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―Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it‖ - Dwight D. Eisenhower
The word motivation is derived from motive, which means an active form of a desire, craving or need that must be satisfied. Motivation is the key to organizational effectiveness. The manager in general has to get the work done through others. These 'others' are human resources who need to be motivated to attain organizational objectives. DEFINITION According to George R. Terry, "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action." In the words of Robert Dubin, it is "the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization". Viteles defines motivation as "an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium, by satisfying the need." According to Encyclopaedia of Management. "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness." Today, virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: ―desires,‖ ―wants,‖ ―wishes,‖ ―goals,‖ ―needs,‖ ―drives,‖ ―motives,‖ and ―incentives.‖ Technically, the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere, which means, ―to move.‖ This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: ―A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves and that directs or channels behaviour toward goals. The key to understand motivation, it appears, lies in the meaning of, and relationship between, needs, drives, and goals.
Drives (Deprivation with direction)
Goals (Reductionof drives)
In a systems sense, motivation consists of three interacting and interdependent elements: needs, drives and goals.
1. Needs. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency. In the homeostatic sense, needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. 2. Drives. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. 3. Goals. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything, which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. Thus, attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Motivation can be divided into two types: internal, or intrinsic motivation, and external, or extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than working towards an external reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities. Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy, believe they have the skill that will allow them to be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.
Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation. It is widely believed that motivation performs two functions. The first is often referred as to the energetic activation component of the motivation construct. The second is directed at a specific behaviour and makes reference to the orientation directional component. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives. The concept of motivation can be instilled in children at a very young age, by promoting and evoking interest in a certain book or novel. The idea is to have a discussion pertaining the book with young individuals, as well as to reward them.
Self-control The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence. In one study demonstrating this effect. whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval. since people are not able to satisfy all their needs at once they usually seek to satisfy some or a few of them. Push and Pull This model is usually used when discussing motivation within tourism context. which motivates a person to seek food. . Then again pull factors are issues that can arise from a location itself and therefore ‗push‘ an individual to choose to experience it. children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition. For those children who received no extrinsic reward. whereas push factors determine the desire to go on holiday. self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalised by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs. which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. On the other hand. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. push motives are connected with internal forces for example need for relaxation or escapism and pull factors in turn induce a traveller to visit certain location by external forces such as landscape. Many researchers highlighted that because motives may occur at the same time it should not be assumed that only one motive drives an individual to perform an action as it was presumed in previous studies. A drive or desire can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. so the most attention in gastronomic tourism research should be dedicated to this theory.Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to over-justification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. Dann also highlights the fact that push factors can be stimulated by external and situational aspects of motivation in shape of pull factors. culture image or climate of a destination. Professor Victor Vroom's Yale School of Management "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self-control to pursue a particular goal. a huge number of theories have been developed over the years in many studies there is no single theory that illustrates all motivational aspects of travelling. Pull factors illustrate the choices of destinations by tourists. yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Since. a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests). Moreover.
when stifled or inhibited. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based. selectivity. though playful and exploratory in character. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently. affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives. For this reason. and activity. MOTIVES Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives. or primary. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. and activity can be considered more specific competence drives. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. Although not all psychologists would agree. even later when the treat is removed from the process. Such motives are variously called physiological. animal and human. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms. the total society might become very stagnant. at the same time show direction. the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. the motives of competence. but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based. . manipulation. manipulation. activity. and persistence in interacting with the environment. biological. and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity. and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. curiosity. and activity drives are quite intense. The Curiosity Manipulation. the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive.By contrast. To be included in the general category. anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization. have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives. manipulation. They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. The other general drives of curiosity. He called from activities which. unlearned. manipulation. which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. Although these drives often get the small child into trouble. curiosity.‖ Thus defined.
but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. The Achievement Motive Characteristics of high achievers: 1. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. Preoccupation with the task. or as they are commonly referred to today. Moderate risk taking. however. 2. Some of the more important ones are power. The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. In particular. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated. achievement. Need for immediate feedback. Once again. 3. in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour. the primary drives. the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex. 4. A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. n Ach.Secondary Motives Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations. the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. and affiliation. or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself. The interactive effects are always present. the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics. and to a lesser degree the general drives. In addition. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. and n Aff. As presented here. the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world. . Once high achievers select a goal. especially in reference to organizational behaviour. Some writer‘s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. security and status are also important secondary motives. Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach. Satisfaction with accomplishment. Closely connected to high achievers‘ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis.
infrastructure. security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives. security is much more complex than it appears on the surface. Three key areas of responsibility A. or society. Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) Values of rewards Amount of rewards Timing of rewards Likelihood of rewards Fairness of rewards Goal Setting theory The cognitive based work was given by locke et. organization. d. al.The Security Motive One the surface. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Importance of values or valence and consequences. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. The theoretical background a. Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. b. e. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group. Role of intention in human behaviour. c. . Performance facilitation (provide resources) Elimination of roadblocks to performance Providing means and adequate resources for performance (finance. for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented.) Carefully selecting personnel C. HR etc. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. Performance definition (Set Objectives) Goals Measures Assessment B. material. f. Goals provide direction to behaviour. In reality.
Theories of Motivation There is no simple formula to motivate people. esteem and self-actualization needs. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation. Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological . there is a surprising degree of agreement. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security. unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied. those of the higher order do not dominate.e. Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs.Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Intentions or Responses Consequences Judgments desires goals action or Performance Feedback or reinforcement Valid and practical – useful No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work..
Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not de-motivate them. welfare measures. pension and other benefit programs. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors. close supervision. Relationship with supervisor Working conditions Salary Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Job security Technical supervision Achievement Recognition Work Responsibility Advancement Growth McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline. to strive to succeed. Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. Need for achievement : The drive to excel. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. . intelligence and commitment. which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction.McClelland’s Achievement Theory of Motivation We have three basic social needs: affiliation. work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. It stresses man‘s need for work. responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour. power & achievement. incentive programs. Hygiene/Maintenance Motivators Company policy & Admn. Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
Positive motivation includes incentives. which may lead to higher efficiency. may differ from individual to individual depending on his personality. It is a tension of lacking something in his mind. competence and other factors. rewards and other benefits while negative motivation implies some punishment. learning abilities." On the basis of above definitions. . the following observations can be made regarding motivation: Motivation is an inner psychological force. perception and competence of an individual. "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goals and implies the determination of the nature and locus of force inducing a degree of readiness. it is "the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization". Viteles defines motivation as "an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium. Motivation originates from the-needs and wants of an individual. Terry. "Motivation is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action. needs." According to Encyclopedia of Management. by satisfying the need. which forces him to work more efficiently. use of force etc. Motivation may be positive as well as negative. A high degree of motivation may lead to high morale. which activates and compels the person to behave in a particular manner. Highly motivated employees get higher satisfaction." In the words of Robert Dubin. The motivation procedure contributes to and boosts up the morale of the employees. Motivating force and its degree. The process of Motivation helps the manager in analysing and understanding human behavior and finding but how an individual can be inspired to produce desirable working behavior.DEFINITION According to George R. A highly motivated employee works more efficiently and his level of production tends to be higher than others. The motivation process is influenced by personality traits. fear. causing the individual to move in a goal directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium. Motivation is also a process of stimulating and channelising the energy of an individual for achieving set goals. Motivation also plays a crucial role in determining the level of performance.
Motivation is directly related to the level of efficiency of employees. But if no raise has been provided he is likely to try another option. The motivation process begins with identification of individual needs. Since people have many different needs. Motivated employees make goal-directed efforts. Effectively motivated employees get more job satisfaction and possess high morale. Understanding these theories facilitates the managers to get a better insight into the human behavior. then he tries to fulfill his needs by asking for a raise or by working harder to earn a raise or by seeking a new job. Thus. . IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is an important part of managing process. Understanding human motivation is crucial for managing people. It is a continuous activity. the satisfaction of one need or set of needs is likely to give rise to the identification of other needs. It may be positive or negative. These factors help reduce absenteeism and labor turnover. working harder while simultaneously looking for a job. If his hard work resulted in a pay rise.FEATURES OF MOTIVATION The following are the features of motivation: It is an internal feeling and forces a person to action. social scientists. behaviorists and psychologists. For example. He then chooses to pursue one or more of these options for instance. Motivation also helps in improving the image of an organization. Extensive research has been performed to find out what makes people work and how to motivate them. Motivated employees are more loyal and sincere to an organization. when an employee feels underpaid then what. A number of theories have been developed. This includes managers. A team of highly qualified and motivated employees is necessary for achieving objectives of an organization because of the following reasons: Motivated employees make optimum use of available resources for achieving objectives. the cycle of motivation is constantly repeated. It varies from person to person and from time to time. They are more committed and cooperative for achieving organizational objectives. he probably feels satisfied and will continue to work hard. even though there is no universally acceptable motivation theory. Motivation is considered as a backbone of good industrial relations. Motivated employees make full use of their energy and other abilities to raise the existing level of efficiency.
the need for social justice Independence. Most of the time. the need to collect Social contact. the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group Idealism. predictable environments Physical activity. the need for exercise Power. the need for influence of will Romance. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation. the need to learn Eating. Employee motivation Work motivation Workers in any organization need something to keep them working. but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. the need to strike back Controlling motivation The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. the need for organized. According to Maslow. There are many different approaches of motivation training. then that employee‘s quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate. Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that found 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior. An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. stable. the need for approval Curiosity. the need for friends (peer relationships) Social status. The 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities as: Acceptance. the need to be safe Vengeance. If no motivation is present in an employee. the need to raise children Honor." Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theory Starting from studies involving more than 6. the need for social standing/importance Tranquility.000 people. the need for sex Saving. the need for individuality Order.Unconscious motivation Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed by unconscious motives. . the need for food Family. the salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization. "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct.
you can use general motivational strategies or specific motivational appeals. advice and praise. emotional appeals.When motivating an audience. audience rewards and audience threats. . feelings. Also. Hard sell strategies have barter. General motivational strategies include soft sell versus hard sell and personality type. Specific motivational appeals focus on provable facts. outnumbering. right and wrong. pressure and rank. Soft sell strategies have logical appeals. you can consider basing your strategy on your audience personality.
While designing the job. those that were mentioned earlier on. it is the next step after job analysis. Job design also gives information about the qualifications required for doing the job and the reward (financial and non-financial benefits) for doing the job. What is Job Design? Meaning Job design means to decide the contents of a job. Jobs must not be made highly specialised because they lead to boredom. It fixes the duties and responsibilities of the job. the methods of doing the job and the relationships between the job holder (manager) and his superiors. The whole process of job design is aimed to address various problems within the organisational setup. The sequence is as follows: 1. That is. 3. There are various steps involved in job design that follow a logical sequence. Needs of the organisation include high productivity. More specifically the following areas are fine tuned: . duties and responsibilities into a single unit of work for the achievement of certain objectives. It outlines the job responsibilities very clearly and also helps in attracting the right candidates to the right job. What tasks are required to be done or what tasks is part of the job? How are the tasks performed? What amount are tasks are required to be done? What is the sequence of performing these tasks? All these questions are aimed at arriving upon a clear definition of a specific job and thereby make it less risky for the one performing the same. It also outlines the methods and relationships that are essential for the success of a certain job. how much. they want the job to be interesting and challenging. 4. Further it also makes the job look interesting and specialised. It aims at outlining and organising tasks. quality of work. Job design essentially involves integrating job responsibilities or content and certain qualifications that are required to perform the same. how many and the order of the tasks for a job/s. the needs of the organisation and the needs of the individual manager must be balanced. Job design is mostly done for managers' jobs. etc. A well defined job encourages feeling of achievement among the employees and a sense of high self esteem. In simpler terms it refers to the what. subordinates and colleagues. those that pertain to ones description of a job and the associated relationships.JOB DESIGN Job Design Job design follows job analysis i. Needs of individual managers include job satisfaction. 2.e.
If the jobs are designed properly. The above mentioned are factors that if not taken care of result into building stress within the employees. Checking upon the work under load. conflicts. if the jobs are designed badly. high labour turnover. The end goal is reducing dissatisfaction. and other labour problems. Contrary to the philosophy of ―leave them alone‘ job design lays due emphasis on training people so that are well aware of what their job demands and how it is to be done. 2. then it will result in absenteeism. then highly efficient managers will join the organisation. enhancing motivation and employee engagement at the workplace. Employee Input: A good job design enables a good job feedback. as designed by Hackman and Oldham attempts to use job design to improve employee motivation. They will be motivated to improve the productivity and profitability of the organisation. They have identified that any job can be described in terms of five key job characteristics. Defining working hours clearly. 3. Checking the work overload. 1. However. Ensuring that employees don not remain isolated. Adjustments: A good job designs allows for adjustments for physically demanding jobs by minimising the energy spent doing the job and by aligning the manpower requirements for the same.the degree to which a job requires different skills and talents to complete a number of different activities . Work / Rest Schedules: Job design offers good work and rest schedule by clearly defining the number of hours an individual has to spend in his/her job. Job design is a continuous and ever evolving process that is aimed at helping employees make adjustments with the changes in the workplace. Employees have the option to vary tasks as per their personal and social needs. Ensuring tasks are not repetitive in nature. Defining the work processes clearly. Skill Variety . Importance of Job Design Job design is a very important function of staffing. Employee Training: Training is an integral part of job design. 4. Job Characteristics Model Work motivation and Job satisfaction The Job Characteristics Model (JCM). Benefits of Job Design The following are the benefits of a good job design: 1. habits and circumstances in the workplace.
feedback and incentives into the structure of the job. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful. Task Feedback ." The core dimensions listed above can be combined into a single predictive index. c. This forms the basis of this 'employee growthneed strength. such as absenteeism and turnover. e. .is the degree of independence or freedom allowed to complete a job 5. Motivating Potential Score Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham The motivating potential score (MPS) can be calculated. Autonomy . f. the job characteristics model predicts that motivation. Task Identity . Task Significance . Equation: Motivating (MPS) = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x feedback Potential score 3 Jobs that are high in motivating potential must be high on at least one of the three factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness. as follows. using the core dimensions discussed above. and also must be high on both Autonomy and Feedback. Various approaches to job design Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. b. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety.individually obtaining direct and clear feedback about the effectiveness of the individual carrying out the work activities The JCM links these core job dimensions listed above to critical psychological states which results in desired personal and work outcomes. will be reduced.2.this dimension refers to the completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work versus a partial task as part of a larger piece of work 3. Goal – setting – building goals. d. called the Motivating Potential Score. interesting and challenging. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. performance and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negative outcomes. If a job has a high MPS. Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the job.is the impact of the task upon the lives or work of others 4.
The manager will not get satisfaction after completing an easy job. the service of the manager must be fully utilised. scope of the job must be balanced and proper. then the job will not be challenging. 2. Full-time challenge of the job The job should be so challenging that it takes up the full-time and effort of the manager.Factors Affecting Job Design The guidelines influencing or factors affecting job design are depicted below. If the scope of the job is very wide. the manager will have a lot of free time. This will cause stress. This will cause problems and conflicts because subordinates do not like unnecessary interference from their superiors. He will use this free time to interfere in the work of his subordinates. frustration and loss of control. Therefore. 1. then the manager will not be able to handle it properly. If the scope is narrow (less). It will not give an opportunity for development. Proper scope of job The scope of the job should be proper. . If not. So.
3. Some people like to work alone while some people prefer to work in groups. An organisation having a high level of technology will have different job designs compared to an organisation having a low level of technology Applications of Motivation in various fields Education Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. So. 6. Organisational structure Organisational structure also affects the job design. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter. a manager having a high level of skill should be given very challenging jobs while a manager having a low level of skill should be given fewer challenging jobs. individual likes and dislikes must be considered while designing the job. 7. the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Jobs must be made flexible so that it can be changed according to the skills of the manager. It can: . Some people want to do only planning and decision making while other people like to implement these plans and decision. 5. Individual jobs must fit into the organisation's structure. However. Managerial skills The skills of the manager should be considered before designing his job. Technology The level of technology used by the organisation also affects the job design. We cannot use the same job design for all organisations. Individual likes and dislikes People have different likes and dislikes. 4. Organization's requirements Jobs must be designed according to the requirements of the organisation. So jobs should be designed after considering the skills of the manager. So. All managers do not have equal skills.
these concepts are less likely to be used as distinct categories. In 2007. and Marshall conducted neuroscience research on children's motivation . but instead as two ideal types that define a continuum: Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure. and persistence in. Today. Students tending toward a more internal locus of control are more academically successful. the National Orientation Directors Association reprinted Cassandra B. Classically. It has been shown that intrinsic motivation for education drops from grades 3-9 though the exact cause cannot be ascertained. Whyte researched and reported about the importance of locus of control and academic achievement. thus encouraging curriculum and activity development with consideration of motivation theories. Generally. Consequently student dependency on extrinsic rewards represents one of the greatest detractors from their use in the classroom. they may find it difficult to extricate themselves from that path. which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates. they think it is important.Direct behavior toward particular goals Lead to increased effort and energy Increase initiation of. Fisher. Nanayakkara. motivation is conceptualized as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Academic motivation orientation may also be tied with one's ability to detect and process errors. If teachers decided to extrinsically reward productive student behaviors. they sometimes need situated motivation. Research done by Whyte in 1986 raised the awareness of counselors and educators in this regard. activities Enhance cognitive processing Determine what consequences are reinforcing Lead to improved performance. The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize that distinctive needs of students should be considered in regard to orientation information provided at the beginning of the higher education experience. Cassandra B. Because students are not always internally motivated. in younger students it has been shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstract manner increases the intrinsic motivation of these students. Also. Whyte's research report allowing readers to ascertain improvements made in addressing specific needs of students over a quarter of a century later to help with academic success. or they feel that what they are learning is significant. these categories are regarded as distinct. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).
However. and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders. Motivated workers are more productive. since anxiety interferes with performance of complex tasks. neurological indicators of error monitoring (the process of detecting an error). A good manager will try to figure out which levels of needs are active for a certain individual or employee. as in Pivotal Response Therapy. They also found that motivation orientation and academic achievement were related to the strength in which their error-monitoring system was engaged. respect. money is a motivator. Also he has to remember that not everyone will be satisfied by the same needs. Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. such as physiological needs. they have found that progressive approaches with focus on positive motivation over punishment has produced greater effectiveness with learning.orientation. recognition. Motivated employees are more quality oriented. use of bad grades by teachers) as a method of getting students to work. According to Maslow. Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money. if a manager is trying to motivate his employees by satisfying their needs. as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate.g. Business Work motivation At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. We can relate Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money. Their research suggests that students with high intrinsic motivation attribute performance to personal control and that their error-monitoring system is more strongly engaged by performance errors. people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. and academic achievement. Doyle and Moeyn have noted that traditional methods tended to use anxiety as negative motivation (e. For example. however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation). . he should try to satisfy the lower level needs before he tries to satisfy the upper level needs or the employees will not be motivated. Motivation has been found to be an important element in the concept of Andragogy (what motivates the adult learner). The lower level needs such as Physiological and Safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs are to be addressed. At higher levels of the hierarchy. according to Maslow. praise. Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators to staff.
In contrast. employees were given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups. and motivated accordingly. though money could be used as an indicator of success for various motives. happy.g. As a result. This introduced the concept of orientation to work and distinguished three main orientations: instrumental (where work is a means to an end).g. and free. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy. a worker's motivation is solely determined by pay. In essence. e. Nonetheless. McBer & Company. Mayo believed that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important.. a hybrid management approach consisting of both Japanese and American philosophies and cultures. Its Japanese segment is much like the clan culture where organizations focus on a standardized structure with heavy emphasis on . extrinsic motivation (e.The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor. scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards. and must be treated. managed. security and immediate reward) and solidaristic (which prioritises group loyalty).. These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to be motivated by different factors at different times. Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important and that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. Other theories which expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg included Kurt Lewin's Force Field Theory. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production. grow. indifferent. and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely. Mayo named the model the Hawthorne effect. An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters. and more importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work. and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work. keeping score. money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such as achievement motivation. had as its first motto "To make everyone productive. and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. The assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were challenged by a classic study at Vauxhall Motors' UK manufacturing plant. In keeping with this view. William Ouchi introduced Theory Z." For McClelland. Edwin Locke's Goal Theory and Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory. Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates: ascendant. David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for money—in fact. and find answers independently. his consulting firm. His model has been judged as placing undue reliance on social contacts at work situations for motivating employees. bureaucratic (where work is a source of status. satisfaction lay in aligning a person's life with their fundamental motivations.
Its American segment retains formality and authority amongst members and the organization. Flextime : Flexible working hours. Job Sharing : An arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40hour-a week job. Ultimately. and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition Allowing employees to participate Linking rewards to performance Rewarding of nominators Visibility of the recognition process Job Redesign Job redesign is a method by which jobs are redesigned so that they ensure of providing the employee higher motivation. Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators. Some alternative work arrangements have become quite popular with time. and evaluation of the work. . and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program: Recognition of employees' individual differences. Job Rotation : The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another. Job Enrichment : The vertical expansion of jobs. Jobs can be redesigned by taking some key practices into consideration.socialization of its members. Job Enlargement : Increasing the number and variety of tasks that an invidual performs. Telecommuting : Working from home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to the employee‘s office. Alternative work arrangements This is another approach which helps making the work environment more motivating by altering work arrangements. In Essentials of Organizational Behavior. which increases the degree to which the worker control the planning. Job enlargement results in jobs with more diversity. interest and satisfaction. execution. All underlying goals are consistent across the organization. as well as constant improvement of work efficacy. Theory Z promotes common structure and commitment to the organization.
. Merit-based pay plan : A pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings. appreciation. Piece-rate pay plan : A pay plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed. These rewards are often believed to have long-range effects. accolades. recommend solution and take corrective actions. Some of the financial reward systems are classified under variable pay programs. Participative Management : A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors. Gainsharing : A formula-based group incentive plan. Representative Management : A system in which workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees. Some types of variable-pay programs are discussed hereunder. by the use of awards. Variable-Pay Program : A pay plan that bases a portion of an employee‘s pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance. Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) : A company-established benefits plan in which employees acquire stock. Flexible Benefits : A benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation. Bonus : A pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance.Employee Involvement Programs A participative process that uses the input of employees and is intended to increase employee‘s commitment to an organization‘s success. Profit-Sharing plan : An organization-wide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around a company‘s profitability. investigate causes. Rewards to Motivate Employees Rewards can be financial as well as non-financial. as part of their benefits. Quality Circles : A work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems. often at below-market prices. Intrinsic Rewards : Employee recognition programs. These programs include recognition to the employees in order to motivate them. certificates etc. Skill-based pay : A pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.
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