# BASICS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING:-1.

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15. FLEMING’S LEFT HAND RULE:

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20. 19. ideal ammeter has zero internal resistance. . note: ideal voltmeter has infinite internal resistance.18. 21.

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Example: Superposition theorem Since there are two sources.26. Using current division . we set the current source to zero. respectively. To obtain v1. we set the voltage source to zero. i1 = 0. let v = v1 + v2 where v1 and v2 are the contributions due to the 6-V voltage source and the 3-A current source.5 A v1 = 4i1 = 2 V We may also use voltage division to get v1 by writing 12i1 − 6 = 0 To get v2.

27. THEVENIN’S THEOREM: Example: .

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28. NORTONS THEOREM: .

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Standard Color-Coded Bands for Evaluating Resistance and Their Interpretation .

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PROBLEMS 1.

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EX: Petrol & Diesel engine. EX: Turbines ( Steam & Gas turbine) .IC engine: where combustion of fuel (petrol / diesel) with air takes place inside the engine cylinder. EC engine: Combustion of the fuel takes place outside the cylinder.

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therefore.c. the flux linking the coil sides AB and CD changes continuously. is zero as indicated by point 5 in Fig. an e. is maximum as indicated by point 3 in Fig. 3.DC GENERATOR The principal advantage of the d. This cycle repeats with each revolution of the coil.f. (i) When the loop is in position no. (b) conductor or a group of conductors. Therefore. the coil sides move under a pole of opposite polarity and hence the direction of generated e. magnetic field. the essential components of a generator are: (a) a magnetic field.2). is generated as indicated by point 2 in Fig. (ii) When the loop is in position no. (1. reverse direction. machine. . (iv) At position 4.. the generated e.m.1]. (1. the coil sides are moving at an angle to the flux and.m.2) will be when the loop is at position 7 and zero when at position 1. particularly the d. (vi) At position 6. Hence the e.m.r. (1.f. The direction of induced e. motor.c.m.t. Such an advantage is not claimed by any a. (v) At position 5. (iii) When the loop is in position no.f. See Fig. is zero because the coil sides (AB and CD) are cutting no flux but are moving parallel to it.f. Hence at this instant.f.2). motor. the coil sides (AB and CD) are at right angle to the flux and are. is that it provides a fine control of speed. in this direction (i.(1. 2. Simple Loop Generator Consider a single turn loop ABCD rotating clockwise in a uniform magnetic field with a constant speed as shown in Fig.m. 1 [See Fig. 1.m.m.1). (and hence current) is given by Fleming’s right hand rule.2). cutting the flux at a maximum rate. An electric generator is based on the principle that whenever flux is cut by a conductor. (c) motion of conductor w. is induced which will cause a current to flow if the conductor circuit is closed.m. the generated e. induced in these coil sides also changes but the e. As the loop rotates.f.f. the generated e. The maximum e. no magnetic lines are cut and hence induced e.c.f.f. is less because the coil sides are cutting the flux at an angle.e. 1.m. therefore. induced in one coil side adds to that induced in the other.f. is reversed.m.f. a low e.m.

. (i) field system (ii) armature core (iii) armature winding (iv) commutator (v) brushes. machines have five principal components viz.All d.c. .

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generator will be maximum when the load current is such that variable loss is equal to the constant loss.c.Note: the efficiency of a d. .

When the generator is loaded. When the generator is on no-load. Only one pole is shown for clarity.1) (ii) shows flux due to armature current alone. This distortion and field weakening takes place in both generators and motors. less than flux 1 at no load. machine is that due to the main poles called main flux.1) (iii). Fig. the current flowing through armature conductors sets up flux 1.1) (iii).c. (2. The phenomenon of armature reaction in a d. the weakening of flux due to armature reaction depends upon the position of brushes. However. the increase in flux at pole tip B is less than the decrease in flux under pole tip A. a smal1 current flowing in the armature does not appreciably affect the main flux 1 coming from the pole [See Fig 2.1 (i)]. the trailing pole tip (point B) is increased while at the leading pole tip (point A) it is decreased. current flowing through armature conductors also creates a magnetic flux (called armature flux) that distorts and weakens the flux coming from the poles.ARMATURE REACTION So far we have assumed that the only flux acting in a d.c. Consequently. . generator is shown in Fig. Flux 3 at full load is. (2. The action of armature flux on the main flux is known as armature reaction. it is clear that flux density at. (ii) Due to higher flux density at pole tip B. therefore. As we shall see. (2. saturation sets in. we obtain the resulting flux 3 as shown in Fig. This unequal field distribution produces the following two effects: (i) The main flux is distorted.1). Referring to Fig (2. By superimposing 1 and 2.

Armature coil is short circuited by brushes when it lies along neutral axis. 52. 46. 68.In dc machine the angle between the main field axis and brush axis is kept 90 degree in order to have maximum torque. Interpoles are provided in dc machine to neutralize the cross magnetizing component of armature reaction. Dc series motor has poorest speed regulation. 61. 49. The sparking at the brushes in a dc machine is due to reactance voltage.If the brushes a small amount of forward shift in case of dc generator the armature reaction effect will be partly demagnetizing and partly cross magnetizing.the dc compound motors are generally cumulative compound.In dc series motor the torque developed is proportional to square of armature current. The horse power obtained from the motor shaft is called the BHP. 43. 67. The starting resistance of dc shunt motor is usually low. The armature reaction in case of unsaturated dc machine is cross magnetizing.Compensating winding is provided in a dc machine to counteract armature reaction mmf under the pole faces and flashover around the commutator. Series motor should not be used as centrifugal pumps. Under –commutation results in sparking at the trailing edge of the brush. If the applied voltage to a dc machine is 230V then the back emf .The starting torque of a dc shunt motor is low.The speed of a dc shunt motor can be increased above its normal speed by decreasing the field current. . 71. 40. 58. Series field winding of a dc machine consists of few turns of thick wire shunt field winding consists of Many turns of thin wire. 69.Field divertor method of speed control of a dc series motor gives speeds above rated one due to reduction of field current. 72. 70. 42. In over loaded motor danger arises due to over heating of windings 62. if the armature current is increased keeping field current constant the torque developed will increase proportionately. 63. 50.If flux of a dc motor approaches zero its speed will approach infinity. 59. 51. With increase in speed of a dc motor back emf increases but line current falls. In dc machine the armature mmf is stationary with respect to field poles. The fall in speed of dc generator due to increase in load can be corrected by increasing the input to the prime mover. The direction of armature current in dc motor is opposite to that generated emf. 45. 60. In dc motor.In Swinburne’s test of a dc machine no load losses are measured and the copper losses are calculated. This is due to stray loss. 47.The retardation test for dc shunt machine is employed for determination of stray losses.38. 54.In dc motor the shaft torque is less than armature torque . 48.The speed control method used for increasing the speed of a dc motor above rated full load speed is field resistance control. 39. 55. A dc generator beyond critical resistance will generate no voltage. The reactance voltage is directly proportional to armature current and inversely proportional to commutation period . 41.The speed of a dc motor can be altered by varying both the flux and armature voltage. 44. 57.Iron loss in a dc machine occurs in armature core. 65. A DOL starter is employed for starting motors 3.75 KW 64. 53. The condition for maximumpower output from a dc motor Eb= V/2 66. for maximum power developed is 115V 56.

Multi stepped core is used in transformer to decrease the cost of copper.The rating of a transformer will increase when the supply frequency is increased. 150.An auto transformer may be used as an instrument transformer.The hum in a transformer is mainly attributed to magnetostriction. In CT turn compensation is provided mainly to reduce the ratio error. For on load tap changing the best method is to employ tap changers outside the tank operated selector switches.High leakage transformers are of small volt ampere rating.The stator frame of a synchronous machine is made of cast iron.Five limb construction is preferred over three limb construction as in this type of construction magnetic Reluctance of the three phase can be balanced.Two transformers are operating in parallel their load sharing will depend upon per unit impedance. 142.high dielectric strength. 132. 139.A distribution transformer is required to supply variable load between no load to full load. 115. 118.114.The function of oil in a transformer is to provide insulation and cooling.For off load tap changing the best method is to use tap changers inside the tank operated by external selector switches.Tappings of a transformer are provided at the middle of hv side.star secondary connection will of transformer will give the highest secondary voltage.The harmonic currents in a power transformer does not cause increase in secondary voltage. 122. 121. 131. 135. 143. 147.Noise level test conducted on transformer is type test.ampere rating.Delta primary . 140. 119.In scott connections the teaser transformer operates on 0. 148.The transformer core laminations are insulated from each other by thin coat of varnish.The salient pole type rotor have larger diameter and smaller axial length. . The transformer from the point of view of construction can be shell. 141. 136.The transformer oil should have low volatility.A shell type transformer is commonly used as it has two magnetic paths and reduced magnetic flux leakage. 134. core or berry type.In modern alternators the rotating part is field system. 130. 127.In power transformer breather is provided in order to prevent ingress of moisture in air. 116. 151. 128.In case of PT with increase in load on secondary side both the ratio error and phase angle increase.The chemical used in breather is silica gel.The burden of current transformers is expressed in volt. 125. 145.The ratio error in current transformer is attributed to energy component of excitation current. 133. 149. 146. 117.Booster transformer should never be left closed circuited.Transformer oil must be free from moisture.If the transformers operated in parallel are not connected with regard to polarity dead short circuit will take place. 120. 124.Conservator is employed to take care of expansion and contraction of oil taking place due to vibrations in Temperature. Transformer steel lamination are coated with an enamel layer in order to insulate laminations from each other.The magnetizing current in a transformer is rich in 3 rd harmonic. 129.good resistance to emulsion with water. 123. 137. 138.Gaseous discharge lamps use high leakage reactance type transformer. 144.The colour of fresh dilectric oil used in transformers is pale-yellow.Natural air cooling is used for transformers of rating upto 5-10kva.866 of its rated voltage.low viscosity to provide good heat transfer. 126.

928 192.star. Delta star –stepping up of voltage. Star delta – stepping down of voltage. Power factor of load Zero lag Unity Zero lead 191.The utility factor in T-T connection is 0. Armature reaction effect in a synchronous alternator Demagnetizing Distortional or cross-magnetizing Magnetizing. Star. 189.Cross-over winding –HV windings of small transformer Continuous disc winding.Low current. high voltage rating Delta delta – Large current low voltage rating 190.HV windings of large transformer. .

initial voltage is built up by residual magnetism. if it is an ac excitor. Difference between a four point starter and three point starter? Answer:The shunt connection in four point stater is provided separately form the line where as in three point stater it is connected with line which is the drawback in three point stater Why use the VCB at High Transmission System ? Why can't use ACB? Answer:Actually the thing is vacuum has high arc queching property compare to air because in VCB . synchronous generator supply's both active and reactive power but asynchronous generator(induction generator) supply's only active power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.ac excitor is the ac generator whose field winding are stationary and armature rotates. It ranges from 5-7 for new motors & normally for motor to be in good condition it should be Greater than 2.This type of generators are used in windmills. 1 ton is equal to how many watts? Answer:1 ton = 12000 BTU/hr and to convert BTU/hr to horsepower.Rotory excitor is an additional small generator mounted on the shaft of main generator.5 . out put of ac excitor is rectified by rotating diodes and supply dc to main fixed poles.715*.0003929 = 4.where as surge arrestor installed inside panels comprising of resistors which consumes the energy and nullify the effect of surge.It gives the starting torque to the generator.e meggar value for 10min to insulation resistance for 1 min. it will supply dc to the rotory poles through slip ring and brushes( conventional alternator).what is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator? Answer:In simple. . What is an exciter and how does it work? Answer:There are two types of exciters. 12. What is the Polarization index value ? (pi value)and simple definition of polarization index ? Answer:Its ratio between insulation resistance(IR)i. What is the difference between surge arrestor and lightning arrestor? Answer:LA is installed outside and the effect of lightning is grounded. if it is dc generator.746 = 3.000 * 0. That y always vaccum used as inHT breaker and air used as in LT .715 hp therefore 1 ton = 4.purpose of excitor is to supply the excitation dc voltage to the fixed poles of generator. static exciter and rotory exciter.5 KW.the die electric strengths equal to 8 times of air .

If one lamp connects between two phases it will glow or not? Answer:If the voltage between the two phase is equal to the lamp voltage then the lamp will glow. it still continue running due to inertia. What is meant by knee point voltage? Answer:Knee point voltage is calculated for electrical Current transformers and is very important factor to choose a CT.there is no generation in the plant then plant may take power from grid. It is the voltage at which a CT gets saturated. This assures Safety for the person who uses the electrical instrument. trench. depth of trench. buried etc. motors.only resistance will act in the electrical circuit. Why in a three pin plug the earth pin is thicker and longer than the other pins? Answer:It depends upon R=rho l/a where area(a) is inversely proportional to resistance (R). Considering this condition actual current currying capacity of cable reduce than current currying capacity (which given to cable Catalogue) this is called derating. R decreases & if R is less the leakage current will take low resistance path so the earth pin should be thicker. A generating stations is supposed to fed power to the grid and in case generating units are off. It is longer because the The First to make the connection and Last to disconnnect should be earth Pin. so that back e.f voltage is made to apply across the resistor and due to load the motor stops quickly.and cables. What is reverse power relay? Answer:Reverse Power flow relay are used in generating stations's protection. Answer:The current currying of cables will change depending upon the site temperature (location of site). To stop the flow of power from grid to generator we use reverse power relay.m.So for this reason coil and insulation will burn out.In case of DC supply there is no inductance .(CT-current transformer). why it is necessary. What will happen if DC supply is given on the primary of a transformer? Answer:Mainly transformer has high inductance and low resistance.What is meant by regenerative braking? When the supply is cutt off for a running motor.).This type of breaking is called as "Regenerative Breaking". . type of run (it will run through duct. When the voltage difference is big it will damage the lamp and when the difference is smaller the lamp will glow depending on the type of lamp. What is derating?. so if (a) increases. So high electrical current will flow through primary side of the transformer. it is same for all means for drives. In order to stop it quickly we place a load(resitor) across the armature winding and the motor should have maintained continuous field supply. number of tray. distance between cables.

That is why skin effect is absent in DC system.M. Write the expressions for the inductance and capacitance of a 3-ph. Advantages of transposition: a)Elimination of interference by using Transposition of lines b)Average Inductance is same in each section of the line. and the increase of resistance. What is meant by transposition of line conductors and advantages of transposition? Transposition of conductors is defined as the interchanging the positions of the line conductors at regular intervals along the line so that each conductor occupies the original position of every other conductor at an equal distance. This phenomenon is called as proximity effect.3-wire lines? .Diameter of the wire. does not distribute uniformly. This phenomenon is called skin effect Why Skin effect is absent in dc system? The steady current when flowing through a conductor distributes itself uniformly over the whole cross section of the conductor .It reduces the complexity of Inductance calculation GMR = 0. i.What is skin effect? The steady current when flowing through the conductor. On what factors the skin effect depend? Nature of the material.7788r =1r Mutual GMD: The mutual GMD is the geometrical mean of the distances from one Conductor to the other. What is the effect of proximity effect? It results in the non uniform distribution of current in the cross section. Define proximity effect? The alternating magnetic flux in a conductor caused by the current flowing in a neighboring conductor gives rise to a circulating current which cause an apparent increase in the resistance of the conductor. Frequency and shape of the wire. rather it has the tendency to concentrate near the surface of the conductor.D’s are equal for each section. Define Self GMD and Mutual GMD? SelfGMD(GMR) :The Self-GMD means self geometrical mean distance .e G.

Define voltage regulation and transmission efficiency? .

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11. 38. For an open circuited transmission line the reflection coefficient is 1 34. The effect of bonding the cable is to increase the effective resistance but reduce inductance. 12. 6. Bus coupler is very essential in main and transfer bus. The insulators used on 220 kv transmission lines are of suspension type. The intersheaths in cables are used to provide proper stress distribution. 10. 20. The reflection coefficient for the voltage wave in the overhead line is given as RL-R0/(RL+R0) 37. 9. A fuse is normally a current limiting device. 30. 13. 18. 3. Earth wires are made of galvanised stranded steel. 16. 28. The dielectric strength of air is proportional to barometric pressure. A booster is a series wound dc generator driven by dc shunt motor. Magnetic circuit breaker has instantaneous trip action. Guy wire is employed for supporting the pole. 21. The inductance of a line is minimum when GMD is low but GMR is high. The minimum clearance of high voltage lines from ground across street is 6m. A material used for manufacturing of fuse wire is silver. 29. HV transmission uses pin type insulators and suspension insulator. 19. 27. 40. A booster is connected in series with the feeder. The topmost conductor in hv transmission line is earth conductor. Rewirable fuse has inverse time current characteristics. Negatively charged cloud causes more stroke. 36. Location of a lightening arrestor is near a transformer.Points to remember 1. The contact resistance is least affected by the ambient temperature. 23. The insulators used in guy cables are stay or egg insulator. 32. Protection by fuses is generally not used beyond 200A.ampere rating of relay. 25. A thermal protection switch provides protection against overload. Admittance relay is directional relay. The ratio of puncture voltage to flashover voltage of a line insulator is much greater than 1. 4. 5. Pin type insulators are generally not used for voltage exceeding 33 kv. Insulators used in EHT transmission lines are made of porecelain. Shunt compensation is used in an EHV line to improve voltage profile. The dielectric stress in a cable is maximum at lead sheath. 2. 14. 26. 15. 8. For ground fault we prefer reactance relay. For an short circuited transmission line the reflection coefficient is -1 35. 31. The pressure of SF6 gas in the circuit breaker is around 4kg/cm2. 24. The colour of the neutral wire of a three core flexible cable is blue. By burden of a relay we generally mean volt. Surge absorbers are used for protection against low voltage high frequency osscilations. The pressure of air used in the air blast circuit breaker is around 20kg/cm2 22. 33. . Bus bars are usually made of aluminium mainly because of cost. 39. High speed circuit breaker should complete its operation in 3-8 cycles. 17. 7.

three phase induction motor. .

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which also stabilizes the relay against pilot capacitance currents. A restraint torque is produced by bias loop 18. . Equal and opposite voltages are induced in the secondary windings 12 and 12a and no current flows in the pilots. No magnetic flux is set up in the bottom magnets 16 and 16a so the relays do not operate. making the circulating current additive so that both ends operate to trip. A fault fed from one end causes current to circulate in the pilots and the relay at that end will operate to trip.Feeder protection cable feeders and overhead lines Translay Scheme Translay is a voltage balance system Whilst the feeder is healthy. Under heavy through-fault conditions there may be a small circulating current due to line CT mismatch. A fault fed from both ends will cause a current reversal in the remote CTs. the line CTs at each end carry equal currents.

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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS .

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capacitance.c Bridges Wheatstone Bridge: Kelvin Bridge: Kelvin bridge is a modification of the Wheatstone bridge and provides greatly increased accuracy in the measurement of low value resistance. inductance. to point (m) or to point (n). and other circuit parameters directly derived from component values such as frequency.If the galvanometer connect to point (n) then R4 = R3 + Ry therefore unknown resistance will be lower than its actual value by R y . and temperature. It is eliminate errors due to contact and leads resistance.Bridges and Their Application Bridge circuit are extensively used for measuring component values. D. such as resistance.If the galvanometer connect to point (m) then R4 = Rx + Ry therefore unknown resistance will be higher than its actual value by Ry 2. generally below (1Ω). (Ry) represent the resistance of the connecting lead from R3 to R4. Two galvanometer connections are possible. phase angle. 1.

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No need of extra commutation circuitryNatural commutation Fixed AC to Variable AC Output frequency = input frequency Implemented by AC switch AC switch – Bidirectional switch Applications Lighting control Industrial heating Resistance welding On-load transformer tap change Speed control of IM .AC Regulators Alternatively called as AC voltage controllers RMS value of the output is varied by using a semiconductor switch.

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Equivalent Ckt. Generally. . The output of cycloconverter provides ac power at a lower frequency than input. output frequency is lower than source frequency. Bidirectional power-flow is possible. input power factor is worse if the fabricated output voltage is decreased. Able to operate with loads of any power factor.Cycloconverters AC power at one frequency is converted directly to an AC power at another frequency without any intermediate DC stage.

Fundamental wave is generated by the two. Ripple content is neglected. . 2-quadrent phase converters. Diode for unidirectional conduction. Positive current is carried by positive converter and negative by negative.