. So it (be) . 5. translate them into Russian.. когда вернулся домой. Ты. кто взял деньги. Nobody must have noticed him leave. I don't hear a thing. A: Mr Rock? Oh. 1. 13. 10.. 16. 7. 7. 7. I (forget) . спал.. должно быть. He must have failed to prove his point. была написана пять лет назад. на столе что-то лежит. Я ждал под часами! — Я тоже. 6. He must be quite unaware of his clumsiness. A: Listen. He never says a word about it.. A: You don't? Then something (be) . вероятно. 11. Он. A: I grew up in a small town. The teacher was pleased. Change the following sentences making them opposite in meaning. A: What time is it? B: Well. A: Where's Dorothy? I've been looking all over for her. VI.He was.. She did not spill a drop of milk. скорее всего. he is in good form. что он. 22. Письмо. устал после дороги. 3. Сверху доносится сильный шум.. 8. They must have given us the correct information about the road. . He must have a good chance of winning. что что-то. I can see all the landmarks they have spoken of. 2. He must have left the door unlocked on purpose. Study how negation is expressed in the following sentences. A: Who is your teacher? B: I think his name is Mr Rock. What a pity I could not say good-bye to them. 3. IX. 13.. она приехала на такси. 20. hard. B: Did your subscription run out? A: That's probably the problem. A: Ouch! That (hurt) . по всей вероятности. 13. 4. Do you hear a noise downstairs? B: No. — Вы _ должны были слышать! Весь город слышал это. 14. you (mean) . It did not bark as we approached the house. доставили утром. She must have been very careful. 12. уехал. 4. 2. A: You have a black eye! What happened? B: I walked into a door. Я все время встречаю его в автобусе. Ты. 17. A: No.. Ты ничего не ел с самого утра. to renew it. He must have kept his promise. Посмотрите. and I'm sure we've been here for at least an hour. 6. должно быть. She (leave). He must have left the letter unanswered... что у тебя экзамены на следующей неделе. ей сейчас около двадцати пяти лет. вероятно. Джон женился! — Ты. A: Why are you here so early? B: Sam told me that the party started at seven o'clock. наверное. Какой взрыв? Я ничего не слышал. 9. You can't imagine the fun we had. случилось с Китти. Translate from Russian into English. B: I saw her about ten minutes ago in the living room. they like her. — Скорее всего. Том.

Complete the statements with must or can't. 16. 5.I expect it was Tom. должно быть.. не встретили его на станции. A: And look at that expensive car! It . Is he ill? 3. (Reason?) XI. наверно. Очевидно. be far away because their car is here. дождя завтра не будет.. не узнал меня и поэтому не подошел ко мне. и я не смог войти в дом. должно быть.. B: They . It might be Mary. give a reason from B. Очевидно. B: It couldn't be Mary. 10. She's only doctor? 7. вероятно. У него. be a new one. He wasn't here yesterday. Example 1. A: Look at that big bird. 7. too. что это легко. be somewhere near — perhaps they're in the house. очевидно. They're speaking Italian. очевидно. меня пошлют в командировку. A B 1. они не попали на поезд. B: Tom couldn't have broken it. Вероятно. 5. Очевидно. 2. 19. Он вряд ли закончит работу к пятнице. сегодня будет дождь. Your uncle has something that looks like a cigarette in his mouth. и официант принес ему совсем другое. Answer the questions in A using1 must or can't. студенты не знали.. Он удивился. have a child. он не будет ждать ее приезда. They . 1. и не пытались это сделать. they . не будет в Минске в это время. They can't be Greek. не хотел обидеть вас. I think it belongs to Alex. I expect it was Tom. paid the milkman 3. Он. 10. 15. He is the head of the Anti-Tobacco League. нет никого сейчас. 1. директор не примет ее завтра. Are they asleep? 5. 4. You know she has never played before. Он. Is he a Their bedroom lights are off. A: This is Mr and Mrs Arnold's house. неправильно произнес название этого кушанья. Yesterday someone finished the wine/broke a wineglass/ borrowed Mary's radio etc. 'Bill's playing tennis. 6.. у него не было возможности поговорить с ней раньше. когда узнал об этом. очевидно. Должно быть. Make sentences with can't be doing. 3. Их. наверное. так и не догадался. Очевидно.' someone says. буду занят утром. что расписание изменилось. Are they Greek? It's very cold in here. (Reason?) 3. B: That can't be right.. почему мы смеялись. 6. пока просто не нашлось времени для вас. 8.. Очевидно. / wonder who .. 6. be very old. По-видимому. 5. 13. XIV. be poor.. давно там не были. вероятно. 12. 9. по всей вероятности. Он. вы были несправедливы к нему. be Mr Arnold's.' You saw him in the office a second ago. она не придет. должно быть. Вряд ли наша команда выиграет матч. 18. Не надо на него сердиться. A: Someone told me that Jane quit school. Is it an eagle? B: It couldn't be an eagle. Меня. 1... Он. (Reason?) 5. 3. driving test. Give possible reasons for Speaker B's conclusions.A. Вероятно. должно быть. так как вышли из дому слишком поздно. 3. Is Jane married? fifteen. A: I wonder who broke the glass. Навряд ли я увижусь с Мэри. You know Bill has a broken leg. XIII. She's just passed her on? 4. 11.. Они должны были прийти сегодня. Look. 1. 11. Он. It.. B: It couldn't belong to him. 13. Она обязательно поможет тебе. A: Someone left this wool hat here. Ты. 14. Is the heating He's too young.) 2. Дома. Б. наверно. 9. По всей вероятности./Mary went to a movie tonight. They're speaking Italian. 1. 2. не сумел уговорить ее поехать с нами. Вы. 4. наверно. наверное. (Reason?) 4. Mary thinks it was Tom who did these things. It's a very big house — they ... Someone says. он ничего не слышал об этом раньше. 17. B: And there's another bike there. 4. она не осознает свою ошибку. 14. Он наверняка сдаст экзамен. 2. Очевидно. It . there's a child's bike. 7. Могу я поговорить с вами завтра утром? — Я.. ничего об этом не сказали.. Is she happy? 6. X. You hear piano music and see Jane at the piano. Они. A: Someone is knocking at the door. 8. положил ключ не на то место. иначе вы бы не говорили. B: You're kidding! That can't be true. попытается достать билеты на игру за кубок. Их никто не предупредил. You understand Russian but you do not understand the two foreigners at the next table. brought the flowers . неправильно информировали. He's got a high temperature. The six-month-old child has a book open in front of it. Ей. 'Richard's sitting in the park. spoke to her 2. Иностранец. be Mrs Arnold's because it's a man's bike. Вероятно. 2. so the child . A: Someone told me that Fred is in Norway. B: Yes. but you know that Tom was out all day. Вы. 12.. XII. A: It's a small one. He couldn't be in Norway. Вряд ли она возьмет ребенка с собой. наверное. (Reason? Mary is in Moscow.

It's after 8 o'clock. so I'm sure he has decided not to come. She suddenly forgot what she was saying. (you/ doze) 7. I gave him the address and drew a map. Не может быть. Translate from Russian into English. I . tuned my guitar 6. чтобы это была правда. 12. I . Не мог он заблудиться. He didn't phone. I couldn't see the little boy anywhere (he/hide) 2. 17. чтобы она вам об этом рассказала. (she/wear any suntan lotion). Alan . I only filled up the tank this morning. Неужели ей не нравится балет? 14. fixed the television set 5. (he/work hard) XVIII. She speaks five languages. 10. — Could (Can) she like judo? 1. Не может быть. 2. She enjoys football. (cost) you a fortune. Не может быть. (lose) my glasses.. 9. Ты не мог проголодаться. A: Steve's late. opened my letters 10. They are still playing football. Dobson scored two goals. (she/fetch the children) 4. He может быть. She's probably seen the play already. Sally wasn't home when I called. He has achieved brilliant results. (he/hide) B: He must have been hiding. 14. 5. чтобы они уже приехали. XIX.. чтобы они были близкими друзьями. I can't find the tickets. Draw definite conclusions. spilt the wine 9. 9. (win) a lottery. (run out of) petrol. Не мог он этого сказать. 13. B: Yes. 3. Неужели он пользовался машиной в мое отсутствие? 13. 10. He was waiting for you all this time. They aren't in my pocket. чтобы он не сдал экзамен. She didn't answer the door bell even though I rang several times. overheard us 14. 8. (she/cry) 9.. Steve's late. 18.. Они приступили к ней только вчера. 5. I didn't hear the announcement at all. so I'm sure he has decided not to come. (he/drink and drive) 6. I'm so sorry I'm late. 1. чтобы она ошиблась. It's Wednesday today. He was promoted. 1. 20. A: She suddenly forgot what she was saying. 2. answered the phone 12. XVII. чтобы они проиграли матч. He's probably missed the bus. 1. 1. (he/use the right tools) 11. There's another bus. XVI. 11. She got burnt on the first day on the beach. Не может быть. She . 3. The play's probably started by now. Не может быть. (get lost). She is still waiting for you. Неужели он не пригласил вас на свадьбу? 23.. 8. (he/try) 5. A: I couldn't see the little boy anywhere. (be) asleep. He's probably missed the bus. He has won the race.. he must have missed the bus. He came last in the race. moved the piano 8. The flowers are beautiful! They . I'm sure we didn't leave them at home. 3. 2. Неужели они опять поссорились? 11. You . he can't have decided not to come. She has done it.. чтобы он бросил музыку. planted the rose bushes XV. 7. Respond to the following statements. 5. 16. She has enjoyed the performance. Surely Steve hasn't missed two buses.. Неужели они ждали нас все это время? 15. It is true. 7. (she/ concentrate) B: She can't have been concentrating. A: He didn't phone. Complete the sentences using must have or can't have and the verb in brackets. 10.. чтобы она вам об этом не рассказывала. 4. . чтобы они уже сделали эту работу. 7. 4. Мы основательно пообедали два часа назад. Неужели сестры так похожи? 19. She has passed the exam. She has been walking in the park the whole night. 15. Неужели он верит этому? 6. Jane has accepted his proposal. I've probably left them in the car.. B: No. ate the cold meat 13. They were here a minute ago. 22. 6. Неужели это правда? 2. borrowed my umbrella 11. Он здесь был несколько раз. 3. The man couldn't fix the tap in the end. 21. 12. Не может быть. Jane didn't come. (she/concentrate) 3. Не может быть. Example — She likes judo. He is a liar. Не может быть. Cathy's got a new BMW! She . Don't you remember I said we'd be late? (I/listen) 8. Поезд должен прибыть в 7 часов. Jane is in love with Peter. 8. 5. Express doubt about the statements below. 7. 6. Her eyes were red and puffy.. Неужели они проиграли матч? 4. 6.4. 16... Невероятно. He was studying the whole night.. The man was stopped in his car by the police. (wonder) what had happened. made all the mess 7. 16. 4. isn't it? Surely he didn't think we were going tomorrow.

' A. 'Do you know where Mary is?' 'She .' A.. But maybe you'd better ask the driver.. John: I'm coming.' A. Do you know whose jacket this is? John: I think Martin was wearing something like that. must B... might 9.. 24..' A.. be. be. It . be. What's the time? .. чтобы они ждали нас.Не может быть. Кэт запаздывает. Неужели он видел их? 27. Где он мог их видеть? 28. 'Have you heard anything from Ed? Is he still in Africa?' 'He . Кого же они могут ждать? 31. Неужели он не позвонил тебе вчера? Он сказал.' A. might 15... might 3. Many people leaving the theatre seem to have been crying. Whose is it? Tom: I'm not sure.. 25. must B. I . Oh... must B. I think your taxi has arrived. then it . must B.. may 4. could 6. 34. He was telephoning for one earlier.. must/must B. be. and you have to be at least sixteen to get a driver's licence. Everyone's trying to get her autograph.. 'Is Jeff a good student?' 'He . Он не мог не осознавать опасности. Не мог он этого не заметить. might 16. It was great. That's when school is out. I think his view is as good as anybody's. 'George says that we're going to have a very high inflation next year. must B. could 13. She was going either there or to Barbara's after work... Which of the two completions is the speaker most likely to say? Choose the best completion. чтобы она сделала такую глупость. be John's. I think it . Jenny: There's a taxi outside. a) must b) won't c) mustn't John....' A..' A. Could you tell me which bus I should take to get to City Hall?' 'Bus number 63 . чтобы вас послали ко мне. already be on his way home. be after 3.' A. must B.. may 10. I've heard strong opinion on all sides of that issue. a) will b) might c) can Jenny: Is there anyone else still here? Tom: No.K. could 12. 'Do you suppose Carl is sick?' 'He . 'It that a famous person over there in the middle of that crowd?' 'It .' A. or he . 'Look at all the children waiting for the bus. I saw her driving a car. could 2. Tom: That's O.' 'He . Although he seems to study very little. could/could 8. be I suppose. Jenny: Well... 'Isn't Peter Reeves a banker?' 'Yes. Не может быть.. Неужели они ждут нас? 30. 26. very happy to have the matter finally settled. 29. Only John. Nothing else would have kept him from coming to this meeting.' A.' A. but it .' A. 1.. be. 'The speedometer on my car is broken.. 'Isn't Margaret's daughter over sixteen?' 'She . wait a moment. Thanks for the party. 'I heard that Jose has received a scholarship and will be able to attend the university in the fall. might 11. must B. Не может быть. must B. be sad. 'Is that Bob's brother standing with him in the cafeteria line?' 'It ..' A. It has just finished. 'Excuse me.. 'Do you think the grocery store is still open?' 'It .00. be right. must B. must B. Неужели ты сам это написал? 32. must B. I'm tired.. be his. must B. I can't ever remember what their hours are. Детей нет дома. What time is it?' 'It . a) can't b) will c) could (John leaves) Jenny: Goodness.' 'Do you think you're driving over the speed limit?' 'I don't know.... be able to help you with your loan. be.. 33. may 7. might 5.' 'Wonderful! He . Jenny and Tom have had a party.' A.. Why don't you talk to him? He . Что с ней могло случиться? 35. 'Have you seen the new movie playing at the Odeon?' 'No. must B. be. I'm just not sure. be at home..' A. go there. be his. must B. Куда они могли уйти? XX. что собирается сделать это.. He does look a little like him. Я не имею к этому никакого отношения. could 14. I heard he was offered a scholarship for next year.

4. 11. They're shouting. I usually do on a Tuesday. I think.. Peter: What! For four hours! You ... 2. Louise: Oh. he may have been sleeping. I'm sure Harry's at least sixty... first I tried to phone you on Monday evening. he couldn't have been working. 6. 3. using must. Louise: I . Peter: Hi. and the correct form of the verb in brackets. Look at all those lights and cameras.. 2. It's late night shopping on Thursday. I thought Peter was driving a Rolls Royce... Do you think I was dreaming? 8. 1. Perhaps he's talking to Miss Appleby. Louise! I've been trying to get in touch with you all week.. Now I can't hear anything. I'm sure they decided to take the train after all. I think I. It's two men's voices. Charles looked tired this evening. Now I can hear voices.. I'm sorry but that's the time. on Wednesday. I . so I don't think he was working. must have or can't have. The builders . He didn't take his racket. Louise: Really? I suppose I. Rephrase the following sentences. 6.. I don't think she was expecting him. 7. You never know.. or might. There's a siren.. Louise: I ... A: He didn't answer the doorbell. It was here on the table just a few minutes ago. (can't/be) in the shower all evening! I get the feeling you're trying to avoid me. 7. Perhaps Harry owes the other man some money. I'm sure they've gone inside.. Perhaps he was having a bath. 4.1 can't find my keys anywhere. XXII. Complete the sentences using might have. XXIV. Do you think he was sleeping? 2.30. They're talking about money. (have) an accident. (take) the wrong bus. 8. 1. 4.. be asleep. My God! A gun shot! I'm sure Harry has killed him! 14. I'm sure he hasn't retired yet. It was too small. She . 13. Louise: Really? Peter: Yes. They . Respond to the following statements. I'm glad you didn't come to see me yesterday. at about ten o'clock in the evening.. I'm sure he isn't very well off. Role-play the conversation. He said he did the journey in three hours! That's impossible. I'm sure this is the police arriving. (lose) my passport. He didn't answer the doorbell. Complete the dialogue with the correct form (simple or continuous) of the modals in the past. 16. Perhaps Ben has decided to have an early night. There's a chance that one of our employees has double-booked your ticket. 1. 1. (telephone) because I was in all day. 3. I'm sure he does a lot of gardening. 4. so I don't think he was playing squash. His house is in a terrible mess. I'm sure he's working in his garden now.. 2. there's Harry outside. so I don't think he was working. They are making a film! B. 6. It's highly likely you dropped the envelope as you were running for the bus. Peter: Then on Tuesday evening I phoned at about six o'clock. You shouldn't have driven when it was so foggy. it was only one o'clock.. I'm sure the train left early. He still leaves the house every morning. 5. His car was outside. 10. (must/already/leave) for the cinema. Jenny: I forgot to tell you. Mary looked surprised to see Peter. so it wasn't Harry who was shot. (catch) my cold. 6.. 3. (might/already/go to bed). A. Perhaps he spent all his money when he was younger. Peter: Then I tried on Thursday evening around eight o'clock. Jenny: It .. I had an early night. 5. 15. No. Perhaps he's been working too hard. 7. 8. A: It was Sunday. (might/work late). XXIII. 12.. .... a) come b) are c) will be Tom: That's too bad because I . be that late! When I looked at my watch a few moments ago. a) can't b) won't c) mustn't Tom: Well. I . here at eight tomorrow morning. I'm sure it isn't Miss Appleby. I can hear someone digging. That wasn't an elephant. 9. Ah! Now I understand. (might/have) a shower. I'm sure he's read a lot of books about gardening. His garden looks beautiful. He's certainly an expert. 5. You . Perhaps they are having an argument. (must/shop).. surely. Peter: Then last night I tried several times but still no luck! Louise: I think I .Tom: It's two fifteen. Louise. Graham was out last night. 3. Peter: Then I tried again on Wednesday.. No.. B: No. I'm sure John's been held up in a traffic jam. (lose) them. You . It was Sunday. Do you think he was meeting Jack? 5.. I suppose it was about 7. can't. a) can b) '11 c) must XXI. Do you think he was sleeping? B: Yes.

11. The burglar . Respond first with may have/might have/could have.' 2. Where was he? Possible response: I don't know. watching television. I wonder what was stolen.' XXVI. I had to wait almost three hours. The boy was evidently reading something funny. ill) 2. Jack walked into class this morning with a broken arm.) I can hear voices. The boy is probably reading something funny. had a key. Where's my umbrella? (could. forget) 5. Did you know that Charles got top marks in the exam? (must. and the door has been unlocked.... He might have gone to a movie. Do you know who he visited? — What if I say this person (supply a certain distinguishing characteristic)! 5. and knocks on their door.. buy yourself ) 3. 10. (He listens at the letter-box... 'Honolulu is a nice city. Look at my new gold watch! (can't.' . It is impossible that he should have refused your request. He . The teacher's checking Maria's work.. 'I usually go there to study in the evening because it's quiet. not.. Where do you suppose he went? — What if you overhear him say. left the house yet! He . 16. He must have been at the airport to meet his sister's plane. Jack visited a person in this class yesterday..) Now.. cheat) 7.. (can't.. My students are certainly at a lecture now.' 4. found a lot to steal. How did Jack get to school today? — What if you see him pull some car keys out of his pocket? 3..' Now what do you think? Expected response. made a noise. leave it on the train) XXVII. (must. known she would be out. He was smiling all the time. Rather odd. Put in the correct modal verbs of deduction. What happened? — Then you overhear him say.. 14. (must. hiding upstairs! I'd better go and see. oversleep) 4.. 'My sister's plane was late yesterday afternoon. 18. Is it possible that this old man is her brother? 17. put his hand inside. or they . 15. What if you overhear him say. and if I need to use any reference books. 'I wonder how the thief got in. What was that noise? It came from upstairs. Example Jack was absent yesterday afternoon. they're right there.. 12. finish already) 6. He is smiling all the time. 'After this I'm going to watch where I'm going when I'm riding my bicycle. Why is Isabel late for class? (might. He . I'm certain that he has heard the gong. Someone . He may have been at home. Ah! What's this? Broken glass by the kitchen door. I don't think the Smith family is terribly well off... Then use must have after you get more information. He . drop) B: You must have dropped it. He could have decided to go to the zoo because the weather was so nice. used a ladder or he . Is it possible that they have already left? 19. and turned the key.. Respond to the following situations using the word or words in brackets and the perfect infinitive (have + past participle).. It is possible that they left it in the car. Jack took a vacation in a warm sunny place. broken the window.. so the thief . I suppose they . be on holiday.) There's no reply. 1.. I can't find my homework. Maybe they missed the turning.. (He goes back to the Smiths' house. Follow-up. John didn't come to school yesterday. XXV. Jack didn't stay home last night..9. That . I don't believe that he has done the work carelessly. I wonder if the neighbours heard anything? (He goes next door to talk to the neighbours. It was clever of him to come in just after Mrs Smith went shopping. 13. 1. in. A: I can't find my ticket. (must. Work in pairs. Perhaps they are having a party. Where did he go? — What if you overhear him say. A detective is investigating a burglary at the home of Mr and Mrs Smith.

. Emma: Not important! You (joke)! I (look) everywhere if my notes were lost... Emma. Did you hear that? It . I left a message on your answer phone last night. (escape) by this window because it is barred. was the lovely pair of wedge-shaped sandals she had bought the day before. XXX... so she ignored her alarm clock. 5. 6. 7. — You . can't be/can't have been. — You . — has recently been ill. For drawing definite conclusions use must or can't... I'm only five minutes late. Exams aren't important. at the station ten minutes before the departure of the train... 7.. — is going to come to the cinema straight from work. I .. When . They also know that the same film is showing at another cinema in town.. Don' t worry. Aren't you? Sadie: I (play) tennis with Rebecca. Emma: I'll go and have a look... He . The meeting is at 10 o'clock sharp and you . thirsty. 11... (be) asleep. There. must and would. can't be... 3. 10. There are so many nice things for tea. After all. I think you . . The children .. He is back already. The fire alarm went and we . a pilot when he was young. Supply must have been. We . (give) £ 10 . You . Emma: Have you seen Helen? She's got a book of mine. A: I wonder where (Sabina) is. 8. Roleplay Students A and В are waiting to meet an English-speaking friend outside a cinema. (import) from Brazil.... 1. 7.. XXIX. Perhaps she's outside.. 9. may. Use the modal verbs ought to. that is. her shoemaker... sitting at our desks working before the boss got in.. Emma: Hello... we have heaps in the house.05. You . 8. she . 4.. Tracy thought.. Sadie: Well. She picked them up and. An insect. — is going to drive to the cinema and parking is difficult. 6. Don't panic! We .... Put in must be/must have been.. Emma? Emma: Revising.. careful.. Vera . at work at ten. Emma: Good Lord! How awful! Do you want to look at mine? Sadie: No.. from anyone we know. solved the mystery. draw some conclusions about why the friend has not yet arrived and decide what to do.. so I . 3. XXXII. 1.. Did you hear me come in last night? — No.. Sadie: She was in here not long ago.. so he only arrived here five minutes ago. tell her twice. clear.. (see) a rattlesnake.. sure enough.) 4. There . But she woke up with a start when she heard a strange sound coming from her wardrobe! What was it? It. Supply must be.. of the Natural History Museum. can't/couldn't have been. can't and needn't + perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets. XXXI. 9. I bought two bottles of milk.. (be) the cat for she was out all day.. (leave) it on the bus. Say what you might be doing at the moment if today was a different day of the week. Tracy Evans . 5.. XXXIII... 2. Your handwriting . 9. Then she heard the sound again! 'It . There aren't any rattlesnakes in this country. but I've lost them. You . I . They know that their friend: — does not know his/her way round the town very well. 6. (buy) milk.. In pairs.. We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday.. she can't be lost. of course. otherwise no one will be able to read it. A: No. I . Find out what the other members of the class might be doing if it was a Saturday or a Sunday. I'll probably find them before tomorrow. might.. 2. You . It'll be too late for revision tonight.. 12... — You . When I was a boy we . Then I (go). thanks... 3. it . Sadie: I (read) my notes if I had them.. 1. 'These shoes .. She doesn't know her way round the town very well. A.. It. at the bank till 10. I phoned you at nine this morning . for drawing possible conclusions use could or might.XXVIII. She (sit) in the garden. coming from my sandals!' she cried. £ 5 would have been enough. You . John . 10. Aren't you doing any work? You (revise) for the exam. If the weather stays fine.. in front of her... I wonder who broke the wineglass.. have to/had to (be)... at work till ten. at the supermarket this morning. (You helped him but he didn't need help. Tracy said to herself as she opened the wardrobe. out of the building in two minutes. a mouse. I have to get to the library before it closes. one of them was 'talking'! Tracy . Fill the spaces in the following sentences by using must. had to be or didn't have to be. The film is about to start and their friend has not yet arrived.. Sadie. an accident on South Street because the road is closed off. Sadie: What are you doing tonight. out.... 8. It's okay. 2. She knew there were no mice in her room. It doesn't leave till 10. I didn't see her there. He removed the wooden heel and they were both amazed to see a white larva eating the wood. B: She might be lost. — He . Emma and Sadie are students. He . But she might be . tired already! We've only been walking for ten minutes! 4.. They've both got exams tomorrow. (help) him. but she still had enough time to visit Mr Lucas. late.' he explained. Complete their conversation using a modal verb + be + the-ing form of each verb in brackets. someone walking about in our garden.. waiting long.. I had my umbrella when I went out but I haven't got it now.. They haven't had a drink for hours. I saw a rattlesnake near the river yesterday. late for the train. I don't recognize the handwriting on this envelope.. Monica knew exactly what to do. 5. (lay) its eggs in the tree from which the shoes were made.. it . buy any more. a nuisance when you're a guest in someone's house. 10. at the hospital? — Early this morning. (start) very early. expecting us. He knows a lot about flying planes. Mr Pope. didn't have to (be).. No... I .. The children . or mustn't be. late for the train or we'll miss our connection.

I . Она. пошутили над вами. чтобы он был там вчера? 63. I had locked it myself and the key was in my pocket. получил нашу телеграмму. его уже отослали. (lend) him your map. 1. прочел ее очень внимательно. этого могло бы не произойти. чтобы он не сдержал своего обещания. — It. заболела. Jennifer will have to take part in a new play soon. Неужели ты все это время спал? Сейчас уже три часа. должно быть. наверное. 20. 52. I am perfectly well. he . чтобы она это сказала. должно быть. 12. Должно быть. что собирается провести свой отпуск у них. If he had they wouldn't have died. наверное. Вероятно... очевидно. не состоится.. Не может быть. 53. 29. Он. я могла положить его в сумку. 11. Они могли бы сами прийти. Я не могу понять. Я встречался с ней на конференциях. — No. Вероятно. у нее ушло много времени на то. 19. — You . 28. 12. Он. по всей вероятности.. she will be a girl of seventeen. One would have been enough. 22. Она так изменилась. Ты. Last year in another play. 17. (be) open. По-видимому. she is still abroad. чтобы он ушел.1 saw Ann in the library yesterday. чтобы она прочла эту книгу за два дня. был очень сердит на вас.. Он. Им.. 33. (steal). — You . чтобы он был там вчера. В доме тихо. 43. Цифры. гостит у своих друзей. У нее самый красивый сад в деревне. (see) her. чтобы они нас не заметили. 6. I found this book on my desk when I came to class. но он. я не верю этому. чтобы друзья не помогли тебе. должно быть. 49. 59. Он. I've opened another bottle. Неужели он сказал это? Он. только просмотрела ее. Jane took Spot for a walk and he disappeared. 26. 1. Она. Study and practise. чтобы она забыла о нем.. чтобы он ушел без разрешения. ждет нас в институте. им гордится. приедет завтра. He was found unconscious at the foot of the cliff. 45.. как она вышла из зала. должно быть. Вероятно. 14. Не может быть. Где Ник? — Вероятно. 17.. (walk) from here to London in two hours. Do you remember reading about it in the newspapers? — No. Нет. по всей вероятности. She . Она. Она писала. — It . возможно... He . Lucy looks upset.. Я не мог не думать об этом. Эта книга. уже ушел.1 have just watered the roses. 54. — Someone . 50. должно быть. Он. 24. Товары. Вряд ли он будет возражать против нашего предложения... Не может быть. I left my bicycle here and now it's gone. In the play. 16. Мы едем. скорее всего.. I had to get down the mountain in a thick fog.. Он. они поссорились. чтобы я потеряла билет. 13. возможно. Мы были совсем близко. 27. — You . 21. — You ... Незачем вам было ходить туда. 38. XXXV. Я нигде не вижу документы. Возможно ли. очевидно. Где ключ? — Не знаю. Ей. не узнал ее. It isn't possible. Посылку.. He has one of his own. забыл.. должно быть.. 26. Неужели он уже получил мое письмо? 36. 11. не повидав меня! 35. 3. что он. XXXIV. Неужели она ходила на матч? Я думал. Look. Perhaps he swam across. чтобы она его взяла. она не любит футбол. Он не смог получить книгу. — I'm sorry. он унес их с собой. должно быть. We've only just started this one.. 30. 22. Он спит. Он сказал. чтобы они нас заметили. (be) difficult. 16. уже около трех часов. около часа. Ольга могла взять его с собой по ошибке.but got no answer. You . 25. (give) a bad mark. знаю ее. We've sent for a doctor. Не может быть. не были проверены. 56... she had to wear short socks . 28. 62. По-видимому. he can't swim. (take) a long time. не прислали пригласительный билет. должно быть. 23. (borrow) it. (steal) it while she slept.. — Someone . вероятно. ему не сообщили. Он продолжал спорить. 9. He . 4.. Это на него не похоже. когда она уходила.. 18. должно быть. The door was open. что обещал прийти. потому что библиотека была закрыта. так как он. они разговаривают по-немецки. чтобы она вышла за него замуж. вероятно. she often appears on the stage as a young girl. 55. серьезно больна. почему Энн не пришла на собрание. Где письмо? — Вероятно. Неужели он встречал ее раньше? 41... 7. (leave) by one of the students in the earlier class.. возможно. может быть. Должно быть. 57. 48. У нее ничего не было в руках. что я. Мои слова. (water) them. что собрание перенесено. Должно быть. а лагеря все еще не видно. Она. Одно время он ей не нравился.. 21. 31. Она всегда так тактична. 40.. We went to a restaurant and had a very good dinner for £ 3. she must appear in a bright red dress and long black stockings. он не заметил. 30. (water) them. Оно совсем новое. это не было сделано вовремя. — He . Неужели он не получил мое письмо? 37... вернется в мае. 47. 58. очевидно. Не может быть. — You . I've made two copies. 18. чтобы он получил книгу. Несчастный случай произошел. Неужели вы им поверили? Они. 61. не могла она меня обмануть. она. 39. Не может быть. It . Translate from Russian into English. Его мать опять в больнице... Матч. (do) that. 46. он пошел осматривать достопримечательности города. 51.. 15. (send) for him. 25. Не может быть. в школе. She must be at least thirty-five years old. Не может быть.. 64. That carpet was made entirely by hand. 2. — Не может быть. In spite of this. He said he watered the plants every day. он не хочет вмешиваться. ведь библиотека была закрыта. Неужели он не смог доказать свою точку зрения? 65. it's raining now! 19. 34. Дети.. Неужели ты не интересуешься политикой? 42. 44. 60. поэтому она не пришла. должно быть. 29. 8. чтобы добраться сюда. I . Он сказал. 27. — That. 24. пошлют не позже 5 июля. Не может быть. чтобы они сейчас работали в саду. Мы были довольно далеко от них. Идет сильный дождь. This time. 20. 13. вероятно. 10. были упакованы очень небрежно. она. Не может быть. должно быть. так как он помнит все подробности. (be) in the garden.. (make) two. 5. Я его не вижу у нас последнее время. была очень рада встретиться с вами. никогда не надевала это платье. вероятно. возможно. Не может быть. Не может быть. When she woke up her watch had vanished. 14.. не был там вчера. показалась ему скучной. He . (be) abroad at the time. (have) a very good dinner if you only paid £ 3. 15. Не может быть. — Не может быть. вероятно. (do) that.. (fall) 200 metres. из-за его невнимательности. 32. My aunt is an actress. 23. Если бы все меры были приняты. должно быть. но я почти ничего не понимаю. сообщили об этом несколько дней тому назад. вероятно. — You . не убедили его.

Let me have another look. dear. It's disgusting! Somebody should call the police! Sidney. Mr Sykes. They must be having a good time! They never invite us.and a bright. Kate. It's only quarter to five. dear. Ooh! It's Mr Sykes. Kate: Conrad Reeves. can he? I suppose you want me to phone the police? Sybil: No. Kate: I thought so. Sidney: Oh. dear. Sidney: What time is it? Sybil: Four o'clock. or maybe the television. Goodnight. I think that was a plate. nothing at all. The poor fish died. we haven't heard her voice for a while. Sybil: I hope so. Sybil: No. use: They could/may/might be doing this. A. We didn't hear anything. They'll be sorry in the morning. Sybil: Sidney! Sidney! Wake up! 3 Sidney: Eh! What? What's the matter? It can't be eight o'clock already! Sybil: No. Sidney: Oh. They must be having another party. it was a pretty noisy party. Sidney: All right. it's half past one. the actor? It can't be. wake up! Sidney: Eh? I wasn't asleep. It's those people next door again. Mr Sykes: Well. he might be burying the body! Sybil: What! You don't think so. Millie: She was a famous actress when I was still a schoolgirl. They always have rows after parties. Millie? Millie: I think I can. Sidney: Eh? It must be the milkman. Who could it be? You'd better have a look. Kate: Can you recognize that woman. My wife knocked over the goldfish tank while we were clearing up. Kate: That was a long time ago. no. Sybil: I'm not surprised. You're up early this morning. . do you? Sidney: Well. It's nearly three o'clock. I hope we didn't keep you awake. wasn't it? Millie: Not that long ago! I'm not more than twenty-nine myself. Kate: I'm sure she is. Mr Sykes: I haven't been to bed yet. doesn't she! I read she's twenty-nine. it must be terrible to be grown up!' 2. she's probably sleeping. It must be Karen Marsh. What do you think your parents/brothers/sisters/friends are doing this moment? If you think you know what they are doing answer with: They must be doing this. Sidney: Thank goodness for that! Maybe we'll get some sleep. Kate: Doesn't Karen Marsh look old! Millie: She does. but she must be at least forty. orange-coloured dress. the actress. No. dear. He must be her fourth or fifth. I think you're right! Isn't he her third husband? Millie: No. there. What is it now? Sybil: Listen! They must be leaving. Ask him what he's doing first! Sidney: Hello. Sybil: Listen to that! They must be waking up the whole street. or: They're possibly doing this. It's too early. They're probably doing this. what's that? Sybil: He can't be hammering at this time of night. They can't be doing that. yes. If you don't know. Who's that beside her? Millie: That must be Conrad Reeves. What can they be doing at four o'clock in the morning? Sidney: I can't hear any voices. Sybil: Sidney! Listen. Sybil: But what can he be doing at this time of night? Sydney: If he has killed her. They can't be sleeping through that noise. it can't be. Sybil: Oh. If anyone ever asks her how old she is. and he's carrying a spade. I'm just burying them before the children wake up. Sybil: Oh! They must be throwing the pots and pans again. hell! They're having a row now. Sybil. do they? Sybil: Sidney! Sidney: Yes. 'My dear. she always answers. he can't be planting potatoes. And they've got three young children. They're all laughing. Sidney: No. Sybil: Sidney! Wake up! Sidney: Eh! Oh. Listen! Sidney: Oh. We had a party last night. no! You don't think he's killed her. There's someone in the garden next door. Go back to sleep. do you? Sidney: Well.

The owner______know that she has lost the purse outside. Harry: That's why I didn't see the sign. E. officer. He could pay his debts. I've been following your car now for ten minutes. 6. Think of five things. Policeman: Will you show me your driving licence? And I need to check your insurance papers too. Jack is on his way to the sports centre to meet some friends. next time you'd better take my advice! 6. No one is looking for it. She might even refuse to go out with him! He could ask a friend to lend him a few pounds. Jack doesn't know what to do. Why______it belong to a boy? 5. so it______be very old. 1.. 8. Policeman: I was doing eighty when I overtook you. Harry. officer. Ann: Look. B. 4. 2. Driver: I really must protest. You certainly oughtn't to drive any further tonight. It's an expensive leather purse. It must be quite new. Say what you think Jack might or might not do. Perhaps he won't try to find the owner. 7.' 3. Say what might happen. Complete the sentences with must or can't. I was telling him to drive slowly. but he already owes money to all his friends. It isn't scratched. .. Driver: Er . Didn't you see the speed limit? Harry: I'm afraid I didn't. 5. Policeman: I won't charge you this time.' Jack thinks. Perhaps the purse belongs to a girl at the centre.Perhaps someone will be watching Jack. I know I ought to keep them in the car but I always forget. officer. When he arrives at the sports centre. I can assure you that I only drank one glass of whisky — or maybe two..4. 2. Jack thinks. but someone might be watching him. Why does Jack think that the purse______belong to a girl? 4. a) Imagine that you have found these things in the street or on a bus. Ann: He wasn't dreaming. Policeman: OK. I haven't got them with me. He could pay his debts with the money and he could buy Debbie a present. Harry! That policeman's waving to you. Fifty pounds! Who could it belong to? 'A pink purse can't belong to a boy. I think you must have had a little too much to drink. Perhaps he will put the purse back where it was. Ann: Well. I must have been dreaming. It must belong to a girl at the centre. 'The owner______get a lot of pocket money. Perhaps Jack will get a reward for finding the purse. 5. Perhaps Jack knows the girl. Say your answers. He wants you to stop. Rephrase the sentences with may. Perhaps he won't tell anyone about the purse. 6. Ann: I told you to drive slowly. dear. He's feeling miserable because he hasn't got any money. Perhaps he will find the owner. he sees something pink near the entrance. What could Jack do with the money? Write five sentences. D. A. It smells of leather. Policeman: Where do you think you are? On a race track? You must have been driving at seventy miles an hour! Harry: I can't have been. The owner______be very careless to lose so much money. The purse may belong to a girl at the centre. Harry: You always tell me to drive slowly. I could buy some new clothes. He may not be able to buy her a present and she could be very disappointed. C. But you'd better not do it again! Harry: Thank you. Policeman: Let me see your driving-licence and your insurance certificate. 3. You've been driving at far more than the speed limit and in a very erratic manner. It's his girlfriend's birthday next week. Jack might (not) keep the money. There's no one in the street. Make deductions about the things or the owners with must and with can't (where possible). It's a purse and it's full of money. Policeman: I think you forgot to stop drinking too! You'd better get into my car. I'll certainly be more careful. Say what you could do with fifty pounds in your currency. 1. Perhaps the owner is looking for the purse.

7. 5. Because Ann didn't answer the phone. Jake didn't mention Jeff. Not too much damage. Why didn't she hear the phone? The television______ (be) too loud. He should have phoned Ann to explain. Ann got a letter from Jeff. 3. Complete the sentences with must have or can't have + past participle. Mr Fielding: Sorry to hear about the fire. a tin of cat food. He could have lost his watch. Ann and Jake should have done or shouldn't have done to avoid problems? 8. I hope? Mr Williams: No. a mask. but the rest of the house wasn't damaged. but of course it (might/couldn't/must: be) a stone. you can. a balloon on a string. Ann understood. Jeff______(think) that she had already gone out. Jake______(know) that Ann had planned to go to the disco with him. Nick: I agree. We ought to have checked for that sort of thing after the party. so he left immediately. He was standing by the big window. the worse they get. A. he's only just started. B. Nick: He might have forgotten about the disco. Ann ______(tell) her. He could even have had an accident on the way to her house. The window was all right then. He______(be) disappointed. a paintbrush. A visitor might have arrived unexpectedly. He can't have finished yet. Jeff saw Ann at the disco with Jake. The broken glass was inside the room. C. so it (may/must/can't: break) from the outside. it wasn't too bad. Jane: No. but we were so tired we went straight to bed. Can you read it? Pupil: Yes. Use might/may have been or could + past participle.30 this morning. Jane didn't know the story about Ann and Jeff. it isn't etc. William often breaks . an English grammar book. The owner must have a dog. 2. Mr Williams: So he was! Still. Class: Can you use it in the rain? Pupil: No. The pupil answers with Yes. Someone has broken a big window in the classroom. We've had to redecorate the whole of the living-room. so it (must/mustn't/couldn't: break) after 5 o'clock last night or before 8. Ann was angry. After the disco. Suggest possible reasons why Jeff didn't turn up at Ann's house. 1. They______(solve) their problems. She knew that Jeff and Jake didn't like each other. . 1. Jeff felt angry. In the letter Jeff______(explain) what had happened and how he had felt. Next Saturday. But they needn't have been so angry with each other. Mr Fielding: I wonder who the culprit was? It couldn't have been me — I don't smoke.8. flicking his ash all over the place. Jane: Something must have delayed Jeff. Example He (can't/must/may: finish) yet.a dog's lead It must belong to someone who has a dog. a silk tie. Nick: Jeff wanted to take Ann to the disco on Saturday. but a boy (couldn't/must/ could: pick) it up before I arrived. Mr Fielding: I suppose it must have been a cigarette end. A. I did some marking in the room after school yesterday and it (may/must/can't: be) at least 5 o'clock when I left. Add the most suitable modal and the appropriate verb forms. he's only just started. He can't have forgotten about Ann! But she shouldn't have gone out with Jake. She______ (enjoy) the evening. Jake looked miserable too. Ann and Jeff are going to the cinema together. She waited for him at home for an hour. A week after the evening at the disco. 4. What do you think Jeff. Ann didn't look very happy. Charles. you can/No. After an answer the class says a sentence with It could be/It can't be or It must be. It was probably broken by a ball. of course. 7. (a pink umbrella. Ann can't have heard (hear) the phone. Jeff said the he had phoned Ann before the disco. so she phoned Jake Cook and asked him to take her to the disco. a pair of football boots. it could have been anyone. Later. 6. The class asks questions and tries to guess the object. and the insurance company's paying the bill. Class: It can't be the umbrella. I didn't find a stone or a ball in the room. a book about gardening) b) A pupil thinks of one of the above objects. Later that evening. Mr Fielding: It could well have been old Bill. Mr Williams: Probably. Mr Williams: It might have been Ted Redman or Bill Coleman — the more they drink. you can't. but he didn't turn up and he didn't phone.

'No. Jerry Brennan's brother is a computer programmer. And you're probably all alone.. Richard: Well. Talk about past possibility. Why? Jerry: Didn't you feel the earthquake? You might have gotten hurt! Richard: What earthquake? Jerry: I 'm watching the news and San Francisco has just been hit by an earthquake. said my grandfather.' Unfortunately that will never happen now. He was the only one working late in his office last night when an earthquake hit. but I can't be sure because there were at least six boys playing football outside when I left and it (must/may/ mustn't: be) any of them. you shouldn't have stayed there so late. It (may/must/can't: be) that rough boy Roy. but most of the newer buildings are considered 'earthquake proof so no one was injured. £> I called Lucy. I can finish this tomorrow. but I didn't go to the doctor.' 'No'. and no questions will be asked. wearing a cloth cap. telephone service was interrupted. Make assumptions about the past. And be careful! Richard: Yes. yeah. Ann and Jerry called Richard after the earthquake. my youngest son said he wanted to go to the park. 6. My grandfather used to have a beautiful gold pocket watch. then. Richard worked very late last night.things. He might (may) not have had any class. She must have been sick. are you all right? Ann and I are worried about you. 4. I guess that's a good idea. Talk about past advisability. 'We'll do better than that'.' My grandfather put an advertisement in the Personal column of the Evening Standard and the Evening News for a week. I guess so. At a few minutes after one on the afternoon in question. in the same place at 1. 9. I called Richard. 'My watch. 1. I was sick. I said. Lynn wasn't at school yesterday. he said. Jerry: Richard. But I was so busy with my work that I wasn't paying much attention. He wore it on a fine gold chain across the front of his waistcoat. 'Perhaps you just lost it. my grandfather came up to London to visit us. You should have gone to the doctor. He might (may) have had class. Didn't you feel it? Richard: Well. 'it's gone. I had a terrible headache yesterday. I will buy my watch back for the sum of £ 100. Victor speaks English perfectly. yes. Work with a group and give an appropriate response to each statement. Jerry: You must have been awfully busy if you didn't notice it. But I know what I'm going to do. You shouldn't have come to school.' So off they went. Richard: Sure. 9. 'this is going to be yours. Jerry: Richard. The building was built in 1938 and is made of brick. And a chair was knocked over. A. Ann and Jerry had an automobile accident. 'When I'm gone'.' 'Did you tell the police?' I asked. Richard: Hello? Jerry: Richard. The streets shook and the buildings swayed from side to side. He works on the tenth floor of an old office building in downtown San Francisco. Oscar wasn't at the hospital yesterday. Windows were shattered and the electricity was cut off in some areas. shaking his head. approached my . but it (must/mustn't/couldn't: be) him because he's away from school this week. he replied. Richard wasn't at home last night. 10. but she wasn't at work. Someone must have stolen it while we were feeding the pigeons. 7. but he wasn't home last night. They got home about tea-time and my grandfather was looking very upset.' he said. In some places. He could have been at home. 'we'll go and feed the pigeons in Trafalgar Square.00 o'clock. 3. 8. 'I didn't think it would do any good. About three months ago. 5. Was anything damaged in your office? Richard: Well. This theft has not been reported to the police. Jerry called Richard at work to make sure that he was all right.' he said.' 'You should have reported it'. and when I was small he promised to leave it to me in his will. The first Sunday morning after he arrived. please go home. But I have such a big report to do that .. now that you mention it. Our teacher didn't come to class yesterday. one window was broken and some books were knocked off the bookcase. a small nervous man. all right. 2. I am. if the gentleman who stole my gold pocket watch near the statue of Nelson will meet me on Sunday 6th May. The earthquake could have been much more serious than it was. 'Someone must have taken it.

Then we can use this construction: 'Someone must have stolen my watch. knowing no English at all. he produced my grandfather's watch. 2. 1. At last he/she has told you about it. Your friend has bought a secondhand car recently. 3.' Then he disappeared. It has been giving a lot of trouble. Things don't turn out successfully. You went to meet the bus she planned to come on. It is easy to be wise after the event. D.' said the little man. Your friend Kitty was coming to supper. It's cheaper at the supermarket. He thought he would like to have another look at his watch. he unbuttoned his coat and looked down. 1. 3. B. Probability: should. and the journey was very slow.' From the pocket of his rather dirty overcoat. The watch and chain were no longer there. A burglar came into your house and stole several items. as promised. 4. Your friend is complaining about the price she paid for her coffee at the corner shop. and you are shown a model of the cathedral. He gave it away. 5. Note Some of the situations might lead to more than one idea. 'Excuse me. But often we want to say what probably happened. The first weeks were very hard for him/her. My grandfather strolled back to the bus stop. One moment you have an important letter in your hand. (=1 will probably finish work early today. §11. In the morning you find a window wide open at the back. 7. So you tell him/her what he/she should have done or shouldn't have done. You know it's not lost. in Somerset. but the gentleman who did has asked me to give it back. 'If I were you. It was much bigger than usual. My grandfather was delighted.) He ought to pass his driving test easily.' 'You shouldn't have given him all that money. Sir. 2. He went by coach. 'I should keep you overcoat buttoned up when you're in a crowd like this. and it's very cold.' Make at least one should have and one shouldn't have sentence for each of the situations below. made entirely out of matchsticks.) I should finish work early today. 5. Sir. Your friend takes a certain action. He isn't wearing a coat. A. Trains go to Sheffield. The smile froze on his lips. the next you don't. C. the phone bill came in. Sir. It cost £ 5. I haven't got much to do. You left your bicycle outside the school. we can say: 'Someone might have stolen your watch. After they had gone. (=Sally is probably at work now. you must understand. Your friend has had a problem that has been worrying him/her for days. but she wasn't on it. Look at these examples: 'You should have reported it to the police. He's a very good driver.' Look at the situations in exercise B. and see which you could use to make might have statements. When you came back it wasn't there. If we want to express the idea of what possibly happened. 'Well. Someone stole my watch is a definite statement.grandfather. Your friend had to go to Sheffield.' Use the situations below to make more sentences like this. You are visiting Wells. and fixed the watch and chain back where they belonged.' he asked. He paid the man £ 100. Solemnly he shook hands with the little man. smiling to himself. Sally should be at work by now. ought to We can use should or ought to to say that something is probable at the moment of speaking. Your friend came to England four months ago. 7. Other people were selling spare tickets outside the theatre. 6. 4. (= He will probably pass his . Ideas for discustion: Have you ever had anything stolen? Has your house ever been broken into? What did the thieves steal? Do you know anybody who has suffered in this way? When you have remembered some real robberies you will be able to say: what must have happened or what might have happened and what someone should or shouldn't have done to prevent the robbery. You had some guests staying in your home. that I didn't have it. You are out with a friend. So. You are very busy in the office. or in the future.00. Your friend had an extra ticket for the jazz concert. She's normally there at this time. 'are you the gentleman enquiring about his pocket watch?' My grandfather nodded.

(must) 10. (can't) 12. I'm still waiting for the 7 o'clock bus... Complete their conversation with should/shouldn't or ought (not) to/ oughtn't to. (must) 13. they . Do you think Jim will win his tennis match against Tom? Well. 2. Complete the sentences using should or ought to and the correct form of the verbs in the box. I posted it early today. it . (But I do not know if they have arrived. They .. It isn't very far. Where is he? B: In his room. III. Do you think Margaret will pass the examination? Well. .. (must) 2.... .. beat Wetford...) We also use this structure when we expected something to happen but it did not happen. We use should have/ought to have + past participle when we expected something to happen and we do not know if it happened. They should have arrived by now.... It .driving test easily.) 'I wonder if he passed his driving test this morning. be interesting. 8.. 2. Michael wanted to go to the opera.. Complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the words in parentheses.. Perhaps they went home. But take a bit more in case it isn't.. 6. It's impossible that he's telling the truth.. it . 3.. I wonder what's causing the delay... Perhaps she'll phone later. Stephen: How about the other semi-final? Liverton . I'm sure she is in bed. 4. I think I'll leave sometime around noon. He (must + drive) too fast when she clocked him on her radar.. They should have arrived by now. . (might) 6. He (must + forget) to turn the TV off before he left the room. but it won't be easy. the trip takes about four hours. I've only got £ 15. but he put off buying a ticket and now they're all sold. Stephen and his father are looking at the league table. be in love.. He's a much better player than Tom. 'How long will it take to drive to the park?' 'Well. They . Ellen's plane .... and trying to predict who will be in the final. A: Who do you think is going to win the game tomorrow? B: Well. easily. Ed has been acting strangely lately. I'm sure the bus has left. our team has better players. they? Dad: Yes... (can't) 5... they .. Look.. 4.. beat Mancastle. .. 2. He worked very hard for them. Dad (must + watch) TV a short while before I came into the room.. 1. We'll probably arrive before 11 o'clock. She'll probably be here soon.. but they aren't there yet. A: Hello. 3..) She is pretty. (ought to) VI.. She has studied very hard. Perhaps he didn't apply for the job. .. It . Do you think Ted will get the job he applied for? Well. but you never know. Let's stop and visit him. It . lose that match. Dad: I agree. We won't need to buy very much. 3. have been here an hour ago. Use should/ought to. 11. 1.. He (should + buy) his ticket weeks ago.. 4. Stephen: Brightsmouth ... Use should or ought to to say that you think something will happen.. He ought to have passed his driving test easily. (should) 7. He (should + wait) until now to try to get a ticket.. have spent it. I was surprised Liverpool lost the football match.. I was surprised that he failed.. She gave him a speed ticket. Let's put her to bed early tonight. win..' (But I do not know if he passed it. A: What time are you going to arrive? B: Well... Activities I. my letter first thing tomorrow morning.. 5. Knock on his door softly.. Perhaps he was ill. Rephrase the sentences using the correct form of the words in brackets.. but that . I'll probably be at home by 6 o'clock. It's impossible that she saw us. I.. V. A: Susie is yawning and rubbing her eyes... 4.. (may) 4.. He . Bob was stopped by a police officer last night. A: I need to see Tom. Forty minutes. (may) 11. 10. (should) 3. She ought to make a good match. (could) 8. have been back for her rest hour by now. Jack's car is in front of his house. I . I thought I had a dollar in my purse. She. He's got all the necessary qualifications.' 7.... 1. 5. B: She . win the cup. Andrew . my car easily. be home around nine or so. or must in the following. 3.. but I don't. Look at all the people standing in line to get into that movie. have much difficulty against either Wetford or Liverton. (might) 14. Add not if necessary for a sentence to make sense. they . enough.. be sleepy. I'm sure you've heard the news. be a good movie. 2.. Perhaps I won't go out this evening. He. Stephen: If Brightsmouth reach the final. Hmmm. so we . (can't) 9.. A: What time do you expect him? B: He . 6. be at home. long. half an hour ago. 9. the TV was on but the room was empty.. Do you think £ 10 will be enough to do all the shopping? Well. 1.' 'He ought to have passed it easily. . II. May I speak to Jack? B: He isn't here right now. and ought to have . You . Anything can happen in sports.) Should have . He (might + take) a nap. I only want £ 950 for it and it's in very good condition. get there around four. 7. When I walked into the room. Let's go to the lecture tonight.. so I. the exams last week. Use each verb only once. pass be win not take sell arrive receive 1. It's impossible that they missed the plane. (=She will probably make a good match. IV..

Я отослал его неделю назад. вы поняли. He (should + stare) out of the windows during class yesterday. Это рассказ О. 14. Она много занималась. должно быть. уже прибыли в Лондон. 9. He (could+work) on his report at home this morning. вероятно. 25. Мой вопрос. 2. Вероятно. почему Том не пришел с ними. With a certain intonation and a strong stress on the important word might can express a reproachful request: You might 'help me with stress on help might imply 'Why aren't you helping me?/You should be helping me. 26. Это вовсе не смешно. Вечер. чтобы он обманул их. Генри. 21. Там. 13. Reproach: might you might can express a very casual request: You might post these for me. B: She (must + make) a lot of money in her new job. Он. otherwise it would sound rude. A: Where's your bicycle? B: I don't know. оставил его в кармане пальто.30. Ты думаешь Рита сдаст экзамен? — Да. 12. and it (should + be) ready now. 10. Рита сдала экзамен? — Полагаю. никого нет. Хотя это очень неприятная миссия. 3. Он должен знать ее адрес. он получил мое письмо. I think my roommate (might+borrow) it. 1. . 12. 19. 11. что я должен сказать тебе правду. He (must+walk) to work right now. A: Do you think Jane has got my letter yet? B: She (should+receive) it by now. In places. она должна сдать экзамен. он честный человек. He (should + pay attention). A: Sally? She (could + borrow) it. Уже 5. and I know he hates to drive on icy roads. Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the business much longer. возможно. Она должна быть здесь. 7. 22. It's terrible outside. My tweed jacket isn't in my closet. I thought I'd never make it. One of my friends (may + borrow) it. you (ought to + know) better. они были на вечере. I haven't heard of any hold-ups with the post. Они. Не может быть. он еще не вернулся с работы. возможно. I hope it wasn't stolen. 13. Думаю. This construction expresses very unem-phatic advice. Этот экзамен я должен буду сдавать через неделю. Ты полагаешь. Do you hear that guitar music? Carla (must+play) her guitar. что она должна была сдать его. Tea is between half-past five and six. Я. Advice with may /might as well We use may /might as well (+infinitive without to) to say that we should do something because there is no strong reason not to do it and because there is nothing better to do. 16. 4. но я их не видел. Студенты так долго готовили его. если бы знал. он должен быть интересным. Гости скоро должны быть здесь. 11. 6. но все же я хочу задать его. 10. A: The roads are treacherous this morning. Никто не отвечает. спросят. The plane (should+land) now.' might can also be used with other persons to express this sort of irritation: He might 'pay us! with stress on pay could mean 'We are annoyed that he doesn't pay/hasn't paid us. 7. 27. A: Why didn't Jack answer the teacher when she asked him a question? B: He was too busy staring out of the window. He (must + daydream). на верхней полке. Я недавно видела эту книгу. He (should+watch) TV right now. Она много занималась. 6. 14. = You could at least have met me at the station. Зря ты так разговаривал с ним. 23. его потерял. 24. что это так срочно. Домашнее задание не должно занять у вас слишком много времени. it (ought to + be) a fine day tomorrow. есть ошибки. 9. He doesn't live too far away. вероятно. Возможно. There's a fine sunset. I (should+take) the bus to work this morning instead of driving my car. Может быть. Сейчас 10 часов утра. B: I know. Там. Alex has a test tomorrow that he needs to study for. You might at least have met me at the station. будет интересным. A: He (might+decide) not to come in at all. Why should she want to borrow your bicycle? 8. 17. Jake still hasn't arrived. Maybe Sally borrowed it. Они боялись. должно быть. Где мой ключ? — Ты. — Не может быть. Вряд ли они вернулись из зоопарка. He (should + be) back at any moment. Ты думаешь. Я бы давно мог это сделать. He (may+call) her by now. A: Kathy just bought a new car. наверное.5. 18. я чувствую. they're nothing but a sheet of ice. 5. что нужно делать. озадачит вас. Тебе следовало бы еще раз прочитать свое сочинение. возможно. 20. §12. and now she's looking for a new apartment. Translate from Russian into English. 17. Renny drove her to the train. 15. She has a broken leg. что их. It's five o'clock. Он ее брат. 28. I'll check with his secretary. чтобы я его потерял.' In this sense might is interchangeable with could. But it can only be used in friendly relaxed situations. 8. Я мог бы дать вам всю необходимую информацию. ничего им не сказал об этом. 15. Они там впервые и могут долго пробыть. VII. Я должна быть дома в обычное время. He often borrows my things without asking me. Он мог обидеться. Нужно быть серьезнее. Ей не следовало говорить такие вещи в присутствии ребенка. наверное. 16. что поздно вернешься домой? — Не думаю. Вам не нужно было беспокоить профессора.' might + perfect infinitive can express irritation at or reproach for the non-performance of an action in the past: You might have 'told us with stress on told could mean 'You should have told us.

It isn't going to stop raining. 9.. I can't understand why he didn't offer us a lift.. Example You did not switch off the lights before leaving. No. She borrowed her mother's car. You did not try hard enough. 2___. Do come and help me choose the present.. . Why didn't you invite him? 17. You didn't get up earlier and help me to clean after the party. but . No one wants any more to eat. 1.' Activities /. Nobody is watching it. 12. You never let me know when something like this happens... and was two hours late for the interview. You do not pay enough attention to your child. Surely_________________________________________ III. He didn't pay the bill. You might remember your child's birthday. Later her mother was rather annoyed. Couldn't you have a got lift? — I could have but nobody stopped. Why didn't she write? 18. 2. //. Please stay with us a little longer. Make sentences from the table to go with these ideas. 6. 4___. We're not in a hurry. 5___. ? Use all four constructions. I'm too ill to go on holiday. and the items above. 7. You did not even notice how well she played.'Shall we get a taxi or wait for the bus?' 'We might as well wait for the bus... 5. Surely_________________________________________ 3. It's not very far. 2. ! . She thought Julie could have: but Julie said: — got a lift — phoned a garage — — she didn't hav? any tools — walked to the next village — nobody stopped .— it was too changed the wheel herself far — there was no phone nearby Surely you could have . You might have switched off the lights before leaving. Example: You may as well switch off the TV. 11. Alice. are we?' 'Why don't we go out for a walk?' 'We may as well. but she had a puncture.' 'I'll go on Monday by a slow train. He didn't meet her at the airport. Julie was going to attend an interview for a job. I couldn't because . I suppose. 10.' 'You might just as well wait till Tuesday and go by the fast one.' 'Shall we have dinner now?' 'We might as well. Couldn't_______________________________________ 4. 14. 8. ! I could couldn't you? Couldn't you have have. 4. 15. 3.. Express reproach. You didn't tell me at once what was wrong. to complete the dialogue: 1. I was a bit upset that they didn't lend a hand. . We haven't got anything else to do. You do not wear your new suit to the office. 1____. 3___. Why didn't you ask me first? 13. Why don't you write to her? 16. Example You do not remember your child's birthday. There's a chance I'll get it. Please help me with my homework. You did not sew the buttons on.

Он мог бы сделать это для вас.. If he knew our address he . rain. 12. . Ты могла бы вернуться раньше и провести вечер с ребенком. Ник. Give unemphatic advice.. Я. Почему вы всегда опаздываете? 3. come and see us.. please.. at might as well apply You might as home today. not bring textbooks into the examination room. Наконец-то ты пришла! Ты могла бы прийти пораньше. 3. 4. 2. be my brother (7 admit that he is) but I don't trust him. 7. 'Certainly. he . If we got there early we . 7.. and it's just about our bedtime. VII. 15. 'It may have begun already.. be very offended.. ask your secretary to look for them for me.000. Mary won't go to the dance with John. 6. the table. but they've only got red ones. I want to catch the ten o'clock bus into town and it's nearly quarter to already. He said that we . She likes the short skirt better than the long one.. 1. I think I left my glasses in your office.. 17.1 prefer the expensive flat to the cheap one... 1. 25. Mrs Jones: I should be off really. You .. use his office whenever we liked. Ты был не так уж сильно занят.. If you said that. (have permission to) use my office. Вы могли бы предупредить меня.' Susan answered.. have time to think it over. be a crowd. 33. The television has finished now.. 12. Право. пожалуй. Two parallel white lines in the middle of the road mean that you . что собрание отложено. 22. Вы могли бы подождать меня пять минут. пожалуй. Почему ты не сделал этого? Она обиделась.) 6. but the planes are full until Sunday. They . but I can't afford to take a plane. I . 'but they are for next Wednesday's performance. . 'May I have two tickets please?' I asked. Я с тем же успехом мог бы пить воду вместо него.. 23. 30.) 20. but someone's taken the expensive one. You . 2. (negative) drive since his accident. чтобы поддержать меня. We . Вы могли бы быть с ней повежливее. get a good seat. (they let him) do exactly as he liked. as well wait.. win $ 5. 16.. Insert the correct form of may/might except in 9 and 33.. Я.. 2.) 21. 28.. They wanted to leave on Saturday.. 7. 14. Он мог бы хоть что-нибудь сказать. but the short one is too dirty to wear. If we can give him a blood transfusion we . Ты бы мог подарить что-нибудь сестре. Then you might as well buy a red one. Do you still want them?' 'I might as well have them. Она беспокоилась... 4. (/ am annoyed/disappointed that you didn't. 'Certainly.' the girl said. 24.) VI. Mrs Smith: You may as well have another cup and catch . where a be allowed form is necessary.. I prefer planes to trains. at least read the letter. I don't think I'll succeed but I . go up. 11. I'll wait a week so that he . ты ведь знала. 15. for the job. Я. — The weather .. The police . V... Вы могли бы ей позвонить. Study and practise. Candidates . Mary doesn't want to marry John. 9. Почему вы не сделали этого? 10. 18.. 16. Лекарство совершенно не помогло мне.. 13. you . 2. 10. 'What a pity!' Susan exclaimed. Mrs Jones. as well give it to the dog.. ты мог бы помочь мне нести этот тяжелый чемодан. пошлю ему телеграмму. 9.' the girl said... be able to save his life. He .. лучше останусь дома. He said that it.. as well stay here till the weather improves.. (have a right to) ask a driver to take a breath test. 5. подожду еще немного.. пожалуй. He . Ему это совсем не трудно... He isn't going to eat it. 19. well cancel I might as well clear IV. Я с тем же успехом мог бы остаться в городе. but Julie does. I went back to the ticket-office at once. but they've only got red ones. You .. 'I'm sorry. 14.. I wonder why they didn't go. I see your passport. (They haven't let him drive. 30.. пойду. the TV. I come in? — Please do. be on the next train. (request) 11. I'd prefer to buy an orange pullover. Example: Mary doesn't want to marry John. 8. 18. 29... 8. You ought to buy now. We'd better be early.. 26. 6. (/ think you should. You . the as well stay We may as well walk I hotel bookings. 17. I hurried to the ticket-office..... have been too bad. 'Can I return these two tickets?' he asked.. Я. 2.. He .. 5. rain. 1. never see you again. Я опоздал не по своей вине...... I borrow your umbrella? 5.' the girl said. a man hurried to the ticket-office.. 1. . learn something. что я больна. Just then. Ты мог бы нам помочь. not overtake. Вы могли бы приходить вовремя. 'Could I have those two tickets please?' I asked.. If I bought a lottery ticket I . 13. but Julie does.. We . 27. Nobody knows how people first came to these islands.You may as well switch off We might to the station. 32.' I said sadly.... we've sold out. as well try. tell me! (/ think I have a right to know.. I . have sailed from South America on rafts. there . Я не получил от поездки за город никакого удовольствия. Translate from Russian into English.. 8. Example I'd prefer to buy an orange pullover.. пожалуй. It. You ought to go to his lectures.. prices . but Julie will. have written. you'd better take a coat. 'The play may begin at any moment. 4.' I said.. Mrs Smith: Have another cup of tea before you go. When he was a child he . Then he might as well marry Julie. You .

You may as well stay here for a chat and go into town after lunch. They're too soft on children these days. §13. anyhow. Report the conversation. 8. Yes. Mrs Smith: I'm afraid it is. (may) 6. Oh dear! Is your clock right? It can't be twenty past ten already. Nora: Hello. I really ought to ring her and tell her that I won't be turning up. Нам не надо было беспокоиться о том. A. and the teachers can't do anything to punish them . then we needn't have written this letter. you know. rephrase each sentence. Ты не думаешь. что Питу нужны длинные каникулы. B. as Peter's father? It might seem better coming from you.. You'd have to run to catch the 10 o'clock now and you might miss it even then. Harry (dubiously): That might do. I'll never pass the exam. He left over an hour ago. (can't) 2. (should) 3. так как в школе должна будет произведена покраска. then. Act out the conversation. I think I'll stop trying. Harry: Were you able to write that letter yesterday. It is almost certain that he'll be successful. Peter. Ты бы мог поговорить с директором.30. (might) 3. A. could. когда ты встретил его на прошлой неделе. It is possible that society is responsible for this. Harry: But you can write that kind of letter much better than I can. Using the verb given with 'be' or 'as well'.. I don't really need a big chicken.the 10. (can't) 7. He's very confident.. ты всегда это умела. I know — and you could have written the letter yourself yesterday when you said you were going to. (should) 5. Things like that didn't happen when we were at school because the teachers kept these hooligans under control by using a cane. Nora: Harry. I think he's home by now. We may have left it too late. Ты написала (смогла написать) то письмо вчера. we don't seem to be making much progress with it now. you could have spoken to the headmaster when you met him last week. что ты мог бы это сделать вместо меня. Mrs Jones: Yes. Mrs Jones: That's true . well. Whatever next? Mrs Jones: He ought to be given a good beating. Peter: I've got some good news for you! Our headmaster says the holidays are starting a week earlier because the school is to be painted.. I might as well. Mrs Jones: Did you read about that awful business at the new comprehensive school last week? Mrs Smith: Yes. мы запоздали с ним. Ты могла бы написать письмо сама вчера. Comment on the uses of the modal verbs in the conversation. Директор говорит. (might) Society might be responsible for this. I think that this is the quickest way to get there. But Mrs Brown is expecting me. but they haven't got a small one. Offers: will. Nora: Well. (might) 4.. can. I must go now .. Here you are . мы могли бы написать его вместе. Возможно. 3. что каникулы начинаются на неделю раньше. Но ты можешь написать такого рода письмо гораздо лучше. You've missed the 10. Nora? Nora: Which letter do you mean? Harry: The one to the headmaster of Peter's school. Harry! We needn't have worried about how to write our letter. What can we say? Nora (hesitating) : Well you could say. saying we want to take him away on holiday a week before the end of term.30 too now. She's too young and pretty. It isn't possible that he's back. 9. Mum and Dad! Harry: Hello. 1. (may) 8. 12. you always could. so I suppose I'll have to take a big one. Could I use your phone? Mrs Smith: Certainly. Harry: Perhaps we might write it together. don't you think you ought to write it. Harry: You ought to have written it yesterday. The children can do what they like. Besides. I'm not sure but I think John is meeting Mary again tonight. thank you. Возможно есть немного бумаги в ящике письменного стола.. Ты мог бы сказать. 2. 5. Peter. D. I don't know why they abolished corporal punishment. er — you could say Peter needs a long holiday. 7. Peter: Hello. here you are. A boy assaulted a teacher with a knife. Find in the text appropriate phrases for the following. Я думаю. Nora: But I thought you said I needn't. And can I have another of those chocolate biscuits? Mrs Smith: Of course you can. что тебе как отцу Пита следует написать его? 11. Возможно. как написать наше письмо. Nora: I think you might do it instead of me — you know I hate letter-writing. C. He only left 5 minutes ago. Where's a piece of paper? Nora: There may be some in this drawer. Mrs Jones: All right. Harry: Yes.. 6. Nora: Oh no! I must write it tonight. Harry: Now. Ah. Example. would . Nora: What a relief. 10. I'm sure she isn't his wife. Тебе следовало написать его вчера. I did. May I have another biscuit? Mrs Smith: Of course — help yourself. чем я. 1. Нора? 4. shall.

1. Your friend accidentally drops some sheets of paper on the floor. Your friend looks cold. I'll lend you my bicycle if you want. 2. You want your friend to come on an excursion. Shall I put the suitcase on the rack (for you)? 2. your coat? the light? some bags for you? for the doctor? you do the washing up. I'll help you with your suitcase. Your friend's mother is arriving and he can't meet her at the station. Would you like to stay with me? 2. we are really offering to do something. Make invitations for the following situations. 5. and the room is getting dark. 4. We also use would with verbs such as like and prefer to make polite offers and invitations. 1. . There is a concert on tonight and you want Tom to come with you. 3. An old lady clearly wants to put her large suitcase on the luggage rack. and it's pouring with rain. 8. 6. II. some potatoes. I could lend you some money if you want. using I'll. Your friend is about to go home. 1. 6. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like me to help you? Would you prefer to stay in or go out this evening? Activities I. a cup of tea Example: Would you like a sandwich? IV. He has no umbrella. Your friend took a jacket to be cleaned. a sandwich. You have a car. Make offers using the words below. You think your friend might be thirsty. Can I make you something to eat? Could I carry that bag for you? In these uses. Sometimes when we use can or could to 'ask for permission'. Your sister has difficulty with her homework. V. 5. He can't find an envelope. ///. Shall I switch off something to drink? I'll help Would you like me to phone Can I take Would you like Could I carry I can lend you an umbrella if you like. You say: I'll open it for you. Your friend has two heavy suitcases. You want your friend to join you for a meal. Your friend has nowhere to stay for the night. 3. You are going near the cleaner's. some fruit. Your friend has to catch a train. Are you hungry? I'll make you something to eat. Your friend is reading. You want your friend to have lunch with you. 7. Your friend has written a letter. I can post this letter for you. A young woman is shivering and the window is open. a slice of toast. Your friend's suitcase is too heavy for her to carry. Your friend is short of money. Your friend is moving into his new house. Offer to do things for others. an orange. 3. What will you have to drink? Will you have dinner with us? We use shall I? (= do you want me to?) to offer to do something for someone. Offer to do more things for a friend. 7. could is less direct and more polite than can. Make offers for the following things and substances.We use will to say that we are willing to do something or to offer to do something. 5. 10. You want your friends to have a holiday with you. 9. 6. You think your friend might be hungry. Shall I help you? Shall I open the door for you? Shall I post this letter for you? We also use can/could (= 'ability') to offer to do something for someone. 4. Note this pattern: Your friend is finding it difficult to open a bottle. 4. (I'll = I will) We also use will you? in offers and invitations. some coffee.

In hindsight. go there. — Спасибо. Example. definite advice. Well. S/he needs some suggestions. I'd rather take a taxi to the station than go by bus. In hindsight. I'm hungry. What are the possibilities? 6. Answer the questions. Я присмотрю за вашим домом пока вы будете в отъезде. Peter: Yes. I need to get a car. Are you coming with us? — No. Peter and Sally are trying to decide what to do this evening. Where . but I didn't enjoy it. Sally: . can.. Это очень любезно с вашей стороны.VI. I went to the food store yesterday and bought some bread.. 'Would you like to go on holiday in June?' 'I'd rather go in July.. I'm going to eat an egg. Any suggestions? 4. I'd rather not lend him any money. 5. Note: would rather = would sooner I'd rather/I'd sooner be a builder than an architect. Не хочешь составить мне компанию? — Охотно. But then when it came time for me to fix myself some dinner.. you should take the airport \ bus. 2. 5.. Translate from Russian into English.. раз она тебе нужна.. we use the infinitive without to.' Would you rather meet on Monday or Tuesday? We form the negatives with would rather not. 2. 3. Ты не хотел бы сходить со мной в театр? — С удовольствием. Use could to suggest possibilities. Ты не хочешь чашечку кофе? — Спасибо. I need to get to the airport. — Я была бы тебе очень признательна. We can afford one drink each. go? Sally: . we haven't got much money. пожалуйста. Why don't we Let's shall we How about could [ Peter: So. 7. Зайти за твоим зонтиком по пути домой? — Да.. but s/he doesn't know I.. 8. staying in and watching TV? Peter: Oh. After would rather. Any suggestions? Possible Response. Я еду завтра за город. пожалуйста. but the drinks are very expensive. Note also the structure would rather (do something) than (do something else). Where shall we go? What time shall we leave? Shall we stay at home? Shall we play tennis tomorrow? We use can and could to suggest possible actions. (.. Купить тебе этот словарь? Я завтра буду в книжном магазине. but it can't be very expensive. . can you suggest other possibilities for a kind of car I could have bought? 8. Activities I. You could take a taxi or the airport bus. In this use. Peter: Yes. all I had was some bread and butter. Use should only if you want to give strong.. go to the pub on the corner.. could We use shall we? to ask for and make suggestions. Any suggestions? 7. In my opinion. . We can watch TV if you like. Я одолжу тебе свою печатную машинку. then. where to go. Complete the conversation using the words in the box. . I need to get from here to (name of a place in this city/ town).. That's all. §14. They have very good videos. Possible response.. we . Preference: would rather Would rather means 'would prefer to'. 1. 4. Sally: I thought you said you were fed up with watching TV! II.. go out for a drink. what .) needs to buy an umbrella. Накрыть на стол? — Да. can you suggest some other possibilities that I didn't think of? (I had only five days and a limited amount of money.1 went (name of a place) for my vacation last summer. but I'm unhappy with it. 1. Use some words more than once. Peter: All right. Помочь тебе с домашним заданием или ты справишься сам? 9. go to The Tropical Bar? They have really good music there. I need some suggestions. Sally: That's true. I'd rather/ sooner not. Any suggestions? 3. We could go to the cinema tomorrow. I bought a (name of a car). Suggestions: shall. (. I don't have any plans for this weekend. we do this evening? Sally: Well. Or I could take you if I can borrow my brother's car.. 6. no! I'm fed up with watching TV. Give me some suggestions on how to cook it. could is less direct and more polite than can..) and I want to go to a nice restaurant for dinner tonight.) 9.. я бы предпочла стакан чаю. .

Translate from Russian into English. 10. Are you coming with us? No. (you) drink. Он предпочитал слушать других. buy a mountain bike or save money 3. Когда мы сели в машину. Richard: No. VI.... Use I would rather . 4. что я о нем знаю. Это хорошая гостиница. Do you want an apple? 6.. 4. .. Julie: OK.. but the food was terrible.. Would you like to watch television? 5.. Do you want to go swimming? No. (. Come for a walk. please. Сколько мне заплатить носильщику? — Решай сам. Shall we play tennis this afternoon? 3. Пообедаем сегодня где-нибудь? — С удовольствием. Julie: What . Поедем за город в воскресенье? — С удовольствием. to say what you prefer.. let's have a change. 1. Let's paint the door red.. (you) have tea as well? Boys: No. revise for an English test or go to a party 4. Я бы предпочел остаться дома и поговорить с родителями. . — Хорошо. VII. Supply negative short answers with I'd rather/I'd sooner to these questions. . Joan: We can go to Greece if you like. . learn windsurfing or take a course in parachute jumping 9. . She . we . Где мы остановимся в Москве? — Мы могли бы остановиться в гостинице 'Минск'. 1.... Where would you rather go this year? Spain or Italy? Jeff: Well. Jackie: If those are your only suggestions. listen to music at home or go to a pop concert 8. Он бы предпочел не уезжать еще.. Do you want to catch the next train? No. Shall we invite Betty Smith? No. I'm not athletic and I need two weeks' sun every year! Jeff: OK. And what about Amanda? . 7. 11. Do you want to go out tonight? No. 3. 1. Здесь недалеко есть одно место.... чем говорить сам. go up in a rocket or go down in a submarine 6. 2. We'll do whatever you prefer. look round a museum or watch a basketball match 5. 4. чем смотреть телевизор. Я купил билеты на восьмичасовой сеанс. . Чем мы сейчас займемся? Будем смотреть телевизор? — Я бы предпочел погулять. 1. 5. 12.40. Do you have any hindsight suggestions? III. Я бы предпочел не говорить тебе того.. он сказал: 'Мы могли бы прокатиться сейчас. go to the cinema or stay at home 2. ... а где и когда мы встретимся? — У кинотеатра в 7. please. 6.' 2. Let's go to an Indian restaurant.. 7.. Complete the conversation using would like to or would rather. I'd really prefer to have an active holiday for a change — maybe walking in Switzerland or even canoeing in Scotland. I'd sooner stay at home! Come on — be reasonable. work as a fashion designer or be a journalist 7. 10.. Auntie? . I want to get away from the Mediterranean. .. Я бы предпочла сначала прочесть письмо. Example: Do you want a coffee? I'd rather/I'd sooner have an orange juice. Jackie: Let's plan our summer holiday. Calm down. Richard: Where shall we go for our holiday this year? Joan: We're going to Spain. play football or watch a football match on television V. Respond to the following suggestions using I'd rather/I'd sooner. и она расположена в центре города. Мне совсем не хочется идти на этот вечер. I'm tired of Spain. I think she . Чем мы займемся сегодня вечером? — Мы могли бы сходить в кино. Julie: What about you two boys. Study and practise. . have coffee. 13. 2. have anything at the moment. 6... (she) drink something? Aunt: No. 2...) went to (name of a restaurant) for dinner last night. 5. P> buy a TV set or save my money I would rather save my money than buy a TV set.. 3..Suggest some possibilities of other things I could have bought. Shall we go to the country tomorrow? No. have tea. Shall we go to a restaurant? No. которое я бы хотел тебе показать. — Хорошая идея. I... aren't we? Richard: No. We usually do! A. 9. live abroad or stay in my country 10. I'd rather/I'd sooner not... sleep! IV. 8. (you) have tea or coffee? Aunt: I .

I don't know. have frozen fish. rain.... David: I . Victoria: Gina. can/'d rather/might/could/can't David: I'm not going out now. Have a conversation with a classmate. I always lose them. David: We . Anne: Look.. I believe there are still a few. David: I don't like umbrellas. But please. I'm serious ..I'd rather have a holiday in the country. so why don't the four of you go ahead? A. ? . Follow the instructions in the box below. Suggestions Choices Let's go away (take Would you rather go to the couna trip). Would you rather go to a movie or go dancing? go out to eat (go to Would you rather go to an Italian a restaurant). try or to the beach? go out. You're never too old to go swimming. David: It's pink — I . A.. Would you rather see Lawrence of Arabia or Gone with the Wind? watch TV. stay home than go shopping now. Victoria: What about you. Would you rather play tennis or go jogging? A: Make a suggestion: Let's .. Anne: Take this umbrella. I must have that meat. George and I. or there won't be any lunch. Dad. Richard: I'm afraid that might be pretty expensive. Joan: Tibet? Richard: Don't be silly. B: Agree: OK. would you rather go to the country or go to the beach? Gina: Gee. I think we'll just stay here. Would you rather watch a news program or a movie? get some exercise. what about you? Mr Russo: I'm with your mother. Joan: A wild one? Richard: Yes. I like to do both. I'd rather go to a beach resort somewhere. Joan: Isn't it rather cold and dark there? Richard: Not in the summer. it . I'm too old to go to the beach. or ..... Frank? Frank: I'd rather not go to the country. Use each modal verb once only. I'd rather stay home than go anywhere. you .. Vicky. Anne: I haven't got any.. restaurant or a French restaurant? go to a movie.. Planning your coming holiday make up similar dialogues.. Victoria: Let's go away for the weekend — you and Gina.. what about Switzerland? We could rent a chalet up in the mountains.... don't lose it — it was expensive. Neither the country nor the beach interests me very much. take an umbrella.. using either the suggestions and choices in the list or your own ideas.. They have dozens of fantastic lakes and marvellous pine forests . 3. Joan: All right. Mom. if you're lucky you may run into a big brown bear. B. Joan: Well. Mrs Russo: Neither your father nor I travel very much. Victoria: Mom? Mrs Russo: Actually. Read the conversation below and then fill each gap with one of the modal verbs listed. Anne: Don't be so silly. A: Give a choice: Would you rather . see if you can get some brochures . go out with a pink umbrella. come on. Besides. Victoria: Oh. Frank: OK.. or something like that. and anyway I'd rather go somewhere we haven't been before. I was thinking of Finland. mom and dad.

B. It is raining. 3. 1. WANT TO and I'D RATHER are often used in the same conversation like this: Peter: I want to see the film at the Odeon. A. Perhaps they will be able to repair the old one. 6. 5.. Paris 6. Sometimes you stay at . You and your friend would like to find au pair jobs. You find you can't get it locally. Sometimes you can get a job like this through an agency. Look at these ideas: There MAY be some flats to let advertised there. but they can't find anywhere to live. 4.. They don't have one at the local shops. but sometimes the bookstall at the station has a lot of copies. I'D RATHER find a place of our own. Try and think of some more situations where WE CAN ... Unfortunately Tom doesn't earn a large salary. coffee 4.. have a cup of tea/ ... Stella: Do you think your mother might let us make a flat upstairs in her house? Tom: I don't really want to ask her. the meaning would change slightly. because COULD is a more tentative suggestion than CAN. watch television/listen to the radio 2. 8. Look at these two ideas: I CAN telephone from the office. 5. There are black clouds in the sky. You are wondering what you will do next year. 7. You want a copy of the Radio Times. C. Tom: Don't worry dear. There are often good opportunities abroad.. You and your friend are waiting in a hotel lounge. I COULD telephone from the office. horseracing 7.. Burglars are afraid of guard dogs. An hour ago you had a pot of coffee. Stella: Well. Stella: Yes. Look at this conversation: . Perhaps you will get a copy in the city. Your friend has flu and doesn't feel at all well. You need some money urgently.. There is a good film on. Perhaps we CAN get a mortgage. Use the ideas below to make two sentences. we'll find something soon. Terrors of the Night 8. You and your friend are a bit tired.. 3. 2.. go to the football/ . 2.. You have a car worth £ 500. 4. You want a copy of a certain book.. You and your friend run a small business. It's possible that you will get a letter from Emily this week.B: State your preference or suggest an alternative: I'd rather . or WE COULD .. 6.. however. You think a fresh pot of coffee would be a good idea. might be useful. our holiday 5. Tom: Houses are terribly expensive. Tom: All right. get a job in London/ . A new TV would be expensive. (than . Do you think your mother MIGHT let us make a flat upstairs? MAY and MIGHT are both used to express the idea PERHAPS. but it's possible that it won't rain. You and your friend have a free afternoon.home in the evening. see The Beast with Two Heads/ . ring first thing in the morning. But this sort of flu doesn't last long. Note that it would be possible to reverse CAN and COULD. 4. Look at these ideas: Tom and Stella WANT TO get married. talk about the exam/ . Tom and Stella want to get married.... Stella: Perhaps we could get a mortgage and buy a house... Sometimes it is possible to borrow money from the bank. get the local paper again tomorrow. go to the seaside/ .. )/I'd rather not . Now make more suggestions using can or could in the following situations. Now use the ideas below to make similar conversations: 1. You need some money in a hurry. I'd rather find a place of our own. I can telephone from the office.. but if there is anything that might be suitable. Another way of finding a job like this is to put an advertisement in the paper. Perhaps we COULD get a mortgage. There may be some flats to let advertised there. Mary: Do you? I'd rather see the one at the Plaza. You had a burglary six months ago and another last night. go by air/go by ship 3. go into the country Can you think of any more conversations like this? D. 7. you know how quickly they go. You are not very happy with your present job. Now think of some things you may or might do in the next few weeks. A: Agree: That's fine. a) With MAY suggesting a 50 per cent possibility b) With MIGHT suggesting a 30 per cent possibility 1. or IT IS POSSIBLE.

(call her) I'll call her. Study and practise. but it refused to work. it again. Stop making that noise or I'll scream! Refusals: won't. I've decided to take the job and I won't change my mind. as in the examples. or . 5.. This machine wouldn't work yesterday. would you rather stay at home? Use the notes below to make similar conversations: 1.. Replace the words in italics with . play tennis/go to the cinema 2. strong intentions. 4. Then say if the sentence is a promise or a threat. V.. you out! 6. but the window refused to open. I will be there to help. I can and will learn it. Don't forget to write..) He wouldn't answer my question.. as soon as I can. without you. Get out of my room or I . 2.) Activities /. go to the theatre/watch television 3. I promise I won't be late tomorrow. I will be careful with the car. watch television/listen to the radio 5. If you don't help me. but he refuses to help us.. There's someone on the phone who wants to speak to your mother. I asked my father. Mrs Price: Have you got a map of Provence? Jane: No. you my typewriter if you need it. We've asked him. 3. Anne won't do her homework. We'll get one in Calais. do any more work now/go for a drive §15. I . play cards/listen to some records 4. but she refuses to listen to me. (= She refuses to do it. I haven't got any money.. It's getting late. but she refuses to marry him.. Mrs Price: Bye! Have a lovely time! Bob: Thanks. 1.. I'm very sorry I shouted at you. Come on. When will I get my ticket? (when arrive/airport) III. I've decided to take the job and I refuse to change my mind. Make promises using the cues in brackets. I'll phone you as soon as we get to France. you! 2. (carry/for you) 6. (be all right) 5.) This machine won't work. (= He refused to answer my question. We'll send you a postcard. 2. to you again. go to the cinema/stay at home 6. let's go.. I've warned her several times about leaving the windows unlocked. Don't worry. The first time Mr and Mrs Wilson went abroad. but don't worry.— I don't really want to go out. Don't touch my camera or I .. wouldn't We use won't (= will not) to say that people or things refuse to do something. watch this programme/see the film on the other channel 7. determination : will We can use will to express willingness.. Mum. won't . (= It refused to work.. — Oh. I promise. 3. Mrs Price: Don't worry about the house. I can't carry it.. anyone what you said. 1. Mark: When are we going. See you in two weeks.... they were on their honeymoon — lots of things went wrong. I'll look after it. II. I . meet David and his girlfriend/go for a walk 8. 6...) We use wouldn't (= would not) to say that people or things refused to do something in the past. but he refused to lend me the money.. I . If you don't hurry up. Mum... I switched on the machine. I . I leave do come tell hit throw lend pay speak 1. I'm frightened. He's proposed to her. They .. I . Jane: Bye. (send/postcard) 4. 5. but he wouldn't lend me the money. I pushed hard. Dad? Bob: We won't be long now. (= It refuses to work. intention. Example-. I . for example in promises and threats. Complete each sentence using will or won't and a verb from the box. Willingness. Example I asked my father. 4. 8. We couldn't drive to the country last weekend because my parents refused to let me use their car. wouldn't . There'll be a lot of traffic on the M 25. (pay for it) 3. Jane: Thanks.. 7. IV.

Activities I. my elder brother used to/ would take me to the cinema every Saturday morning. но она не пожелала отвечать. но я не стал его слушать. When I was a child. но сон к нему не шел. Ken's grandfather was very mean. Я обязательно последую вашему совету. 22. 2. 9. но солнце все не всходило. II.. It really makes me angry. it suggests criticism. She . and in those days people______normally______cheques from someone they didn't know. "The stove_____________I" your Dad kept saying. 16.still laugh about it. Simon loves music. 18.' 'She 'would do a thing like that. 6. Я попытался открыть окно. Я заставлю тебя работать. Он погасил свет.. though at the time it was not so funny! Complete Mrs Wilson's description of her honeymoon to her children with won't or wouldn't and these verbs: accept let light move start stay stop 'We were going to leave at 6 am on the day after our wedding. даже если мне придется не спать всю ночь. So. Kate is very generous. would Will and would We can use will to talk about someone's typical behaviour or characteristic habits. но она не сработала. I. If will or would are stressed ('). Он несколько раз чиркнул зажигалкой. Если ты сделаешь это еще раз. we used to/would play Cowboys and Indians together. Перестаньте ругаться или я позову полицию. When we talk about past states. and the mechanic wanted £ 20. машина все не двигалась с места. But the horn got stuck. 17. we found that all our cooking things were wet. There was a flock of sheep in the road. 12. Несмотря на все наши усилия.' 'And why______ the car______?' asked Stephen. 15. 5. Will and would are not stressed in this use.. She'll always help people if she can. but at least the sheep got out of our way!' VI. we had a cold breakfast! But the funniest thing was a few days later. 'Anyway. Этот мел никак не пишет. talking for hours and hours if . я накажу тебя. о чем вы меня просите. 13. Этот нож не режет.' Used to and would When we talk about past habits. 'She borrowed my camera without asking. 14. (always) you money if you need it. Translate from Russian into English. У нее что-то с желудком. пока вы не выслушаете меня. I used to have a moustache. we got to a campsite in France and tried to put up our tent. My grandmother was very absent-minded.' Mrs Wilson replied. Я закончу печатать документы. Next morning. 8. 19. When I was a child my father would sometimes take me fishing. carry on spend lend go lie throw forget 1. Я не буду делать то. Ручка не пишет. 3. "Sheep_____________ unless you make a loud noise!" Dad said. He . and they ______ ______ us pass. Я заплатил деньги.. Принеси другой кусочек мела. He'll sit for hours listening to his stereo. My grandfather used to be a policeman. When we were children. but I shaved it off. и я останусь здесь. 4. and we just got to Dover in time for the boat. 20. We'd changed all our money into foreign currency. Kate is very kind. но оно никак не открывалось. Mr Woods is a real chatterbox! He . Я обещаю вам. В чем дело? — Ключ не входит в замочную скважину. He 'will slam the door when he comes in. Я сделаю работу в срок. when we were in the mountains. 21. Он попытался объясниться. Then the first thing went wrong — the car____________! Dad got quite angry. and he pressed the horn. to get the 9 o'clock ferry from Dover to France. 'Your Dad had forgotten to buy petrol. we can use used to or would. She would often buy something and then leave the shop without it. а она ни за что не хочет обратить-ся к врачу. "He_____________a cheque!" At last the mechanic agreed. Я спросил его жену. "What shall I do?" Dad cried. Я не уйду. 2. and it_____________! It was terribly embarrassing. Habits: will. §16. but it was so windy that it_____________up. 10. but not would. Мы с надеждой смотрели на небо. 7. We ended up sleeping in the car. 3. Чайник никак не кипит. We use would with the same meaning to talk about the past.. and kept shouting: "Why______it______?" In the end he had to call a garage. что с ним. She's always borrowing things without asking.. Complete the sentences using will or would and one of the verbs in the box. (never) anything away if he could use it again. we can use used to.

Often we . 5. Compare the following: My children are very good. who's a bit deaf. 4. (start) pounding every time I stepped on a plane. I'll never forget evenings spent with my grandparents when I was a child. She . She drinks six cups at breakfast... Rewrite the following sentences.. But he left his hairs on all the furniture. (tell) stories of her childhood seventy years ago. 17. 8. use used to... watching the fire and sucking on his pipe... My English teacher had real favourites in the class. 5. never) anyone else use it. 7. he ran miles and miles. He's a very good company. (say) hello to each student as he or she entered. During the day. She's a very outgoing person. (give) me a big kiss and pinch my cheek. I.. and we . It was a wonderful experience. I was very sporty when I was a child.. 6. But she runs in other people's gardens and pulls up their flowers. She wrote twenty or thirty a week... and he wrote poems about us. 'I'm always tired these days.. 14.you give him a chance.1 can remember Mrs Sawyer's fifth grade class well. 6. 3. (be) much worse.1. If the sentences seem to express the speaker's annoyance. (make) him go to bed. 3.' 'Well.. (put) goose fat on his chest. Every time she came to our house. Last summer. She is not honest.. wants some peace. //. to bed so late every night.. (hike) through woods and along mountain streams. My mother's big passion was walking... 16.. Write similar sentences. When I was a child. but he'll listen to what you've got to say as well. 5. even when there is no need. my sister and I took a camping trip in the Rocky Mountains. will and would are stressed. 9... 4. you . (sit) at her desk. and we had to live on whatever was in the house. Write similar sentences. (see) deer. My dog is so intelligent. But then she forgets where she put the batteries! 8. 5. Whenever a stranger came to our house. I don't have to tell her when it's time to go for a walk. On one occasion we saw a bear and quickly ran in the opposite direction.. she takes the batteries out of her hearing aid... My mother was terribly houseproud. On Saturday mornings they'll watch television and get their own breakfast so we can have a lie-in.. 12. My father's quite a wealthy man. He borrows some from whoever's around. she . So I had to spend hours trying to get them off. I got a new bicycle when I was ten. 18.1 remember my Aunt Susan very well. He's painfully shy. 7. Class was about to begin. using will or would. 4. I. (listen) intently and question her for . 10. My first boyfriend was an incurable romantic..... (take) a flashlight to bed with me so that I could read comic books without my parents' knowing about it. but he always pays it back. Then she . Illiteracy is still a problem in my country. 2. She gets the lead and she tugs at my trousers until I stand up. When I was young.. and are not contracted. but he goes out without any money. to illustrate the following past habits. 9. isn't he? III. 4. she . 15. Andrew could be very selfish at times. underline the modal verb to show that it is stressed.. When Simon was a child. (often) where he's parked his car.. but for years I . My friends . (stand) up and (clear) her throat. 5. My daughter keeps interrupting me when I'm trying to concentrate. My dog followed me round wherever I went. 4. If the speaker finds the behaviour annoying. I. But they will fight about which one should feed the cat. 3. 8. My grandfather sat in his rocking chair for hours. (let. 13. (smile. It works! It's impossible to get through to her! 7. always) and .. Every morning. if we had a severe winter we were cut off for weeks on end. When we arrived each morning. 2. (be) afraid of flying. (be) very shy. But now I'm used to flying and enjoy it. My heart .. My grandfather was such a kind man. 11. 2. My aunt loved writing letters. but it. I wish you wouldn't be so fussy! 9. we . or will.. He's always telling jokes. we .. When my aunt. Otherwise. the Present Continuous (with always. V.. 2. I . Robert has got a very bad memory.. 6. to illustrate the following characteristics. He makes me laugh. she . He kept asking me the most stupid questions. He'll not only tell funny stories.. He used to know if something was wrong. (wake) up to the sound of singing birds. Our neighbours are really friendly.. 7. and he'd always make it better. use would whenever possible in the following sentences. 3. He . 1. But my son is so good-natured. 10. That was our signal to be quiet. isn't she? 8. When we went out for a walk. using either used to or would. My daughter is a bit naughty.). it isn't surprising!' 6. Will' and 'would' Both are used to express characteristic behaviour. using either the Present Simple. She . (ask) to ride it... IV. 6. She's such an optimist... I . My flatmate adores tea... (often) hours just looking out of the window. (hide) in a closet. My sister was so untidy when she was young. My grandmother . 7. When my grandfather was a boy and had a cold. he was so spoilt.. My grandmother used to get very cross because he put his muddy boots on the table. In order to practise using would to express a repeated action in the past. He has terrible table manners.. He's so adventurous. 1. He bought me flowers every Friday. he . his mother . When he was younger. When the bell rang. My parents were very interested in amateur theatricals..

. used to or would. It's a wonder I had any education at all.1 don't remember very much about my childhood. show me something new... Translate from Russian into English. 12. Oh I'll never forget that smell. If you will/would wait a minute I'll see if Mr Jones is free. live next to a railway line. If you'd fill up this form. carry radios everywhere they went.. VIII. 8. especially on summer mornings. Джон очень любит читать. 6. 10. we . live in a large house. My wife's always asking me 'When you were a boy. have a lot of money. When we were children. 1. In summer. когда я уже сплю.. something interesting... if+would like/care can be used instead of if+want/ wish and is more polite: If you would like to come I'll get a ticket for .every detail. Before he went to prison. 13. My father and I would go together. be afraid of the dark.) If Tom would tell me what he wants for his dinner I'd cook it for him. 4.' We didn't .. so innocent. always take an umbrella with him whether it was raining or not.. When they'd finished cutting it. §17.) will can be used to express obstinate insistence: If you will play the drums all night no wonder the neighbours complain. I got on very well with my mother. and together we climbed the hills while the rest of the world was sleeping.. Sharon . После работы он обычно дожидался нас у моста. Stay with me. I remember a few years ago it.. We . When he went out. be crowded every night. can take would or used to? b. We lived in the country. (The speaker implies that Tom is unwilling to tell her. however. (If he is unwilling to listen/ If he refuses to listen . would is the more polite form. Every time a train went past. a.) I would be very grateful if you would make the arrangements for me. can take only used to? c. Он часто засыпал с книжкой в руках и с очками на носу. Years ago I. Each time we went out together he . 2. As a boy. VII. shake. 4. they'd burn the ends with a sort of candle. 11.. if you will/would is often used in polite requests. Sometimes she'd say to me 'Don't go to school today. As a boy. if+will/would can be used with all persons to indicate willingness: If he'll listen to me I'll be able to help him. (If they refuse to accept . я имела обыкновение проводить выходные дни в библиотеке... think that dressing in black looked great. I can't remember. Вечера он по большей части проводил за игрой в шахматы. 7. I crept out of the house. all get up early and go for a swim. 2. I had the shortest hair in the school. (Please wait.. Which of the verbs in italics .. IX. Он имеет обыкновение звонить мне поздно вечером. (in a shop) If you'd put your address on the back of the cheque.. A... I remember I used to have my hair cut every Friday. The speaker assumes that the other person will comply as a matter of course. 3. ) If they won't accept a cheque we'll have to pay cash. Special uses of will/would in if-clauses Normally will and would are not used after if in conditional sentences. if the weather was fine. I.. Now retell the story... we didn't use to talk very much. just walk out of the room. but it wasn't the same. (in a classroom) If you'd open your books... so carefree.. 5. using the Past Simple.. Он часами просиживает за чтением книг. 2.. I got up early. the number of days I missed from school. did you use to . the whole house . Когда я была студенткой.. 7.) won't used in this way can mean 'refuse': If he won't listen to me I can't help him. Once I walked for twenty miles. 1.. we weren't very close.... and without waking my parents.. have long hair... especially on summer mornings. go for long walks. 14. I went back there last year.' and I reply 'I don't know. Joe and his friends . When I was little.. I . 5... Study and practise the texts. (in a hotel) If you'd just sign the register. have a motorbike. When she was young she . 3. Whenever Arthur was angry. In her youth Marion . must stay in the Past Simple? B. or if we were.. Летом мы обычно ходили в лес за грибами и ягодами. 6.. I loved those days. Which of these sentences can be completed with either used to or would? Which of them can only be completed with used to? 1. (If he is willing to listen . VI. and my parents got very worried. 9.' And we'd go out shopping or something like that.. be much thinner. we didn't show it. I used to tell her everything — or nearly everything — and she'd talk to me openly too. He . we lived by the sea.) л. That cinema is nearly always empty now. he . he . We had a dog called Rex.. and the hills behind our house were beautiful. I liked going for long walks. actually.. (If you insist on playing . There are.. Jack .. if you would + infinitive is often used alone when the request is one which would normally be made in the circumstances. Look at the following text.. certain exceptions.

.. you have a cigarette? — No. 2. He . She shall pay for it... She . 1. You shall do as you like now and always. Paula: I've got to tell Mr Tanqueray.) 14. let's... 1.. and tyrants ..... I say called? — You needn't mention my name... please? 34. Who .. He shall do it whether he wants it or not. In less formal English must or are to would be used instead of shall in the above sentences.. (7 won't let him come. my beloved child. Вы можете работать здесь. Examples of shall used to express a command: Yachts shall go round the course. (negative) get your visa. In the past.. Who . 36. вы непременно услышите об этом. . (obstinate insistence) 18.1 ... the little artful creature. If he'd like to leave his car here he can. passing the marks in the correct order.. 11. . Eliza. Don't be afraid. They shall not pass = We won't let them pass. Вам никто не помешает... so he shall not get any sweets. not come here again. Вы ответите за ваши действия! 3. not have to do any cooking for a month. You shall go up and down and round the town in a taxi every day.. I don't smoke. 10. Это можно сделать. not triumph over us..e. The child has been lazy. Both these uses are old-fashioned and formal and normally avoided in modern spoken English. 'She shall go off tomorrow. If you . Hugh: By God. There shall be no difficulty about money.' //. Вы этого не сделаете. He . — If you don't. Если ты будешь вести себя так. 3. I put it? — Put it behind the piano. 17. see if I don't.. Ты получишь деньги обратно. Eliza: Well. 13. and (B) a command. which annoys me very much. I put more salt in the stew? 35. What . 'You shall get a sweet' = He promised me a sweet. He shan't come here = I won't let him come here... 32.. Your father . I be in six years' time. we go to the cinema? — Yes. (We won't let them triumph.. 8. not be here next week. When you are in bed I. запомните это! 2. (He refuses. ты будешь наказан. 20.. 30... 15. Eliza.. у тебя будет новый велосипед.. 24. passing the marks in the correct order. It shall be done as you wish. Intention. you? III.) 13. Eliza.... spend what you like. Если ты будешь хорошо заниматься. and when we get home you ... not apologize. 21. You shall not run away before you answer. we do with all the food that's left over? 21... Clause in lease: The tenant . command: shall Shall in the second and third persons can express (A) the subject's intention to perform a certain action or to cause it to be performed. He . 37. Theatre regulation: Persons .. 11... obey his owner but a cat . 39. you shall steer from time to time. Do you know the way? No? Then I . 16.. I promise you. not come here again. There shall be no war.. show you. The victory of peace can and shall be won... 'You shall never see me again!' 9. it is usually necessary to change the wording: He said. Anyone found guilty of robbery shall be shot at once.' she said.. 18.. no one else .... 42.. We will unite to resist oppression.' he said... (yacht-racing rules) Members shall enter the names of their guests in the book provided. May I go on with the work or .' the doctor tried to soothe the mother. and in future you shall have as many taxis as you want. Mr Gummer....) 1... 19. 8. B. in indirect speech. stamping her foot. By this time next year I . madam. i. not. (I'll certainly tell him. be responsible for all repairs. with great energy. not bite unless it is startled.. 28. 2.. You shall answer for it! 5.. you stand quite still for a moment. threat or warning): You shall have a sweet = I'll give you a sweet or I'll see that you get a sweet. If you're a good boy. 5. 16. What . That day shall come. 22. Where . A dog . 'You shall stay just where you are!' cried Pheasant.you. When . (obstinate insistence) 9. you hear the result? — I .) 4. You shall repent of this neglect of duty. Activities /. Analyse the modal meanings of shall and translate the sentences into Russian. Я . Higgins: You have. write the names of their guests in the book provided. Don't worry. Examples of shall used to express the speaker's intention (promise.. Higgins: Listen.) 6. This kind of snake . .. If you'd care to see the photographs I'll bring them round. Where .. (club rules) This construction is chiefly used in regulations or legal documents. dear. . tell the same story over and over again.. 6... 17. fill up this form! The questions are impertinent. not hear for another week. take this letter to the post for me? — I . I think you said you came in a taxi. Когда мы узнаем что-нибудь. I saw it was an accident. 26. You shall have no cause to complain of me. 1. Who'll help me? — I .' said Mrs Sedley. ... see to it. 27. She . hear of this. I wonder? 12. 8. 'That's the last time!' she cried. 5. You've been a good child.. Не беспокойся. 23. go round the course. I wait for further instructions? 38. Translate from Russian into English.. you shall do nothing of the sort.. Do you understand? No one else! 40. help me we can finish by six. But remember this: what I can't have. never do anything you tell her. He . 31. be at work.. be earning my own living. be done to your child. I only wish to do as my own darling pleases. A. 20. 4.. 7. Hold the door open for me. Use will or shall to fill the spaces in the following sentences.. 6. I'm going to a hotel. Yachts . Think of that. 'I promise you it shall never happen again.. 'I ... He . everything . what if I did? I've as good a right to take a taxi as anyone else. I put it on your desk? — Please do. 'No harm .. we do now? — Wait. . she shall. 12.. 15. You shall not be punished.. 33. 19... You shall do what you like. not be permitted to sit in the gangways. . Club rule: Members .. Police notice: . thanks.. I .. . 10.. Jane.. 'Forgive me. . you .. 29. I . 3. 41. know who I am. и это будет сделано. I shall make you happy. Sometimes either could be used. I . be arranged as you want. (extract from Yacht Racing Rules) 25.. anyone who witnessed the accident please ring 2222. play his radio very loudly. 14. have a sweet (I'll give you a sweet.. 4.. 7... always say something which makes us laugh.

. 4.. can you look after her until I come? 2... be fined. (agree) //.' they said to us. I don't think Ann will arrive before I get home but. If you should see Tom this evening.. если ты подождешь меня. It is interesting (that) you should say that. Use each verb only once. I'm sorry that you . . 'Stay in bed for a few days. 'Let's go to the cinema. 4.' he said to us.. you mind opening the door? 2.. It is important (that) we should arrive on time. sit for hours watching the ships... you . With should the speaker is less certain. That dress doesn't suit you. the exams if she wants to go to university. . (suggest) 5. It is essential (that) he should be prepared for this. III. 'Yes.. interesting. It's very important that everyone . It's funny that you .. 9..00. (suggest) 2... should. If you pulled the communication cord the train .. Complete each sentence using should and the most suitable verb in the box.. Вас долго не задержат. . but it's important that everybody should stay calm. 4. can you ask him to phone me? 1..' she said to me. 10.. I agreed (that) we should tell the police. . It's essential that Sarah . I am sorry (that) he should feel so unhappy. You can also begin with should (before the subject): Should you see Tom this evening. Put should or would in the spaces in the following sentences. 9. without saying goodbye? 7. Adjective + should We can use (that) . 1. §18. stop and you .' the doctor said to him. (recommend) 3.. very carefully. (insist) They insisted (that) I should visit them. 5. Other uses of should Verb + should We can use that.. Example The situation is very difficult. I don't think there will be any letters for me while I'm away but . 2. no one will be more pleased than I... Я буду тебе благодарен.. we often leave out that in an informal style... you be so good as to keep an eye on my house while I am away? 6. so angry.. should after verbs like suggest. (demand) 6.. can you tell him to phone me? Activities I..позабочусь об этом. should .. 1. natural and similar adjectives.. should . It was embarrassing that Simon .. 10.. 5.. I was surprised (that) she should fail/have failed the exam. It's only natural that parents . so they . I .. I was going to say the same thing. 'You must help me. recommend. . can you send them on to this address? 3. (insist) 4.. 7. 6... . you please help me with this? 11. If it should rain. I was surprised (that) she failed the exam. . I didn't mean to upset you.. about their children.30.. They went to the cinema at 2. you like another cup of coffee? 3.. IV. print an apology. She insisted (that) I should take the money.. essential. Вы еще пожалеете! 11. 'Why don't you apply for the job?' she said to me. У вас только проверят документы... I don't think you will see Jane but . give her my love..' they said to me. It is advisable (that) every one should have a map. into the room just as we were talking about him.. The old admiral . 'You must pay the rent by Friday at the latest. It is important (that) we arrive on time. just let me know. 'You really must stay a little longer.. come pass feel worry listen leave say 1. strange. say nothing about it if I were you... I don't think he will succeed but ... In this exercise you have to use if .. buy another. that. should after adjectives which express feelings eg surprised.' she said to me.. 5. 'Why don't you go away for a few days?' Jack said to me.... (insist) 8. I don't suppose you'll need any help but . (suggest) 7. agree.' he said to me. // . 3. I suggest (that) he should see the doctor. let's invite him to the party. as in the example.. sorry. . Ideas like these can also be expressed without should. Example 'You must visit us. Example: I don't suppose you'll see Tom this evening but if you should see him.. should after adjectives such as important. It .. can you tell him to phone me? This is similar to 'If you see Tom' (without should). Isn't it typical of him that he ... Report these ideas using the verbs in brackets followed by (that) . be back here by 6. He insisted that the newspaper .. We also use (that). insist. can you bring in the washing from the garden? Don't worry if I should be late home tonight.. shocked. 8.

.. 5.. sit for hours beside a mousehole..... но она отказалась.. 3.. 15.. Translate them into Russian.... you rather stay here? 19... §19... Если случится так.. be much more careful....... Мне жаль..... I need to go to the bank. Need you bring your girl-friend with you? 2. Я был удивлен.... 21. Do you need to work hard? 14. 17.. In the affirmative.. You needn't have brought your umbrella after all. we use need as a modal: — in questions: Need you go so soon? Need you have told him the truth? — with 'negative adverbs' (eg hardly): I need hardly tell you how important this is. 18.. 16.... see him at once. что в ее возрасте она так безразлична к вечеринкам.... 'I'm not ambitious..... You need not meet me unless you like. я дам тебе знать... 11.... Отец согласился.. муж настаивает на том. think that..... Translate from Russian into English.. 7...... 32... Он был доволен... чтобы мы купили подарок Джону.... 31. 34.. 10...' 'You don't need to tell me that. 13..is very strange that he ... Perhaps you .... He ordered that Tom .... что надо что-то делать с мальчиком. Если вдруг кто-нибудь позвонит.. It's hardly necessary for me to explain it. be kind enough to let us know about this......... It was decided that the matter . Does he need to . ring please say that I'll be back at six.. change your mind..... It hasn't rained.. 2..... Need we insist upon the date? 13............. Everyone ... refuse.... Вот я и подумал........... который скоро покидает фирму.. be in bed.. что ведь абсурд... You . Отец потребовал..... 4..... leave the house at once...... 15..... What are you doing here? You .. ......... 5.. 24.. they ................. если пойдет дождь............... Does he need to study more at home? 3. скажи... It is essential that this matter . The forecast was for fine weather so I didn't need to bring my umbrella... 15.. I wish he . что она приедет. be referred to a special committee.. Did you need a passport to go to Scotland? 18.. do this for me..... at any time fail to give complete satisfaction please post us the enclosed card.. You needn't have protested.. It is important that I ... You needn't be nervous about that... It wasn't necessary for you to have said that. Они все согласились. чтобы я провел лето на море.... . что мы живем рядом и не разговариваем. Is it necessary for you to go so soon? Need you go? Do you need to go? 2.. Explain the forms of need in the following sentences... 2. I ....... There is no need for him to learn about this...... 7..... If the telephone . 8........ I needn't have phoned the plumber.. like to know where you have been.... he .. you be very kind and lend me your typewriter? 14...... я останусь дома.... There are too many accidents. Он настаивал на том. 8.. be most grateful if you . 20.... //............ Мы можем опоздать.. Their method was always the same..... 1. not play his radio so loudly. He suggested that the money . В случае..... It was obvious. 6.... Мэри предложила...... 26. 12. 9...... obey him..... be kept out of the newspapers..... She said that if he didn't like to come to her parties he needn't come at all. If this machine ......... Otherwise..... wait till their victim had left the bank and then go up to him and ask for a light. be raised by public subscription... either... 18.. you . / don't think there is any need for you to explain..... not argue with your father.. 13.... 5.......... the pain return take one of these pills. Мой . 25... 19..... 16. Необходимо ... He is anxious that everyone .... 19.... что он не сдал экзамен. All that is necessary for you to do is to agree. If you .... Activities J... 27. чтобы я взял отпуск.. I needn't have gone to the meeting yesterday.. not ask so many questions. You needn't be afraid of me...... 12. Врач порекомендовал........... что ты так плохо обо мне думаешь. It is warm... V..... you like to come or ..... 1. You won't need to take a coat....... I wish you ... Is it necessary for me to wait till you return?..... this address will always find me.... 4.. После ужина он предложил пойти в кино........ I need hardly say that I agree with you.. 29. Было странно. 3. 14.. Я предлагаю взять такси... Replace the phrases in italics with modal need or the full verb need to.....' 11.. understand why he acted as he did.. 17............. 16.... 10. If he offered me money I ... 23...... 30...... что Кэт все же назвала ребенка в его честь... чтобы мы провели отпуск в Париже... .. 6. 33.. modal full verb 1. It's not necessary for them to wait... Важно.... I ...... чтобы вы упомянули об этом... I learnt later that John had already phoned him. что я вернусь к 5 часам..... He was a very patient cat.. чтобы я принял участие в поездке....... чтобы она пришла пораньше.. 6. 3...... 17... Need and dare as modals and as full verbs Need as a modal and as a full verb 1... 28... 12...... 4. 22.. чтобы я бросил курить. He doesn't even need to do it for a living. 7. 9. we generally use the full verb need to (used like any regular verb): I need to/ I don't need to/I needed to/I didn't need to go to the dentist this morning. We use need as a modal (without to after it) mainly in the negative to mean 'it isn't necessary': I needn't go to the meeting today. 8..

I did not dare to . We use dare as a modal (that is.. dear. It would have been rude. 1. you needn't drink it. 3. need I own a car before I can start? ' Instructor: No. Did you need to help him? 22. is the most common. but / daren't say so/I daren't have said so/I didn't dare (to) say so/I dared not say so. He dared not look into her face. They offered me something strange to eat which I . we use dare as a modal: — in questions: Dare you do it? — with 'negative adverbs' (eg hardly): I hardly dare tell him what happened. mention this.. You dare raise your voice! _d 2. He felt he dared not reply. He's the only person who'll dare (to) stand up to her!___ 5. lack of courage: I don't dare (to) tell the children that their holiday has been cancelled. We use it in the affirmative and negative like any other verb. but you need to know your highway code in detail.. 3. 2. challenge: I dare you to jump off that wall. 5.! T. no doubt) you are right. 4. courage: Very few climbers have dared (to) attempt Mount Everest without oxygen.. but she . I dare say you're a little tired after your walk. without to after it) mainly in the negative to express lack of courage: I daren't tell him the truth. Analyse the uses of dare in the following sentences and translate them into Russian. 4. tell them I had broken their favourite vase. He needs to save money for his holiday. I wanted to ask for some time off.. etc. She said that if he didn't like to come to her parties he needn't come at all.. In fact.. And note: I didn't like the meal . didn't dare (do). If you don't like the cocktail. Supply dare.___ 7.. dare not have (done).___ 11. refuse. 5.. 4. but I was very bored.. V.___ 6. c. but we . or d: a — courage b — lack of courage с — challenge d — outrage 1. 'Challenging' is common in the language of children.___ 8.. but you still haven't paid for those tickets. and this use is relatively rare. I daren't ask for more money. 8. In the affirmative. I daren't ask for any more money. This use of dare (to). Need I pay? 24. but I didn't dare. — in the expression I daresay (or I dare say): I daresay (= I suppose. We use dare only as a full verb with to for challenging. I . Jeff: Do I need to do a written test as well as a practical one? Instructor: No. 1. said so. tell them I've just broken their favourite vase. daren't. Could you explain to me what I have to do? For instance. I dare you to put a spider in her desk. I daren't have said so at the time. 23. 2. say so at the time. I hardly . but I .. outrage: How dare you read my private diary! We use dare only as a modal without to when expressing outrage.. 4.___ 3.. John never dares to stand up in public and say what he thinks. I'm going to break the door down! — Just you dare!___ VI. Jeff: So all I really need now is the money for a course of lessons — and my courage! The form of dare as a modal and as a full verb 1. we prefer to use our own cars as they have dual controls. 21. 2.. How dare you speak to me like that?___ 4. III. She'd like to wear more unconventional clothes. 9. IV.. He lost his job because he dared (to) speak out. What do the sentences below express? Choose a. Jeff: I'd like to learn to drive.arrange a visa? 20. Don't you dare do anything like that in public again!___ 10. We also form questions with do/does/did: Do you dare tell him? I don't dare tell him. Jill's friends dared her to bring her pet snake to class. Dare (to) is in the affirmative here. . 6. Study and practise. I'm going to tell your mother what you've just said! — Just you .___ 12. we ask for more money after what he has just said? 5. you certainly don't need to have a car. I knew I was right. 3. 2. We didn't like the meal they gave us. in the negative..___ 9. We can use dare to as-a full verb: Do you dare to tell him? I don't dare to tell him. Her face bore an expression of such ferocity that no one dared come near to speak with her.. b. Uses of dare We use dare in four ways to express: 1.. 3. I ....

'Still there may be truth in what he said. 42. With laughing and jokes they handled things which formerly they had not dared touch. Combine the correct forms of dare and need with the verbs in brackets. 'She smashed his kite. you know! 59.' she said.. 'You must listen to me.' 'No wonder you're tired in the morning. Do you think you could complete it by the evening? 53. the pilot. We won't argue about that. 8. No one dared to live in the house since. 'I've heard of a plane flying off a roof. You may as well have a drink while you listen. I shouldn't have troubled you. there was a tremendous noise and the top of the plane was torn away! Ninety-four passengers (not move) . They may not have come back yet. Awfully sorry.' he said irritably. What can have happened to change him so much? 5. 41. He took a position from which he could see what was going around. 'Don't you dare to speak to me!' she screamed. This was a scene — it could be nothing else and he must face it.. wouldn't he? It's typical! 61. 'you must send for me. I hear somebody's steps on the stairs. No. 46. my mouth.ask him to call off his trip. Why will you bother me so about my health? 16. 56. He had to go — he was obliged to go.. I'm afraid that we're going to have to move. 'I must do my best for her. Jim Wilson. Boys as they go to boarding schools should hold their heads up. was firmly in control. 55. 13. . you know. It isn't the time to argue now. . You ought to take an English course. Study and practise. Not even the painful ones. Activities I. b. VII. 4. She must be coming! 44. You could easily have been killed. 1. 18. How many years is it since we danced together? I daren't think. But what is the best?' 27. 10. 36. The rules said you must lie quietly at rest in your bed as a help to getting well. 14. but I dare say he will be before long. Discuss the difference. I will make your excuses to Margaret. 20. relief. 'Boys of your age ought to be in bed by eight. 29. Could I use your phone? c. My son is not in town. I won't. 31. we are not going to fight at all if you'll only let me talk. 7.1 think we might be great friends. 'What can I do for you?' he said in cordial tones. Devit's expression showed disappointment. 19. Do you dare to come with me? Jake: Why not? It could be fun. Who dares to jump over the stream? 7. How dare you talk to me like that? 9. 8. Translate the sentences into Russian. wondering what would happen next. 11. 3. Madam. He's obstinate. Mother. 6. to see about the land over there! 11. Peter: I've just failed my exams. 'If you are in trouble. 33. 39.' cried Fleur. You shall not search my rooms. Jack would get lost. 'but never of a roof flying off a plane!' VIII. 22. 'What's happened to the dog?' I said. 30.' 2. of course. It might have been worse. You should have left me alone. 57. You might have asked me if I had an objection. I wonder what that could have meant? 51. It's all I'm fit for. Peter: Well. You can be really annoying.' The passengers embraced the pilot who had brought the plane down safely. 28.. The arrangement was that you were to give your views and I was to say what I thought of them. he's always hard up. Someone's got to do it sometime and it might as well be you. Remember. 15. though there was plenty of unwelcome fresh air! 'I (not open) . Can I give him any message? 16. For 25 minutes they hardly (breathe) .' 6. We might walk part of the way. You should take an English course.' he suggested. 23.. 'he left her to me in his will. it's some of the money I ought to have had. I don't think I'd even dare to go home. may I speak to you a moment? 9. Cars must not be parked in front of the entrance. I'll go to France and find a job there.' thought he. a. She did not dare to leave the house in case he telephoned. 'You can't have done it!' 38. You might have drowned! 60. 49. Jake: I'm not surprised. if any. 'Oh. but could you leave the boy here if only for half an hour? 62. You won't have to walk more than a few yards..' 24. You can go if you want to.. He could not have left her at such a moment — he couldn't! 10. 'I hardly (tell) . you how terrified I was. By the end of the evening I almost felt that I ought to call him 'Uncle Jack'. 15. 1. 'The old actor was drunk. 35.. Felix said hastily. . 14. They (not worry). 54.' 'He must be crasy. 'How dare she come here!' cried Davidson indignantly. 'You ought to have arranged an appointment.' 13.. I've got to run now because I have a date. a little anger. 52. Perhaps for the first time in his life Freddy would not listen to his father. I think I ought to stand the tickets. 'It's early yet. 48. Surely Holly might have told him all this before. Look up. Percy. He needn't have bought such a large house. Let's ring them up and find out. You can get a taxi just at the end of the street. 25. I must consider what ought to be done. I must talk to you. in that case. May I use your phone? b. If you will keep your watch half an hour slow it is hardly surprising that you are late for your appointments. 40.. Suddenly. Judging from the books and papers on his writing — table he must have been working for several hours. 26. //. in the following groups of sentences. We may have to take steps. 63. I daren't tell my father. Why should we put an end to all that's sweet and lovely? "What must come will come. Comment on the uses of the modal verbs. Tom. Blanche? 17. 12. One mustn't shirk one's responsibilities. because Robert Schornsteimer. I've got to go out to dinner now. His wife would have been quite happy in a cottage. Need you be so inflexible. 'It isn't here. 37.' joked one of them later. 12.' I said. a. Surely you can't have eaten all of it. 21. 'Forgive me. 32.' thought Jolyon. 'Shall I serve?' said Doris. Need it be finished by Saturday? 47. Can I use your phone? 2. I'm quite well and I will not go abroad. He does not dare to come here again. 45. look up. It is but right they should do their share. It was a routine flight from Hilo on Hawaii to Kahului 110 miles away.' 43. 34. He says he'll never forgive her for that till his dying day.' one of the passengers said later. His master may have taken it with him. and when he's once made up his mind nothing can move him.' she said with almost an accent of command. You are to use it to make your way. He'd never dare to do an operation on his own responsibility. 50.' 58.

a) You don't have to work so hard. He might have gone home. You should have asked Tom. I think it's wrong for you to work so hard. It could be Sally. I will be at your house by six о clock. c. b) We can't lock the cat in the house for a week. You must take an English course. Choose the sentence closest in meaning to the sentence given. you should talk to Mrs Anderson. c. a. 5. c. 11. 2. You must not use that door. I've got to go. I used to go to the beach every weekend with my friends.c. a. It might be Sally. It may be Sally. It's rather late. I know. b) You'd better not ring him now. b) We should know all the answers tomorrow. e. I should be at your house by six o'clock. Each student should have a health certificate. Ю. 7. f. a) We'd better not lock the cat in the house for a week. 6. . 3. He must have gone home. We must go out to eat instead. I'm supposed to go. — Where's Jack? a. It can't be Mike. I'd prefer to go. Each student is to have a health certificate. It couldn't be Mike. You don't have to use that door. — I needed some help. b. b. 4. 7. It's rather late. a. When I was living at home. b. — There's a knock at the door. c. 8. Who do you suppose it is? a. d. It may not be Mike. ///. If you're having a problem. I have to go. You're supposed to take an English course. a) You won't come if you don't want to. a. 5. You needn't come if you don't want to. I'd better go. a) These might be the keys. You should see a doctor about that cut on your arm. It's rather late. It's possible that we'll know the answers tomorrow. I should go. You have to see a doctor about that cut on your arm. It would be quite wrong for us to lock the cat in the house for a week. b.a. I would go to the beach every weekend with my friends. a. b. a. You had better see a doctor about that cut on your arm. 9. b. We could go out to eat instead. b. b) You don't have to come if you don't want to. a. b) You shouldn't work so hard. Why don't we go out to eat instead? a) I know. — There is a knock at the door. b. I think it's Mike. It must be Sally. He had to go home. you could talk to Mrs Anderson. d. a) You might not ring him now. You could have asked Tom. If you're having a problem. d. Perhaps these are the keys. b) I know. b. c. 13. b. b) These must be the keys. a. c. I don't think you should ring him now. 6. 12. 4. a) We may know all the answers tomorrow. Each student must have a health certificate. 1. When I was living at home. 3. b.

have You don't. be The cat. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals. Don't be silly...... 1.. Please turn off the light before leaving............ be John . MAY 10. 11..... Use between two and five words.... 4............ might not..... can or can't. 9. mustn't.... CAN'T 6.. You needn't come with me if you don't want to. 3..8.. in the house somewhere. It makes no difference if we call it off... I'm sure it isn't the way to Norwich.. I expect this beach will be deserted.. It would be a good idea if Harry took a holiday........ You ...to the main hall at 9.. Jim keeps giving me presents....... start spending more time on your work. must. Mary knows how to stand on her head.... better! VIII..... but this is very important to me..... She says she's stuck in the traffic and she ...... I'm sure that Helen feels really lonely. Don't stand up in the boat! You .. 9... WILL 9.. Me learn to fly! You ...... I expect this beach will be deserted. if there isn't too much traffic..... I'm sure that Brenda isn't over thirty... 7. should We.. You really ..00. I am sure that the cat is in the house somewhere. expect me to believe you! 8... 5. MIGHT 7. You .... That's a really stupid idea! You .an aerial with this radio..... go to Prague for Christmas this year. so you . must.. had I think you had better give up smoking immediately... b) The decision will be announced next week. 2..... Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence....... SHOULD 2......... 8... 1... 14........ 13.. could.. 3. using the word given.......... More than one answer may be possible. 2..... drive.............. This climb is possibly dangerous.. Complete each sentence so that it contains might... a) The decision might be announced next week. Arthur is sometimes really irritating! .. 5...... surely! 6.. What would you advise me to do? 7. I don't think he'll be long. 8.... You should leave before Jack gets back. Bill cooked the lunch.. the thief...... I think you should give up smoking immediately........ It would be the same if we gave up now. It's possible for anyone to break into this house! 10.... stay the night here if he wants to.... It is very inconvenient if you can't drive..... fall in the river! 2. An aerial is not required with this radio..... 1. if there isn't too much traffic. Do you want me to turn off the oven......... have to or should (including negative forms)..00.. Don't bother lying to me. It's possible that the decision will be announced next week. IV. be serious.00... All students should report to the main hall at 9. or not? SHOULD 5.... realise it...... I expect we will get there by 5...to bring my passport? 4.. Arthur is sometimes really irritating! CAN 3. You're not allowed to park here.... 6...... I am sure that John is not the thief. 9.............. 12.. How about going to the theatre instead? COULD 4..... to It's very inconvenient if... 5. 1... 4.. 7......... be late. I'm sure this isn't the way to Norwich. Tell Peter he . 3.. I thought that you would know better! ought You ...... HAD VI.. are All students. and so that the meaning stays the same. Is it necessary for me to bring my passport? have Do... Rewrite each sentence so that it contains can......... Do I need a different driving licence for a motorbike? 6. SHOULD 8. be joking! 10. expect anything special! IX...... 5.00... HAVE 11........ The dentist will see you soon.... We're not sure but we .

. 1.. so can I offer you some tea? like You must be thirsty..... tea? 11........... I) It should have heard something.. know the answers...... j) A..... be the place I suppose. XII. I'm sure that Karen was a beautiful baby..... 16. should I don't think... but he left. Cairo .... I) You must have been injured......... Rule 6.. This ....my wallet at home. take a cold lunch with us......... 2) Sorry......... How about going to the lake? We . could I. .......... he should have got lost.. 1) Sorry.... You must use between two and five words........ Choose the most suitable response to each comment or question. 1) You shouldn't have connected these two wires. bought You........ not bother. was Jack.. No member .. What do you think about the election? B... so.... be quite cold in winter.... I send two copies or three? 6......... 1) That didn't have to be very pleasant! 2) That can't have been very pleasant! g) A. 12... Why did you worry about me? I didn't take any risks... 3................ 2) It must have heard something.. 5....... e) A.. B....... I) I needn't have worked this afternoon.... What about this meat? .... I had to look in my diary... Quite honestly.... Why are you home so early? B.... a dog. 2..... much worse I suppose.. have Sally. I wouldn't buy a dog..... enter the bar area wearing sports kit. Do not change the word given.. All students . Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.... We had a terrible crossing on the boat in a storm. There's a lot of food left over from the party. It's no use waiting here. It's odd that you .. i) A.. 14.15.................. 7........ but it doesn't look like it......... 15.. What did I do wrong? B..... Where were you yesterday? You didn't turn up! B....... 10... You forgot my birthday again! B. Harry studies a lot. He says it's wrong and he ... 5. 2) You didn't have to connect these two wires. 2) I must have gone to London.. Jack refuses....... Perhaps Alan didn't mean what he said.... but he left.that car. better not take any more medicine now........ B...... b) A........ do it....... 1) I don't know..... It was a mistake for you to buy that car...what he said... c) A... been Karen. well start walking....manager.... 8.... 13....... 1... 8..me......... a) A....... 2) I didn't have to work this afternoon.......... Why is the dog barking? B.... 4. 9....... 2) Yes.... It's possible that I left my wallet at home........ It wasn't necessary for me to go out after all.... It's possible that Bill saw me.. I should have looked in my diary........... 11....... 2) You could have been injured........ that really be Paula's husband? He looks so young........... Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase.. using the word given.. He ...... 2) I don't know...... f) A. XI.30.. You ... 4.. be the time.. What do you think has happened to Tony? B.... If I were you... 3...... 2) The Freedom Party should have won.. I'm not sure about my application.. you needn't have made so many sandwiches. have I needn't have gone out after all.. ...... I roast it or stew it? 10.......... Both the clocks say 4... a beautiful baby. How about going to the theatre instead? X.. so that ... You must be thirsty. meant Alan.. you might as . things .. know Wendy too! 2.. report to the registrar's office on arrival......... 1) Yes... Oh well........... shouldn't You... d) A....... There was a plan for Jack to become manager...bike..... I) The Freedom Party had to win.. ... 7.....enjoyed her holiday.... ...... I think you were wrong to sell your bike... he might have got lost....... you couldn't have made so many sandwiches.... isn't there? B....... may Bill.... I don't think Sally enjoyed her holiday.. 1) I had to go to London. h) A. 9............. 6. We ........

He ...... so he .. It wouldn't have been right to let you do all COULDN'T the work on your own.. 2. and so that the meaning stays the same. The party .. The meat is a bit burnt.... Perhaps Pam and Tim decided not to come. done it........... Tony is supposed to be here by now.. XV............ hear of it... Fancy accepting the job like that! You .. late at the office after all. 3......... I'm sure they haven't eaten all the food... The results are expected tomorrow......... XVII.. You really .... have You. There is only one solution....... It's impossible that we stayed at the same hotel. 1..... You . It's not possible! 6........ I suppose that this is Trafalgar Square..... must.. So it was you who set off the fire alarm for a joke! I . Don't worry that Carol is late.come early today.. 19. go to school...... told her! 5.. We .. met my brother...... 2. A child ............... known! 10.......... It's been more than a week.. you . Jack is supposed to have arrived an hour ago. been killed! 4. 23... Rewrite each sentence so that it contains can't.... I think you .. 8....the answer....12......... Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase. 3... she . It was unnecessary for you to come early today. I think it was the cat that took the fish from the table! 9..... The plane is late.. noticed you.. That was a lucky escape! You ..... 6. 9. broken your vase....... easier in fact! 13. be This.....Trafalgar Square. I . Pay attention to what Martin said.. It wasn't very nice of you not to invite me to MIGHT your party........home yet... 14..... them in advance... 12... . PLAY 6..... It was a waste of time worrying. 9.. cooked it for so long....... I did tell you! 16... have some news by now! 24.. should or needn't......... landed by now... missed the train.. after all! 10.. might.. I spent last week at the beach because I didn't ... It . KNOW 8.. The test was no problem at all... 17.. given me a ring... been Jean's plane. 15.. He . 14. 5.. I begged David to accept some money. The butler .. I .. I wouldn't wake her up if I were you. here by now. 15... 16.. It's not necessary for you to wear a uniform.. NEED XVI.. MIGHT 7.. Perhaps this is the answer...... I haven't got one! 8...... 11... I don't believe that you have lost your keys CAN'T again! 5... more time on it... 4. They escaped possible injury when the car HAVE crashed.. Perhaps they didn't notice the tire was flat.. 17. It ... really good! 18...... here when Helen told the boss not to be so lazy! 21. A visa wasn't necessary after all... Mary was a talented violinist at the age of ten. There were plenty of tickets left for the concert. 1......... 20....... given everything he or she wants. 7.... 22.... Sally got home at four this morning...... It was a mistake to park outside the police station.. I'm sure that Liz hasn't met Harry before. 1... have gone to so much trouble! 25... If you felt lonely...... You . but he .... Thank you very much for buying me flowers! SHOULDN'T 3. have Jack..... asked me first! 12... 13.. I'm home early. 2.. serious.. be This. have thought that it was rather difficult.. I'm sure that Jack hasn't left home yet.. I'm sure that David took your books by mistake.... I'm sure Jack didn't mean to ignore you...... It was supposed to be a secret! You .... Hello.. Perhaps Jean's plane was delayed.. Peter wasn't here then.delayed... It was unnecessary for you to clean the floor... You .. 7.. 11..... 4.. been Tony..... in that case. You ..... Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals... This homework is not as good as usual...

6. had better get 5. He____..26.' A. was able to buy 8. It was funny that she should have remembered me. used to play C. It looks dark and dreary. may not have B. Dick painted his bedroom black.. will study D. which always got them into a lot of trouble. must be studying 3. 'Why are you so sure that Ann didn't commit the crime she's been accused of committing?' 'She___that crime because I was with her. Choose the correct completion. was supposed to buy D. 33.10.. It's funny . You mustn't have forgotten already! (error: can't have forgotten) 2. He____a different colour. 28. I have no idea who it was. happier! 27. Whenever my parents went out in the evening... and we were out of town on that day. wasn't supposed to . You really . He's reading his chemistry text because he has a test tomorrow. had to choose B. 10. could 4. Yesterday I ____to a furniture store. XIX. must have chosen D. 1. 4.. They___tricks on their teachers. he____work in the garden for hours. When Mr Lee was younger. Was it really necessary? You . 8. Why didn't you back me up! 3. 7. Surely it . You must have told me you had already eaten. I bought a new lamp there. may have played 7.. Paul shouldn't have been more helpful if he had tried. A. but now he has to take frequent rests because he has emphysema. I____the job of taking care of my younger brother. It's just not possible for the cat to have opened the fridge! 5. Our worrying so much was a waste of time. It's possible that the last person to leave didn't lock the door. 4.. He___it for a very good price. 1. noticed the car is parked on double yellow lines! 34. but the ladder didn't reach her window. I suppose . I couldn't have managed without you. 7. 3. Fortunately I needn't have gone to the bank in person. One thing is for sure. so much trouble over me. Frank might not have understood what you said. should get C. I wanted to go to the party. School uniform wasn't compulsory at my school. You mustn't have been so unkind! 9. went C. Tom is sitting at his desk. Correct any errors in these sentences. A. I'm sorry. 6.. He paid 30 percent less than the regular retail cost.. bought exactly the same dress as me! XVIII. You should have seen Jim's face! He . It's possible that they didn't notice us. A. A. 1. must have gotten D. The police refused to do anything about my noisy neighbours. A. but I suppose it would have been Ann. 31. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains a modal verb and so that the meaning stays the same. could have been choosing 2. would get B. George knew how to ride a bicycle when he was five. to tell the police. but it was snowing hard.. could have played D.. They . A. 29. 5. someone . Robert has a new car. 9. been Ann who told you. XX. could go B.. should be able to D.. Harry may have won the match with a bit more effort. A.. could have gone D.. has got to B. can C. you know. Keep your fingers crossed. 2. been a bit rude.. should be studying C. could study B. Jimmy and Maria were naughty children. 8. could buy B. The traffic warden . should have chosen C. could play B. saved her from the fire.. 32. had to buy C. ought to have gone 6.. known about it. It would have been possible for Helen to give us a lift. 30.

' 'I agree. Larry drove all night to get here for his sister's wedding. 'What does Mr Griffin do for a living?' 'Nothing. shouldn't C. We got an early start and it took less time than we expected. will have been 13. Must we D. might not C.' 'You're right.' A. Why don't you C. couldn't have committed 9.' 'I agree. Why don't you take an umbrella?' 'That's a good idea.' A.' A. had better not D. had better put B. must 17. must D. will be B. I didn't know it was still in the shopping bag.' A. 'I____there at 6 p. Can you B. '____you hand me that pair of scissors. 'You haven't eaten anything since yesterday afternoon.m. Should 12. Could you please 15. may put 23. He's very rich. 'It___rain this evening. are able to 10. Will D. He___work for a living. aren't supposed to 14. A.' A. may be C. Could you please give me a lift in your car?' 'Sure. may have called C. 'I left a cookie on the table.' 'You___your roommate. might 11. had better B. shouldn't B.' A. had to put C. could have called B.' 'I know. 'Chris.' 'That__bother you. 'My boss is always looking over my shoulder whenever I do anything. should have eaten 19.' A. would D. will C. committed D. One of the children___it. You___be really hungry!' 'I am. May I borrow yours?' A. Peter___rather sleep on a matress than on the floor. had to eat D. Would you mind D. could be C. for the meeting. may C. supposed to be D. could eat C. may have eaten B. might not C. ought to be B. may not D. shall В. couldn't B. please!' 'Certainly. 'This movie is boring and too violent. must not B. could be C. He___exhausted by the time he arrived. Shall C. Why don't we C. A.' 'But it does.' A. have been used to D. Will we B. had better B. doesn't have to D. can D. you ___ the fish in the refrigerator before it spoils. must 20. would rather put D. might B. hadn't better . Are you ready to go now?' A. 'What are you doing here now? You ___be here for another three hours. I hope you don't mind. would have called D. must have called 16. I didn't know what to do. we___take a taxi. What happened to it?' 'I don't know. Would we 22.' A. won't 21. 'I locked myself out of my apartment.committed commit C.' A. but now it's gone. have got to be 18. must have been D. 'Since we have to be there in a hurry. could С. but my car won't start. May B.___leave?' A. ' ___ taking me downtown on your way to work this morning?' 'Not at all.

may have tried XXI. I__work in the hot fields for hours. 'I need some help with this table. had better D. must have taken C.. He (get) more exercise. I__meet a friend at 5 every afternoon for a game.. 13. 'Harry's new jacket doesn't seem to fit him very well. The police (drive) it away.' 'Oh? That's wonderful! She __ very pleased. I've never seen a London policeman.. 26. ought to C. we (answer) it. 4. 1. must have tried B.' A. . Just a second. We (not laugh) at him. had to take 25. A: You (come).' A. Use the one that seems most appropriate to you. 17. you (cash) this check for me? 16. Should C. I (go) to bed before I fall asleep right here. (I promise to keep it secret. A: Why didn't you come to the party last night? B: I (study). Monday morning's usually quiet. had better 27.' A. 8. Just let it ring. somebody (be) here quite recently. We (start) yesterday (this was the plan). so you __ have found it in the directory. people (feed) these animals. and now it's gone. May B. A: . 'Is littering against the law?' 'Yes.. I left my car here under the No Parking sign. 12. 24. Zoo keeper: In spite of all the notices. should C. must not C. He was riding a bicycle along the . 'Do you like to play tennis?' 'Yes. — Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper basket. I'm sleepy. might not D. I (call) for you? — No. was able to try C. In my country.' 'He___it on before he bought it. 21. couldn't D. 18..) 11. 5. You (not feed) the bears! (It was foolish of you to feed them. everyone (promote) except me? It's not fair.. The traffic was terrible!' A. . would B. We hurt his feelings. It's cheaper than a taxi. A: How are you planning to get to the airport? B: By taxi.' A. Let's not answer it. might not 30. He knows French. Smith: You (not go) till you have given me an explanation! (I won't let you go. B: No. — You (see) one! You've been in London a week already! 2. You can trust me. — Not necessarily. I heard their. I (take) a message? 14. I (not keep) my eyes open. . 19. might be C. Jimmy was serious when he said he wanted to be a cowboy when he grew up. Let's go shopping. It picks up passengers there on a regular schedule. a girl and boy (not go) out on a date unless they are accompanied by a chaperone. may not B.. Could D. They (not live) in my dormitory room. The instructions were in French. 25.24. — You (not hear) their phone ringing.) Now they'll be angry if the next campers don't feed them too.. used to B. won't C. They haven't got a phone. must be D.' A. as you see. is 26. but the flight was cancelled because of the fog. 9. is supposed to be B. Shall 28. More than one modal may be possible. Why . 23. 7. Jack: I've finished. must D. please?' 'Sure.__you lift the other end. I (get) a taxi and meet you at the station. 'Why are you so late?' 'I___my aunt to the airport. 20. nobody (know) that you are here. I (speak) to Peggy? B: She (not come) to the phone right now. Ann: But you were only half way through when I went to bed. You (get) one in front of the hotel. You (work) all night! 6. I translated them into English for him. We had a good time.) I (not) even (tell) my wife. 10. There's a law that says that you___throw trash on the streets. My wife and ten children are coming to join me here. There's no hurry.. A: You (take) a shuttle bus instead. 'I heard that Laura was offered a job at a top computer firm in Chicago. You (not make) up your mind right now. Don is putting on a little weight around his middle. Jones: Stand away from that door! You can't keep me here against my will. so we're still here. would rather 31. should take D. When I worked at the embassy. Use a modal with each verb in parentheses. Nobody has been in this house for a month.' A. A: I (go) to the University of Iowa or Iowa State University? B: Think it over for a few days.' A. should have tried D. — You (not translate) them. 15. A: The phone's ringing again. I (find) an apartment. telephone ringing.' 'When I had my farm. 22. The shops (not be) crowded.. couldn't 29. don't have to B.' 'I got it from your mother. 'The hot weather doesn't seem to bother you. could take B. It (be) important. It (steal). 'How did you get my telephone number? It's not listed in the phone book. 3.

bicycles are not allowed. and steak and onions for everyone else. I don't feel like going to the library to study this afternoon. Well. He is rather forgetful. Perhaps we (go) and look for him. According to our teacher. Secretary: There's a Mr Peterson in the outer office. Thanks for replying so quickly to my last letter. and now it's already the 8 th. I'm taking my exams in two days. Tom: What's happened to Jack? We said 7. (Alice. The hotel staff do the washing up. 31. 1. I keep warning them to reduce speed but they (not do) it. He used to have a day off once a week. He says he has an appointment. Jack's arguments go on for hours! Tom: Or he (run) out of petrol. Mrs Smith: I've cooked scrambled eggs for Mr Jones. 43. Tom (looking out of the window): Fortunately that teapot didn't hit anyone. 30. 28. I'm not on a diet any longer. 36. sir. 46. but she didn't leave her name. 51. carefully washes up the early morning tea things. It's not like Tony to be late. A: This is Steve's tape recorder. You must have been surprised when you received a letter from me.) — Why . but Paul (not ride) a bicycle along the motorway. All children (attend) six years of elementary school. 41.40. 42.) Mother: You (not do) that. 40. We liked them very much but they (practise) the drums at night. (I didn't give him directions. I (give) him directions. 66. you (see) him now? Mr Smith: I (not see) him now or at any other time. 45. And is it all right if I bring my little brother. but I think I'll watch TV instead. which was stupid of me) Ann: Or he (have) a breakdown or a puncture. I didn't understand. We (take) a map with us or we'll probably get lost. 68. 63. 58.. 54. 57. 34.motorway when he was hit by the trailer of a lorry. I (make) an appointment to see Dean Witherspoon? 44. Bill proposed that women (allow) to join the club. 37. Neither of us knows the way to their house. We (not go) to the concert if you don't want to. I don't think so. Jane's looking at the test paper the teacher just returned. 60. Do you know where Tom is? — He (be) in the canteen. — Perhaps. — You (wait) a little longer! 32.. Someone (help) him. He hasn't been to this house before. 'You (not ring) the exchange! You (dial) direct!' However. but I didn't. The people in the flat above us were members of a band. 55. I returned a book to the library yesterday. . 65. Do I have to take a taxi from the station. (This is a possibility. We (wait) almost an hour to buy our tickets. Study and practise. 49. I know I (study) tonight. you (repeat) what you said? 48. Excuse me. It (belong) to Lucy or to Linda. It (divide) in half. I hope nothing bad happened. . I (go) to the shopping mall than to the library. 48. (It is natural and right. (I won't let this happen. Tim? By the . And he hasn't an appointment! 47. 39. Tom: She (not go) to prison.00 and there's no sign of him. We (shut) the windows. B: That's okay.. Mrs Smith. or is it near enough to walk? Perhaps I should buy a street map of Birmingham when I arrive. I told her that my brother would come every day to pick up my mail. They sometimes bring their tape recorders to class. Johnny! You (not play) with sharp knives. Nothing we said made any difference. She asked me what she (do) if any letters came for me while I was away.30 and now it's 8. Could you possibly give me some directions for your flat? I'm bound to get lost. you (hand) me that dish? Thanks. Spring break starts on the thirteenth. You (love) your father. In the United States.) Tom: Or he (get) lost. and on that day he (get) up early. He doesn't ride one. staying at a hotel for the first time. it (be) Phyllis. Mr Jones: You (not cook) anything special for me. A: Somebody called you while you were out.) — He (not come) on a motorcycle. B: Who did it sound like? Anybody you know? A. Ann: Or he (stop) for a drink and (get) involved in an argument. Maybe we (give) her a call to wish her a belated happy birthday. 71. 56. Her birthday card (send) a week ago. isn't it? B: It (not be) his. I'm glad you will be able to put me up when I come to London. because of his diet. She (do) her homework. so I (pay) a fine of $ 1... but you (not throw) it out of the window. (It was foolish of me not to telephone. 59. but that's just a guess. You (not tell) Jack about the party. I know that it will be difficult to pick him out in such a crowd. Ann: She says she'd rather go to prison than pay the fine. Ann! You (kill) someone. 53. When I rang the exchange and asked for the number the operator said. . — I suppose it was Paul.. 38. I (ask) who was calling. I told him so when we last met. A: Did Ed really mean what he said yesterday? B: No. 64. He's usually there between twelve and one. elementary education is compulsory. Ann: He (forget) that we invited him. 69. He (be) here an hour ago. 62. 67. 33.. It's a surprise party for him.. I (telephone) him yesterday to remind him. but it might be good. I think he (kid). He doesn't have a tape recorder. all of our compositions (write) in ink. Tom: A puncture (not delay) him so long. These big lorries are very dangerous. — Paul (not carry) it by himself. Remember that we (be) at his place not later than eight. 41.1 suggested that they (have) a hot breakfast and a cold supper.. He won't accept papers written in pencil. We (not go) to classes until the twenty-second. I wonder who carried the piano upstairs. 29.. XXII. 52. Ann's birthday was on the 5 th.) I (pay) her fine for her! 35. he put me through. 50. Look at this beautiful painting! Only a very great artist (paint) such a picture! — Nonsense! A child of five (paint) it with his eyes shut. 27. The car (not start) so we had to ring for a taxi. Dear Brenda. but if you (happen) to see him give him this packet. 61. How did Peter get here? — He (come) on a motorcycle. A: Why is Margaret in her room? B: I don't know. She (pass) the test. It looks like rain. The entire valley (see) from their mountain home. It was two weeks overdue. have a hasty breakfast and set out for the river. I (love) him? I've never seen him. She's smiling. There was a long line in front of the theatre. Last semester's class was too large. I (return) the book when it was due. 70. It is essential that everyone (be able) to see the stage. Why didn't you wait for me yesterday? — I waited five minutes. . Ann. Police Officer (in a loud speaker van beside a motorway In thick fog): They are going much too fast.

if anything. He couldn't be checking out. Where do you suppose he is? . describe his/her appearance briefly and then make 'guesses' about this person: age.' said Mrs Agnes Bird. activities. or it might have slipped out while the door was open. Residents in the Blackwood area complained last night that they should have been warned about the escape of a dangerous snake. You ought to do this. You must not do that. I'd say he's probably a businessman. lobby. He has salt-and-pepper hair and not too many wrinkles. what do you suppose it is? A: I don't know. but with any luck I should get a good job when I finish. I have to study a lot. B: So am I. was supposed to be home an hour ago. It . Aha! I was right. He is talking at the registration desk. Don't do that. etc. All of the lights are turned off. I'd better post this letter now. Choose three of these people to write a composition about. He might be a doctor. (The two of you are either a married couple or a parent and his/her friend. Everything is ready to go. what might or must have happened.' The snake. It is late at night. is three metres long. called Lulu. Judging from his clothes. Dialogue: A: Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss/ Dr/Professor____should have been here fifteen minutes ago. Situation: The two of you are roommates or a married couple. what you should or should not do. get good grades. because people have to check out at a different desk. The snake. It sounds like thunder. find a job. so he must be registering to stay in the hotel. A: Good. Directions: Go to a public place.. But he could be something else. or a funeral director. Give general advice to people who want to: a. improve their health. I'm getting worried. a place where there are people whom you do not know (a cafeteria. disappeared from Blackwood Zoo. f. park. make a good first impression. You are trying to figure out where he might be. Example I'm in a hotel lobby. B: Wait. You can do this.' he went on. I wonder where s/he is. etc. Work in pairs. occupation. the beginning of the dialogue is given. You should do this. g. The hotel clerk just handed the man a key. The porter must have taken his luggage.. create dialogues of 10 to 20 sentences or more. I'm sure that you would have enjoyed it. You try to figure out why he/she isn't here yet and what you should do. improve their English. You shouldn't do that. You must do this. 'It must have found a hole in the wall. You are almost ready to leave when you hear a loud noise. congratulations on your new job. You try to figure out what it might or must be. b. 1.. XXIV. He must be about 50 or 55. 'I had to lock my dog in the kitchen this morning. You don't have to do that. live life fully every day. but today it is fifteen minutes past the time class begins and he/she still isn't here. Dialogue: A: Is the picnic basket all packed? B: Yes. The weather is very bad. or a professor. Why do you suppose s/he hasn't arrived yet? B: Well. B: .way. We had to climb a tree and bring her down. etc. who had gone to a party with some of his friends. Using the given situations. Situation: It is late at night. Say: Do this. Then present your dialogues to the rest of the class. For each situation. What's the matter? A: Do you hear that noise? B: Yes. Mr Hart said that people needn't have been alarmed.. Using a paragraph for each person. c. Situation: Your teacher is always on time.. You hear a strange noise. you should never believe silly stories you hear on the radio!' XXIII. He doesn't have any luggage with him. 2. e.) You are getting worried. 'We found Lulu a few minutes after we missed her. Dialogue: A: Psst. Sheila 2. Now I am not sure what I ought to do.. Are you awake? B: Yes. He might be simply asking a question. Dialogue: A: It's already____o'clock and____isn't home yet.). You had better do that. get married. You are supposed to meet Nancy and Paul at the park for your picnic. Best wishes. personality. Do you think that you made the right decision. a python.. street corner. because I thought the snake could easily attack it. You must be very happy. 'I heard about it on the radio. Situation: The two of you are planning to go on a picnic. . So you see. zoo. I'm looking at a man who is wearing a blue suit and carrying a briefcase. He is registering to stay at the hotel. 4. Try to include appropriate modals in your conversation. though? I think you should have gone to university like me. Did you hear that? A: . XXV. Let's get going. Your eighteen-year-old son. and can kill pets. store. but I doubt it.' said zoo director Basil Hart. and what you should do. 'A local radio must have mixed up its reports. etc.. d. 3.

should (or should not). Зря ты пришел. я еще спал. 57. Трудно было поверить. наверное. 4. Они близкие друзья. Стоянка у этих ворот запрещена. Должно быть. После экзаменов вы должны сдать все учебники в библиотеку. Неужели он опоздал на него? — Откуда мне знать? 32. Я не слышал. чтобы она не помогла ему. I think you would be able to persuade him if you tried. он и не слышал эту новость. 41. 56. 59. Why did you do it? What could you have done differently? What should you have done? 3. must. 36. 28. 21. 4. 14. Им следовало бы удержать его от такого неразумного шага. но мы и слушать не хотели. Делать все равно нечего. Вряд ли она оценит его доброту. до чего он неразумен (глуп)! 39. я могу (с таким же успехом) лечь спать. Мне очень хотелось поехать в горы. 9. так как знал. были смелые ребята. безусловно. 1.. 33. 2. Автобусом вы туда не доедете. Пожалуйста. Write about one embarrassing incident in your life. 42. Не пойти ли нам на прогулку? 45. 12. 49. 15. Ему необязательно об этом говорить. потому что она честная. отправьте письмо без задержки. Ты мог бы быть повнимательнее по отношению к своей сестре. 60. 5. Он. might be done to solve this problem? XXVII. получит телеграмму не позже. Они должны выиграть матч. Мы можем не спешить. Exercise XVIII. 40. что они будут против. что ему придется уехать через несколько дней. Многое может показаться вам необычным в чужой стране. where. Translate from Russian into English. 58. 61.00. 2. умная и компетентная. вероятно. 24. might you have done to avoid it? 5. 8. Их не было дома. 53. 37. Весьма странно. что он должен чувствовать. 54. 62. Write a short paragraph on each. 43. 50. 26. 11. Я могу выучить это и обязательно (непременно) выучу. 63. Возможно. должно быть. Look at the world situation in relationships between nations. Это. они не ожидали меня. 52. очевидно. Ребенок ничего не хочет есть. наверное (пожалуй). should it be like? Write about what you should. правда. что не желаете этого делать. 48. may. что мне следует поставить вас в известность об этом. Он выехал в 7. 23. 27. Write about a time in your life when you did something you did not want to do. Студентам не полагается выносить книги из читального зала. Когда мне нужно прийти? 51. Собрание отменили. В конце концов мы решили. 55. вы слышали его имя. can do now in order to make your life what you want it to be. чем через два часа. p. must (or must not) be done to improve understanding? 6. Он мог сбить моего ребенка. She had studied hard and she was able to pass the exam. что их сын болен и что жизнь его находится в опасности. Стоит ли ее ждать? Возможно. Мне не нужно было готовить обед. он не голоден. может ли он положиться на меня. Он должен был приехать пятичасовым поездом. must. 31. 10. хотя ему бы следовало сделать это еще на прошлой неделе. следует избрать ее. should. Почему ты не аплодируешь? Тебе. Сейчас они. что он сказал это. What will. их не предупредили. I wish my brother were at home.. Наши футболисты в хорошей форме. что). — I'll try to. Он скоро здесь должен быть. Вероятно. 44. 47. Его зовут Добсон. 7. Я считал. Мы договорились пообедать сегодня в ресторане. In spite of the storm he was able to reach the shore. Он спросил. 12. 9. Он не принес книгу. Он сказал. 13. 10. 5. Поезд задерживается на два часа. I wish you could join us. Ей придется пройти рентген. I'll be able to translate this article if you give me a good dictionary. Мы должны подчиняться законам. будет хорошая. Ваш сын мог бы быть поосторожнее. Не может быть. то это. 14. — Возможно. Не может быть. Look at your future. Choose three of the following topics. Не видно было ни облачка. Ящик стола никак не открывается. 25. 1. 38. You can buy this book at any shop. 3. Can/ Will you be able to take me to the airport tomorrow? — Certainly. Он. Удивительно. наш поезд. Можно (вы можете) пройти много миль и никого не встретить. Неужели он говорил это серьезно? 22. она вообще не придет. should. 6. а я вам говорю. что туристы смогли подняться на такую высокую гору. Choose one of the environmental problems people are considering today. Я сама ее запирала.A: . должно быть. когда я приехал. 13. 8. 17 1. если бы бежал быстрее. 17. What could. 11. Возможно. часто заходил к нам. Это. 3. 19. Он предложил. что нам не следует там дольше оставаться и что нужно отправляться в горы. бывало. What could. Она такая эгоистка. He would be able to help you. не нравится. как подъехал автомобиль. Погода. 16. Вы говорите. По моему мнению. XXVI. 2. 34. Не будете ли вы любезны немного подождать? Ваши документы еще не готовы. When I was young I could/was able to walk thirty kilometres in a day. как она поет. Я должна с ним увидеться во вторник вечером. чтобы собрание провели в среду. Если он это говорит. что вы это сделаете. Они еще пожалеют об этом. Were you able to repair/to fix the TV set yesterday? - . Она понимала. 6. но я не осмеливался спросить разрешения у родителей. 29. 7. чтобы дверь осталась открытой. что она уже взрослая и должна помогать матери. The weather was fine and we could walk in the park every morning. 4. Why didn't you tell me before? — I could have bought this book in London. might. Она не могла этого сделать! 35. Он мог бы поспеть вовремя. and why you should (or should not) have done something in your life. Он сказал. Может быть (могло быть и так. The weather is fine today and we could go out for a walk. 18. He will be able to speak French fluently if he spends a couple of years in Paris. уже там. 46. 20. Write about when. Мы больше не можем ждать! Необходимо что-то немедленно предпринять! KEY §1. 30. Неужели тебя не укачало? Море было таким бурным. — I'm sorry but I can't. What could.

No, I'll try to do it today. 15. If you had asked me I could have helped you. I was free at that time. 16. We were able to transport all the goods in ten days. 17. When he came to London he could/was able to conduct talks with the firms without an interpreter. 18. He said that he wouldn't be able to give an answer until he thought over the matter properly. 19.1 could come earlier, if necessary. 20. It was so dark we could see nothing. 21. You won't be able to translate the headline without reading the whole article. 22. Although the pilot was badly hurt he was able to explain what had happened. 23. The baby will be able to walk in a few weeks. 24. I can't pay you today. Can you wait till tomorrow? 25. Since his accident he hasn't been able to leave the house. 26. Could you run the business by yourself? 27. He said that he had lost his passport and hadn't been able to/couldn't leave the country. 28.1 could have lent you the money. Why didn't you ask me? 29. Winter here can be really cold. 30. We were able to get tickets for the match yesterday. 31. We weren't able to/couldn't get tickets for the match yesterday. 32. He could be very naughty when he was a boy. 33. Was he able to/Could he meet you at the station? — Yes, but he wasn't able to/couldn't take us to the hotel. 34. It can be done and it must be done. 35. My God! You could have been killed. §2. Exercise XIII, p. 32 1. Yesterday the children were allowed to stay home from school because of the weather. 2. You can/may use my library. 3. Doctor, can/may/could/ might I swim in the sea? — Yes, you can/may, but don't stay in the water too long. 4. You can/may take any of these books. 5. You can't/aren't allowed to cross the street here. It is very dangerous. 6. May I ask you a question? — Of course, you may, but I don't know whether I'll be able to answer it. 7. The doctor said I might/ could phone him after 5.00. 8. Tell her that she can/may send me a telegram if she needs my help. 9. May I take your dictionary? — I'm afraid not. I need it myself. 10. I think you'll be allowed to use the laboratory. 11. Are you allowed to use a dictionary? 12. He has just been allowed to go home after three hours at the police station. 13. Can the children go to the skating rink? — No, they can't, it's too late. 14. Ask the coach whether we can see the gymnasium. 15. May I leave earlier today? — What's wrong? — My mother is ill. — Certainly, you may leave right now. 16. Could I have a look at your composition? — I'm afraid not. I haven't finished it yet. 17. He asked if he might leave the book with you. 18. Since his accident he hasn't been allowed to drive. 19. The boss said that I might/could use his telephone. 20.1 had a visa so I was allowed to cross the frontier. 21. As a child he was allowed to do exactly what he liked. 22. May they come and see you? 23. You can't/may not/mustn't smoke here. 24. You're not allowed to talk during a test. §3. Exercise IX, p. 50 1. Could you give me a consultation today? 2. Will you please fetch me a glass of water? 3. Will you please drop this letter into a letter box on your way to work? 4. Can you help me translate this article? 5. Would you mind if I invited my friends? — No, of course not. I'd be delighted. 6. May I switch on the TV set? — I'm afraid not. It's late already and it's time to go to bed. 7. Will you tell me where I must get off to get to the stadium? 8. Can you call on me tonight? 9. Could I take your opera glasses for a minute? I want to see the singer's face. 10. Would you help me with my suitcases? — Certainly. 11. Will you please wait for me a little? — OK. 12. Could you take me to the station? — Yes, I'd be glad to. 13. Could you help me move to my new flat? — I'm afraid I can't. I'm going away on business. 14. Come after dinner, will you? 15. Would you mind if I opened the window? It's too stuffy in here. 16. Can I sit beside you? — Please do. 17. Could you help me pack our things? — I'd be happy to. 18. Would you help me choose a present for my wife? 19. Would you mind if I took your umbrella? — No, of course not. 20. Could you take us sightseeing? — I'd be delighted. 21. Will you pass me the salt? — Here you are. 22. Can I leave my briefcase in the cloak-room? — Sure. 23. Would you mind if I left my things here till I return? — No, not at all. 24. Would you mind dining in the kitchen? It's too cold in the dining room. 25. Will you please phone the booking agency and book the plane tickets? 26. Will you show me the train schedule please? 27. Would you mind if I returned the rest of the money in a week? — No, that would be fine. 28. Would you mind if I used your computer? 29. Could you lend me some money? 30. Could you take my book to the library? §7. Exercise XIII, p. 89 1. If you are in trouble you must send for me. 2.1 shall have to think it over and make up my mind. 3. But if you come here to work you've got to work. 4. You must learn to face life seriously, Stephen. 5. You are to come down, miss, this minute: your mother says so. 6. I told the story because someone had to talk. 7. I must get better. It is costing Bart too much. 8. Again he had to work at night and again it was slow business. 9. I was somewhat surprised to find so many people in the hall in which I was to speak. 10. I didn't have to introduce them. They appeared to have met before. 11. You'll have to take your coat. It's getting cold. 12. The lake was so near that even Alan who hated walking agreed that they needn't take his car. 13. He knew he did not need to explain anything to anyone. 14. You are to hand in your test papers in ten minutes. 15. He is supposed to know that. 16. You needn't have carried all these parcels yourself. The shop would have delivered them if you had asked them. 17. You needn't take the umbrella. There isn't a cloud in the sky. 18. One of the guests sat down beside me. I didn't have to be told who it was. 19. Sorry I'm late. I had to take the children to school. 20.You must use a dictionary. I'm tired of correcting your spelling mistakes. 21. You needn't have changed buses. The number 8 bus takes you straight to my house. 22. The notice said that visitors mustn't feed the animals. 23. The concert was to have taken place on the fifth of February but it was put off because of the conductor's illness. 24. Children, you mustn't play with matches. 25. Why did Tom have to leave work so early yesterday? 26. Don't you have to return these books to the library today? Aren't they due? 27. The doctor said that the child must be well looked after. 28. Can you wait for half an hour? — I'm afraid I can't. I have to be at home at 2 o'clock and I've got to hurry up

because it is 1.40. 29. If the pain has gone he needn't take the medicine. 30. He is good at languages and he doesn't have to study hard. 31. Rudy was invited for dinner at Mary's house. After dinner they were to go to a movie. 32. You are to do this work by Thursday. 33. I shan't have to take this exam. 34. If I hadn't prepared everything in good time I would have to do it now. 35. He was to have left by the morning train but something kept him and he had to go by the evening train. 36. You are not supposed to talk during a test. 37. He said I needn't pay the bill till the 31st. 38. Must I meet them at the station? — No, you needn't. You are to wait for them here. 39. Someone will have to see her off. I shan't be able to do it. §8. Exercise XX, p. 122 1. You ought never to have married me, David. It was a great mistake. 2. I'm sorry. I shouldn't have said that. 3. You'd better stay at home. It looks like rain (raining). 4. I should have invited him too. 5. I think you ought to show more respect for your elders. 6. Morris said that if it was a duty it ought to be done. 7. You ought to be ashamed of yourself for using such wicked words. 8. She deserted me. She ought to pay for it. 9. You ought to have chosen a more suitable time to tell me. 10. When is he going back? — How should I know? 11. It's his own fault. He ought to have divorced you when he could. 12. You should buy this dress. It suits you. 13. You'd better not go there alone. 14. Well, you were right. I shouldn't have done it that way. 15. Why didn't you come yesterday? You ought to have phoned me if you were busy. 16.1 wanted a copy of the letter, so I typed it twice. — You needn't have typed it twice. You could have used a carbon. 17. You shouldn't have mentioned that in his presence. 18. You needn't phone her. She has already come. 19. You shouldn't spoil your eyes. Switch on the light. 20. You should speak to the manager once again before you go to London. 21. You'd better go and speak to him now while he is still here. 22. We'd better not tell Ann. She'd get angry. 23. He's a lawyer and he ought to know such things. 24. They must do as they are told. 25. You ought to make your own living. 26. You mustn't strike a match. The room is full of gas. 27. He said that I was not to/mustn't open the door. 28. Should she take up sports seriously? — I think so. 29. You look tired. You should go out of town for the weekend. 30. You mustn't get up so early. You'll wake up everybody. 31. He said that we were to meet him at the station. 32.1 thought you ought to know about it. 33. They shouldn't allow parking here: the street is too narrow. 34. You have to wear a uniform on duty, don't you? 35. She said that I shouldn't have acted like that. 36. She should be told the news as soon as possible. 37. She should have been told the news a long time ago. §9. Exercise XXII, p. 153 1, Where's Tom? — He may/might/could be in the library. 2.1 wonder why Bill isn't here. — He may/might/could still be waiting for a bus. 3. Do you think the plane will be on time? — I don't know. It may/might/could be delayed by fog. 4. He may/might not be driving the car himself. 5. I wonder how Tom learnt about Ann's engagement. — He may/ might/could have heard it from John. 6. He may/might emigrate. 7. It's five o'clock. The meeting may/might/could have finished already; let's wait a little, he may/might come soon. 8. He may/might/could have seen her at the concert, but he may/might/could have been mistaken. He's too shortsighted. 9. He may/might/could have called on me yesterday, but I wasn't at home. 10. She may/might not have received our telegram. 11.1 thought if his watch was there, the money might/could be there too. 12. The TV set may/might/could have been repaired already and we may/might be able to see the film. 13. I may/might not be able to go to the concert today. 14. Victor and Helen aren't at home. They may/might/ could be in the pub. 15. It may/might rain towards evening. 16. They may/might not have been in the town yesterday. 17.1 may/might/could have been listening to music. I didn't hear the telephone ring. 18. He may/might not have noticed you, that's why he passed without greeting you. 19. She may/might/could have been hurt by your tone. You ought to/should be more tactful. 20. Don't take the book to the library; you may/might need it for your report. 21. She wasn't at the party. She may/might not have been invited. 22. Why isn't he here? — He may/might not know how to get here. 23. She was afraid she might have forgotten to switch off the electric iron before she left the house. 24. They may/ might not have come yet. 25. He may/might not believe you. 26. He said that he might hire a car. 27. I knew that we might have to wait at the frontier. 28. Tom may/might lend me the money. 29. Do you think he may/might not be able to pay? 30. They may/might/could be working at the same problem. 31. Good news! I may be offered a job soon. I had an interview at an engineering firm yesterday. 10. Exercise VI, p. 167 1. He has a house in London and another in Paris, so he must be rich. 2. I keep meeting him on the bus. He must live/must be living nearby. 3. He must have taken sleeping pills last night. He didn't wake up till lunch time. 4. What explosion? I didn't hear any. — You must have heard it! The whole town heard it. 5.1 waited under the clock! — So did I, but I didn't see you! We must have been waiting under different clocks. 6. There's a lot of noise from upstairs. It must be Tom. — Why should it be Tom? Other people use that flat too. 7. You haven't eaten anything since morning. You must be hungry. 8. John has got married! — You must be joking/kidding! 9. You must be tired after the journey. 10. I hear that your examinations are next week. You must be studying hard at the moment. 11. The phone rang but I didn't hear it. I must have been sleeping. 12. I made a lot of noise when I came home. You must have heard me. 13. I haven't seen Jim for ages. He must have gone away. 14. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. I must have forgotten to turn it off. 15. She knew about our plans. She must have overheard our conversation. 16. The letter must have been delivered in the morning. 17. Look! There's something lying on the table. He must have left a note for you. 18. She must be about twenty-five now. She was at school with my sister. 19. This article must have been written five years ago. 20. I did not see Jim but I knew he must be waiting somewhere. 21. What a wonderful TV set! It must have been expensive. 22.1 wonder who took the money. — It

must have been Tom. He's the only one who was there. 23. I waited about half an hour, and was just thinking that something must have happened to Kathy when she arrived in a taxi. §10. Exercise IX, p. 169 A. 1. Evidently the students didn't know (The students must have been unaware) that the timetable had been changed. Nobody had told them. 2. He was surprised to hear that. He must have heard nothing of it before. 3. You must have been unjust to him. 4. Evidently, he didn't manage to persuade her to come with us. 5. He must have had no time for you so far. 6. They must have failed to meet him at the station. 7. He must have failed to recognize me, that's why he didn't come up to me. 8. You must have . made no attempt to do it, otherwise you wouldn't have said that it was easy. 9. The foreigner must have mispronounced the name of the dish, and the waiter brought him another dish. 10. Evidently you haven't been there for a long time. 11. She must have been told nothing about it. 12. They must have missed the train as they left the house too late. 13. He must have never guessed why we were laughing. 14. You must have put the key in the wrong place, so I couldn't get into the house. 15. They must have been misinformed. They were to have come today. 16. He must have had no chance to talk to her before. 17. You shouldn't be angry with him. Evidently he didn't want to hurt you. 18. There must be no one at home now. 19. Evidently she doesn't realize her error. B. 1. It is not likely to rain tomorrow. 2. Evidently I shall be sent away on business. 3. He's sure to pass the exam. 4. He is not likely to wait for her arrival. 5. He is unlikely to finish the work by Friday. 6. She is sure to help you. 7. The director is not likely to receive her tomorrow. 8. She is not likely to take the child with her. 9. She is not likely to come. 10. It is sure to rain today. 11. Our team are not likely to win the match. 12. I am not likely to see Mary. I shan't probably be in Minsk at that time. 13. Could I talk to you tomorrow morning? — I shall probably be busy in the morning. 14. He will probably try to get tickets for the cup game. §10. Exercise XIX, p. 174 1. Can/Could it be true? 2. It can't/couldn't be true. 3. Can/ Could they have lost the match? 4. They can't/couldn't have lost the match. 5. Can/Could he believe that? 6. She can't/ couldn't have told you that. 7. She can't/couldn't have failed to tell you that. 8. He can't/couldn't have said that. 9. They can't/couldn't have finished the work. They started it only yesterday. 10. Can/Could they have quarrelled again? 11. He can't/ couldn't have got lost. He has been here several times. 12. Can/Could he have used the car during/in my absence? 13. Doesn't she like ballet? 14. Can/Could they have been waiting for us all this time? 15. They can't/couldn't be close friends. 16. He can't/couldn't have given up music. 17. She can't/couldn't have made a mistake. 18. Can/Could the sisters be so much alike? 19. He can't/couldn't have failed the exam. 20. You can't/ couldn't have got hungry. We had a good dinner two hours ago. 21. They can't/couldn't have arrived already. The train is to arrive at 7. 22. Hasn't he invited you to the wedding? 23. She can't/couldn't have been so foolish. 24. He can't/couldn't have failed to see it. 25. You can't/couldn't have been sent to me. I have nothing to do with this. 26. Can/Could he have seen them? 27. Where can/could he have seen them? 28. They can't/couldn't be waiting ; for us. 29. Can/Could they be waiting for us? 30. Who can/ could they be waiting for? 31. Can/Could you have written it yourself? 32. He can't/couldn't have been unaware of the danger. 33. Didn't he phone you yesterday? He said he was going to. 34. Kate is late. What can/could have happened to her? 35. The children are not at home. Where can/could they have gone? §10. Exercise XXXIV, p. 186 1. They must be speaking German, but I don't understand much. 2. It must have taken her a lot of time to get here. 3. He is not likely to object to our proposal. 4. The match is not likely to take place. 5. The accident must have happened due to his carelessness. 6. He must have failed to notice her leave the hall. 7. We must have been driving about an hour but the camp is nowhere to be seen. 8. He said that I must know her. I met her at the conferences. 9. Probably she hadn't been sent an invitation card, that's why she didn't come. 10. His mother is in hospital again. She must be seriously ill. 11. He must be waiting for us at the Institute. 12. He must have forgotten that he promised to come. 13. Probably he doesn't want to interfere. 14. He must have been sleeping for about three hours. 15. The parcel is likely to be sent before the fifth of July. 16. You must have never put on this dress. It's quite new. 17. They must have quarrelled. I haven't seen him at our house lately. 18. Where is Nick? — He must have gone sightseeing. 19. She must be staying with her friends. She wrote that was going to spend her holiday with them. 20. Where is the letter? — It must have been posted already. 21. He must have failed to recognize her. She has changed so much. 22. The goods must have been packed very carelessly. 23. They must have been informed about it some days ago. 24. She must have been glad to see you. 25. I don't see the documents anywhere. He must have taken them with him. 26. Probably it wasn't done in time. 27. It is quiet in the house. The children must be at school. 28. She has the most beautiful garden in the village. She must be proud of it. 29. She can't/couldn't have married him. She didn't use to like him. 30. Can/Could she have gone to the match? I thought she didn't like football. 31. Can/ Could you have been sleeping all this time? It's three o'clock already. 32. He can't/couldn't have left without asking permission. It isn't like him. 33. She can't/ couldn't have said that. She is always so tactful. 34. He must have already left. /He can't/couldn't have left without seeing me. 35. Can/Could he have received my letter already? 36. Can/Could he have failed to receive my letter? 37. They can't/couldn't be working in the garden now. It is raining heavily. 38. No,

55. They were afraid that they might be asked why Tom hadn't come with them. Can/Could you have believed them? They must have played a joke on you. At last you have come! You might/could have come earlier. — I can't/couldn't have lost it. Where's the key? — I don't know. 4. he is an honest man. There must be nobody there. §13. p. Evidently he was not informed that the meeting had been put off. 2. I saw this book not long ago. 6. This homework shouldn't/oughtn't to take you too long. — I'd be much obliged to you. The students have been preparing it for such a long time. 5. 8. You should/ought to read your composition once again. Shall I buy this dictionary for you? I'll be at the bookshop tomorrow. 7. 49. I might as well have drunk water instead of it. 18. — Thank you. You might/ could have helped us. When we got into the car. 22. He can't/couldn't have broken his promise. Exercise VI. Can/Could he have said that? He must have been very angry with you. 61. He should/ought to have received my letter. We were quite near. 12. 207 1. 28. 64. 15. I sent it a week ago. It's not funny at all. 20. 5. 43. I'd rather stay at home and . Shall I call for your umbrella on the way home? — Please do. 'We could go for a drive now. The guests should/ought to be here soon. I'll look after your house while you are away. You shouldn't have talked to him like that. 25. 21. She has studied hard. I can't understand why Ann didn't come to the meeting. I'm going to the country tomorrow. 39. 47. 53. 4. Do you think you'll come home late tonight? — I don't think so. He may/might not have returned from work yet. There must be some mistakes there. §14. Would you like to join me? — Willingly.1 will lend you my typewriter if you need it. There is a place near here I'd like to show you. this might not have happened. Olga might/ could/may have taken it by mistake. The party ought to/should be interesting. 57. the library was closed. He can't/ couldn't have been there yesterday. but still I'd like to ask it. 17. She can't/ couldn't have forgotten about it. He might/could have been hurt. 17. You might/could have returned earlier and spent the evening with the child. I might just as well have stayed in town. 16. Can/Could he have failed to prove his point of view? 65. He may/might not have been there yesterday. because the library was closed. Do you think Rita will pass the exam? — Well. They may/ might have been at the party but I didn't see them. I should/ ought to be home at the usual time. You needn't have gone there. She shouldn't have said such things in her child's presence. It's their first visit there and they may/might stay there for a long time. Evidently the figures haven't been checked. 12. 56. I'm to take this exam in a week. on the top shelf. 8. 52. Could/Can he have been there yesterday? 63. He might/could do it for you. 44. He went on arguing. He can't/couldn't have cheated them. They can't/couldn't have noticed us. We were rather far from them. He is her brother. I do not really want to go to the party. Shall I help you with your homework or will you manage yourself? 9. 3. She has studied hard.I don't believe it. I may/might/could have left it in the pocket of my overcoat. He might/could have said something in my favour. They could/might have come themselves.' 2. 48. He ought to/should know her address. Shall I lay the table? — Please do. That's very nice of you. My question might/may puzzle you. You ought to be more serious. 19. The medicine didn't do me any good. 2. 27. It isn't my fault that I was late. 8. Nick. Why are you always late? 3. 40. 54. 11. 60. 7. You might/could haven given your sister a present. I might/may/could have put it into my bag. I may/might as well send him a telegram. I can't/couldn't have lost the ticket.m. He must have received our telegram and he may come tomorrow. I think you've understood what you have (are) to do. Can/Could you be indifferent to politics? 42. You weren't all that busy. 15. 14. 14. 5. but he must have read it carefully as he remembers all the details. It's 5. 13.1 couldn't help thinking about it. 24. You might/could have waited for me five minutes. she must have fallen ill. 6. I'd rather not tell you what I know about him. — She can't/couldn't have taken it.1 may/might as well wait a little. 3. You might/could help me carry this heavy suitcase. She can't/ couldn't have read this book in two days. He said that he might return in May. §11. 50. Would you like a cup of coffee? — Thank you. 23. It isn't difficult for him. you knew I was ill. Why didn't you? She was offended. You might/could come on time. Exercise VI. 3. 18. They should/ought to have already arrived in London. p. Can/Could he have met her before? 41. p. 45. It should/ought to be here. Exercise VII. This book may/might have seemed boring to him. You shouldn't have bothered the professor. 2. 58. she may/might/ could only have looked it through. You might/could have let me know that the meeting was put off. 51. 6. she should/ ought to pass it. Why didn't you? 10. It's 10 a. It ought to/should be interesting. You might/could be more polite to her. They can't/couldn't have failed to notice us. Where is my key? — You must have lost it. 10. There is no answer. He couldn't get the book. §12. 212 1. He must have told them nothing about it. I could/ might have done it long ago if I had known that it was so urgent. She had nothing in her hands when she was leaving. 4. I could/might have given you all the necessary information. He can't/couldn't have got the book. p. I may/might just as well stay home. 62. Do you think Rita has passed the exam? — She should/ought to have passed it. If all the measures had been taken. 26. She was worried. Though it's a very unpleasant mission I feel I ought to tell you the truth. 16.30. Exercise VI. 223 1. I'd prefer a glass of tea. 11.1 didn't enjoy the outing at all. You might/ could have phoned her. she can't/couldn't have deceived me. 7. It's a story by O'Henry. 13. 59. I may/might as well be off. Would you like to go to the theatre with me? — I'd love to. They can't/ couldn't have returned from the zoo. Your friends can't/couldn't have failed to help you. he said. 46. 9. 219 1. 9. Probably my words didn't convince him.

24. She is not likely to appreciate his kindness. If you study hard you shall have a new bicycle. You shall be sorry! 11. I am to see him on Tuesday night. You shan't be disturbed. He said that he would have to leave in a few days but we wouldn't hear of it. They must have been brave boys. 8. 13. 36. 27. 14. Exercise XXVII. He would spend most evenings playing chess. Exercise V. where and when shall we meet? — Outside the cinema at 7. The meeting is cancelled/ called off. If you do it again I will punish you. Many things may seem strange to you in a foreign country. 7. The doctor recommended that I should spend the summer at the seaside. 30. He turned off the light but sleep would not come. He insisted that I should take a holiday. 5. Can/Could he have meant it? 22. They may/ might not have been warned that their son is ill and his life is in danger. He would rather listen to others than talk himself.1 won't leave until you listen to me. but it wouldn't work. 19. I will make you work. 5. He was pleased that Kate should have called the child after him. He needn't be told (about it). I promise you. If anyone should call. Stop swearing or I will call the police. The train is delayed for two hours. II. §17. You shall answer for what you did! 3. Would you mind waiting for a while? Your documents aren't ready yet. I'll stay at home. Can/Could he have missed it? — How should I know? 32. 34. He said that she was already grown up and she must/ought to help her mother. 5. You might/could be more considerate to you sister. 14. He tried to explain himself but I wouldn't listen. He hasn't brought the book. She will have to be X-rayed. My father demanded that I should give up smoking. I will see to it. John is very fond of reading. 21. Exercise VI. 17. This knife won't cut. 10. . Exercise III. p. We might be late. If it should rain. I thought it was too absurd that we should live next door and not speak. Well. 7. You cannot go there by bus. 12. Should she come. 8. He suggested that the meeting should be held on Wednesday. 18. You can work here. His name is Dobson. 3. 7. §18. 16. 28. 3. I was surprised that he should have failed the exam. 19. I \ will certainly follow your advice. It was hard to believe that the tourists had been able to climb such a high mountain. 12. 33. She can't/couldn't have done it! 35.1 can and I will learn it. Shall we dine out today? — I'd love to. Revision. 5. 285 I.1 tried to open the window but it wouldn't open. 13. 15. You may/might have heard his name. How much shall I pay the porter? — It's up to you to decide.1 have paid my money and I will stay here. My father agreed that I should take part in the trip. I had locked it myself. Remember that! 2. He will phone me late at night when I'm already sleeping. They all agreed that something should be done about the boy. 248 1.talk to my parents. Exercise IX. He will sit for hours reading books. 11. Should we wait for her? She may/might not come at all. as I knew that they wouldn't let me go. 17. I will finish typing the documents even if I have to stay up the whole night. but she wouldn't answer. 2. Shall we go out of town on Sunday? — I'd be delighted. 23. She knew what he must be feeling. He'd rather not leave yet. I'll be much obliged to you if you will wait for me. 21. Fetch another piece of chalk. 4. 9. 20. 233 1. 13. If you behave like that you shall be punished. 20. They will only check your documents. tell them I'll be back by 5 o'clock. You shall not be kept long. The telegram ought to reach him within two hours. 29. 2. You shall get your money back. 4. You shall not do it. §15. 31.40. 16. Don't worry. 11. 239 1. I didn't have/ need to cook dinner. 244 1. 17. It is necessary that she should come earlier. 15. — All right.1 asked his wife what was wrong with his. My husband insists that we should spend our holiday in Paris. 5.1 won't do what you ask me to do. 6. 10. I must have been sleeping. She is so selfish! 9. 9. 25. 5. After work he would wait for us at the bridge. 10. 15. 7. p. Finally we decided that we shouldn't stay there any longer and that we should go to the mountains. 10. 4. The kettle won't boil. 6. It was strange that at her age she should be so indifferent to parties. In spite of all our efforts the car wouldn't start. 19. 2. 6. 8. 18. He would often fall asleep with a book in his hands and spectacles on his nose. Didn't you become seasick? The sea was rough. 9. Where shall we stay in Moscow? — We could stay at the Minsk hotel. 7. After supper he suggested they should go to a movie but she refused. 22. It is important that you should mention it. — Good idea. I would spend the weekends in the library. We are to dine at a restaurant today. I thought I ought to let you know about it. 4. 2. 3. What shall we do tonight? — We could go to "the cinema. 26. The pen won't write. In summer we would go to the forest to pick mushrooms and berries. It is strange that he should have said it. p. We were hopefully looking at the sky but the sun wouldn't rise. What's wrong? — The key won't turn in the lock. I didn't hear the car drive up. p. He was to have come by the five o'clock train. 4. I'd rather read the letter first. I'm sorry that you should think so badly of me. 37. There is something wrong with her stomach but she won't consult a doctor. 14. Mary suggested that we should buy a present for John who was soon leaving the firm. You may walk miles without seeing anyone. 3. I'll let you know. It can be done and it shall be done. 12. I have bought tickets for the eight o'clock show. He made two or three attempts to strike his lighter. We needn't hurry. p. though he should have done it last week. They shall be sorry about it. He asked if he could depend on me.1 will do the work in time. 4. 12. I suggest that we should take a taxi. The door can't/couldn't have been left unlocked. This chalk won't write. 6. When I was a student. 8. when we have found out anything you shall hear about it. What shall we do now? Shall we watch TV? — I'd rather go for a walk than watch TV. 8. 13. 16. 7. 18. 6. 9. I was eager to go to the mountains but I didn't dare to ask my parents' permission. The weather is sure to be fine. 10. It is a very good hotel and it is located in the centre of the city 11. They should have kept him from taking such a foolish step. 6. §16. Well. You needn't have come.

55. 63. They are close friends. Your son might have been more careful. Shall we go out for a walk? 45. 41. He ought to be here soon. The drawer will not open. 46. He left at 7. The child won't eat anything.There's nothing to do. They weren't at home when I came. Evidently they hadn't been expecting me. 38. and competent. 48. He might/could have arrived in time if he had run quicker. 44. — He may not be hungry. He might not have heard the news. It is surprising that he should be so foolish! 39. 47. 58. 53. 43. 56. You say you will not do it. We can't wait any longer! Something must be done immediately! . Our football players are in good shape. 50. 52. 57. If he says so it must be true. We must obey the laws. She can't/couldn't have failed to help him. 59. This'll/must be our train. They should be there by now. You can't (mustn't) park in front of this gate. 40. 49. clever. but I say you shall (do it). After the exams you are to take all the books to the library. so I may as well go to bed. 54. Why aren't you applauding? Evidently you don't like her singing. 60. she should be elected because she is honest. In my opinion. 62. 42. The students are not supposed to take the books out of the reading room. He would often call on us. Will you please post the letter without delay? 61. They are sure/bound to win the match. When am I to come? 51. He could have knocked down my child. Not a cloud was to be seen.00.

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