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BMS Design

CONTENTS
Preface The purpose of this document is to help the users to understand how the instrumentation of air-conditioning system works. There are various types of instrumentation systems such as electric, electronic and direct digital control (DDC) systems, which can be used to control the air handling unit (AHU). This document includes a number of examples with the emphasis placed on electronic and electrical instrumentation. The Appropriate method must be selected after studying the various conditions such as how the system will be used, likely operating conditions, degree of control accuracy required, consistency of all facilities, etc. Contact the Yamatake representatives for further information on actual instrumentation and design.

Part I
1. Building Management System
1.1 What is building management system? ................................................................................................. 1 1.2 The Advantages of Building Management System ................................................................................ 4

2. Fundamentals of Automatic Control


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 General of Automatic Control ................................................................................................................ 5 Automatic Control Methodology ............................................................................................................ 7 Application fo Automatic Control device ................................................................................................ 9 BMS & Automatic control design general .............................................................................................. 11 Automatic Control System Design Procedure ........................................................................................ 15 Automatic Control System Retrofit Planning Procedure ........................................................................ 17

3. Automatic Control Devices


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Electric Control Devices ........................................................................................................................ 19 Electronic Control Devices .................................................................................................................... 19 DDC (Direct Digital Control) .................................................................................................................. 21 Intelligent Component ........................................................................................................................... 24

4. HVAC System generals


4.1 AHU Systems ........................................................................................................................................ 25 4.2 Chiller Plant Systems ............................................................................................................................ 26

5. Control Functions
5.1 HVAC Automatic Control details ............................................................................................................ 27 5.2 Energy saving application ..................................................................................................................... 30

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


6.1 Examples of Automatic Control System Instrumentation ....................................................................... 35

Part II
Guide Specification for HVAC

1 Building Automation

1 Building Management System


1.1 What is Building Management System?
agreed with utility companies will not be exceeded. The system can be upgraded to the BMS, in which the information managed by the BMS can be displayed on user's PC monitors and users can operate each facility. (3) Security/fire control system The security system controls access to buildings or individual rooms using a mechanized system, features intrusion monitoring to detect intruders in buildings, and issues alarms and video monitoring. There are two types of access control system: using a key management box, and using a card reader. These systems assure not only the safety of buildings but allow users 24-hour access. The fire control system for detecting fire in buildings and for preventing the spread of fire can display alarms or stop AHU by establishing a receiver specified by laws and by incorporating the signals into the integrated BA system. (4) Intelligent Building Management System The Intelligent building management system collects, stores and processes information on a variety of facilities in buildings and operating data to help building managers with maintenance control work, maintenance work, tenant billing and energy management and helps building owners with maintenance cost management. For example, software is included that supports equipment ledger management, performance management, maintenance schedule management, metering and billing.
Vertical integration of functions Vertical decentralization of systems

Building Management System (BMS) is comprehensive system for controlling and managing various facilities in a building. Central monitoring system monitors the operating status and errors of building facilities such as air handling, chiller plant, utilities and power facilities. With the advent of computer technology and improvement in digital communication technology, the automatic control equipment of air handling can now be integrated with centralized equipment resulting in centralized monitoring and control of all the facilities in a building. Centralized equipment is now called an Integrated BA System, which monitors an expanding number of facilities, from lighting, elevator facilities, fire control facilities, and security facilities such as access control or intrusion monitoring from user terminals. It has also expanded into a system called a Intelligent Building Management System which controls information on the entire building and its facilities and ensures their effective operation. A BMS can be classified into the following four categories. (1) Automatic control system The automatic control system provides continuous, sequential and energy-saving control of process values (physical values) related to air handling, chiller plant and Utilities, etc. In air handling systems, control of temperature or humidity in air handling units (AHU) which carry out cooling/heating or ventilation is included. In chiller plant facilities, a number of operating unit controls and pressure controls for heat pump chillers, refrigerators and pumps are included. In Utilities, control of water tank level and pumps operation which supply clean water in buildings or waste water treatment are included in the automatic control system. (2) Building Management System The Building Management System monitors the operating status and identifies any malfunctions of the equipment in building at the fundamental level. It carries out display of functions, keeps a log and operates the system. It also controls system-wide facilities such as power or air handling systems. For example, it features scheduled operating controls to operate equipment according to a set schedule, and power demand control to operate each facility and all equipment so that the power demand 1

IBMS Building Management System

Information management Monitoring / operation

Central control

Automatic control system


Local control

Intrusion monitoring

Automatic fire alarm

Horizontal integration of target facilities Horizontal decentralization of system

Figure 1

Conceptual rendering of Intelligent Building Management System

Access control

Smoke control

User terminal (PC)

Air handling

Chiller plant

Plumbing

Elevator

Lighting

Power

1 Building Management System

Intelligent Building
Facility Reservation Fire Alarm Lift/Escalator System IBMS Server

Ethernet

Building Energy Management System

BEMS
BACnet IP
System Management Server

Integration Data Server

Energy Data Server

Client PC

System Core Server

LonTalk

Paramatrix Chiller Plant Controller

Infilex ZM

Infilex AC

Infilex GD

SAnet
Infilex FC

Infilex VC

ACTIVAL ACTIVAL PLUS Intelligent Component Series

ACTIVAL MINI Neoplate

VAV BOX
Neopanel

Building Management
Figure 2 Sample automatic control system of air-conditioning and Sanitary facilities

1 Building Management System

IBMS
Management System
Help Desk Facility Management Asset Management Multimedia Public Display

Security
Security System OPC Server

Data Storage Server

Security Data Server

BACnet IP
Access Core Controller

Wiegand
3rd Party LonTalk Devices
Electric Lock IR Passive Sensor

CCTV

Proximity Card Reader

Infilex GC

Lighting System
ACTIVAL CO2 Concentration Transmitter Pipe Insertion Temperature Sensors Room Temperature Humidity Sensor Duct Insertion Temperature Humidity Sensors

Operator Panel

BACnet Devices

Modbus Interface PLC Power meter

BMS
System
Figure 3 Sample integrated BA system

1 Building Management System

1.2 The Advantages of Building Management System


The advantages of introducing a Building Management System to users of buildings include the provision of a comfortable, safe and convenient environment. The advantages to owners and managers include reduction of operating costs by means of energy conservation and labor-saving over the entire building as well as better maintenance, leading to improvement of the value of property. The BMS clearly affords a variety of benefits. In particular, the automatic air-conditioning control system allows the creation of the most comfortable environment for users, prevents wastage of energy by optimum control and continuously maintains these advantages. Introducing BMS. The detailed benefits of introduction are as follows:

(1) Labor-saving, efficient management Since integration allows comprehensive control of large amounts of data, operation of building and facilities can be carried out by a smaller number of people. More sophisticated management can be realized through effective use of the information.

(4) Ensures a variety of safety features By concentrating all information about building facilities into the central unit, you can easily identify the status of facilities, operate the facilities and take correct countermeasures in the event of power failure or outbreak of fire. By integration with the security system, you can assure the safety of building users and confidential information with no loss of convenience. (5) Improve convenience for building users By integrating each facility, services and convenience to individual users can be improved. For example, 24-hour free safe access to buildings, simple and user-friendly setting and adjustment of temperature or operating time and identification of outdoor air temperature, weather status and building management information. The following pages illustrate a sample automatic control system for air-conditioning and utilities, and a sample integrated BA system.

(2) Maintenance and optimization of environment Maintains optimum thermal environment condition, such as temperature and humidity including CO2 and dust requirements, as well as lighting levels for individual users or production facilities.

(3) Resource/energy saving Utilizing natural energy effectively and limiting unnecessary use of resources or energy, using the methods like controlling and maintaining a desired temperature setting accurately, or by employing only outdoor air necessary to carry out control in response to the load placed in the building.

2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control


This section describes the mechanism of automatic control, important factors in air handling control including temperature, humidity, pressure, flow rate, response, methods and how to read the implementation diagrams as well as notes for designing automatic control systems. Please note that to make the descriptions in this document simpler and easier to understand, some non-technical expressions may be used in the sections describing the theory of automatic control.

2.1 General of Automatic Control


Figure 4 shows an example of manual adjustment and Figure 5 shows an example of automatic control. As you can see in Figure 5, an automatic control system consists of a sensing element, a controller and a final control element. The sensing element is an alternative to human vision, the controller which makes comparisons and judgments is an alternative to the brain and the final control element is a substitute for the hands and feet. Automatic control systems always compare the actual temperature with the desired temperature and work to eliminate the difference between them. To a control system, changes in outdoor air load such as outdoor air temperature or solar radiation and changes in room load such as number of occupants are added as disturbance. If there is no change in internal or external conditions, once a valve (final control element) is set to the optimum position, the temperature is held constant. However, loads fluctuate with changing external and internal conditions, making automatic control necessary. As the figure on the right shows, when there are changes in setting temperature or Necessary changes changes of of temperature disturbance, a delay occurs in the system until control action is (appearance) (appearance) Dead time Time constant taken and the Dead time & Time constant actual room temperature starts changing. This is called dead time. The time taken from start of changes in room temperature to re-establishment of set temperature is called the time constant. The quality required for automatic control in such systems is quick response and stability. Quick response means to achieve the target value as soon as possible. Stability means to keep the system which achieved the target constant. To design automatic control, function and quality must be determined in line with the characteristics of the applicable control and budget.
Temperature

Steam

Room temperature 20C

a)Manual adjustment of room temperature

Desired value 25C

20C
In manual adjustment you look at the current room temperature, compare it with the desired value, decide whether to open or close the valve and manually set the valve to change the flow rate of steam. As the result, the supply air temperature and room temperature change and you visually confirm the result. b) Flow (temperatures in the diagram are examples)

Figure 4

Manual adjustment
Outdoor air temperature Infiltration, solar radiation Change in number of occupants Amount of control (room temperature)

Temperature controller

Thermostat Control differential Steam + Comparison

Motorized valve

Set point (Temperature setting)

a)Automatic control of room temperature

25C

Issues signals to controller to reduce control differential.

Motorized valve

AHU

(Room)

20C

Starts operation at the signal from the controller and changes the temperature of the control target

Detects room temperature 20C


b) Flow (temperatures in the diagram are examples)

Figure 5

Automatic control

2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

2.2 Automatic Control Methodology


There are various methods for operating the controller of automatic control equipment. These are selected and adopted according to the characteristics of the control target, the required degree of control accuracy and the budget available. This section describes a typical control response used in automatic control of air-conditioning.

Control Item

Two-position (ON/OFF) control


Setting dial

Proportional (P) Control


Setting dial

Mechanism (electric control device)

Diaphragm
Increase in temperature Increase in temperature

Diaphragm Potentiometer

Snap switch

Differential

The position of the target value varies depending on the controller Position

Proportional band Fully open

The position of the target value varies depending on the controller

Action diagram (heating)

Position

Fully closed (Temperature) Amount of control Target value

(Temperature) Amount of control Target value

Amount of control

Amount of control

Response (response when the system is loaded in progressive stages.)

Fluctuation in room temperature

Offset Time

Time

Recommended control system

Control element

Dead time Time constant Size

Short

Short to medium

Medium to long

Medium to long

Disturbance

Small

Small to medium

Speed

Low
Select either of the two fixed amounts control signal. The setting is just a target value. It does not achieve the exact set point. If the differential is too large, the fluctuation increases; if it is too small, it turns on and off repeatedly, an effect called 'hunting.' Relatively small and stable system. Room temperature control, where it is OK if the temperature varies around the target value (differential).

Low to medium
The amount of operation is proportional to the current value of the action signal. The setting is just a target value. An offset (remaining differential) remains, since no action is made to achieve the exact set point. If the proportional band is wide, the offset is large; if it is too small, hunting occurs. Control target with minimum disturbance and lag. Room temperature control, where a high degree of accuracy is not required.

Features

Applications

Figure 6.1 Action of automatic control (1)

Proportional band

Target value

Target value

Differential

2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

Control Item

Floating Control

Proportional + Integral (PI) Control

Proportional + Integral + Derivative (PID)Control

Amount of operation

Off

Action diagram (heating)

Decrease in amount of operation (Temperature) amount of control Dead band

Amount of operation

Increase in amount of operation

Diaphragm

(Temperature) Amount of control Set point Proportional band

(Temperature) Amount of control Set point Proportional band

Target value

Amount of control

Amount of control

Amount of control

Response (response when disturbance is added in the systems loaded in progressive stages.)

Proportional band

Time

Time

Control element

Recommended control system

Dead time Time constant

Short

Short to medium

Short to long

Short

Short to long

Short to long

Disturbance

Size

Small to large

Small to large

Small to large

Speed

Low When an action signal exceeds a certain range(dead band),it increases/decreases the amount of operation at a certain speed. The setting is just a target value. It does not achieve the exact set point.

Low to medium

Low to high

Adds a derivative function to the Adds the integral action to the proportional action to eliminate offset PI control. Provides a faster response. and keeps the control target at or very near the set point

Features

Applications

System where there are System with minimum lag and time Systems with large disturbance significant load changes and a constant ; disturbance can be large. Room temperature control or high degree of accuracy is pressure control where supply air Tank level control, etc. temperature control or high degree of required. Special constant temperature and accuracy is required. constant humidity control, pressure control, etc.

Notes:P: Proportional I : Integral D: Derivative

Figure 6.2 Action of Automatic Control (2)

Proportional band Time

Dead band

Set point

Set point

Position

2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

2.3 Application for Automatic Control Device


According to its principle and structure, the automatic control equipment for air handling is classified as follows: (See Figure 7 on the next page). Electric Electronic Pneumatic Electro-pneumatic Direct Digital Control (DDC) In Japan, compared with America and Europe, pneumatic/electro-pneumatic methods using pneumatic pressure as the input signal are found in only a few applications, such as chiller plant control or explosion-proof systems, where large valves are used, or hospitals, where many valves are used. In electric control devices, mechanical elements such as diaphragms or nylon tapes are used and sensing elements and a controller are included in a single unit. These devices are commonly used as they are convenient to handle and feature low cost. However, it is expected that these devices will be replaced by electronic digitized products with a similar appearance. Microprocessors are increasingly being mounted on electronic devices, but DDC is becoming even more widespread. Further details on DDC are given in Section 3.3. Here, DDC is categorized as a product that obtains various function and benefits by communicating with main building management system. In this regard, it is different from electronic devices with micro processors.

These methods are chosen for their specific characteristics (Figure 7, next page). With the recent digitalization of products, it is getting more difficult to categorize these methods simply according to their operating principle and structure. Please note that in this document some devices are regarded as electronic due to how they are applied, even if they use built-in digital circuits. The structure, operating principle and type of each device is explained in Section 3.

2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control


Electric
Sensing & Control Element

Pneumatic
Sensing & Control Element Sensing Element

Electronic
Sensing Element Remote setting

Electro-pneumatic
Sensing Element Remote setting Controller

DDC
Sensing Element Communication with central system Controller Central F/O unit

Diagram temperature Case: Temperature control


Final Control Element Final Control Element

Controller

Controller

Converter

Final Control Element

Final Control Element

Final Control Element

Final Control Element

Principle

Physical dispositions of bellows, bimetal diaphragms or nylon tapes are used. The sensing element and controller are integrated in a single unit. Electricity Moderate Moderate

Air pressure balancing method using nozzles and flappers. Two types available: sensing element and controller integral type and separate type. High accuracy types for industrial use are also available.

Resistance temperature device Bridge circuit Electronic circuits are used Transmit by current, voltage signal. Microcomputer mounted types and sensing element and controller integral types are available. Electricity Accurate Fast

Sensing element and controller are electronic control. Final control element uses pneumatic control. Attains advantages of both control.

Digital circuits (microcomputer) are used. Digital signal Realize excellent performance by mutual communication with central monitoring unit Electricity Accurate Fast

Source of power Accuracy Sensing Transmission Response Actuator Response Speed

Air Moderate Moderate

Electricity / Air Accurate Fast

Moderate Two-position Proportional Proportional Compensation

Moderate Two-position Proportional PID Cascade Compensation Two-position Proportional PID Cascade Compensation

Moderate Two-position Proportional PID Cascade Compensation + Various complex computing control Comfortable environment control Energy-saving control

Control Method

Function
Temperature Humidity Pressure Temperature Humidity Pressure

Indication Central monitoring measurement Central monitoring setting Temperature Humidity Pressure Dew point temperature Flow rate Others Easy Easy Moderate Easy Applicable with Flame proof device (Install flameproof equipment) More expensive than an electric control system.

Indication Central monitoring measurement Central monitoring setting Temperature Humidity Pressure Dew point temperature Flow rate Others Moderate Moderate Applicable with Flame proof device (Install flameproof equipment) Comparatively low cost in instrumentation with many valves. Constant temperature and constant humidity Remote setting indication Control target with rapidly changing disturbance When large valves are used Temperature Humidity Pressure Dew point temperature Flow rate Others Moderate Easy Applicable with Flame proof device (Install flameproof equipment) Less expensive than an electric control system if it is used with central monitoring unit Intelligent building Energy-saving instrumentation Complex instrumentation

Control Element

Ease of handling Ease of installation Flameproof

Very Easy Very Easy

Not Applicable Low cost, provided the instrumentation is simple. General air handling Simple instrumentation

Applicable Low cost, provided the instrumentation is simple. (air source equipment is required)

Cost efficiency

For flameproof When large valves are used (relatively low cost)

Applications

For constant temperature and constant humidity Remote setting indication

Figure 7

Control methods comparison table

2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

2.4 BMS & Automatic Control Design General


At first glance, diagrams of automatic controls for air-handling look confusing and off-putting. However, it is possible to understand the drawing more easily if you learn a few rules. (Different manufacturers tend to use slightly different rules). Normally, drawings of BMS including central monitoring and automatic controls are composed of the following items.

1. Automatic control Drawing 2. Legend Table for automatic control devices 3. Valve size table 4. Automatic control (remote) panel dimensions table 5. Central monitoring system block diagram 6. Central monitoring system specifications 7. Central monitoring system dimension diagram 8. Central monitoring system I/O hardware interface wiring circuit diagram 9. Central monitoring system input and output list I/O table 10.BMS & Automatic control flow wiring plan

Work segment diagram and central monitoring system diagrams may be added to these drawings. In particular, instrumentation diagrams in which the functions and systems of automatic control are entered with an overview of facilities enable the viewer to fully understand the automatic control system. This section contains an explanation of the symbols used in this diagram.

In addition, some typical examples of instrumentation diagrams of air-conditioning facilities are shown in Section 6. Figure 8 shows a table of typical symbols, Figure 9 shows the legends used in instrumentation diagrams and Figure 10 gives an explanation using an instrumentation example of an air handling unit control.

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2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control


Note : The symbol in floor plans is intended for use in measurements.

Symbol
Instrumentation diagram

Abbreviations Floor plan


T,H TE,HE,THE TD TED,DTE TW

Description

Remarks
Electric thermostat/humidity controller Electronic sensor Electric thermostat Electronic sensor

Room temperature (humidity) controller Room temperature (humidity) sensor (transmitter) Duct temperature controller Duct (dew-point) temperature sensor (transmitter)

Pipe insertion temperature controller

Electric thermostat

TEW CO2 PE dPE dPS FM

Pipe insertion temperature sensor

Electronic sensor

CO2 density sensor Pressure transmitter Differential pressure (static pressure) transmitter Differential pressure switch

Flow meter

SW QM R/TM/Other TC,TIC,HIC TR,AT DDC,PMX MD(MDF/MDE)

(Toggle) Switch

The symbol shown in ( ) is used to represent panel mounted device.

Set point device Relay/timer/converter Temperature (humidity, others) (indicating) controller Transformer DDC controller

Motorized damper actuator

MV

Motorized two-way valve

MVT

Motorized three-way valve

BFV/BV/SV

Motorized butterfly valve/ball valve/electromagnetic valve Central monitoring panel Automatic control panel/remote panel

CP/RS

Figure 8

Typical symbols for automatic control drawings

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2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

Legend

Power (1100/200 V AC, devices inside panel are omitted.) Power (24 V AC, connected to transformer secondary side) Unshielded cable (diagonal lines show the number of cables) Shielded cable (diagonal lines show the number of cables) Coaxial cable (diagonal lines show the number of cables) Air piping Fan interlock signal (52X contact) ON/OFF signal ( Shows Mg.SW)

Air source (main air) Devices mounted inside the field mounted panel Devices mounted inside the monitoring panel Devices mounted inside field mounted box (relay, transformer boxes, etc.) signal to/from monitoring panel communication cable (EIA 568 complied category 3 to 5 0.5 4P)

General work segments 1. Power supply for automatic control


Supplied from a Distribution board (or power panel). Piping and wiring work is included in the automatic control work.

2. Interlock
This work involves piping and wiring up to the target devices such as power panels. Interlocking inside the power panel is included in the power work.

3. Central monitoring input and output


Piping and wiring between the power panel, high voltage panel , distribution board and remote station (RS) panels are included in this work. Auxiliary relays and contacts required for remote control of power, lighting, etc. are installed inside the respective power panel. (See the input and output interconnection diagram)

4. Fan coil
Piping and wiring between fan coil local operation switch and the main unit is included in this work.

5. Variable Air Volume (VAV)


Power supply for VAV (24 V AC) is supplied from the instrumentation panel (CP). Piping and wiring between CP panel and VAV are included in this work.

Figure 9

Legend and example of work segment

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2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

Communication with BMS


Communication interface Abbreviation for Direct Digital Controller

The symbols with shading lines represent the devices mounted in panel

The symbols without shading lines represent the devices mounted in field/room

COM I/F
Shows contact (digital) output

DDC AO AI
Shows analog signal input Shows number of cables

DO DI

Shows contact (digital) input Shows branching of signal lines Shows analog signal output

Shows 24V AC output


2

R.A dPS MV1 MV1 MV2 BAV THE


Shows the product abbreviation specified in the device list

Return air duct

H
Supply air duct

S.A

O.A

Outdoor air duct

FAN C C TD

MDF

See valve selection table for flow details of coil and humidification unit

Shows panel power AC input

TR
2

Shows 24V AC output

AT

Control items 1. Room temperature control


Chilled water valve and hot water valve shall be controlled (Modulating control by PI action) by room temperature to keep set point.
Hot water Valve opening

(%) valve 100


Valve opening

Humidification

Chilled water valve

(%) valve (reheat) 100


Valve opening

Hot water

Chilled water valve

(%) valve 100

Chilled water valve

0
Set point Humidity

0
Set point Temperature

3. Start-up control
0
Set point Temperature

Outdoor air damper remains closed for pre-cooling or preheating for a predetermined time after AHU is started.

4. Interlock control
Devices are interlocked with AHU status and season's information. Devices : O.A damper, 2-way valves, humidification valve.

2. Room humidity control


Humidification (winter) : Proportional humidification valve shall be controlled by room humidity to keep set point. Dehumidification (summer) : Proportional chilled water valve shall be controlled as dehumidification by room humidity to keep set point. Under processing dehumidification, room temperature shall be compensated by reheat valve control.

5. Defect alarm of humidification valve


Humidification valve defect is detected by the temperature inside AHU when AHU is off.

6. Communication with BMS

Figure 10

Example of Automatic Control Diagram

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2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

2.5 Automatic Control System Design Procedure


Since automatic control plays the important role of being the 'nervous system' of buildings or facilities, sufficient consideration must be paid to the design stage of the buildings. This section explains the system-wide plan of automatic control made at the planning stage of the building or facilities and examples of procedures of instrumentation and design of individual facilities at the actual design stage.

System-wide plan
Identify the various characteristics of the building
Identify the area, use, scale, methods of management and operation, concept and budget of the building. The importance of control changes depending on the area or use. For example, some areas may need frost-protection control.

Identify overview of building facilities

Identify the concept, method, system and number of units of the building facilities.

Determine the conditions for the plan

Determine the concept, effect of introduction, required quality (required accuracy, etc.) and environmental conditions of the automatic control system. For example, determine which is of primary importance: temperature/humidity conditions, energy conservation, system reliability, etc.

Determine control items and functions

Determine the control target, items to be controlled, monitored, operated and over all function for each facility. See Sections 5 and 6.

Select the system and control method

Select the system-wide configuration and control method to match the required function. For example, optimum start/stop control of the air handling unit can be carried out at the central monitoring unit and the other AHU controls can be performed by DDC.

Check consistency with facility systems

Check whether the selected control function and control method are consistent with the facility system. Review of the building or facilities may be necessary for the required function for automatic control.

Check whether the plan is in line with the budget.

Check budget

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2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

Instrumentation design for individual facility


Identify facility drawing
Check the device table of the facility, distribution diagram or floor plan and identify the position of the respective facility.

Check control item and function

Check the control items, functions and accuracy required for control of the respective facility system while planning the instrumentation.

Identify facility system

Identify devices, duct and piping systems related to the respective facility and check whether they are consistent with the control items. For example, return air fans, exhaust air fans, duct systems, and piping systems for air handling units. Check whether the operable valves, dampers, humidifiers, inverters, etc. related to the respective facility are connected to the locations consistent with the control items. Determine the types of sensors and installation locations (rooms, return air ducts, etc.) to ensure that the sensors required for control items accurately detect the load on the control targets. Also take into account the space design and ambient environments. Determine your control method based on what it is you want to control, the required conditions of quality, the driving source, need for measurement, setting and display, position, operating method, and method of management. With consideration given to the elements added so far, set up the control logic based on the required control loop, how it is planned to work, the relationship between each loop, interlock, the transmission points for central monitoring, etc. An overview of the control logic system is described in the instrumentation diagram with an explanation of what each part does. Select control devices in line with control logic, input/output signal, circuits and budgets.

Check final control elements

Determine locations of sensors

Select the control method

Design control logic

Select the control devices

Select the control valves

Select the appropriate type and size of control valves based on the liquid, flow rate, inlet pressure, pressure drop (P), and pressure rating. Check whether the pressure, shut-off and flow rate is within the allowable range of the valve. For details, see our separate document, "Valve Selection and Sizing" Create your instrumentation diagram, automatic control device table and valve size table.

Create instrumentation diagram Calculate the automatic control panel size.

Based on the devices installed inside the respective automatic control panel, calculate panel size and create size table.

Create your floor plan

Create your floor plan for automatic control based on the positions of facility equipment, piping, ducts, power and distribution boards work segments, and wiring routes and your existing instrumentation diagram. Identify the quantity of devices, panels, piping, wiring and installation work and calculate the budget, including the costs of devices and panels, adjustment costs, engineering costs and instrumentation work costs.

Create a detailed budget 15

2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

2.6 Automatic Control System Retrofit Planning Procedure


As with facilities, it is also important to identify the problems and needs of the owners, users and building managers and solve them successfully and reliably when fitting automatic controls. The course of action for retrofitting is distinctly different from that for installation of systems in new buildings. An example of planning procedure and retrofitting of air handling unit controls is given below.

Planning procedure for retrofit building


Investigation of current conditions
Identify current problems. It is important to precisely identify current problems and solve them reliably to make retrofit plans successful. Therefore,
1. Precisely identify the problems and needs of owners, building users and building managers. 2. Objectively determine the need for retrofitting based on a diagnosis of the facilities, etc. 3. Investigate the current system and devices to identify the operating conditions of each function. 4. Investigate the availability of parts necessary for troubleshooting.

Narrow down the problems by means of these investigations. Clarify the reason for renewal In a basic plan, it is important to clarify the benefits to owners, users and managers.
1. Clarify the motives (problems, etc.) of owners, users or managers and propose improvements, describing their effects. 2. Propose correct methods and measures to satisfy their needs. 3. Ask about the potential motives and needs of owners, users and managers and propose solutions.

Basic plan

It is important to clarify the reason to identify the intended effects of retrofitting.

Investigation for implementation Implementation plan

Carry out detailed investigation to realize solutions. Retrofit building is subject to various constraints and detailed on-site investigation is required before formulating an implementation plan.
(1) Building constraints such as space available, type of structure, etc. (2) Operational constraints of building users or managers. (3) Consistency with existing facilities.

Installation plan

Plan installation so as not to interfere with the day-to-day operation of the building. A detailed installation plan is required before embarking on retrofitting a building while it is in use.
(1) Consider the method of shifting to a new work system to minimize down time. (2) Prepare "shift procedures" to ensure a successful shift from the old system to the new system. (3) Determine construction time periods taking care not to cause inconvenience to building users. (4) Make plans for material movement with consideration given to the use of the building.

Installation

Operation

Improve training for the new system. The managing engineer must be able to adapt quickly to the new system. Set up a training plan for the new building management system.
(1) Training before switch over to the new system. (2) Follow-up training after switch over to the new system.

It is necessary to prepare the plan according to the new management controls and implement the same.

Measuring the effects of the new system

Comparison and verification of cost effectiveness A comparison of effects before and after retrofit is required.
(1) Set up in advance the method of effect measurement and comparison. (2) Effects must be checked after retrofitting.

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2 Fundamentals of Automatic Control

Retrofit examples of air handling unit control


The method of retrofit varies depending on the current control method. These are cases of replacing the existing control method with DDC.
From pneumatic to DDC (Install an electro-pneumatic converter and leave the air source equipment in place) Procedures Replace the existing pneumatic controllers with DDC. Replace sensors Connect the existing pneumatic final control elements to a DDC via an electro-pneumatic converter Advantages The benefits of pneumatic control can be retained. Existing final control elements can be effectively used. The down time of air handling units due to replacement can be reduced. From pneumatic to DDC (Eliminate all pneumatic control devices) Procedures Replace existing pneumatic controllers with DDC. Replace all sensors and final control elements. Advantages Elimination of air source equipment saves space Costs are higher than when using the electro-pneumatic converter, since all devices are replaced. From electric to DDC Procedures Replace existing electric controllers with DDC. Replace all sensors and final control elements. Advantages Better fine control and energy-saving control can be done as compared with electric control Existing wiring (for sensors) can be used if it is in satisfactory condition. From electronic to DDC Procedures Replace existing electronic controllers with DDC. Existing sensors and final control elements can be used if they are still in good condition. Advantages Existing devices can be used effectively. This approach features the lowest cost of the four methods combined with the benefits of DDC.

Measurement (to Central)

Measurement (to Central)

Cooling/heating

changeover

Measurement (to Central)

Measurement (to Central)

Figure 11

Retrofit example of air handling unit control

17

3 Automatic Control Devices


3.1 Electric Control Devices
The sensing element, controller and set point device are built into a single unit. This method monitors changes in temperature and humidity via bellows or diaphragms as mechanical displacements and directly controls final control elements such as motorized valves, motorized dampers, humidifiers, compressors, etc. Electricity is used to transmit signals or as a source of power for mechanical movements. Both room mounted types and insertion types are used that are installed in ducts or piping to detect temperature, humidity, pressure, and other variables. The

3. Automatic Control Devices

structure is simple and easy to handle. Therefore, the work is simple and can be carried out at comparatively low cost. This method is used in applications where a high degree of accuracy is not required. This circuit produces either a two-position action (output signal: SPST or SPDT, etc.) or a proportional action (output signal: 0 to 135 potentiometer). Integral (I) or differential (D) actions are not supported. A power supply of 100/200 V AC or 24 V AC is used.

Temperature controller Neostat TY900

Motorized valve Actuator MY5320 Three-way valve VY5303

Return air

Outdoor air

Supply air

Air handling unit Chilled/hot water

Figure 12

Sample instrumentation drawing for electric control

3.2 Electronic Control Devices


In electronic control devices, the sensing elements and controllers are at a distance from each other. Controllers are usually placed in a control panel in mechanical room. Since an electronic controller uses electronic circuits (digital circuits), it accepts various measured values, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, flow rate, CO2, density, etc. and provides highly accurate control and indications and allows remote setting of measured values. Since the outputs are general-purpose signals, converters such as high/low select* or ratio bias* or auxiliary devices can be used and electronic control devices can accommodate flexible instrumentation such as selective controls or limited controls. High / low select : A device which selects the larger (or smaller) signal from two input signals and outputs. Ratio bias : A device which issues outputs, changing the start and end points or rate of change of input signals.

18

3. Automatic Control Devices


The principal actions of controllers and types of input and output signals are as follows:
Input signal types Resistance temperature device (Pt100) 0 to 20mA DC 4 to 20mA DC 0 to 10mV DC - 10 -+ 10mV DC 0 to 100mV DC 1 to 5V DC 0 to 5V DC P(Proportional) PI PID Actions Two-position Time proportioning Output signal types Relay contact (SPDT) Open collector (voltage) Position proportional contact + feedback potentiometer Current 4 to 20mA DC 0 to 10V DC 1 to 5V DC 2 to 10V DC

Element

Current

Voltage

Voltage

Temperature sensors for air handling systems include room, duct, pipe and ceiling mounted types. Temperature sensing elements take the form of resistance temperature devices. Resistance temperature sensors are Pt100 made of platinum. Pt100 is specified by JIS and used in air handling controls with constant temperature and constant humidity and chiller plant control where a high degree of accuracy is required. Humidity sensors are classified into room- and duct- mounted types. The measurement values are either relative humidity, dew point temperature and dry-bulb temperature. Sensing elements comprise the high polymer thin film type, which is compact and ensures high stability and quick response. An external power supply is required for high polymer thin film sensors. They have electronic circuits inside the sensors and transmit voltage or current signals. Final control elements are damper motors, motorized valves, humidifiers, etc. It also uses inverter or thyristors with current input.

Temperature characteristics of platinum resistance temperature Sensors

Return air

Temperature indicating controller R36

Room temperature sensor Neosensor TY7043

Motor driver RN796A Motorized two-way valve Actival VY5117

Supply air Outdoor air

Chilled water

Hot water

Air handling unit

Figure 13

Sample instrumentation drawing of electronic control

19

3. Automatic Control Devices

3.3 DDC (Direct Digital Control)


According to the definition of the Japan Electric Measuring Instruments Manufacturers' Association, DDC is defined as "Control in which the functions of a controller are performed by means of a digital device." However, in this document, DDC indicates "a controller in which an automatic control system and a remote station of central monitoring are integrated, which applies digital processing using a microprocessor." The features of DDC, its sample configuration, and comparison with electronic controller are shown below. Features of DDC {Digital setting, display and calculation eliminate errors in transmission and calculation, allowing highly accurate control and measurement. {All input and output signals can be transmitted to the central monitoring unit. More precise and detailed management is possible. {DDC allows distributed control and management of each unit, not only for air handling units but also for fan coil units (FCU),VAV(Variable air volume)units and Chiller Plant equipment. {Transmission functions are integrated. Only one sensor is required to carry out control and measurement. {Common components and self-diagnosis functions enable quick response when a problem occurs. {LCD display set point devices and wireless sensors can be connected, for convenience and better design. {Programs can be easily added and or modified onsite to cope with changes in room layouts, such as movement of partitions. {Control functions and remote station function for central monitoring are included in the controller saving space in panels. {Easy upgrade and retrofitting since it utilizes the same sensors and final control, other type, The digital transmission of input and output signals of sensors and final control elements is also possible.

Exhaust air Return air Central system

Damper Actuator MY6050 QY9010

Multipurpose Controller Infilex GC WY5111 Room temperature/ humidity sensor HTY7043

Damper Actuator MY6050 QY9010 Motorized two-way valve Actival VY5117

Motorized Two-Way Valve VY5118

Steam

Outdoor air Damper Actuator MY6050 QY9010

Supply air Insertion temperature sensor TY7803 Air handling unit Chilled/hot water

Figure 14

Sample instrumentation drawing of DDC

20

3. Automatic Control Devices

Central monitoring unit

Building Management System savic-net series

Temperature/humidity sensor

Temperature/humidity sensor

Filter differential pressure

Digital transmission line

CO2 density sensor

AHU supply air fan

AHU return air fan

Setting device for engineering

Call point ON/OFF, setting, status, alarm Real time/totalized data Program data

To other DDC controllers


(peer communication)

Input interface Communication file Data setting file

Control calculation unit

DDC controller

Output interface

User terminal

Fan coil unit Humidifier Damper Damper AHU supply air fan AHU return air fan Inverter Valve

Figure 15

Example of distributed DDC controller configuration

21

3. Automatic Control Devices

Electronic controller + RS (remote station)

Transmission line

Temperature measurement

Humidity measurement Temperature setting Humidity setting

Automatic control panel Temperature controller Humidity controller

Fan ON/OFF

Power panel

Central monitoring unit

Air handling unit

DDC
Temperature measurement Humidity measurement Temperature setting Humidity setting Fan ON/OFF Controller failure Fan ON/OFF

Transmission line (Digital signal)

Power panel

Central monitoring unit

Air handling unit


RS: DDC: T: H: Remote Station Direct Digital Controller Temperature sensor Humidity sensor

Figure 16

Comparison of control methods

22

3. Automatic Control Devices

3.4 Intelligent Component


In addition to DDC control, Intelligent Component Series are Intelligent Component Products are the field devices which contains the information of device and control conditions. The features of Intelligent Component Series, its sample configuration are as shown below. Features of Intelligent Component Series {This product transmits all input and output signals to the central BMS through the dedicated communication line called SA-net. More data transfer than direct wiring is possible. {From room temperature sensor to control valve, major products required for AHU control are available in its lineup. {ACTIVAL PLUS is one of the lineup of Intelligent Component Series. This is the motorized control valve with flow rate measurement and control function controls chilled and hot water flow rate by detecting flow rate not by adjusting the valve opening. {ACTIVAL PLUS calculates flow rate by differential pressure detected by built-in pressure sensor times Cv calculated by the valve opening position times the constant. {Wall mounted LCD display is available to indicate measured pressure, temperature, calculated flow rate from ACTIVAL PLUS.

Exhaust air Return air Central system

Damper Actuator MY8040

Multipurpose Controller Infilex GC WY5111 Room Temperature Sensor HTY7043 Motorized 2-way valve with flow rate measurement and control FVY5160 Motorized 2-way valve Spring Return Type VY516X Steam

Damper Actuator MY8040

Outdoor air Damper Actuator MY8040

Supply air

Air handling unit Chilled/hot water

Duct Insertion Temperature Sensor TY7803C

Figure 17

Sample schematic drawing of Intelligent Component Series

23

4 HVAC System generals


4.1 AHU Systems
Air handling is divided into three systems: outdoor air processing, room interiors, or room perimeters, depending on the load each air handling unit is processing. (1) Outdoor AHU
In this AHU, only outdoor air is drawn in and processed without any return air from the system. Total heat exchangers are added in some cases. This unit is suitable with the combination of fan coil units, for individual rooms of hotels or hospitals, and AHUs on each floor in office buildings. In this type, controls are performed based on supply air temperature and dew point temperature. However, it is also possible to bypass all heat converters for outdoor air cooling depending on the season.
Supply air Outdoor air To indoor AHU Exhaust air

Appropriate AHUs are adopted for each system. There are various ways of classifying the AHUs. The following ways are amenable to automatic control.

Outdoor air

(4) Packaged air conditioner


This is a room unit incorporating a compressor. There are two types: a cooling compressor + electric heater type and heat pump type. Also there are water source types and multi-type units which need to be installed in multiple rooms. This method is mainly used for air handling of spaces with load characteristics and operating times that differ from other spaces, from computer rooms to stores or small-sized office buildings. In packaged air conditioners, ON/OFF control to determine the number of operating units of compressors in response to room temperature, etc. are carried out.

(2) Constant air volume (CAV) AHU


This method processes room load (return air) and outdoor air load (outdoor air), or room load only, and distributes constant air volume via ducts. A cooling/heating coil or combination of a cooling coil and a heating coil are used. This method controls zones with fairly constant load characteristics and is used extensively, from large spaces such as theaters or shopping centers, interiors of small to medium sized buildings, to zoned air handling in large buildings and units on each floor. The CAV AHU performs temperature and humidity control of rooms by controlling the amount of return air supplied back to the room. It also performs room temperature and CO2 density control by monitoring the outdoor air load and controlling the intake of outdoor air.
Exhaust air

Supply air

Return air

Outdoor air Outdoor air

(5) Fan coil unit (FCU) (3) Variable air volume (VAV) AHU
based on This method further divides zones with similar load tendency, controls these zones using individual VAV units, and reduces the total air volume of AHU using inverters, etc. accordingly. Compared with CAV AHUs, VAV AHUs can control the zones better with respect to the load on each small zone and thus enable energy conservation. This method is suited for medium-to large-sized office buildings with wide air handling areas which place importance on running costs. VAV AHUs control each VAV room temperature and control supply air temperature and fan air volume accordingly. They also controls outdoor air and CO2 condensation in the same way as for CAV AHUs. A compact air conditioner which incorporates a fan, a coil, and a filter, etc. Generally, it does not take in outdoor air or perform humidifying, but simply carries out air circulation. There are floor standing, ceiling-mounted and cassette types. This method is suited for individual rooms in hotels or hospitals or perimeters in office buildings. The FCU controls room or return air temperature by controlling valves individually or in groups (for zones). They can be used to optimize load sharing with air handling units in interior or outdoor air processing air handling units as well as to carry out energy-saving control.

25

4. HVAC System generals

4.2 Chiller Plant Systems


A variety of chiller plant equipment is available, with different operating principles and structures, including absorption chillers, heat pump chillers and boilers. Auxiliary equipment includes chilled/hot water pumps, cooling water pumps, and cooling towers. Classifying chiller plant types are classified as the closed piping method, open piping method, DHC (District Heating and Cooling) receiving method and individual chiller plant types of packaged air conditioners. (1) Closed type piping Single-pump system
This method supplies chilled/hot water to the whole building by a combination of chiller plant equipment and chilled/hot water (chilled water or hot water separately) pump. The system is simple and the initial cost is low. It is mainly used for small sized buildings. The single-pump system controls the number of operating chiller plant equipment according to flow rate and control bypass valves to keep the differential pressure at load constant. This system also controls peripherals including cooling towers and heat exchangers.

This document describes the closed method and the open method. The closed method is further classified as constant flow and variable flow method. In constant flow method, chilled/hot water is supplied to the whole building at a constant rate of flow controlled by three-way valves on the load side of the air handling units. In the variable flow method, the chilled/hot water supply flow is varied under the control of the two-way valves at the load side. This section mainly describes the variable flow method, which enables better energy conservation. (3) Open piping Storage tank system
This system uses double-foundation slabs and tanks as storage tanks, stores chilled/hot water from chiller plant equipment (mainly the motorized type) in tanks and directly supplies the water from the tanks to air handling units, etc. at the load side. Using the off-peak system of utility companies, this system stores heat efficiently by using cheaper off-peak power and halting equipment operation during peak hours in the daytime to reduce running costs and optimize power demand. This can also be used as a backup system for heat recovery or in the event of chiller plant equipment failure. Although this system requires large capital investment for installing water tanks, secondary pump to cope with higher head, as well as anti-corrosion measures, This system saves the running cost. Also it is cheaper, since lower capacity chiller plant equipment can be used. This system is mainly used for large-sized buildings and computer center. The storage tank system controls chiller plant equipment inlet three-way valves to store heat in storage tanks at a fixed temperature, the number of operating secondary pumps, bypass valves and pressure holding valves in the return pipe at load side.

Air handling unit

Chiller

Chilled/Hot water pump

(2) Closed type piping Dual-pump system


This method is also called the duplex pump or secondary pump system. The primary pump is controlled within the head of the chiller plant system and the secondary pump shares the load of the head equal to the resistance of the load side. Although the initial cost and installation space is higher than with the single-pump system, energy conservation can be realized by using a separate secondary pump for each chiller plant system and controlling the number of operating units. This method is mainly used for medium to large sized buildings. The dual-pump system controls the number of operating secondary pumps according to flow rate and control bypass valves or inverters according to differential pressure in front and behind the pumps.
Secondary pump

Air handling unit Heat pump

Primary pump

Water charging side Chilled water tank (at lower temperature)

Water discharging side (at higher temperature)

Air handling unit Secondary pump

Chiller

Primary pump

26

5 Control Functions
5.1 HVAC Automatic Control Details
This section explains details of control items described in application examples of automatic control in Section 6.1. (1) Room (supply air and return air) temperature control 1 Chilled water valve and hot water valve control
(Single coil heating) (Single coil cooling)

Hot water valve

Chilled water valve

Room temperature Heating set point Temperature main set point (double coils) Cooling set point

Detects room temperature using temperature sensor and provides proportional control of chilled water valves and hot water valves. In electronic DDC methods, integral action is also possible. In the single coil (dual-pipe) method, the action each valve is within the dotted line of the diagram on the left. The set point position in the double-coil (four-pipe) method is as shown in the left diagram. In DDC method, main set point, cooling and heating set points can be determined as required.

2 Chilled water valve and hot water valve + outdoor cooling control
Detects room temperature by using temperature sensor and provides proportional control of chilled water valves, hot water valves, outdoor air/return air/exhaust air damper (outdoor air cooling). In electronic and DDC methods, integral action is also possible. Using natural energy, provides outdoor air cooling control when intake of outdoor air is effective. When there is a total heat exchanger, the system changes to a bypass duct or operates the rotor intermittently during outdoor cooling. When the outdoor air satisfies the following conditions, intake of outdoor air is effective.
i. Outdoor air temperature
Room temperature Heating set point Outdoor air cooling set point Cooling set point

Valve opening

Valve opening

(Single coil heating)

(Single coil cooling) Outdoor air damper Chilled water valve

Hot water valve

Minimum opening

< < > <

room temperature (temperature based comparison) room enthalpy (energy-based comparison) outdoor air temperature low limit set point (measures against humidification load) outdoor air dew point temperature high limit set point (measures against dehumidification load)

II. Outdoor air enthalpy III. Outdoor air temperature IV. Outdoor air dew point temperature

Temperature main setting (double coil)

Provide a minimum opening for outdoor air intake to ensure correct design amount of outdoor air or CO2 density.

27

5 Control Functions
Expression of outdoor air intake condition on a psychrometric chart The conditions of I to IV in 2 of the previous page are expressed on a psychrometric chart as shown on the right.

Room environment

Outdoor air intake effective area Dry bulb temperature

3 Temperature control of heat pump package


Heating
Compressor

Cooling

Performs ON/OFF control of compressors according to room temperature.


Compressor

Status

Temperature Heating set point Heating/cooling changeover is done manually. Cooling set point

(2) Room (return air) humidity control 1 Humidifier control


Provides ON/OFF control of humidifier according to room humidity. Mainly used for vaporizing humidifying, water humidification, ultrasonic humidification and pan humidification.

Status

Humidity Humidifying set point

2 Control of humidifying valve and chilled water valve


Provides PI control to humidifying and chilled water valves according to room (return air) humidity to provide humidifying and dehumidifying reheat control. For electric control or humidifying only system, the valve action is within the dotted line For dehumidification, when humidity increases, the chilled water valve opens. As a result, the heating coil (hot water coil) reheats to compensate for the decrease in room (supply air, return air) temperature. Proportional control of humidification achieved by applying steam humidification or steam generator In steam humidification applications, the supply air dew point temperature can be used as the control.

Humidifying valve Valve opening

Chilled water valve

Humidity Humidifying set point Dehumidifying set point Humidity set point

Absolute humidity

28

5 Control Functions
(3) Supply air temperature cascade control Changes supply air temperature set point to control supply air temperature based on the control output of room temperature and room temperature set point. Due to this, the impact of process lag and disturbances can be reduced. (4) Supply air temperature limit control This function controls supply air temperature within high and low limits. This prevents overheating during heating, temperature stratification and condensation at outlet during cooling. (5) Supply air temperature set point optimization control In a variable air volume air handling unit, calculates optimum supply air temperature set point based on air volume of VAV and room temperature to prevent insufficient ventilation and heat output. (6) Supply air volume control by VAV air volume Adds up air volume of all VAVs and CAVs to output the speed of rotation in line with the fan speed characteristics of the AHU. Controls the fan speed in stages based on VAV opening. Sets minimum fan speed to ensure minimum outdoor air volume for ventilation. (7) Warming up control During warming up of air handling unit (pre-cooling/preheating), the following controls are achieved. The time between the start of AHU till start of occupancy is called as warming up period. The length of the warming up period is determined by calculation in the central monitoring unit or delay timer.
[1] Outdoor air intake disabled (outdoor air/exhaust air/outdoor air bypass/exhaust air bypass damper: fully closed, return air damper: fully open) To reduce outdoor air load, the outdoor air intake is disabled. This reduces warming up time and reduces power consumption by the fans. However, when outdoor air cooling is effective, outdoor air intake is performed. [2] A humidification disabled During warming up, there is a change in temperature, room relative humidity tends to be unstable, and the control does not stabilize. In order to prevent condensation in the supply air duct, humidification is disabled by interlock (Humidifier OFF or humidifying valve fully closed). [3] Total heat exchanger off Turn off total heat exchanger because outdoor air is not taken in.

(8) Interlock control while AHU fan is off


[1] Disable humidification [2] Chilled/hot water valve fully closed [3] Outdoor air/exhaust air/outdoor air bypass/exhaust air bypass damper fully closed [4] Return air damper fully open [5] Total heat exchanger off [6] VAV fully open

(9) Communication with central monitoring system In case of DDC system, input and output signals and calculation values can be transmitted to the controller as required, except the following typical items.
[1] ON/OFF of fan, status failure monitoring [2] Filter differential pressure alarm monitoring [3] Room (return air, supply air) temperature and humidity measurement [4] Room temperature and humidity setting [5] Warming up command [6] Monitoring of DDC controller failure

(10)Control of chiller plant system This controls the number of operating pumps or chiller plant equipment for generating and supplying the heat required by the load AHU.
[1] Number of operating pumps control In response to changes in load, it controls the differential pressure between headers in the single pump system, and controls the number of operating secondary pumps and bypass valves according to the flow rate in the double-pump system. Uses PID control of bypass two-way valves to maintain output pressure to load constant. [2] Number of operating chiller/hot water generators control In dual pump system, it controls number of operating chilled/hot water generators depending on the load by measuring return header temperature. This improves response to the change in required flow rate of secondary side (air handling units), supply water temperature to the secondary side, return temperature and flow rate.

29

5 Control Functions

5.2 Energy Saving Applications


(1) Power/lighting management, control function For effective and safe usage of power, it measures power, current, power factor to monitor, control and report power reception status, relay status, occurrence of ground fault/leakage of electricity and operating status of generators.
[1] Power demand control Predicts power consumption and controls operation of facility equipment so that the power contract with the utility company does not exceed. Since priority can be set to control targets such as air handling units, exhaust air fans or chillers to be stopped in peak periods, it is possible to control contract power without having a significant impact on the environment. according to the predefined level. When power is restored, the control carries out operation and control so that each piece of equipment returns to normal taking account of the passage of time. [4] Lighting schedule control Reduces lighting intensity to half or turns off lighting near windows or during lunchtime.

Predicted power Target power Shedding level Power consumption

(2) Comfortable environment control, energy-saving control In addition to local automatic control, carries out central control using a schedule related to the entire building and data such as season, outdoor air temperature and humidity. Realizes compatibility with energy conservation and comfort by eliminating waste (coordination control), total optimization of rooms, distribution, chiller plant systems (conjunction control) and optimum operation based on load prediction (prediction control).
[1] Tenant calendar control / time schedule control Sets calendar (specification of holidays) for building management system to perform changeover of scheduled patterns including air handling operation and scheduled operation of power or lighting. [2] Optimum start and stop control So that the room temperature becomes the set point at the start time of the occupation of the office, calculates the warming up time and activates air handling units automatically. When it stops, this control turns off air handling units at the optimum time within the range where the stop of the air handling units does not have an impact on the office environment. The chiller plant equipment can be started automatically a certain time before the air handling unit with the earliest start time is activated.

Current

[2] Power factor control This control eliminates the reactive power generated by the reduction elements of power factor, such as motors for air handling, by adding and shedding the power factor compensator. This enables to accept power factor adjustment discount of utility company as well as to eliminate loss of power energy. The rotational or sequential addition/shedding method can be selected according to the combination of power factor compensators with equal/different capacitance.

Reactive power Control effective low limit

Power factor compensator shedding level (TX)


If power factor leads up to here, compensators are shed.

Temperature setting Target value Room temperature


Operation of air handling unit Start/stop target temperature

Active power
Power factor compensator add level (CX) Target power factor low limit (PFL) (If power factor delays up to here, compensators are added.)

Room occupied

Shedding area

No shedding or addition is carried out

Optimum start Calculate so that the power factor is within a certain range based on the set point by adding and shedding power factor compensators. Room occupation start

Optimum stop Room occupation end

[3] Power failure/power restoration control, generator load distribution control In case of power failure, generators are activated to operate emergency equipment. If generator capacity remains, ordinary equipment is added

30

5 Control Functions
[3] Zero energy band control Allows latitude in setting temperature and humidity within the range of comfortable environment and individually sets target values of cooling, heating and dehumidification. This type of control prevents waste of energy due to overcooling, overheating and mixing loss of cooling and heating, as well as the hunting effect in which the chilled water valve and hot water valve repeat opening and closing alternatively to maintain a comfortable environment without consuming extra energy. for setting the target value refer to the thermal environmental index such as PMV. Explanation Zero energy band and action of chilled water/hot water/humidifying valve Existing room temperature control
Even if the room temperature is within the comfort zone, perceived temperature in the perimeters varies depending on the weather or outdoor air temperature, and may deviate from the comfort zone.

Perceived temperatures

Radiant temperature on window

Comfort zone Room temperature setting

Perimeter control according to radiant temperature


Detects radiant temperature instantly and carries out compensation. Therefore, the perceived temperature is held constant.

Cooling coil valve

Dehumidification set point

Perceived temperatures

Radiant temperature on window

Humidity

Zero energy band of humidity

Comfort zone Room temperature setting

Humidifying valve

Humidifying set point

Zero energy band of temperature

Heating coil valve

Temperature

Cooling coil valve

Heating set point

Cooling set point

[4] Radiant temperature control This control measures radiant temperature in a space such as the perimeters of buildings where the thermal sense (perceived temperature) of human beings cannot be only detected by room temperature sensors only since the change in solar gain is large. This control changes the room temperature set point based on the radiant temperature. The radiant temperature sensor is used for measurement. The sensor is installed on the ceiling and measures radiant heat from walls or windows without contact with walls or windows. Responding to the changes in the environment caused by solar radiation or changes in the weather, it maintains a comfortable environment in the perimeter zones.

[5] PMV management program Prevents overcooling and overheating by using an index (the PMV index) which objectively describes human thermal perception (Cold to comfortable to Hot) for management and setting of room temperature and humidity and carries out optimum room temperature setting. This allows compatibility between a comfortable room environment and energy conservation. Select one of the comfort sensor, radiant temperature sensor, room temperature sensor depending on how the building or room is used.

PMV value Environmental element Room temperature Radiant temperature PMV calculation Air flow Humidity Slightly warm Comfortable Slightly cool Cool Cold Hot Warm

Human elements Activity level Clothing level

31

5 Control Functions
[6] Variable water volume supply pressure setting control (VWV control) While terminal pressure or output pressure is held constant in the existing variable water flow control, this control reduces power for pumps responding to the air handling load by reducing the pressure set point during air handling low load (with low demand for cooling or heating) and decreasing the speed of rotation of pumps by inverter control. Compared with the constant terminal pressure control, annual energy conservation of about 30 % can be achieved realized.

Pressure KPa Close valve Inverter

Pressure KPa Valve nearly fully open

Inverter

Flow rate

L / min

Flow rate

L / min

Existing constant supply water pressure control

VWV control

[7] Air handing load prediction control Based on the actual air handling load up to the previous day, predicts consumption load for the next day to carry out optimum start and stop of chiller plant equipment in advance. ARIMA (Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average) models are used as the process for predicting the load. By carrying out optimum operation control, it is possible to minimize operating costs. The predicted air handling load can be used for heat storage target of heat storage tanks and the predicted power load can be used for power demand control. [8] CO2 outdoor intake control Based on the detected value of the CO2 gas sensor, controls the outdoor air damper to change the intake of outdoor air according to the number of occupants. It is recommended to use VAV units for outdoor air dampers or to carry out outdoor air volume control using air velocity sensors to ensure sufficient outdoor air.

[9] Duty cycle control Saves power consumption of air handling facilities by operating air handling units intermittently while maintaining comfort. It is also possible to change the stop interval.

Temperature compensation control Duty cycle Average load operating mode


(When temperature is within target values)

[10]Enthalpy control Takes in outdoor air by opening dampers and uses natural energy effectively when the outdoor air enthalpy/temperature is lower than the room enthalpy/temperature; outdoor air can be used for cooling. If a DDC is used, the DDC carries out the calculation.
Outdoor air intake by enthalpy decision (Outdoor air cooling decision) Enthalpy Outdoor air intake effective area Room conditions 25C 60%RH)

Outdoor air

Room temperature

Dry bulb temperature

32

5 Control Functions
(3) Building Energy Management System The building energy management system composed of the following items; Energy Data Server, Energy Saving Applications, and Intelligent series control products. Those works together to realize the evaluation cycle of energy consumption.
[1] Energy Data Server Energy Data Server (EDS) collects and stores measured data such as temperature, humidity, power consumption, energy, flow rate, and device status through savic-net FX building management system. Displays the measured data as the individual or the combination of graphs such as bar, line, laminated, spread, status, and circle to visualize the energy consumption pattern for easy building performance evaluation. - Duct insertion humidity transmitter - Duct insertion dew point temperature sensor - Damper actuator - Motorized control valve (for water) - Motorized control valve (for steam; spring return) - Motorized control valve with flow measurement and control function (for water) Intelligent Component Series uses SA-net communication line to send and receive signal and data. The major benefit is the reduction of wiring and installation costs. Refer to page XX for more details.

(4) Security System The security system comprises an access control system to automate passkeys, an intrusion monitoring system to detect and report intruders, an image monitoring system to monitor intruders and important facilities and an inter-phone system as an auxiliary system for access control. The BMS manages the information generated by these systems as a single unit and interlocks with other facilities. Signal exchange.
[1] Secure status monitoring Monitors the access/secure status of each room and zone as well as the storage status of keys. [2] Intrusion monitoring Detects intruders via security sensors and detects and monitors broken glasses and system tampering, etc. [3] Card information management Manages a variety of information on cards used for access control. [4] Access/intrusion history information management Stores information related to access control and intrusion monitoring to carry out history management.

[2] Energy Saving Applications Various types of Energy Saving Applications are used to improve energy consumption based on the result of building performance evaluation through Energy Data Server. Refer to 5.2 Energy Saving Applications (pages from 28 to 30) for more details. [3] Intelligent Component Series Products The intelligent component series products is a sensing and control device designed especially for Energy management. The product lineup are - Room temperature sensor, - Room humidity transmitter, - Duct insertion temperature sensor,

[5] Air handling and lighting interlock control According to information of access control, turns on and off the air handling facilities or lighting fixtures as per occupancy status to save energy and improve convenience. The intruder alarm turns on lighting automatically to warn intruders that they have been detected. [6] Elevator non-stop control Enhances safety by controlling elevators so that they do not stop on unoccupied floors, using the information of access control

33

5 Control Functions

34

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples

6 Typical Instrumentation Examples


6.1 Examples of Automatic Control Systems Instrumentation
sets Ex.A MDF,QP FAN
2 2

(1) Air Handling Unit Control(VAV)


CO2 THED VAV R.A

Communication among DDC controllers

VSD

DDCV

COM I/F DO DI

DDC AO AI
1

MDF,QP

TE R dPS MV BV

UT

VSD DDCV S.A FAN TED

HC O.A MDF,QP C

VAV
1

TR
2

AT

<Air handling unit> 1. Supply air temperature control Chilled/hot water valve and outdoor damper shall be controlled to keep supply air temperature set point.
Heating
(%) 100 water valve

Abbreviation AT BV CO2

Description Transformer Motorized ball valve Insertion CO2 concentration transmitter Digital controller for OHU Digital controller for VAV Differential pressure switch Damper actuator Motorized 2-way valve Room temperature sensor Insertion temperature sensor Insertion temperature sensor Auxiliary potentiometer Relay Transformer Digital user terminal
Output

Product No. ATY72Z VY6300 CY8100C WY5111 WY5206 PYY-604 MY6050 VY5117 TY7043 HY7803 HTY7803 QY9010 AT72-J1 QY7205

Cooling Outdoor air damper


( ) 100 Outdoor

Chilled/hot

Chilled/hot water valve

Valve opening

Valve opening

DDC DDCV dPS MDF MV TE TED THED QP R TR UT

Outdoor air cooling Min. opening


0

air cooling Min. opening


0

Set point

Temperature

Set point

Temperature

2. Return air humidity control Humidification (winter) : ON/OFF humidifier shall be controlled to keep return air humidity set point.
ON

Status

OFF

Humidity Set point 3. Start-up control Outdoor air damper and exhaust air damper are fully closed and return air damper is fully opened, humidifier is off during pre-cooling or preheating. 4. Interlock control Devices are interlocked with AHU status and season's information. Devices : dampers, 2-way valve, humidifier. 5. Outdoor air cooling control Outdoor air damper shall be controlled to keep supply air temperature set point when outdoor air intake is available. 6. CO2 control Outdoor air damper shall be controlled to keep CO2 concentration set point. Damper opening Outdoor air damper

Min, rotation frequency Necessary air volume

8. Load reset control of supply air temperature Supply air set point is adjusted automatically according to control status of each VAV and AHU. 9. Communication with BMS <VAV> 1. Room temperature control VAV shall be controlled to keep room temperature set point.
Heating Cooling
( ) 100 (%) 100

Set point

CO2

7. Supply air volume control Necessary air volume is calculated by summing up the set point of each VAV through DDCV communication. Supply air fan VSD shall be controlled to supply necessary air volume as shown below.

Air volume

Air volume

Min. air volume


0 0

Min. air volume Set point Temperature

Set point

Temperature

35

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


(2) Outdoor Air Handling Unit Control
Communication with BMS

COM I/F DO
Starts chilled water pump forcibly (individual wiring)

DDC DI AO AI
1

dPS

MV1

MV1

MV2

BAV

C O.A

H FAN

S.A MDF TED C C TD TDED

TR
2

AT

1. Supply air temperature control Chilled water valve and hot water valve shall be controlled to keep supply air temperature set point.
( ) Hot water valve 100

Abbreviation AT BAV

Description Transformer Motorized bore valve Digital controller for OHU Differential pressure switch Damper actuator Motorized 2-way valve Motorized 2-way valve Insertion thermostat controller Insertion dew point temperature sensor Insertion temperature sensor Relay Transformer

Product No. ATY72Z VY6091 WY5111 PYY-604 MY6050 VY5117 VY5118 TY6800 HTY7903T HY7803 AT72-J1

Chilled water valve

Valve opening

DDC dPS

MDF
Set point Temperature(C)

MV1 MV2 TD TDED TED R TR

2. Supply air dew point temperature control Humidification (winter) : Humidification valve shall be controlled to keep supply air dew point temperature set point. Dehumidification (summer) : Chilled water valve shall be controlled as dehumidification to keep supply air dew point temperature set point. Under dehumidification process, reheat control shall be activated to keep supply air temperature set point.
Valve opening
( ) 100

Humidification valve

Chilled water valve

Set point
( ) Hot water valve 100

Dew point temperature(CDP) Chilled water valve

Valve opening

(reheat)

Set point

Temperature(C)

3. Interlock control Devices are interlocked with OHU status and season's information. Devices : O.A damper, 2-way valves, humidification valve. 4. Defect alarm of humidification valve Humidification valve defect is detected by the temperature inside OHU when OHU is off. 5. Antifreezing control Chilled water valve is fully opened when the temperature inside outdoor air duct is lower than the preset temperature. (Starts chilled water pump forcibly if it is OFF) 6. Communication with BMS

36

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


(3) Air Handling Unit Control (CAV)
Communication with BMS

COM I/F DO DI

DDC AO AI
1

R dPS MDF,QP C H MV MV

R BV

O.A
1

S.A FAN TED MDF MDF,QP C C


2

Ex.A
1

MDF

R.A FAN THED

MDF,QP

TR
2

AT

1. Supply air temperature control Chilled water valve, hot water valve and outdoor air damper shall be controlled to keep supply air temperature set point.
(%) 100 valve

Abbreviation AT BV DDC dPS MDF

Description Transformer Motorized ball valve Digital controller for OHU Differential pressure switch Damper actuator Motorized 2-way valve Auxiliary potentiometer Relay Insertion temperature sensor Insertion temperature sensor Transformer

Product No. ATY72Z VY6300 WY5111 PYY-604 MY6050 VY5117 QY9010 HY7803 HTY7803 AT72-J1

Hot water Outdoor air cooling

Outdoor air damper

Chiller water valve

Valve opening

Min. opening
0

Set point

Temperature

MV QP R TED THED TR

2. Return air humidity control Humidification (winter) : ON/OFF humidifier shall be controlled to keep return air humidity set point. Dehumidification (summer) : Chilled water valve shall be controlled as dehumidification to keep return air humidity set point. Under dehumidification process, reheat control shall be activated to keep supply air temperature set point.
(%) 100

ON

OFF 0

Valve opening

Set point Hot water valve (%) (reheat) 100 Outdoor air cooling Min. opening
0

Humidity Outdoor air damper Chiller water valve

Set point

Temperature

3. Start-up control Outdoor air damper and exhaust air damper are fully closed and return air damper is fully opened, humidifier is off during pre-cooling or preheating.

37

Valve opening

Humidifier

Status

Chilled water valve

4. Interlock control Devices are interlocked with AHU status and season's information. Devices : dampers, 2-way valves, humidifier. 5. Outdoor air cooling control Outdoor air damper shall be controlled to keep supply air temperature set point when outdoor air intake is available. 6. Heat exchanger control Intermittent timer control shall be activated when outdoor air intake is available. 7. Communication with BMS

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


(4) Fan Coil Unit Control (zone control)
Abbreviation DDCF MV R
CHS CHR MV

Description Temperature controller Motorized 2-way valve Relay Room temperature sensor Transformer Digital user terminal

Product No. WY5205 VY5120 TY7043 AT72-J1 QY7205

TE TR
HC HC FAN C DDCF C FAN C HC

UT

Communication with BMS

FAN

LAN cable

R (x3)

UT

Display Setting ON/OFF Air volume changeover

TE

TR

1. Room temperature control 2-way valve shall be controlled to keep room temperature set point. 2. Fan ON/OFF operation ON/OFF operation of fan coil unit is done by user terminal (UT). 3. Interlock control Devices are interlocked with FCU status. Devices : 2-way valve. 4. Heating/cooling changeover Heating/cooling changeover command comes from BMS. 5. Communication with BMS

(5) Fan Coil Unit Control (DDC)


Abbreviation DDCF MVV
HR HS CR

Description Temperature controller Motorized 2-way valve Room temperature sensor Digital user terminal

Product No. WY5205 VY5502 +MY5560C TY7043 QY7205

TE UT
Communication with BMS

CS

DDCF DDCF MVV C FAN C C H MVV FAN C C MVV C H MVV

LAN cable Display Setting ON/OFF Air volume changeover

TE

UT

1. Room temperature control 2-way valve shall be controlled to keep room temperature set point. 2. Fan ON/OFF operation ON/OFF operation of fan coil unit is done by user terminal (UT). 3. Interlock control Devices are interlocked with FCU status. Devices : 2-way valves. 4. Fan coil unit interlock by network communication Group operations of fan ON/OFF, valve control and air volume changeover are done by network communication. 5. Communication with BMS

38

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


(6) Heat Pump Package Control (water humidification)
Abbreviation AT BV
S.A
Communication with BMS

Description Transformer Motorized ball valve Digital controller for package Damper actuator Room temperature and humidity sensor Transformer Relay

Product No. ATY72Z VY6300 WY5111 MY6050 HTY7043 AT72-J1

DDC MDF
DDC

COM I/F DO FAN DI

THE
AO AI

TR
2

THE

R.A R
1

BV

O.A
H.P

MDF

TR
2

AT

1. Room temperature control ON/OFF compressor shall be controlled to keep room temperature set point. 2. Room humidity control ON/OFF humidifier shall be controlled to keep room humidity set point. 3. Start-up control Outdoor air damper is fully closed and humidifier is off during pre-cooling or preheating. 4. Interlock control Devices are interlocked with PAC status and season's information. Devices : O.A damper, humidifier. 5. Communication with BMS

(7) Package Control (steam humidification)


Communication with BMS

Abbreviation AT

Description Transformer Digital controller for package Limit controller Damper actuator Room temperature and humidity sensor Transformer Relay

Product No. ATY72Z WY5111 L4029E MY6050 HTY7043 AT72-J1

S.A

COM I/F DO DI

DDC AO AI

DDC LT
2

MDF THE

FAN THE LT
Humidifier

TR R

R.A R
1

SCR
C DX

O.A
COMP

MDF

TR
2

AT

1. Room temperature control ON/OFF compressor and proportional SCR shall be controlled to keep room temperature set point. 2. Room humidity control Steam humidifier shall be controlled to keep room humidity set point. 3. Interlock control Devices are interlocked with PAC status and season's information. Devices : O.A damper, SCR, steam humidifier. 4. Overheat protection of heater Electric heater is forced off if the temperature in PAC casing increases abnormally. 5. Communication with BMS

39

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


(8) Chiller Plant System Control (1-pump system)
Communication with BMS
HC C

COM I/F DO DI

PMX AO AI

TEW

FM dPEW TEW TEW

MV

Temperature Chiller TEW TEW Temperature Chiller TEW TEW Temperature Chiller TEW TEW Temperature Chiller TEW TEW

TR

:Monitored by BMS

1. Sequence control of chiller (1)Chiller number control Number of chiller is calculated according to load flow rate and sequence control is done followed with setting table as shown below diagram.

Abbreviation DC dPEW FM

Description DC 24V power supply Differential pressure transmitter Electromagnetic flow meter Motorized 2-way valve Digital controller for chiller plant system Pipe insertion temperature sensor Transformer

Product No. RYY792D JTD MGG10C/ MGG11 VY5113J WY2001Q TY7830B AT72-J1

No. of chiller operated

NO.1,2,3,4

MV PMX TEW TR
Flow rate

NO.1,2,3

NO.1,2

NO.1

NO.1 rated capacity NO.1,2,3 rated capacity NO.1,2 rated capacity

Valve opening

(2)Rotation control Rotation function shall be incorporated in this sequence control to equalize running time of chiller. (3)Skip control Defected chiller shall be excluded from sequence control by automatically. (4)Number calculation compensation Running number of chillers shall be adjusted by supply temperature (above set point) and return header temperature (below set point).

2. Header bypass valve control Proportional header bypass valve shall be controlled as shown below, to keep constant the differential pressure between headers. (However, bypass valve is fully opened when the pumps are all off.) To avoid sudden increase in pressure, bypass valve is forced open before the batch ON command or the increase in number of operating equipment.

Bypass valve opening

0
SP

Differential pressure

3. Communication with BMS

40

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


(9) Chiller Plant System Control (2-pump system)
HC C

Communication with BMS


TEW PEW COM I/F DO DI PMX AO AI

Communication with BMS


COM I/F DO DI PMX AO AI

VSD (x4) MV

FM TEW TEW

Temperature Chiller TEW TEW Temperature Chiller TEW TEW Temperature Chiller TEW TEW Temperature Chiller TEW TEW TR

:Monitored by BMS
VSD

:Communication with BMS

1. Sequence control of chiller (1)Chiller number control Number of chiller is calculated according to load energy and sequence control is done followed with setting table as shown below diagram.
No. of chiller operated
NO.1,2,3,4 NO.1,2,3 NO.1,2 NO.1

Abbreviation DC FM MV PEW PMX PMX

Description DC 24V power supply Electromagnetic flow meter Motorized 2-way valve Pressure transmitter Digital controller for chiller plant system Digital controller for dual-pump system Pipe insertion temperature sensor Transformer

Product No. RYY792D MGG10C/ MGG11 VY5113J JTG WY2001Q WY2001P TY7830B AT72-J1

NO.1 rated capacity NO.1,2,3 rated capacity NO.1,2 rated capacity

Load energy

TEW TR

(2)Rotation control Rotation function shall be incorporated in this sequence control to equalize running time of chiller. (3)Skip control Defected chiller shall be excluded from sequence control by automatically. (4)Number calculation compensation Running number of chillers shall be adjusted by supply temperature (above set point) and return header temperature (below set point). 2. Sequence control of secondary pump (1)Secondary pump number control Number of secondary pump is calculated according to load flow rate and sequence control is done followed with setting table as shown below diagram.
No. of chiller operated
NO.1,2,3,4 NO.1,2,3 NO.1,2 NO.1

(2)Rotation control Rotation function shall be incorporated in this sequence control to equalize running time of pump. (3)Skip control Defected pump shall be excluded from sequence control by automatically. 3. Pressure control of supply water VSD and bypass valve shall be controlled by supply water pressure as shown below.
VSD output(%)
100

Bypass valve

100

0 SP

Pressure

4. Estimated end pressure control during low load operation Set point of supply water pressure is adjusted automatically by load flow rate, in order to reduce conveyance power during low load operation.
SP of pressure

NO.1 rated capacity NO.1,2,3 rated capacity NO.1,2 rated capacity

Load flow rate

5. Communication with

Flow rate Rated water volume of 1 pump Rated water volume of 2 pumps BMS

41

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


(10) System Configuration Diagram
Building Management System
<Client PC> MS LCD KB CLP P DSS SMS User PC

PC

IPv4/v6 Network (BACnet)

SCS

SCS

Converter (Ethernet/RS-485 conversion) RS-485

Other Manufacturer's BACnet Devices

NC-bus/LC-bus Individual Wiring


RS

NC-bus/LC-bus

Sensor
PMX

Controller, Power Meter

Substation

Flow meter Valve Chiller Plant Control

Individual Wiring
RS

Power Panel Individual Wiring

DDC

SensorSetter Valve AHU Control

RS

Distribution Panel Individual Wiring Auxiliary Panel

ZM

DDCF UT

SensorSetter Valve

SC-bus
DDCV UT

FCU Control SensorSetter VAV VAV Control

RS

Lighting System Interface RS-232C

BMIF

Building Multi System Interface RS-232C

HVACPlumbingElectricity

AC/GC V A Individual grounding (class D)

Power supply to P mark

Primary power failure alarm Battery low alarm Failure Fire Alarm Panel Substation, generator Fire Signal

UPS kVA

Distribution Circuit Relay Circuit


RS
Relay timer circuit for power failure/ restoration judgment

Power supply to mark


To SCS

Power supply status Switching breaker of generator-commercial power Electric work

To SCS(Power supply status of AC/GC and generator)

System Control Panel

Referential Outlook and Dimension


<Building Management System> <System Control Panel> <UPS> 3kVA Backup 10 minutes
700
800

400

SP

SP

220

530

KB

MS

1400 CLP LCD


1950

700

PC

50

500

42

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Building Management System Hardware Specifications (1/2)
Symbol
PC

Name
Client PC

Description
Display and operation of system management information, setting and changing of various programs are done through Web browser. A mouse is used for screen selection and operation.

Specifications
CPU Main storage capacity HDD CD-ROM drive Power OS Web browser JAVAvm1.4 embedded SVG Viewer3.0 and above embeddedXGA support Adobe Reader 6.0 and above embedded Mouse(MS) : Pentium4 3.0GHz and above : 512MB and above : 40GB and above : 24-speed and above : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz : WindowsXP : IE6.0

: optical

LCD (PC)

Color Graphic Display

As the main display unit, LCD displays various lists and graphics. It can display graphics, data simultaneously with multi windows.

Size Display colors Display characters

Resolution DSS Data Storage Server Performs the overall system management, periodical data collection, data storage, data processing, etc. It also controls input/output of peripheral devices. CPU Main storage capacity OS HDD Max. data points Power

: 17 / 19 inch type : 16190000 colors and above : Alphanumeric, Kana, Hiragana, Kanji (JIS level 1st& 2nd), symbols and drawings : 1024x768 / 1280x1024 pixels : 32-bit : SDRAM 256MB : Linux : 40GB (24-hour run) : 2000/5000/10000/20000/ 30000 objects : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz, 50VA : 32-bit : SDRAM 256MB : Linux : 40GB(24-hour run) : 2000/5000/10000/20000/ 30000 objects : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz, 50VA : graphics : 32-bit : SDRAM 128MB : Linux : Max. 1000 objects/unit : 4 lines/unit : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz, 70VA : Semiconductor laser : Full color : A4 : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz : 10-35 : IPv4/v6 network : Ethernet, TCP/IP protocols, IPv4 or IPv6 : 10Mbps, 100Mbps : 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX : AC/GC V A : AC V A : minutes : Compact size sealed lead-acid : Online power system : Private communication : 4800bps : IPEV-S 0.9-1P (twisted pair cable)

SMS

System Management Server

Performs display, setting and operation of the overall system management information (graphics, points, programs, etc.) through web browser software of the client PC.

CPU Main storage capacity OS HDD Max. data points Power Number of graphics

SCS

System Core Server

Performs data transmission with RS and DDC, manages point data and schedule control. It also stores trend data.

CPU Main storage capacity OS Max. data points Communication line Power

CLP

Color Printer

Prints various data as follows. 1. daily, monthly and yearly reports 2. trend data 3. various lists (alarm dashboard) 4. maintenance messages 5. screen Backbone network of BMS for data transmission. It has transmission protocols such as IEIEj/p BACnet, HTTP, etc.

Printing method Printing color Paper size Power Temperature condition Connection Communication method Communication speed Wiring Input Output Time backup Battery type Backup method Communication method Communication speed Wiring

IPv4/v6 Network

UPS

Uninterruptible Power System

Provides uninterruptible power to client PC, servers and other necessary terminal transmitters.

NC-bus

New Controller Bus

Transmits data between BMS and terminal transmitters.

43

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Building Management System Hardware Specifications (2/2)
Symbol
LC-bus

Name
LonTalk Protocol Controller Bus

Description
Transmits data between BMS and terminal transmitters.

Specifications
Communication method Communication speed Wiring : Lon-Talk protocol : 78kbps : Lan cable, connector joint (category 3-5 0.5*4P in conformity with EIA568) : Private communication : 4800bps : Lan cable, connector joint (category 3-5 0.5*4P in conformity with EIA568)

SC-bus

Sub Controller Bus

Transmits data between ZM and terminal transmitters.

Communication method Communication speed Wiring

RS

Terminal Transmitter

Installed in local place and transmits data with BMS. RS and input/output devices are connected with individual wires.

Input/output points Power Communication method

: Refer to point summary : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz : Private communication/Lon-Talk

DDC

AHU Controller

Performs AHU control and transmits data with BMS.

Input/output points Control items Power Communication method

: Refer to point summary : Refer to control diagram : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz : Private communication/Lon-Talk

PMX

Chiller Plant Controller

Performs control of chiller plant system and transmits data with BMS.

Input/output points Control items Power Communication method

: Refer to point summary : Refer to control diagram : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz : Private communication/Lon-Talk

ZM

Terminal Transmitter

Coordinates with BMS to manage DDCV (VAV controller) and DDCF (FCU controller).

Connectable number Power Communication method

: 50 units(DDCV, DDCF)/ZM : AC24V +/-15% / AC100V-200V, 50/60Hz : Private communication/Lon-Talk

BMIF

Building Multi Interface

Communicates between building multi system and BMS, transmits data of ON/OFF command, status, alarm, temperature setting and measurement.

Input Communication method Communication procedure Communication speed Power

: Max. 64 systems : Polling/Selecting method (equal to JISIIX5002) : 4800bps : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz, 20VA : Max. 64 systems : Polling/Selecting method (equal to JISIIX5002) : 1200bps : AC100/200V +/-10%, 50/60Hz, 20VA : AC24V +/-15% / AC100V-240V, 50/60Hz : Private communication

RU-L

Lighting Interface

Communicates between lighting system and BMS, transmits data of ON/OFF command, status, and schedule management.

Input Communication method Communication procedure Communication speed Power

DDCV

VAV Controller

Performs VAV control and transmits data with BMS.

Power Communication method

DDCF

FCU Controller

Performs FCU control and transmits data with BMS.

Power Communication method

: AC100V-240V, 50/60Hz : Private communication

UT

Digital Operating Unit

Communicates with BMS, DDC, etc., transmits data of ON/OFF command, temperature display, setting, overtime running request schedule adjustment. It is possible to restrict on the access by using a password.

Operating target Display Operation Power

: 4 zones/unit : LCD : Touch panel : AC24V +/-15%, 50/60Hz, 1.5VA

44

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Building Management System Software Specifications (1/3)
1. System overview
Building management system (BMS) is set in ,performs efficient management, monitoring, control of various equipments such as chiller plant, HVAC, plumbing, electricity receiving and transforming, lighting, fire-prevention, etc., in order for laborsaving, energy saving, security and comfortable environment. BMS is a risk distribution system that even a trouble occurs at a part of BMS, the performance of other part is hardly affected. BMS is composed of BA servers and client PC. OS of the servers is Linux with consideration for stability, capability and better security. IPv6 network configuration responding to future extension. Any PC can be man-machine interface (monitor) as long as it has web browser software and appropriate configurations. (Refer to hardware specifications for the details.) User can modify the graphics easily. 2-3. Display (1) Multi-window display Max. 3 windows can be displayed simultaneously. (2) Sequential screen display Group list, trend graph, control screen are displayed automatically in a predetermined sequence besides graphics. (Max. 100 screens/sequence, Max. 20 sequences) Time display and screen hardcopy (JPEG format) can beset also. (3) Screen scroll function This function helps to scroll the display of window vertically and horizontally when the range for display exceeds the window size. (4) New alarm display Displaying the latest alarm contents in new alarm display area. (5) Graphic display Graphic displays the point information in the building. Screen size can be enlarged or reduced randomly. Graphic displays the point status by symbol color change, figuration switching, animation at the time of status change or alarm occurrence. The associated graphic is forced to display at the time of alarm occurrence. Live-wire symbol is used for electricity receiving and transforming equipments, etc. Animation: displays point status and alarm occurrence by symbol motion. Live-wire: color indication of piping, wiring. Graphic displays measured valuetotalized value by numeric value, gradation, meter indication, level symbol, which are updated periodically. Gradation: color indication of temperature distribution Meter indication: displays measured value by analog meter Level symbol: level indication of measured value Graphic can also realize that Screen transition Photographic data insertion (6) Graphic modification This function helps to change the layout and name of the room change background color change and plug in various symbols generate a new graphic (7) Point list display Point information is listed by group, alarm occurrence, ON status, OFF status, maintenance, trouble. It is possible to operate ON/OFF command and setting on multiple points simultaneously in the same list, as well as outputting a list in PDF file and printing. (8) Time program list This function helps to display the ON/OFF time setting of registered time programs in a list. Representative point status (normal/alarm, ON/OFF) can be used to display the status of time program. (9) Point search This function helps to display and print the necessary point information in list format, according to the attribute information of the point. (10)Point guidance This function provides detail comment (such as the treating method or contact address) automatically at the time of alarm occurrence. (11)Point details display Point detail information is displayed from graphic screen directly. It includes point information, point registration, runtime data, trend graph for the past 48 hours, schedule of status and measured value. (12)Screen history display It is used to display the 20 previously displayed screens after login. (13)User menu settings The screens displayed frequently are registered in the user menu for quick selection. The associated screens can be grouped into categories and displayed hierarchically according to equipment type / floor for each user. Furthermore, it is possible to display any 3 screens on the system menu display area as shortcuts. (14)Infilex (IP type) point list screen display I/O information can be displayed on the point list screen by accessing the IP controller directly.

2. Basic functions
2-1. Common functions (1) Operating methods Operating by mouse and keyboard. (2) Operator access control Max. 200 pairs of user ID and password can be registered with various access limitation (operable/display only/undisplayable) to each function. User authentication is not necessary for the client PC assigned a special IP address (3) Segregation name settings Points can be divided up to 32 segregations (by equipment, system, place, building, etc.) with different access limitations on point operation, alarm display, buzzer sound for each user. Screen display and buzzer sound are easy to set. (4) Module status monitoring The status of system modules is monitored constantly. Alarm is notified whenever a trouble occurs. (5) Remote unit status monitoring The status of remote units is monitored constantly. Alarm is notified whenever a trouble occurs. (6) Register maintenance Maintenance-registered points are removed from monitoring, control, schedule targets. An indicator is shown on the screen during maintenance. (7) Alarm transmission Outputs point alarm by contact output. 2-2. Monitoring (1) Status monitoring It is possible for the user to monitor point status, measured value and totalized value constantly. (2) Alarm monitoring It is possible for the user to monitor alarm occurrence, recovery of points and system devices constantly. The latest alarm information is displayed in new alarm area along with indicator blinking, buzzer sound (4 kinds), voice message (90 kinds), forced graphic display and forced guidance display when point alarm occurs. (3) ON/OFF mismatch / status mismatch monitoring Alarm occurs when Point status does not change when a fixed period has elapsed after the issue of ON/OFF command from BMS. Point status does not match the ON/OFF command from BMS. (4) High/Low limit monitoring of measured value Alarm occurs when the measured value deviates from the specified range of High/Low limit value. (5) Batch setting on High/Low limit monitoring of measured value It is possible to perform batch setting on the set points of High/Low limit monitoring of multiple measured values. (6) Deviation monitoring of measured value Alarm occurs when the deviation between measured value and set point exceeds the specified value. (7) Batch setting on deviation monitoring of measured value It is possible to perform batch setting on the set points of deviation monitoring of multiple measured values.

45

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Building Management System Software Specifications (2/3)
2-4. Operation (1) Individual ON/OFF operationset point change It is possible to operate individual ON/OFF and change set point by selecting a point from associated graphic or list. When multiple ON commands are issued simultaneously, the ON commands will take effect one after the other with a fixed time delay. 3-action operation (operate-confirm-run) is executed for important equipment instead of usual ON/OFF operation (operate-run). The confirmation message gives a caution to operator in the 'confirm' step. (2) Preset of totalized value It is possible to preset the totalized value and runtime. 2-5. Print (1) Screen print It is possible to print and spool the currently displayed screen by using a specified printer. (6) Chiller optimum ON/OFF control This function refers to the estimated optimum ON/OFF time of the AHU, starts the chiller earlier than the optimum start time of the earliest AHU, and stops the chiller earlier than the optimum stop time of the latest AHU within the same chiller system. Earlier start and stop time is up to 120 minutes against target time. (7) Duty cycle control This function calculates the optimum stop time of AHU, etc. to perform duty cycle control while maintaining a comfortable environment. (8) Cold air intake control Proportional control of cold air intake damper is executed when outdoor air cooling is effective, which is evaluated by the comparison of outdoor temperature, return (room) enthalpy and dry-bulb temperature (9) Optimum room temperature setting This function calculates PMV value and change the set point of room temperature automatically for energy-saving. PMV value can be set up according to operating mode (energysaving/normal/comfortable). PMV value is calculated according to room temperature, window radiant temperature (measured value/calculated value), room relative humidity, air draft (set value), activity (set value varying with time), amount of clothing (set value varying with month). (10)Duty cycle program with power demand function This function compares the estimated demand value with the target power to perform duty cycle control of AHU, etc. while maintaining a comfortable environment. It is possible to set different temperature value for normal day and holiday. 3-3. Electricity (1) Power failure control Alarm notification is given through buzzer sound and blinking of the power failure indicator, status mismatch alarm is withheld and general control retention is performed during commercial power failure. However, fire process and manual operation are available. (2) Sequential start control when generator works Startup is output one by one to the registered equipments when detecting startup of the generator. (3) Generator load distribution control This function keeps the power load within the power capacity of the generator. Power is connected to the units in order of priority level (15 levels). (4) Power restoration control Power restoration control is executed by automatic or manual power restoration command after commercial power restored. ON/OFF command is executed according to point status before power failure and general control retention during power failure. (5) Power demand monitoring Estimating power demand value of 30 minutes interval. Alarm occurs if the estimated power demand or real power demand exceeds the target power with the blinking of indicator. Synchronization with the supply demand meter is based on the external input or screen operation. (6) Power demand control This function estimates the usage of power at intervals, decides the necessity of interruption/recovery of load in order of priority level (15 levels). It is also possible to increase or decrease the analog output ratio of the inverter. (7) Power demand history This function helps to store the power demand control results as history data, display the target value and demand value. Daily data: past 13 months at 30 minutes interval Monthly data: past 13 months at 1 day interval History data can be output in CSV format. (8) Power factor improvement control It is the function to improve power factor by recover or interrupt the phase advance capacitor, according to the values of power factor (reactive power) and active power. 3-4. Fire-prevention (1) Fire process Alarm notification is given through buzzer sound, blinking of the fire indicator and display on alarm dashboard with input of fire. It is also possible to stop the associated equipments (AHU, etc.) automatically by the input fire signal. The priority of fire process is higher than other controls at this time. Furthermore, fire cancellation is done only by manual operation.

3. Control functions
3-1. Common (1) Calendar control It is possible to specify normal days, holidays, special days 1 and special days 2 till for 2 years ahead. (2) Time program control ON/OFF operation of the equipment registered in time program is executed automatically in a predetermined schedule. There are 2 kinds of schedules, that is, priority schedule and execution schedule. ON/OFF time is specified for the 4 kinds of calendar days in a priority schedule and the execution schedule for the next 1 week from the current date can be created according to calendar information and priority schedule. ON/OFF time change can be executed on execution schedule. It is possible to set ON/OFF operation up to 8 times a day. (3) Batch setting of time program control It is possible to perform batch setting on multiple priority schedules. (4) Schedule composition This function is used to generate a single time schedule from multiple schedules for the ON/OFF operation of the communal equipment. (5) Interlock control This function helps to operate the target equipment to a desired status (ON/OFF, etc.) with the conditions of point status change or alarm occurrence, etc. (6) Numeric operation This function performs the four arithmetic operations for totalized value and measured value, and outputs the calculation result to a point. (7) Logical operation This function performs the logical operations for the input status of multiple points and outputs the result to a point. (8) Add-subtract operation of totalized value It is possible to perform add-subtract operation on multiple totalized values and output the result to a data point. 3-2. HVAC (1) Seasonal changeover control This function performs the seasonal changeover (mode switching on the season) automatically at the specified date. There are 4 modes which are fan, cooling, heating and cooling/ heating. Forced manual changeover operation is also available. (2) Batch setting of seasonal changeover control It is possible to perform batch setting on multiple seasonal changeover. (3) Set point schedule control It is possible to change the set value of the set point automatically according to the schedule per annum. (4) Batch setting of set point schedule It is possible to perform batch setting on multiple set point schedules. (5) Optimum ON/OFF control (pre-cooling, pre-warming control) This function estimates the attribute of room temperature raise/fall to perform the optimum ON/OFF control of AHU. Holiday compensation, consecutive holidays compensation and abnormal data compensation are available. Holiday compensation: early start of the AHU if it did not work in the previous day. Consecutive holidays compensation: early start of the AHU according to the days the AHU has been switched OFF. Abnormal data compensation: learning is not performed when measured input is abnormal.

46

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Building Management System Software Specifications (3/3)
3-5. Security (1) Security interlock This is a event program that stops AHU, etc. with the security status of security system automatically. (5) User data processing This function helps to output the gathered trend data in CSV format automatically or manually. (6) Overtime running This function regulates the overtime running time on client PC. Request operation of overtime running can be performed from the user operable equipment or client PC for each request unit. The log of overtime running request is stored, that is also used for summary process. In addition, it is possible to output the list in PDF format. (7) Meter reading This function collects the meter reading values of power, gas, water supply at the specified date and calculates the monthly or bimonthly consumption, which is used to list and display the meter reading result of each meter, system or tenant. Abnormal value detection according to the comparison with the last consumption ratio and manual modification are available. It is possible to output the list in PDF and CSV formats. Data points: Max. 200/500/1500 meters In addition, output of a meter reading result file before report print can be used for confirmation. (8) Real time trending This function supports high-speed storage of measured value at 1/2/3/5/10/30 seconds interval and display of time series trend graph. A trend graph can display max. 8 data points. The limitation on the number of analog points, data, graphics is shown as below. Max. 100 points/P-SCS, Max. 20 points/SCS Max. 6000 data/point Trend graph:40/100 sheets (9) Runtime display It is possible to output totalized runtime of the equipment to a data point. (10) Overtime totalization It is possible to output totalized overtime of the equipment to a data point.

4. Data management functions


4-1. Data management (1) Runtime monitoring and ON/OFF counting Runtime and on-off cycle count of the equipment are totalized and displayed in the point operation screen. The equipment that exceeds a certain value of runtime/On-Off cycle count is displayed in the list ('Maintenance Notification' in indicator area). In addition, it is possible to output the list in PDF format. (2) Daily report, monthly report, yearly report It is possible to display the measured value and totalized value in the specified format. (Daily report: pages, monthly report: pages, yearly report: pages) The maximum value, minimum value and mean value can also be displayed if necessary. In addition, it is possible to output the report in PDF format automatically or manually. The time range for manual print is shown as below. Daily report: past 13 months monthly report: past 10 years yearly report: past 10 years Point data can also be output in CSV format. (3) Trending Measured value, totalized value and time series change of equipment operation status are stored for a fixed period and can be displayed on trend graph (broken line) and bar graph (bar graph/laminated graph). Trend graph: sheets. 1 sheet can display max. 2/8 points. (Max. 2/8 axes in 1 graph) Trend data is stored as follows. 1 minute data: past 40 days 1 hour data: past 13 months 1 day data: past 10 years 1 month data: past 10 years (4) Alarm dashboard Alarm dashboard displays the alarm, status change, operation settings, unacknowledged alarm in order of year/month/day/hour/minute/second in a list. It is possible to extract and display part of the list by type filtering. It also supports string search, time search and comment input. In addition, it is possible to output the list in PDF format automatically or manually, as well as CSV format.

47

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples

48

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Point Summary List (reference only) (1/2)
AUTOMATIC CONTROL PANEL INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNAL SOURCE OPERATION SETTING ON/OFF, STATUS ON/OFF DISPLAY STATUS ANALOG OTHERS REMARKS TOT 1 1 1 EQUIPMENT SYMBOL

ALARM

TEMP.

POINT NAME

<Substation> VCB Over current Low voltage Current Voltage Power factor Power Reactive power Integral power Auto/manual 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 LV panel LV panel LV panel LV panel LV panel LV panel LV panel LV panel LV panel LV panel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

<Generator> Start/stop MCCB Over current Over voltage Major failure Minor failure Auto/manual 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 1RS-1 GE panel GE panel GE panel GE panel GE panel GE panel GE panel 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

<Lighting system> 1F lighting 2F lighting 1RS-1 2RS-1 1L-1 2L-1 20 20

<Chiller plant system control> R-1,2 R-1 R-2 CP-1 CP-2 Chiller batch ON/OFF Chiller No.1 Chiller No.2 Primary pump No.1 Primary pump No.2 Chiller outlet temperature Chiller inlet temperature Supply header temperature Return header temperature Return temperature Instantaneous flow rate Totalized flow rate 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 1CP-1 R-1 R-2 1M-1 1M-1 Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Flow meter Flow meter 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

49

HUMI.

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Point Summary List (reference only) (2/2)
AUTOMATIC CONTROL PANEL INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNAL SOURCE OPERATION SETTING ON/OFF, STATUS ON/OFF DISPLAY STATUS ANALOG OTHERS REMARKS TOT EQUIPMENT SYMBOL

ALARM

TEMP. 1 1 1 1 1 1

POINT NAME

<Outdoor air handling unit control> OHU-1 Outdoor air handling unit (1F) Supply air temperature Supply air dew point temperature Outdoor air duct temperature Filter alarm Humidification valve defect 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1M-2 Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

OHU-2

Outdoor air handling unit (2F) Supply air temperature Supply air dew point temperature Outdoor air duct temperature Filter alarm Humidification valve defect

2CP-1 2CP-1 2CP-1 2CP-1 2CP-1 2CP-1

2M-1 Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor 1 1 1

1 1

<Air handling unit control> AHU-1 Air handling unit (1F hall) Return air fan Supply air temperature Return air humidity Return air temperature CO2 concentration Supply air fan VSD speed Return air fan VSD speed Room temperature Filter alarm Humidification valve defect VAV 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1CP-2 1M-3 1M-3 Sensor Sensor Sensor Sensor 1M-3 1M-3 Sensor Sensor Sensor DDCV 10 5 1 1 10 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

HUMI. 1 1 1 1

1 1 1

<Fan coil unit control> Fan coil unit (1F) Room temperature (1F) 1CP-2 1CP-2 DDCF DDCF 10 10

Fan coil unit (2F) Room temperature (2F)

1CP-2 1CP-2

DDCF DDCF

10 10

<Measurement> Outdoor air temperature and humidity 2CP-1 Sensor 1

50

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Hardware Interface (1/2)
I/O items Remote unit (RS) (DDC) (PMX) Wiring ON/OFF, status, alarm Instantaneous contact output
DI ON OFF IN
24VAC/DC

ON/OFF, status Instantaneous contact output Input


DI
ON OFF COM
24VAC/DC

Input

DI

COM

IN

COM

IN

CX

TX

52X

51X

CX

TX

52X

Local Equipments Electric, HVAC, Plumbing, others

Local OFF

Remote TX CX 52X 52X

Local OFF

Remote TX CX 52X 52X

Operation circuit

52

ON

Operation circuit

52

ON

52 51

52 51

Remarks

a-a contact 1.Contact for status confirmation uses auxiliary relay(52X). 2.Remote auxiliary relay(CX, TX) has spark killer.

a-a contact 1.Contact for status confirmation uses auxiliary relay(52X). 2.Remote auxiliary relay(CX, TX) has spark killer.

I/O items Remote unit (RS) (DDC) (PMX) Wiring

ON/OFF, status, alarm Continuous contact output


DI ON OFF IN
24VAC/DC

ON/OFF, status Input


DI ON OFF

ON/OFF, statuslighting Remote control pulse output


ON OFF
DI

Continuous contact output Input


DI

COM

IN

COM
24VAC/DC

COM

IN

White
Local switch

Red

CX

52X

51X

CX

52X

Remote control transformer

Local OFF

Remote CX

Local OFF

Remote CX

Electric, HVAC, Plumbing, others

AC 24V 1.5A

OFF

ON

Operation circuit

52

ON

Operation circuit
52X

52

ON
Blue Blue

52 51

52 51

52X

Remarks

1.Contact for status confirmation uses auxiliary relay(52X). 2.Remote auxiliary relay(CX) has spark killer.

1.Contact for status confirmation uses auxiliary relay(52X). 2.Remote auxiliary relay(CX) has spark killer.

51

Remote control relay

Local Equipments

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Hardware Interface (2/2)
I/O items Remote unit (RS) (DDC) (PMX) Wiring Local Equipments Electric, HVAC, Plumbing, others
DI

Status, alarm Contact input


DI

Status Contact input


DI

Alarm Contact input


DI

TOT(pulse) input No-voltage contact pulse


TOT

TOT(pulse) input No-voltage contact pulse


TOT

IN

COM

IN

COM

COM

IN

COM

IN

COM

IN

52X

51X

52X

51X

Status contact Alarm contact

Status contact

Alarm contact

Remarks

1.Input No-voltage a continuous contact 2.Circuit voltage, current DC12V, 10mA

1.Input No-voltage a continuous contact 2.Circuit voltage, current DC12V, 10mA

Totalizing 1.Input 12VDC, 10mA 2.Input condition ON time over 30ms OFF time over 30ms ON+OFF time over 100ms
over 30ms over 30ms
ON OFF

Totalizing(for water meter) 1.Input 12VDC, 10mA 2.Input condition ON time over 30ms OFF time over 30ms ON+OFF time over 100ms
over 30ms over 30ms
ON OFF

over 100ms

over 100ms

I/O items Remote unit (RS) (DDC) (PMX) Wiring Local Equipments Electric, HVAC, Plumbing, others

AI Temperature input

AI Current Input

AI Voltage input

AO Current Output

Pt100 resistance

Transducer Transmitter

4~20mA

Remarks

1.Input Pt100, JPt100 2.Circuit voltage, current DC1V, 1mA 3.Range 0~50, -50~100C -20~80, 50~200

1.Input DC4~20mA 2.Input impedance 300 3.No isolation

1.AIV1 input 1~5VDC Input impedance 500 2.AIV2 input 0~5VDC Input impedance 5K 3.AIV3 input -5~5VDC Input impedance 110K 4.No isolation

1.Output signal 4~20mA DC 2.Output voltage 24V DC 3.Max. resistance 600 4.With isolator

52

6. Typical Instrumentation Examples


Valve Selection Table (reference only)
General

This table shows selected valve conditions for all control valves that are installed in a project.
Valve selection table System
<Chiller plant system control> Chilled water bypass 2-way valve Chilled water flow meter <Outdoor air handling unit control> Chilled water 2-way valve Hot water 2-way valve Humidification 2-way valve Steam shutoff valve <Air handling unit control> Chilled water 2-way valve Hot water 2-way valve Humidification 2-way valve Steam shutoff valve <Fan coil unit control> Chilled water 2-way valve Hot water 2-way valve W2 W2 20 20 30.0 30.0 2.5 2.5 20 20 20sets 20sets W2 W2 S S 200 80 15 200.0 30.0 30.0 80.0 25.3 10.1 0.5 40 25 15 15 W2 W2 S S 300 120 30 200.0 30.0 30.0 80.0 38.0 15.2 1.1 40 25 15 15 2sets 2sets 2sets 2sets W2 W 2000 2000 150.0 113.2 100 150

Fluid

Flow rate

Pi

Delta P

CV

Bore(A)

Remarks

Fluid W2 : Water(2-way valve), W : Water, S : Steam Unit Fluid W2, W : Flow rate[l/m], Delta P[kPa] Fluid S : Flow rate[kg/h], Pi, Delta P[kPa]

Control Panel Table (reference only)


General

This table shows panel name and size, location, also including controlled subjects by the panel.
Control panel table
Name System control panel 1CP-1 1CP-2 2CP-1 1RS-1 2RS-1
W : Width

Type Stand Wall mounted Wall mounted Wall mounted Wall mounted Wall mounted
H : Height D : Depth

Size for Reference(mm)


Controlled Subjects Location 1F security room 1F machine room 1 1F machine room 2 2F machine room 1 1F electric room 2F EPS

W
700 700 700 700 700 700

H
1950 1300 1300 1100 700 700

D
400 250 250 250 250 250 DSS, SMS, etc. Chiller plant system control OHU-1, AHU-1, FCU OHU-2, measurement Substation and generator monitoring, lighting Lighting

53

Guide Specification
Building Management System Energy Management System Security System and, Control Devices

1 Guide Specifications for HVAC

1.

GENERAL Building Management Systems and Instrumentation for HVAC shall comply with the conditions stated in this specification in terms of Hardware, Software, and its installation, test, and commissioning.

1.1. A.

Scope Supply all hardware and software necessary to meet the specified project requirements. B. Supply hardware layouts, connections, control loop configuration as control flow diagrams. C. Specify the detailed design for all distributed control system input/output points. D. Design, supply and install all panels, and data communication network cables including all hardware. E. Supply and install all interconnecting cables between control panels, controllers, operator terminals and peripheral devices. F. Prepare entire specifications for all items supplied by the supplier from other purchased products. G. Supply supervisory specialists and engineers at the project site to assist in any phases of system installation, start-up, test and commissioning. H. Prepare necessary operator and technician training programs I. Prepare as-built documentation, software, all DDC control logic and all associated support documentation on approved media which accurately represents the final system.

1.2.

Submittals System supplier shall submit system control sequence drawings with engineering design to the project. System configuration diagrams. Input/Output point and alarm point list. All system wirings and interconnections between components. Hardware specifications and instructions, Software specifications, and application user guides.

2 Guide Specifications for HVAC

1.3.

References The latest standards as stated below are followed as references. ASHRAE American Society Conditioning Engineers of Heating, Refrigerating and Air

European CE Mark: EMC Directive 2004/108/EC and 89/336/EEC 1.4. Warranty Warranty shall include all costs for labor, parts, transportations, expenses within one year from actual completion and acceptance by the owner Warranty shall cover.

3 Guide Specifications for HVAC

2. 2.1. 2.1.1.

PRODUCTS HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS General A Building Management System (BMS) shall be built on a server-client type system architecture. All necessary information and system database are archived in system servers. A PC with web-browsing software installed shall perform as a Client PC, solely for browsing the contents of all archived data as a supervisory terminal. BMS shall use the latest technologies such as IP/Linux/XML/ SVG/JAVA as its platform.

2.1.2.

Server System Servers shall comprise of several servers on server-client system structure. The number of system servers shall differ depending on the system requirements. Servers shall include Server for System Management and Server for Data Storage. Servers shall be built on the full open platform using Linux system.

2.1.2.1.

Server for System Management A Server for System Management shall carry out distribution of information for the display, setting, and operations of the management information of the overall system (data point, program, etc.) through the Web browsing software installed in the Client PC. Server shall support access of up to 5 client PCs simultaneously. Server shall be provided with dedicated hardware using full open platform Linux system and come with 32 bit CPU with main storage capacity of SDRAM 256 MB. Auxiliary memory unit HDD shall be 40 GB in 2.5 inch size. Maximum BACnet objects manageable shall be 30,000 objects. Server shall back up data up to 72 hours.

2.1.2.2.

Server for Data Storage A Server for Data Storage shall store necessary database for BMS. The server shall manage the data transmitted from an Advanced Building Controller as BMS databases and provide the data to display or print the historical trending graphs as well as daily, monthly, and yearly reports. Server shall be provided with dedicated hardware using full open platform Linux system and come with 32 bit CPU with main storage capacity of SDRAM 256 MB. Auxiliary memory unit HDD shall be 40 GB in 2.5 inch size. Maximum BACnet objects manageable shall be 30,000 objects. Server shall back up data up to 72 hours.

4 Guide Specifications for HVAC

2.1.2.3

Server for Energy Management A Server for Energy Management shall store necessary database for the purpose of energy consumption management.

2.1.2.4

Server for Security Data A Server for Security Data store necessary database for the purpose of security. The server shall have the storage capacity of 1 million access history. Server for Security Data shall comply with the specifications as follows: OS: Windows XP Internet Browser: Internet Explorer 6 or later CPU: Pentium IV processor, 3 GHz and above Main storage capacity: 512MB and above Loading function: IPv6, Java vm 1.4 and above, XGA, Acrobat Reader, IE6.0 and above - HDD capacity: 40GB and above. - CD-ROM: 1 unit

2.1.3.

Server Redundancy System Servers shall be capable of dual-redundant system. Dual-redundancy shall be configured by setting 2 servers respectively with one to one warm-standby system. The system runs 2 servers simultaneously and when trouble occurred on either one server, another one will backup immediately. Servers carry out the backup of critical data such as Monitoring Data and Historical data. When trouble occurred below measures shall be applied to backup data. Assume there are 2 servers Server A and Server B. When Server A information cannot be browsed from Client PC due to the network trouble, it is judged as Server A: Down, and then Server B (normally Standby) becomes Active, and the Client PC connection is switched to Server B automatically. When network trouble is solved and Server A is restored, (Client PC is restored to be able to browse server information), as Server A: Active, automatically carry out restorations (acquiring trending data during Server A is down from Advanced Building Controller and copying the difference between Client PC settings and data for scheduled copy). After restored as Server A: Active, Client PC still maintain the connection to Server B. Operator has to re-login to switch the connection to Server A.

5 Guide Specifications for HVAC

2.1.4.

Client PC A Client PC shall be the PC with web-browsing software for accessing the database achieved and stored in System Servers. Client PC is basically installed in the supervision room to supervise the whole building. It supervises the following features: Monitoring: status, alarms, and measurement of each facility Operation: remote ON/OFF control Data output: operating status, alarm status, and measuring data Data analysis: operating status, alarm status, and measuring data

Up to 5 Client PCs shall be able to access Server simultaneously. Client PC shall comply with the specifications as follows: OS: Windows XP/Vista Internet Browser: Internet Explorer 6 or later CPU: Pentium IV processor, 3 GHz and above Main storage capacity: 512MB and above Loading function: IPv6, Java vm 1.4 and above, XGA, Acrobat Reader, IE6.0 and above

2.1.5.

Printer Any type of printer with USB connection available shall be able to connect the network of the system. Printer driver shall be compatible with Windows XP or later.

2.1.6.

Communication Network BMS shall have the capability of full system integration using BACnet IP, LonTalk, Modbus, or OPC. For the communication network between Client PCs and each server, hyper text transfer protocol (http) shall be used. Uses BACnet IP between each system server and advanced building controller. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) or Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) shall be selectable for both communication network depending on the required specifications. LonTalk protocol shall be used for the communication between Advanced Building Controller and the DDC controllers, such as multi-purpose controller. MODBUS protocol shall be used for the network connection with power meters and controllers using RS485 communications. OPC shall be used for the system integration with IBMS. Using PC based OPC server, BMS shall be able to connect with other systems as

6 Guide Specifications for HVAC

IBMS by converting BACnet protocol to the one communicable via OPC. 2.1.7. 2.1.7.1. Controller Advanced Building Controller An Advanced Building Controller shall consolidates the DDC groups and performs different types of integrated control including energy saving. The controller shall be capable of autonomous distributed control to continue the operation even if another part of the system is shut down. Collects various management information from the DDCs and transmits information to Server for System Management. Stores the collected data for forty-eight (48) hours. The controller shall come with 32 bit CPU with main storage capacity of SDRAM 128 MB and Compact Flash 64MB. Maximum Data points manageable shall be 1,000 points. Uses IP (Ethernet 10 BASE-T/100BASE-TX) 1 channel to communicate with the higher level of the system. The communication line of controllers consists of LonTalk protocol Controller bus) 4 lines (2 channels). This controller shall back up the data up to 72 hours. 2.1.7.2. Direct Digital Controller (DDC) DDC controller shall carry out the controls for each and every device. The control operations shall be self-sustaining to enable the continuous control even if the other parts of the system are down. Data transmission shall be made via the Client PC and the Advanced Building Controller. The Client PC will receive, for example, the changes in setup values, and send back the data of control results. DDC lineups several types as follows: A. Multi-purpose Controller the controller designed as a multipurpose controller for several devices. Consists of a basic unit and connectable I/O modules. The number and types of the modules shall be flexibly changeable corresponding to the control or management to fit in various applications. B. AHU Controller the DDC controller specially designed for AHU control. The controller has inputs and outputs suitable for AHU control and its software shall be freely editable in response to the applications. C. I/O Modules

7 Guide Specifications for HVAC

I/O modules consist of the following types: D. Module with 8 digital inputs Module with 16 digital inputs Module with 8 relay outputs Module with 16 relay outputs Module with 8 relay outputs + 8 digital inputs Module with 4 remote control relay outputs Module with 4 totalizer pulse inputs Module with 16 totalizer pulse inputs Module with 2 voltage/current outputs Module with 4 voltage/current outputs Module with 4 voltage/current inputs Module with 4 temperature inputs Module with 2 voltage/current inputs + 2 temperature inputs Module with 1 modutrol motor outputs Module with 3 modutrol motor outputs

Zone Manager A Zone Manager shall carry out the management of VAV controllers, Fan Coil Unit Controllers, and AHU Controllers. Up to 50 controllers are manageable by one unit of Zone Manager.

E.

VAV Controller designed specifically for Variable Air Volume unit control. The VAV controller shall be provided as a damper actuator with DDC controller inside that controls a VAV unit in a building HVAC system. Rated torque of VAV damper actuator shall be selectable from 5Nm of 10Nm depending on the torque required.

F.

Fan Coil Unit Controller provides digital control of fan coil units. In addition to start/stop operation, valve control, and fan speed changeover, the controller shall provide setback and interlock operations with outdoor air handler.

2.1.7.3.

Chiller Plant Control Packaged Controller Chiller Plant Control Packaged Controller is a direct digital controller (DDC) specifically designed for sequential control of chiller plant equipment of building HVAC systems. These packaged controllers comprise of 2 types; a pump controller and a chiller controller. Each packaged controller consists of a combination of a control module, a base module, I/O modules, and a LCD operator interface.

8 Guide Specifications for HVAC

The Control module performs arithmetic operations and exerts the chiller/pump controls. The plug-in type I/O modules are the input/output sections of the controller and load communications to connect with the control module. The Base module enables power supply and communication interface to the I/O modules. I/O modules include the followings: - Module with 4-20 mA DC current inputs - Module with 4-20 mA DC current output - Module with one floating output with nominal 135ohm feedback potentiometer - Module with five potential free contact inputs - Module with four potential free contact (normally open) outputs - Module with two potential free contact inputs and one 24VDC voltage instantaneous contact output The Base module supplies power to I/O modules and carries out communication connections and address settings for I/O modules. The base module also functions as a terminal block for the I/O modules. The I/O modules shall be plug-in type, which can be plugged directly into the base module back panel and can be easily detached without disconnecting their wiring. The LCD Operator Interface is a display setting device having a color touch-panel LCD. Users shall be controlled with access levels and passwords. This interface shall also be used as a parameter-setting device by service personnel. 2.1.7.4. Access Controller Provide control device for access control equipment of the security system. The controller collects data on access control, monitors operating status of access control equipment, and interfaces with other facilities such as lighting and air conditioning facilities. This device shall use Wiegand protocol for the control of Security card devices. The controller shall be connectable to the security system via 10 BASE-T or 100 BASE-T of Ethernet protocol. Sends access control data to the system, receives commands from the terminal devices as well as from the system to control electric lock, and thus performs security management of a whole building. The controller composed of a basic module and I/O modules such as Modules for Wiegand signal, power supply for electric keys, passive sensors and other devices,

9 Guide Specifications for HVAC

2.1.9. 2.1.9.1.

Field Devices Sensors Supplier shall provide the following types of sensor depending on the specific system requirement.

A.

Room Temperature Sensor Uses resistance thermometer sensor for temperature sensing element. Designed suitable for room temperature sensing. The sensing range shall be from 0C to 60C with 0.3C sensing accuracy.

B.

Duct Insertion Type Temperature Sensor Uses filterless probe resistance thermometer sensor for temperature sensing element. Designed to be installed to air ducts and suitable for supply or return air temperature detection. The sensing range shall be from 0C to 60C with 0.3C sensing accuracy. Sensor housing shall be dust-proof and splash-proof (IP54) for higher environmental resistance and installable using dedicated quick-detachable bracket for easy installation.

C.

Pipe Mount Type Temperature Sensor Uses resistance thermometer sensor for temperature sensing element. Detects water temperature of piping. Sensing range of the sensor shall be from -50C to 200C with sensing accuracy of 0.05 + 0.002 temperature measured.

D.

Ceiling Mount Type Temperature Sensor Uses resistance thermometer sensor for temperature sensing element. Designed to be installed to narrow opening of ceiling. The sensing range shall be from 0C to 60C with 0.3C sensing accuracy.

E.

Room Type Humidity Transmitter Uses polymer capacitive humidity sensor for humidity sensing element. The sensing range shall be 0%RH to 100%RH with 3% sensing accuracy. Designed suitable for room humidity detection.

F.

Duct Insertion Type Humidity Transmitter Uses polymer capacitive humidity sensor for humidity sensing element. The sensing range shall be 0%RH to 100%RH with 3% sensing accuracy. Designed to be installed on air ducts and suitable for supply or return air humidity detection.

10 Guide Specifications for HVAC

Sensor housing shall be dust-proof and splash-proof (IP54) for higher environmental resistance and installable using dedicated quick-detachable bracket for easy installation. G. Ceiling Mount Type Humidity Transmitter Uses polymer capacitive humidity sensor for humidity sensing element. The sensing range shall be 0%RH to 100%RH with 3% sensing accuracy. Designed to be installed to narrow opening of ceiling. H. Dew-point Temperature Sensor uses a polymer capative humidity sensor for a dew point sensing element. Comes either with or without built-in temperature sensing element. The sensing range is from -40C to 60C DP with 1C sensing accuracy. Sensor housing shall be dust-proof and splash-proof (IP54) for higher environmental resistance and installable using dedicated quick-detachable bracket for easy installation. I. Radiant Temperature Sensor measures infrared radiation at the perimeter on a wall. The sensing range shall be from 5C to 50C with 2C sensing accuracy. Output signal shall be 1 to 5 V DC. Uses 1 to 5 V DC as output signal linearly corresponding to 5C to 50C. J. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Concentration Transmitter detects concentration of Carbon Monoxide and sends a real time value. The sensing range shall be 0 to 60 ppm with sensing accuracy of 5% FS. Uses 4 to 20mA signal as output signal linearly corresponding to 0 to 60 ppm. K. Duct Insertion Type Carbon Dioxicide (CO2) Concentration Transmitter detects the concentration of CO2 in ducts and other sites using Non-dispersive infrared absorption method and transmits a real time value to other devices. The sensing range shall be 0 to 2000 ppm with sensing accuracy of (50 ppm + 5% readout). Uses 1 to 5 VDC signal as output signal linearly corresponding to 0 to 2000 ppm. The transmitter shall be installable using simple mounting bracket for easy installation. The device shall be able to calibrate using CO2 service bag containing CO2 zero gas supply.

11 Guide Specifications for HVAC

L.

PMV Sensor detects the combination of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and air velocity and converts into the sensor signal by equipped processor. The sensing accuracy shall be 0.5 PMV.

M. Differential Pressure Transmitter uses silicon diaphragm for its sensing element. Detects deflection of its diaphragm as electrical capacitance. The sensing accuracy shall be 1.0% of full span. Uses 4 to 20mA signal as output signal. N. Pressure Transmitter detects the pressure of chilled/hot water, brine, lubricating oil, steam, air, and other fluids. Converts measured values into 4 to 20 mA DC electric signals. 2.1.9.2. User Terminal Devices User terminal shall have a temperature sensing element built-in and functions as a sensor and a remote controller. User can set On/Off control of devices, temperature setting, and other controls of air conditioning equipment. LCD display will indicate the status of equipment and setting value and present value of temperature. Use modular connectors for easy installation. This device shall be connectable to DDC controllers such as Fan Coil Controller, VAV unit controller, and AHU controller. 2.1.9.3. A. Electric Actuators and Control Valves Electric Valve Actuator Actuators for motorized control valve shall support several control signals as follows; B. Nominal 135 ohm feedback potentiometer Nominal resistance 135 ohm input 4 mA DC to 20 mA DC input 2 V DC to 10 V DC input

Control Valve Supplier shall provide the Control valve with the body materials as stated below; - FC200: Gray cast iron - SCS13A: Stainless steel - FCD450: Ductile cast iron

12 Guide Specifications for HVAC

Diameter nominal size shall range from DN15 to DN150. C. Motorized Control Valve Provide the valve which electric actuator and its valve body shall be integrated in a single unit. D. Motorized Control Valve with Flow Measurement and Control Functions Provide the valve which electric actuator and its valve body shall be integrated in a single unit. The control valve shall control flow rate not by valve opening but by flow rate calculated by the measured value from built-in pressure sensor and Cv. The control valve comes with built-in pressure sensor and temperature sensor. The built-in pressure sensor ranges from 0 to 10 MPa at the accuracy of 0.1% FS for 7-17C or 45-65C and 0.5% FS for other conditions. The built-in temperature sensor ranges from 0 to 100C at the accuracy of 1C. E. Electric Damper Actuator: A motorized actuator to open and close a damper. The actuator is provided on and off control or floating control in response to a command from a controller. Combined with an auxiliary potentiometer will enable the actuator proportional control in response to a command from a proportional controller. The damper actuator shall have the torque at the rated voltage of 20Nm and holding torque of 16Nm. Operating time is approximately 15 seconds. F. Electric Damper Actuator: A motorized actuator to open and close a damper. The actuator is provided on and off control or floating control in response to a command from a controller. Combined with an auxiliary potentiometer will enable

13 Guide Specifications for HVAC

2.2. 2.2.1.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Software Requirements for BMS BMS shall include the application software for management, monitoring, and controls.

2.2.2.

User Management System shall be secured its access by user IDs and passwords. User Management function shall be the one manages the passwords and user IDs. Administrator shall be able to set the access rights of both browsing and operation for each function and the point operation level according to the user ID. This function shall be able to register up to 200 user IDs. Normally, user authentification shall be performed by user ID and password. User shall also be authentificated by registering the IP address of Client PC. It is possible to set up to 4 client PCs for 1 user ID. Password shall be able to set within 36 alphanumeric characters. User shall be able to change the password anytime. Screen access rights to display and operate shall be set by user. Operation level, alarm, and buzzer shall be able to set by segregation.

2.2.2.1.

Log Output Records and displays all the operating logs carried out by user in list. Items to be recorded and displayed are: Date (YYYY/MM/DD) at the time of operation Time (hours, minutes, and seconds) at the time of operation IP address of Client PC User ID

Operation type such as displaying, setting, printing, change of display, and canceling, button name to be clicked, dialog box name to be opened, contents of operation, contents of inputs and setting, device ID, point ID, point name, program name, and operation failed or not. Maximum storable logs are up to 1,000,000 logs. Operation logs shall be able to output in CSV file format and save in Client PC. 2.2.3. Graphic Displays the status of each facility targeted for management in graphic formats such as floor plan, cross section and schematic diagram. User is possible to perform the equipment's ON/OFF operation and setpoint change operation, and to display the trending graph and individual

14 Guide Specifications for HVAC

equipment schedule. The graphic displays present the status of each piece of equipment to be controlled in graphical forms such as floor plans, cross sections or schematic diagrams. Starts/stops equipment, changes setting, displays historical trend and individual equipment schedule. The displays can be enlarged and reduced at a desired magnification using SVG supporting magnification at browser. Up to 1,000 graphical displays can be assigned to the system. A dynamic element placed on a static element of equipment or floor indicates the status of a point by changing the color of the symbol or displaying the numerical value of analog/totalizer point. The dynamic element can also lead operators to another graphic display. Up to 200 dynamic elements can be displayed on a screen. The types of dynamic elements (points + screen transition) are shown below: Digital color change Digital shape change Analog numerical value display Animation Live wire display Graphic display selection Screen call Screen transition Picture scanner read display

User shall be able to modify or revise the graphic using Graphic Generator software which generates user-defined graphics and gives facility to edit the screen in the event of any change in the application environment such as partition or room name of the building. 2.2.4. Group List Lists groups for the user to manage the Points easily. In addition to the system group list that is already listed, there is the user group list that can be set by the user optionally. It is possible to carry out batch ON/OFF command and batch settings change for each group. Servers shall have a capability of redundant system. 2.2.5. Alarm If any alarm occurs, the system automatically processes the alarm. The system notifies the alarm via buzzer sounds. BMS shall display the latest alarm and brink indicators. The operation of the latest alarm

15 Guide Specifications for HVAC

display, buzzer sounds and the Alarm Dashboard can be specified by the segregation pattern of the Segregation setting. Four types of alarm sounds are available for each alarm level. The following alarm events are available. <Points> - Alarm input - Unmatched command (Failure of start/stop of start/stop points, status - unmatched) - Analog high/low limit alarm - Sensor error - Trouble - Totalized value increase error - Control alarm (Power demand target value exceeded, etc.) <System> - Component alarm (bus trouble, line status, error, remote unit no response) - Power demand alarm, power failure alarm, fire alarm Specify the following alarm level for each alarm point. - Emergency alarm - Major alarm - Moderate alarm - Minor alarm 2.2.5.1. Alarm Dashboard Displays the information about change of status and alarm occurrence traditionally printed on a message printer. Only the required information can be extracted and displayed by narrowing search to all/alarm/operation setting/unacknowledged alarm records or searching information by a desired text string. Comments can also be entered if any. The accumulated data can be saved to the desired media (hard disk/USB memory, etc.) of a Client PC in a CSV format file. The data shall be displayed in PDF file to realize paper-less operations. The information displayed on the Alarm Dashboard is as follows: Point alarm Control alarm Device alarm Remote unit alarm Point operation Point change of status

16 Guide Specifications for HVAC

When an alarm occurs in logged-in status, the alarm is notified by the buzzer sound, updated New Alarm display, and indicator blinking based on the alarm. Also, alarm occurrence and recovery will be recorded in Alarm Dashboard irrespective of login status. Buzzer sound has kinds of tones in each alarm level. Alarm is also given as an appropriate voice announcement when an alarm occurs. 2.2.5.2. Alarm Notification via E-mail or SMS Alarms shall be notified to the PC or mobile terminal of building administrator through E-mail or Short Message Service. Alarm notification supports alarm confirmation operation in places far away from the client PC. 2.2.6. Device/Remote Unit Status Monitoring Based on the device/remote unit status monitoring function, the status of system servers, system controllers, and filed controllers is constantly monitored. Whenever a trouble is found, and alarm is notified with the buzzer sound, and so on. 2.2.7. Trending Trending function graphically displays time-series variation in measured point data such as power and temperature, time series changes of power operation status (ON/OFF), and totalized data are stored for a fixed period of time and displayed on trend graph (broken line) and bar graph (bar graph/laminated graph). User shall also display up to 8 different scales of graph all at once. 4 axes each are displayed on both left and right side of the trending graph. Trend shall be able to display up to 8 points per sheet and 400 sheets maximum. Displayable points are ON/OFF, Status, Measured, Setpoint, and Tantalization. Data of 1 minute cycle shall be able to be displayed for up to 40 days. Data of 1 hour cycle is stored for the past 13 months. Data of 1 day cycle is stored for the past 10 years. Data of 1 month cycle is stored for the past 10 years. Displayable graph types are broken line, bar, laminated, combination of broken line and bar graph, combination of broken line and laminated graph. 2.2.7.1. Real Time Trending

17 Guide Specifications for HVAC

In addition to the trending function, the real time trending shall also be selectable. Collects and stores the data of points that are targeted for real time data collection, and then displays obtained results as broken line graph. The latest data shall be collected all the time. Meanwhile, in Specific method, there are two data collection methods, namely a method to collect the point data when status change has occurred on digital point and a method to collect the point data by setting start time/end time. It can be set in either one of these. Collected point data shall be displayed as real time trending graph. It shall be able to display and print the real time trending graph as numeric data. The points targeted for real time data collection and the information about the collection conditions set by the user in client PC will be set in real time data collection file. The real time data collection file reflects the information to Server for System Management and Advanced Building Controller through update function. Minimum data collection cycle for real time trending is 1 second and usual trending collects and displays in 15 minutes interval. 2.2.8. Report Measured values and totalized values are displayed on the screen, and the daily report of electricity and air-conditioning operations are prepared. User shall be able to output daily report either automatically or manually in PDF format (print image) which realize paper-less operation. 2.2.8.1. Daily Report Daily reports for the last 40 days including the current day can be displayed and printed manually. Daily report displayed on the screen can be output in CSV format as well. Printable data are the following 3 data. - Hourly report data contains 1-minute values totalized for 1 hour (totalized value) OR selected value among; max./min./average value of 1-minute values for 1 hour and on-the-hour value (measured value) - Daily report data contains 1-hour values totalized for 1 day (for the current day and for previous day) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., av., and reading values of 1-hour values for 1 day. (Specify the values necessary to print.) - Monthly report data contains 1-day value totalized for 1 month (to the current day of the month from the following day of the previous month, to the current day of the previous month from the following day of the two months previous) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-day values for 1 month. (Specify the values necessary to

18 Guide Specifications for HVAC

print. Monthly report data is printed out after the daily report data is printed.) Monthly report can be output either automatically or manually in PDF format (print image). 2.2.8.2. Monthly Report Monthly reports for the last 13 months including the current month can be displayed and printed manually at your convenience. Monthly report displayed on the screen can be output in CSV format as well. Printable data are following 3 data as a monthly report. - Daily report data contains 1-hour values totalized for 1 day and load factor (totalized value only) OR selected value among; max./min./average value of 1-hour values for 1 day. - Monthly report data contains 1-day values totalized for 1 month (for the current month and for the previous month) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-day values for 1 month. (Specify the values necessary to print. Monthly report data is printed out after the daily report data is printed.) - Yearly report data contains 1-month values totalized for 1 year (to the current month of the year from the following month of the previous year, to the current month of the previous year from the following month of the two years previous) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-month values for 1 year. (Specify the values necessary to print. Yearly report data is printed out after the monthly report data is printed.) Yearly report can be output either automatically or manually in PDF format (print image). 2.2.8.3. Yearly Report Yearly reports for the last 10 years including the current year can be displayed and printed manually at your convenience. Yearly report displayed on the screen can be output in CSV format as well. Printable data are the following 2 data as a yearly report. - Monthly report data contains 1-day values totalized for 1 month and load factor (totalized value only) OR selected value among; max./min./average value of 1-day values for 1 month. - Yearly report data contains 1-month values totalized for 1 year (for the current year and

19 Guide Specifications for HVAC

for the previous year) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-month values for 1 year. (Specify the values necessary to print. Yearly report data is printed out after the monthly report data is printed.)

2.2.8.4.

Editable Report Format Report format is editable freely by users if required. User shall be able to change, add and delete ruled lines, and insert merged cell to match the requirement of each project. BMS shall switch the report format when locale is changed.

2.2.9.

Runtime Monitoring and On/Off Counting This function shall be used to display the equipment that exceeds a certain value of runtime/on-off cycle count, in the Maintenance Notification screen, and activates the judgment of equipment inspection and replacement time. User shall be able to maintain and replace the equipment in the building at regular intervals, prevent the breakdown of the equipment, and thereby control the maintenance cost. It is possible to generate and displays the PDF file as maintenance monitoring report with the information of all equipment or the equipment that exceeds the monitoring targeted value. The PDF file can be printed manually anytime using a printer. Up to 50 groups and 100 points per group shall be monitored and counted. This function counts total time and elapsed time up to 999,999 hours.

2.2.10.

Overtime Running Overtime running means the extra running of the equipment based on the operation requested from the user operable equipment or client PC, in other than the time slot (core time) that is set in advance. Receiving of request, count of actual runtime and printing are carried out in the overtime running management.

2.2.11.

Meter Reading Automatically collects the overtime runtime data and the meter-reading value of meters measuring power, water supply, gas, and so on. Calculates the consumption month wise. In addition, it detects and modifies abnormal value after meter-reading and outputs the list of meter-reading results.

20 Guide Specifications for HVAC

Maximum data points available are 3000 meters including 1,500 actual meters and 1,500 logical meters. Up to 50 types of Meter shall be assignable. This function handles up to 400 tenants. Maximum totalization point shall be 1,500 meters. Overtime runtime is 1,000 request units maximum. Automatic meter-reading shall be able to set once a month. Operator shall read meter manually anytime. Meter reading record shall be saved in CSV format and output anytime operator requests. 2.2.12. Time Program Control Automatically starts or stops the equipment at the preset time. For the weekly schedule (that is the base schedule for each day of the week throughout the year) and the priority schedule (that can be used for holiday settings, etc.), it is possible to set up to 8 times operation and the time a day. Based on the weekly schedule, priority schedule, and calendar*1 settings, the execution schedule for the next 1 week from the current date can be created for starting or stopping the equipment. Further, it is possible for the user to specify name for time programs. Time programs shall be able to display all the on/off time settings of time programs in list. 2.2.13. Schedule Composition Interlocks multiple Time Programs into 1 schedule and write it in a specified Time Program. It shall be convenient to create a schedule using this function based on the time program of each tenant, for common utility areas (such as entrance hall) used by many tenants. Compose up to 10 sub-programs per Advanced Building Controller and up to 10 time programs per sub-program. 2.2.14. Event Program Automatically performs interlock operation for multiple facilities such as AHU and lighting inside the building, along the predetermined conditions. It is possible to take a common emergency action and reduce the load to run each facility by specifying the link and related operation between multiple facilities, such as run pattern/run sequence of facilities and counter measures during alarm, in advance.

21 Guide Specifications for HVAC

2.2.15.

Energy Saving Applications BMS shall have the applications designed for Energy-saving control. The applications include control software such as Optimum Start/Stop Control, Chiller Optimum Start/Stop Control, Duty Cycle Control, Power Demand Control, VAV Control, and VWV Control.

2.2.15.1. Optimum Start/Stop Control This function estimates the attribute of temperature raise/fall for HVAC start/stop and performs the optimum start/stop control of Air Handling Units to avoid unnecessary runtime. Up to 50 subsystems shall be able to control under Advanced Building Controller. This function output the optimum timing of start/stop command based on the time program in which measured room temperature and control equipment are assigned. 2.2.15.2. Chiller Optimum Start/Stop Control This function refers to the estimated optimum start/stop time based on the optimum start/stop control for AHU, and starts the chiller plant "x" minutes earlier than the optimum start time of the earliest AHU and stops the chiller plant "y" minutes earlier than the optimum stop time of the latest AHU, within the same chiller plant system. Up to 4 types of start/stop holding time shall be able to set per subprogram. 2.2.15.3. Duty Cycle Control This function calculates the optimum stop time of Packaged Air Conditioning units etc. while maintaining a comfortable temperature environment, and reduces thermal energy/electrical energy by performing duty cycle control up to 20 subsystems per Advanced Building Controller and up to 20 points per subsystem. This function stops and recovers the equipment based on the measured room temperature. 2.2.15.4. Power Demand Control This function supports 2 types of power contracts; Actual and Demand, to cover a variety of power contract systems that may differ depending on countries. Power demand control function estimates the usage of power at intervals, decides the necessity of interruption/recovery, and interrupts/recovers the equipment according to the capacity required. BMS stores the power demand control results as history and displays the targeted value and demand value.

22 Guide Specifications for HVAC

Further, it is possible to save the day's data and month's data of power demand in the optional media (hard disk, USB memory, etc.) of the client PC, in CSV format. 2.2.16. Power Failure & Restoration Control During power failure, if Server for System Management, Server for Data Storage, and Advanced Building Controller are backed up with UPS, alarm notification shall be given through buzzer sound, blinking of the power failure icon, and new alarm display. During this stage, outputs except fire process event program output, power failure event output, and output made by manual operation are withheld. When detecting the startup of the generator, startup is output one by one in the points registered in the generator registration order list. Outputs other than fire process event program output, power failure event output, and output made by manual operation are withheld. Power restoration program shall be able to start up when detecting commercial power restoration. At this time, since output is done for ON/OFF point in the same way as before power failure occurrence and also the output that was withheld during power failure is output, it is possible to move back automatically to the original status. Selecting automatic/manual startup and specifying the point order of power restoration is possible for power restoration program. 2.2.17. Generator Load Distribution Control When the generator for an emergency purpose is operated during power failure, this function keeps the power load. If the instantaneous value of the generator load exceeds the desired value set beforehand, excess power is cutoff from units in order of low-priority level. On the other hand if it is low, power is connected to the units in order of priority level. 2.2.18. VAV Control Provide the VAV control application which optimizes the supply air temperature and pressure of AHU including VSD control of AHU fan. The application shall have the function to optimize the pressure loss of duct to reduce energy consumption of fan. Provide the function that optimizes supply air temperature to satisfy each zone temperature condition. 2.2.19. VWV Control VWV stands for Variable Water Volume. This application shall be a part of energy saving applications for heating/cooling source delivery

23 Guide Specifications for HVAC

systems. VWV shall control the running speed of secondary water delivery pumps in Chiller Plant to maintain the supply water pressure in certain level by means of all AHUs differential pressure. Enables power of the delivery pump to be reduced significantly without the decrease of HVAC performance. VWV control requires motorized control valve with differential pressure sensor to detect the differential pressures of all AHUs. VWV control consists of three programs such as demand calculation per program, pressure setpoint calculation, and energy saving effect calculation. Demand calculation per program calculates the demand level of each program of a maximum of 30 AHUs with the same control level. Setpoint calculation determines the setpoint change request for chiller plant equipment. The pressure setpoint is calculated based on the setpoint change request. Energy saving effect calculation calculates the energy saving effect as a result of VWV control. 2.2.19. DDC Software Provide DDC software which freely programmable and modifiable by system engineers. System Engineer shall be able to create or modify control software for multipurpose controller through field engineering tools. By entering necessary parameters and wiring output and input of each software module, control software for certain HVAC applications shall be created. 2.2.20. Chiller Plant Control Packaged Controller Chiller Plant Control Packaged Controller is a direct digital controller (DDC) specifically designed for sequential control of chiller plant equipment of building HVAC systems. This controller carries out energy-saving control including the optimization of multiple chillers and other chiller plant units in response to the air conditioning load. User can change the setting of control sequence through operator interface equipped with the controller. Not only the pre-programmed sequence, but also the user-determined programmed control is also available for Chiller plant control. Operator shall be able to switch automatic/manual operation by communicating with host system. Manual operation takes highest priority for all the control sequences. Group command is executed by communicating with the host BMS or operating interface. Daytime or nighttime mode can be switched by communicating with host

24 Guide Specifications for HVAC

system. The switchover between daytime and nighttime modes changes the operating sequences, maximum number of running chillers, and load at startup. Operator shall be able o switch cooling/heating mode by communicating with host BMS or operating interface. The switchover between cooling and heating also changes the operating sequences, maximum number of running chillers, and load at startup. Operating sequence has several types such as normal sequence, sequence with base unit changeover, rotation, and operator program. Normal sequence fixes the order of chiller or pump. Sequence with base unit changeover performs the sequential control but base unit is changed so as to avoid too much load for base unit. Rotation mode is a method for averaging each chiller runtime. The operating sequence of he chillers are sequentially shifted so that the chiller which has been stopped for the longest period is started first and the chiller which has been running for the longest period is stopped first. Operator shall be able to program the operation sequence. This method is useful when the capacity of chillers or pumps to be controlled differs; operator is possible to assign desired sequence.

2.2.21

Software Requirements for Security System Security System shall include the application software for management, monitoring, and controls.

2.2.22

Room Data Process Room is considered to be the smallest unit in the building, which is segmented to perform the security status changeover (alert/non alert) and access user management in Security System. Multiple registrations of data points required for controlling and monitoring shall be being performed in one room. In this system, each room is registered in Access Controller, and then the controller performs access management control for those rooms. Consequently, when there are several card readers in a single room, access management control will be executed simultaneously for all the card readers in the room. In Figure 1 of Room setting example, security changeover can be made from either one of the 2 card readers.

2.2.23

Access User Management Access user management manages the user information that is used for accessing the buildings and rooms. It includes the operation of user registration, deletion, display based on various search conditions, setting the information and copying the attributes.

25 Guide Specifications for HVAC

User access operation becomes possible by distributing the user information created in the center to the remote. Up to 100,000 users shall be manageable. User information shall include access information and personal information as stated below. Access Information - Department ID - User No. - Card data - Card type - Registration status - Entry allowed room/group - Validity period - PIN - Close rights - 1st entry rights - Last exit rights - Pass back rights. Personal Information - Name - Nickname - Division (up to 2 divisions manageable) - Gender - Date of Birth - Age (calculated automatically from the date of birth) - Notes (up to 5 notes memorable)

2.2.24

Log Output Records and displays all the operating logs carried out by user in list. Items to be recorded and displayed are: Date (YYYY/MM/DD) at the time of operation Time (hours, minutes, and seconds) at the time of operation IP address of Client PC User ID

Operation type such as displaying, setting, printing, change of display, and canceling, button name to be clicked, dialog box name to be opened, contents of operation, contents of inputs and setting, device ID, point ID, point name, program name, and operation failed or not.

26 Guide Specifications for HVAC

Maximum storable logs are up to 1,000,000 logs. Operation logs shall be able to output in CSV file format and save in Client PC. 2.2.25. Graphic Displays the status of each facility targeted for management in graphic formats such as floor plan, cross section and schematic diagram. User is possible to perform the equipment's ON/OFF operation and setpoint change operation, and to display the trending graph and individual equipment schedule. The graphic displays present the status of each piece of equipment to be controlled in graphical forms such as floor plans, cross sections or schematic diagrams. Starts/stops equipment, changes setting, displays historical trend and individual equipment schedule. The displays can be enlarged and reduced at a desired magnification using SVG supporting magnification at browser. Up to 1,000 graphical displays can be assigned to the system. A dynamic element placed on a static element of equipment or floor indicates the status of a point by changing the color of the symbol or displaying the numerical value of analog/totalizer point. The dynamic element can also lead operators to another graphic display. Up to 200 dynamic elements can be displayed on a screen. The types of dynamic elements (points + screen transition) are shown below: Digital color change Digital shape change Analog numerical value display Animation Live wire display Graphic display selection Screen call Screen transition Picture scanner read display

User shall be able to modify or revise the graphic using Graphic Generator software which generates user-defined graphics and gives facility to edit the screen in the event of any change in the application environment such as partition or room name of the building. 2.2.26. Group List Lists groups for the user to manage the Points easily. In addition to the system group list that is already listed, there is the user group list that can be set by the user optionally.

27 Guide Specifications for HVAC

It is possible to carry out batch ON/OFF command and batch settings change for each group. Servers shall have a capability of redundant system. 2.2.27. Alarm If any alarm occurs, the system automatically processes the alarm. The system notifies the alarm via buzzer sounds. BMS shall display the latest alarm and brink indicators. The operation of the latest alarm display, buzzer sounds and the Alarm Dashboard can be specified by the segregation pattern of the Segregation setting. Four types of alarm sounds are available for each alarm level. The following alarm events are available. <Points> - Alarm input - Unmatched command (Failure of start/stop of start/stop points, status - unmatched) - Analog high/low limit alarm - Sensor error - Trouble - Totalized value increase error - Control alarm (Power demand target value exceeded, etc.) <System> - Component alarm (bus trouble, line status, error, remote unit no response) - Power demand alarm, power failure alarm, fire alarm Specify the following alarm level for each alarm point. - Emergency alarm - Major alarm - Moderate alarm - Minor alarm 2.2.27.1 Security Alarm Dashboard Displays the information about change of status and alarm occurrence traditionally printed on a message printer. Only the required information can be extracted and displayed by narrowing search to all/alarm/operation setting/unacknowledged alarm records or searching information by a desired text string. Comments can also be entered if any. The accumulated data can be saved to the desired media (hard disk/USB memory, etc.) of a Client PC in a CSV format file. The data shall be displayed in PDF file to realize paper-less operations.

28 Guide Specifications for HVAC

The information displayed on the Alarm Dashboard is as follows: Point alarm Control alarm Device alarm Remote unit alarm Point operation Point change of status

When an alarm occurs in logged-in status, the alarm is notified by the buzzer sound, updated New Alarm display, and indicator blinking based on the alarm. Also, alarm occurrence and recovery will be recorded in Alarm Dashboard irrespective of login status. Buzzer sound has kinds of tones in each alarm level. Alarm is also given as an appropriate voice announcement when an alarm occurs. 2.2.27.2 Alarm Notification via E-mail or SMS Alarms shall be notified to the PC or mobile terminal of building administrator through E-mail or Short Message Service. Alarm notification supports alarm confirmation operation in places far away from the client PC. 2.2.28. Device/Remote Unit Status Monitoring Based on the device/remote unit status monitoring function, the status of system servers, system controllers, and filed controllers is constantly monitored. Whenever a trouble is found, and alarm is notified with the buzzer sound, and so on. 2.2.29. Report Measured values and totalized values are displayed on the screen, and the daily report of electricity and air-conditioning operations are prepared. User shall be able to output daily report either automatically or manually in PDF format (print image) which realize paper-less operation. 2.2.29.1. Daily Report Daily reports for the last 40 days including the current day can be displayed and printed manually. Daily report displayed on the screen can be output in CSV format as well. Printable data are the following 3 data. - Hourly report data contains 1-minute values totalized for 1 hour (totalized value) OR

29 Guide Specifications for HVAC

selected value among; max./min./average value of 1-minute values for 1 hour and on-the-hour value (measured value) - Daily report data contains 1-hour values totalized for 1 day (for the current day and for previous day) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., av., and reading values of 1-hour values for 1 day. (Specify the values necessary to print.) - Monthly report data contains 1-day value totalized for 1 month (to the current day of the month from the following day of the previous month, to the current day of the previous month from the following day of the two months previous) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-day values for 1 month. (Specify the values necessary to print. Monthly report data is printed out after the daily report data is printed.) Monthly report can be output either automatically or manually in PDF format (print image). 2.2.29.2. Monthly Report Monthly reports for the last 13 months including the current month can be displayed and printed manually at your convenience. Monthly report displayed on the screen can be output in CSV format as well. Printable data are following 3 data as a monthly report. - Daily report data contains 1-hour values totalized for 1 day and load factor (totalized value only) OR selected value among; max./min./average value of 1-hour values for 1 day. - Monthly report data contains 1-day values totalized for 1 month (for the current month and for the previous month) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-day values for 1 month. (Specify the values necessary to print. Monthly report data is printed out after the daily report data is printed.) - Yearly report data contains 1-month values totalized for 1 year (to the current month of the year from the following month of the previous year, to the current month of the previous year from the following month of the two years previous) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-month values for 1 year. (Specify the values necessary to print. Yearly report data is printed out after the monthly report data is printed.) Yearly report can be output either automatically or manually in PDF format (print image).

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2.2.29.3. Yearly Report Yearly reports for the last 10 years including the current year can be displayed and printed manually at your convenience. Yearly report displayed on the screen can be output in CSV format as well. Printable data are the following 2 data as a yearly report. - Monthly report data contains 1-day values totalized for 1 month and load factor (totalized value only) OR selected value among; max./min./average value of 1-day values for 1 month. - Yearly report data contains 1-month values totalized for 1 year (for the current year and for the previous year) and load factor (totalized value only) AND max., min., and av. values of 1-month values for 1 year. (Specify the values necessary to print. Yearly report data is printed out after the monthly report data is printed.) 2.2.29.4. Editable Report Format Report format is editable freely by users if required. User shall be able to change, add and delete ruled lines, and insert merged cell to match the requirement of each project. BMS shall switch the report format when locale is changed. 2.2.30. Security Card Data Import Provide the function that imports the security card data items in CSV format. User No. Card data User Name User Nickname 2 Divisions of organization Gender Birthday 5 Notes All room rights Rights pattern Rights index Rights index for area Rights index for room Close mode privilege

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2.2.31.

1st entry privilege Last exit privilege Passback privilege State of registration Start date of valid term End date of valid term Number of card issue Department ID

Security Card Data Export Provide the function that exports the security card data items in CSV format. User No. Card data User Name User Nickname 2 Divisions of organization Gender Birthday 5 Notes All room rights Rights pattern Access rights index Access rights index for area Access rights index for room Access rights index for room name Close mode privilege 1st entry privilege Last exit privilege Passback privilege State of registration Start date of valid term End date of valid term Number of card issue Department ID Department Name

2.2.32.

Personal Photo Image Import Provide the function that imports the photo image of card user, and to display it in the screen. By checking the screen display, it is possible to

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confirm the identity of the card holder in case he or she loses the card, etc. The image data can be imported from the media on to the drive connected to the client PC in JPEG image. It is possible to specify the source folder for importing. that exports the security card data items in CSV format. 2.2.33. Scope Management Scope management function is used while registering/changing/deleting or referring to records of the access user information for each department (or tenant). Management range and reference range will be restricted based on the category setup. In other words, administrator of each department (Tenant) can register, delete, refer to access history and perform occupant display, etc. towards only access users whose categories are the same as his or her own category. Accordingly, if log in is performed through the administrator ID and password, subsequent operation and screen display will be automatically restricted by judging the category of the administrator who logged in. 2.2.34. Local Anti-passback Control Provide the function of Local Anti-passback Control. This function is used to compare the Card Reader type (Entry Reader or Exit Reader) with occupancy status (IN when the entry reader verification is OK and OUT in case of exit reader verification is OK) and perform access management without any logical discrepancy. With this function, it is possible to prevent the unauthorized access such as "Card sharing" and "Unauthorized accompanying" and manage the occupancy more strictly. Local Anti-passback Control is the control made on a per-controller basis and it cannot perform logical judgment across rooms. To perform controls across multiple doors or rooms, use Global Anti-passback. 2.2.35. Global Anti-passback Control As a result of card reader operation, Global Anti-passback function allows the access if the card actually belongs to that particular zone and disallows the access if it belongs to other zones. In other words, it judges whether the correct individual is residing in the zone and carries out a proper access management without any logical discrepancy. With this function, it is possible to prevent the unauthorized access such as "Card sharing" and "Unauthorized accompanying" and manage the occupancy more strictly. Further, trouble such as system communication failure that affects this control may occur. By considering these cases, it is possible to set in advance, whether the flexibility or security should be given importance like Allow all users at the time of trouble or Emphasize the security even at the time of trouble in accordance with the operation

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level. 2.3. 2.3.1. SYSTEM INTEGRATION BACnet Conformance BMS and its components shall comply with BACnet IP as its communication protocol for open system integration. System servers shall be able to communicate with third-party BACnet devices. 2.3.2. LonMark Conformance BMS shall have the product conformance by LonMark International. Advanced Building Controller communicates with DDCs using LonTalk protocol. 2.3.3. Modbus BMS shall be connectable through Modbus protocol. Equipment such as power meters, power monitoring systems, chillers or lighting systems using Modbus protocol can be monitored by the central BMS.

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3. 3.1. 3.1.1.

EXECUTION EXAMINATION General System architecture of BMS is based on the Server-client system. All the information and data is stored in System Servers. Client PC is used solely for browsing the contents of stored in server.

3.1.2.

Installation Installation must be carried out by following manufactures instructions. Installer must provide all the attachments, hardware, software, interconnections, and miscellaneous devices required to install the components.

3.1.3.

Test & Commissioning On site test & commissioning of whole Building Automation System must be carried out by well-trained engineers with more than 3 years experiences and trained at least 40 hours by BMS manufactures.