BASICS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING:-1.

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15. FLEMING’S LEFT HAND RULE:

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Example: Superposition theorem Since there are two sources.26. Using current division . we set the current source to zero. respectively. To obtain v1. we set the voltage source to zero. i1 = 0. let v = v1 + v2 where v1 and v2 are the contributions due to the 6-V voltage source and the 3-A current source.5 A v1 = 4i1 = 2 V We may also use voltage division to get v1 by writing 12i1 − 6 = 0 To get v2.

27. THEVENIN’S THEOREM: Example: .

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Standard Color-Coded Bands for Evaluating Resistance and Their Interpretation .

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PROBLEMS 1.

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EX: Petrol & Diesel engine. EX: Turbines ( Steam & Gas turbine) .IC engine: where combustion of fuel (petrol / diesel) with air takes place inside the engine cylinder. EC engine: Combustion of the fuel takes place outside the cylinder.

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therefore.c. the flux linking the coil sides AB and CD changes continuously. is zero as indicated by point 5 in Fig. an e. is maximum as indicated by point 3 in Fig. 3.DC GENERATOR The principal advantage of the d. This cycle repeats with each revolution of the coil.f. (i) When the loop is in position no. (b) conductor or a group of conductors. Therefore. the coil sides move under a pole of opposite polarity and hence the direction of generated e. magnetic field. the essential components of a generator are: (a) a magnetic field.2). is generated as indicated by point 2 in Fig. (ii) When the loop is in position no. (1. reverse direction. machine. . (iv) At position 4.. the generated e.m.1]. (1. the coil sides are moving at an angle to the flux and.m.2) will be when the loop is at position 7 and zero when at position 1. particularly the d. (vi) At position 6. Hence the e.m.r. (1.f. The direction of induced e. motor.c.m.t. Such an advantage is not claimed by any a. (v) At position 5. (iii) When the loop is in position no.f. See Fig. is zero because the coil sides (AB and CD) are cutting no flux but are moving parallel to it.f. Hence at this instant.f.2). motor. the coil sides (AB and CD) are at right angle to the flux and are. is that it provides a fine control of speed. in this direction (i.(1. 2. Simple Loop Generator Consider a single turn loop ABCD rotating clockwise in a uniform magnetic field with a constant speed as shown in Fig.m. 1 [See Fig. 1.m.m.1). (and hence current) is given by Fleming’s right hand rule.2). cutting the flux at a maximum rate. An electric generator is based on the principle that whenever flux is cut by a conductor. (c) motion of conductor w. is induced which will cause a current to flow if the conductor circuit is closed.m. the generated e. induced in these coil sides also changes but the e. As the loop rotates.f.f. the generated e. The maximum e. no magnetic lines are cut and hence induced e.c.f.f. is less because the coil sides are cutting the flux at an angle.e. 1.m. therefore. induced in one coil side adds to that induced in the other.f. is reversed.m.f. a low e.m.

Two stationary carbon brushes rest on the commutator and lead current to the external load.3) shows a commutator having two segments C1 and C2. This is not a steady direct voltage but has a pulsating character. This can be achieved by using a large number of coils connected in series. Thus the alternating voltage generated in the loop will appear as direct voltage across the brushes. Fig. This is what a commutator does. The commutator is mounted on but insulated from the rotor shaft. It is because the voltage appearing across the brushes varies from zero to maximum value and back to zero twice for each revolution of the loop. generated in the armature winding of a d. 180° rotation). segment C1 is now in contact with +ve brush and segment C2 in contact with ve brush. Also note the direction of current through the load.c. the commutator at all times connects the coil side under S-pole to the +ve brush and that under N-pole to the ve brush. It consists of a cylindrical metal ring cut into two halves or segments C1 and C2 respectively separated by a thin sheet of mica. the coil sides AB and CD are under N-pole and S-pole respectively.. coil side AB is now connected to point Q of the load and coil side CD to the point P of the load. (1.. (ii) After half a revolution of the loop (i.4). A pulsating direct voltage such as is produced by a single loop is not suitable for many commercial uses. It is by the use of commutator that we convert the generated alternating e. generator is alternating one. With this arrangement. connection of the coil side to the external load is reversed at the same instant the current in the coil side reverses. the current through the load will be direct current.e.If.m. (i) In Fig. Note that commutator has reversed the coil connections to the load i. The variation of voltage across the brushes with the angular displacement of the loop will be as shown in Fig. .5). (1.f. The reader may note that e. into direct voltage. Note that segment C1 connects the coil side AB to point P of the load resistance R and the segment C2 connects the coil side CD to point Q of the load. The purpose of brushes is simply to lead current from the rotating loop or winding to the external stationary load.e.e.m. The resulting arrangement is known as armature winding. The currents in the coil sides now flow in the reverse direction but the segments C1 and C2 have also moved through 180° i. the coil side AB is under S-pole and the coil side CD under N-pole as shown in Fig. Also note the direction of current through load. It is from Q to P. (1. What we require is the steady direct voltage. (1.4).. The ends of coil sides AB and CD are connected to the segments C1 and C2 respectively as shown in Fig. somehow.f. It is again from Q to P.6). (1.

. (i) field system (ii) armature core (iii) armature winding (iv) commutator (v) brushes. machines have five principal components viz.All d.c. .

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generator will be maximum when the load current is such that variable loss is equal to the constant loss.c.Note: the efficiency of a d. .

When the generator is loaded. When the generator is on no-load. Only one pole is shown for clarity.1) (ii) shows flux due to armature current alone. This distortion and field weakening takes place in both generators and motors. less than flux 1 at no load. machine is that due to the main poles called main flux.1) (iii). Fig. the current flowing through armature conductors sets up flux 1.1) (iii).c. (2. The phenomenon of armature reaction in a d. the weakening of flux due to armature reaction depends upon the position of brushes. However. the increase in flux at pole tip B is less than the decrease in flux under pole tip A. a smal1 current flowing in the armature does not appreciably affect the main flux 1 coming from the pole [See Fig 2.1 (i)]. the trailing pole tip (point B) is increased while at the leading pole tip (point A) it is decreased. current flowing through armature conductors also creates a magnetic flux (called armature flux) that distorts and weakens the flux coming from the poles.ARMATURE REACTION So far we have assumed that the only flux acting in a d.c. Consequently. . generator is shown in Fig. Flux 3 at full load is. (2. The action of armature flux on the main flux is known as armature reaction. it is clear that flux density at. (ii) Due to higher flux density at pole tip B. therefore. As we shall see. (2. saturation sets in. we obtain the resulting flux 3 as shown in Fig. This unequal field distribution produces the following two effects: (i) The main flux is distorted.1). Referring to Fig (2. By superimposing 1 and 2.

Poles of a dc machine are often laminated to reduce pulsation loss. 7.NOTES: 1. 36. 28. 18. Main advantage of using fractional pitch winding is to reduce amount of copper in the winding. 5. The brushes are made of carbon. In dc machine the pressure on brushes are kept usually below 1kg/cm². 21. 25. 4. 20. of brushes is always same as the no. 29. The thickness of lamination used for armature core of a dc machine is of the order of 0. Emf induced in a coil rotating in a uniform magnetic field will be maximum when the rate of change of flux linkage is maximum. In dc generator frame is made of cast iron. The amount of flux linkage depends upon i) air gap length ii) flux density in core and teeth iii) magnet core shape 16. The ventillating ducts in most of the dc machines are radial as well as longitudinal 15. 30. Equalizer rings are employed in lap wound dc machines. The commutator segments of a dc machine are made of hard drawn copper.armature is made of silicon steel. Teeths are skewed to reduce vibrations. In lap winding the no. 11. Flemings right hand rule is applicable to dc generator. A homopolar generator usually has low voltage and high current. The functions of brushes in a dc generator is to collect the current from the commutator and supply to external circuit. 22. 6. 27. 26. 8. In case of metal graphite brushes voltage drop will be minimum.5mm. Pole shoe of dc machine is laminated for the purpose of decreasing eddy current loss. of poles. For a p pole machine the relation between electrical and mechanical degrees Φelec=(p/2)Φmech. 23. To avoid formations of grooves in the commutator the brushes of opposite polarity should track each other. The flux linkage coefficients is usually 1. . 3. 13. Flemings left hand rule is applicable to dc motor. 17. The rotor is keyed to the shaft. The flux in the armature core section of a dc machine is half the flux in the air gap. Lap winding is most suitable for low voltage high current machine. 37. 10. 12. The armature reaction in case of an unsaturated dc machine is cross-magnetizing. The induced voltage in a single loop reverses once each half revolution. 33. yoke is made of copper.3. Emf induced in a coil when rotating in a uniform magnetic field will be maximum when the coil is parallel with the magnetic field . 14. The permissible temperature rise in a dc machine winding is 40 to 50 degree centigrade 19. 32. iii) spread out the flux to achieve uniform flux distribution in the air gap. The nature of current flowing in the armature of a dc machine is ac. 34. The brushes of a dc machine should be placed on the commutator in the polar axis. The brushes ideally should be place along MNP. Eddy currents are induced in the pole shoes of a dc machine due to relative motion between field and armature. Laminated yoke of dc motor can reduce iron loss. 24. The exciting or field coils are wound around the poles. 2. 9. Functions of pole shoes in dc machine are: i) support the field coils ii)reduce the reluctance of magnetic path. 35.1 to 1. They are used to avoid unequal distribution of currents at brushes. The armature mmf wave of dc machine is triangular. 31. In dc machine the air gap flux distribution in space at no load is flat topped.

Armature coil is short circuited by brushes when it lies along neutral axis. 52. 46. 68.In dc machine the angle between the main field axis and brush axis is kept 90 degree in order to have maximum torque. Interpoles are provided in dc machine to neutralize the cross magnetizing component of armature reaction. Dc series motor has poorest speed regulation. 61. 49. The sparking at the brushes in a dc machine is due to reactance voltage.If the brushes a small amount of forward shift in case of dc generator the armature reaction effect will be partly demagnetizing and partly cross magnetizing.the dc compound motors are generally cumulative compound.In dc series motor the torque developed is proportional to square of armature current. The horse power obtained from the motor shaft is called the BHP. 43. 67. The starting resistance of dc shunt motor is usually low. The armature reaction in case of unsaturated dc machine is cross magnetizing.Compensating winding is provided in a dc machine to counteract armature reaction mmf under the pole faces and flashover around the commutator. Series motor should not be used as centrifugal pumps. Under –commutation results in sparking at the trailing edge of the brush. If the applied voltage to a dc machine is 230V then the back emf .The starting torque of a dc shunt motor is low.The speed of a dc shunt motor can be increased above its normal speed by decreasing the field current. . 71. 40. 58. Series field winding of a dc machine consists of few turns of thick wire shunt field winding consists of Many turns of thin wire. 69.Field divertor method of speed control of a dc series motor gives speeds above rated one due to reduction of field current. 72. 70. 42. In over loaded motor danger arises due to over heating of windings 62. if the armature current is increased keeping field current constant the torque developed will increase proportionately. 63. 50.If flux of a dc motor approaches zero its speed will approach infinity. 59. 51. With increase in speed of a dc motor back emf increases but line current falls. In dc machine the armature mmf is stationary with respect to field poles. The fall in speed of dc generator due to increase in load can be corrected by increasing the input to the prime mover. The direction of armature current in dc motor is opposite to that generated emf. 45. 60. In dc motor.In Swinburne’s test of a dc machine no load losses are measured and the copper losses are calculated. This is due to stray loss. 47.The retardation test for dc shunt machine is employed for determination of stray losses.38. 54.In dc motor the shaft torque is less than armature torque . 48.The speed control method used for increasing the speed of a dc motor above rated full load speed is field resistance control. 39. 55. A dc generator beyond critical resistance will generate no voltage. The reactance voltage is directly proportional to armature current and inversely proportional to commutation period . 41.The speed of a dc motor can be altered by varying both the flux and armature voltage. 44. 57.Iron loss in a dc machine occurs in armature core. 65. A DOL starter is employed for starting motors 3.75 KW 64. 53. The condition for maximumpower output from a dc motor Eb= V/2 66. for maximum power developed is 115V 56.

91.An open circuit test in a transformer is performed basically to determine iron loss. 83. 81.Over load release coil in a dc motor starter carries full load current.Transformer core is made of silicon sheet steel. 87.The emf induced in the primary lags behind the flux by 90 degree. 108.The inductive reactance of a transformer depends on leakage flux.Grain oriented laminated sheet steel in transformer reduces hysterisis loss. 107. . The short circuit voltage of a transformer mainly depends upon its leakage flux magnitude.In a transformer OC test is conducted on lv side and SC test on hv side. 101. 99. 82.Open circuit test on a transformer gives sum of hysterisis and eddy current loss.A transformer is supplying pure resistive (unity pf) load.The magnetizing current for sinusoidal applied voltage will be always non sinusoidal. resistance.35 84.95 lag.sudden loading of the prime mover . 106. 92.The flux in the transformer core remains constant irrespective of load.The most suitable material for transformer core is cold rolled grain oriented steel. 86.A transformer does not transform impedance.The transformer core is usuallly made of ferro magnetic material.The all day efficiency is applied to distribution transformer. If a self excited dc generator after being installed fails to build up during its first trial. 104. In performing the short circuit test on a transformer low voltage side is usually short-circuited. A dc series generator is employed as booster to maintain constant voltage at load end of the feeder.The core used in high frequency tranformer is ferrrite core. Flashing of field of dc generator means creation of residual magnetism by a dc source. A dc series motor is used for an overhauling load . 112. 95. 74.The efficiency of two identical transformers under load conditions can be determined by back to back test.Increase in flux density in the transformer core reduces its size. 93.mechanical jerk to the shaft. 79.Core loss in a transformer is usually 1 to 3%.The regulation of a transformer depends upon total eq. 85.Eddy current loss can be minimized by laminating the core of a transformer.The short circuit test on a transformer gives its equivalent resistance and reactance. total eq. 100. This is done to avoid burning of switch contacts. 103.In the transformer circuit mode the core loss is represented as a shunt resistance.Transformer action requires alternating magnetic flux. 109. 97.It can work stably if the field winding is reversed. 94.73.The power factor on primary side will be about 0. 113. 89.The power factor of a power transformer on no load is about 0.Open circuit test in transformer is performed with rated transformer voltage. the remedy lies in Reversing the field connections.Efficiency of a transformer is maximum if eddy current losses are equal to hysterisis losses. 80. 90. 110. 105. 77. The inductor of a three wire generator should be iron cored so as to reduce the current through it.The iron core in a transformer provides low reluctance path to the main flux. 75. power factor of load. 96. 78. 102. 111. 88. reactance .In transformer the exciting current will be in phase quadrature with the impressed voltage provided Both the leakage impedance drop and the core loss are ignored.In a transformer the iron core is provided in order to reduce magnetic path reluctance.A good voltage regulation means minimum outpt voltage fluctuation from no-load to full-load. 76.The voltage regulation of a well designed transformer is of the order of 2 %. 98. Dc generators are connected or disconnected from the bus – bar only under floating condition.Under no-load condition the losses which are negligible in a power transformer are copper losses.

Multi stepped core is used in transformer to decrease the cost of copper.The rating of a transformer will increase when the supply frequency is increased. 150.An auto transformer may be used as an instrument transformer.The hum in a transformer is mainly attributed to magnetostriction. In CT turn compensation is provided mainly to reduce the ratio error. For on load tap changing the best method is to employ tap changers outside the tank operated selector switches.High leakage transformers are of small volt ampere rating.The stator frame of a synchronous machine is made of cast iron.Five limb construction is preferred over three limb construction as in this type of construction magnetic Reluctance of the three phase can be balanced.Two transformers are operating in parallel their load sharing will depend upon per unit impedance. 142.high dielectric strength. 132. 139.A distribution transformer is required to supply variable load between no load to full load. 115. 118.114.The function of oil in a transformer is to provide insulation and cooling.For off load tap changing the best method is to use tap changers inside the tank operated by external selector switches.Tappings of a transformer are provided at the middle of hv side.star secondary connection will of transformer will give the highest secondary voltage.The harmonic currents in a power transformer does not cause increase in secondary voltage. 122. 121. 131. 135. 143. 147.Noise level test conducted on transformer is type test.ampere rating.Delta primary . 140. 119.In scott connections the teaser transformer operates on 0. 148.The transformer core laminations are insulated from each other by thin coat of varnish.The salient pole type rotor have larger diameter and smaller axial length. . The transformer from the point of view of construction can be shell. 141. 136.The transformer oil should have low volatility.A shell type transformer is commonly used as it has two magnetic paths and reduced magnetic flux leakage. 134. core or berry type.In modern alternators the rotating part is field system. 130. 127.In power transformer breather is provided in order to prevent ingress of moisture in air. 116. 151. 128.In case of PT with increase in load on secondary side both the ratio error and phase angle increase.The chemical used in breather is silica gel.The burden of current transformers is expressed in volt. 125. 145.The ratio error in current transformer is attributed to energy component of excitation current. 133. 149. 146. 117.Booster transformer should never be left closed circuited.Transformer oil must be free from moisture.If the transformers operated in parallel are not connected with regard to polarity dead short circuit will take place. 120. 124.Conservator is employed to take care of expansion and contraction of oil taking place due to vibrations in Temperature. Transformer steel lamination are coated with an enamel layer in order to insulate laminations from each other.The magnetizing current in a transformer is rich in 3 rd harmonic. 129.good resistance to emulsion with water. 123. 137. 138.Gaseous discharge lamps use high leakage reactance type transformer. 144.The colour of fresh dilectric oil used in transformers is pale-yellow.Natural air cooling is used for transformers of rating upto 5-10kva.866 of its rated voltage.low viscosity to provide good heat transfer. 126.

using distributed winding. 172. 158. this will affect change in frequency.The size of a synchronous motor reduces with increase in flux density.An infinite bus bar has constant voltage and constant frequency.The induction motor shaft is made of mild steel. 188.If the load on the motor is increased keeping its excitation and terminal voltage constant.A pony motor is basically a small induction motor.A 3 phase synchronous motor is exclusively used where the speed is to be maintained absolutely constant. Helical winding-LV windings of large transformers.Hysteresis motor is a single phase synchronous motor without any salient pole and without dc excitation. 165. 176.In a shaded pole squirrel cage induction motor the flux in the shaded part always lags the flux in the unshaded pole segment.The power factor of an induction motor at full load is likely to be 0.V curves of a synchronous motor give relation between armature current and field current. 185. 169.If the power input to the prime movers of both the alternators is increased . In a hysteresis motor the rotor core must have retentivity. 157.Starting torque of a synchronous motor is zero. 180. 171. 178.A dc shunt motor does not operate on ac due to high inductance of field circuit.Synchronous capacitor is an over excited synchronous motor without mechanical load. 153.In a 3 phase induction motor iron loss mainly occurs in stator core and stator teeth.The coupling angle or load angle of a synchronous motor is defined as the space angle between the rotor and stator poles of opposite polarity. the air gap flux density is usually kept low so as to improve power factor. 175.A synchronous motor is supplying a load at unity pf. 161. An alternator with higher value of SCR has better voltage regulation and higher stability limit. 173. 184.In a synchronous motor windage loss does not vary with load. 168. 167. AC servo motor is basically a 2 phase induction motor.In a three phase synchronous motor hunting is prevented by damper winding.152. 170.In an induction motor . 186. 156. 177. 166. 174.In an induction motor the phase reactance is quite high in comparison to phase resistance. 155. The torque angle is defined as the space angle between stator field axis and rotor field axis.Harmonics in the emf generated in an alternator can be reduced by skewing of slots. 160.Two alternators are operating in parallel.2lag 179. 183.85 lag and at no load is around 0. . 182. 163.The disadvantage of star-delta starting of a three phase induction motor is that the starting torque Is one third of that in case of delta connections.Stability of synchronous motor increases with increase in excitation. the power factor will become lagging. The deep bar rotors or double cage rotors are employed to increase starting torque. 162. chamfering of poles is done in salient pole alternators only.The two bright and one dark lamp method is used for synchronising of 3 phase alternators.windings carrying very high current. chamfering the salient pole tips . Spiral winding. 187.In rotor resistance control method torque decreases with increase in speed.A synchronous motor operating at leading power factor can be employed as phase advancer.A three phase synchronous motor hunts due to either fluctuating load or fluctuating supply voltage.A synchronous motor operating at unity power factor draws minimum armature current.To obtain sinusoidal flux distribution .Smooth speed control can be achieved by both rotor slip power control and variation of supply frequency. 181.A synchronous motor will deliver maximum power when load angle is equal to the internal angle . 164. 159. 154.

928 192.star. Delta star –stepping up of voltage. Star delta – stepping down of voltage. Power factor of load Zero lag Unity Zero lead 191.The utility factor in T-T connection is 0. Armature reaction effect in a synchronous alternator Demagnetizing Distortional or cross-magnetizing Magnetizing. Star. 189.Cross-over winding –HV windings of small transformer Continuous disc winding.Low current. high voltage rating Delta delta – Large current low voltage rating 190.HV windings of large transformer. .

transformers. electronic regulator and ordinary rheostat regulator for fans? Answer:The difference between the electronic and ordinary regulator is that in electronic reg. in general largest MVA and KV ratings of the component is considered as base values. what is MARX CIRCUIT? Answer:It is used with generators for charging a number of capacitor in parallel and discharging them in series.It is used when voltage required for testing is higher than the available. But in the case of Fuse in the Phase of AC circuit it is designed such that the fuse rating is calculated for the particular circuit (i. power losses are less because as we decrease the speed the electronic reg.So if any malfunction happen the fuse connected in the particular control circuit alone will blow off. (p.the starter will interrupt the supply cycle of AC. Fast Switching Characterstics than Mosfet.In electronic regulator triac is employed for speed control. This volt will capable of to break the electrons inside the tube to make electron flow. Why link is provided in neutral of an ac circuit and fuse in phase of ac circuit? Answer:Link is provided at a Neutral common point in the circuit from which various connection are taken for the individual control circuit and so it is given in a link form to withstand high Amps. Due to the sudden change of supply the chock will generate around 1000volts . give the power needed for that particular speed but in case of ordinary rheostat type reg.e load) only.by varying the firing angle speed is controlled but in rheostatic control resistance is decreased by steps to achieve speed control. IGBT 2. Low cost 3. once the current passes through the tube the starter circuit will be out of part.u=actual value/base value). When supply is provided . To bring all the ratings into common platform we use pu concept in which.Those values are called as pu values. How tube light circuit is connected and how it works? Answer:A choke is connected in one end of the tube light and a starter is in series with the circuit. now there is no change of supply causes choke voltage normalized and act as minimize the current. the power wastage is same for every speed and no power is saved. What are the advantages of speed control using thyristor? Answer:Advantages :1.Short questions and answers What is "pu" in electrical engineering? Answer:Pu stands for per unit and this will be used in power system single line diagram there it is like a huge electrical circuit with no of componenes (generators. loads) with different ratings (in MVA and KV). then all other component ratings will get back into this basis. BJT. btwn. Higher Accurate. what is the diff. .

. i. exhaust fan.cable becomes less bulky and easy to carry. Induction motor or Synchronous motor? Answer:DC Series motor has high starting torque. but can not start the DC series motor without load. What will happen when power factor is leading in distribution of power? Answer:If their is high power factor. what is ACSR cable and where we use it? Answer:ACSR means Aluminium conductor steel reinforced. Fundamentally it tells you the information about how the windings are connected (delta or wye) and the phase difference betweent the current and voltage. due to low resistance. Wye Secondry and the current is at 11 o clock reffered to the voltage.and since speed is directly proportional to Eb-IaRa the speed can be controlled. and since speed is inversely proportional to flux speed can be controlled 2. padestal fan. bracket fan etc) which are find in the houses ? Answer:Its Single Phase induction motor which mostly squirrel cage rotor and are capacitor start capacitor run. this conductor is used in transmission & distribution. By using flux control method:in this method a rheostat is connected across the field winding to control the field current. Which motor has high Starting Torque and Staring current DC motor.losses in form of heat will be reduced. When DC supply is applied.e if the power factor is close to one: 1. 2. Normally they have low resistance. the current through lamp would be so high that it may damage the bulb element. Give two basic speed control scheme of DC shunt motor? Answer:1.C motor is used in the fan (ceiling fan. What is the significance of vector grouping in Power Transformers? Answer:Every power transformer has a vector group listed by its manufacturer. & 3. and very cheap to afford. DYN11 means Delta primary.so by changing the current the flux produced by the field winding can be changed. it also reduces over heating of tranformers.what happen if we give 220 volts dc supply to the bulb or tube light? Answer:Bulbs [devices] for AC are designed to operate such that it offers high impedance to AC supply. Which type of A. We can not start the Induction motor and Synchronous motors on load. EG.armature control method:in this method a rheostat is connected across armature winding by varying the resistance the value of resistive drop(IaRa)can be varied.

initial voltage is built up by residual magnetism. if it is an ac excitor. Difference between a four point starter and three point starter? Answer:The shunt connection in four point stater is provided separately form the line where as in three point stater it is connected with line which is the drawback in three point stater Why use the VCB at High Transmission System ? Why can't use ACB? Answer:Actually the thing is vacuum has high arc queching property compare to air because in VCB . synchronous generator supply's both active and reactive power but asynchronous generator(induction generator) supply's only active power and observe reactive power for magnetizing.ac excitor is the ac generator whose field winding are stationary and armature rotates. It ranges from 5-7 for new motors & normally for motor to be in good condition it should be Greater than 2.This type of generators are used in windmills. 1 ton is equal to how many watts? Answer:1 ton = 12000 BTU/hr and to convert BTU/hr to horsepower.Rotory excitor is an additional small generator mounted on the shaft of main generator.5 . out put of ac excitor is rectified by rotating diodes and supply dc to main fixed poles.715*.0003929 = 4.where as surge arrestor installed inside panels comprising of resistors which consumes the energy and nullify the effect of surge.It gives the starting torque to the generator.e meggar value for 10min to insulation resistance for 1 min. it will supply dc to the rotory poles through slip ring and brushes( conventional alternator).what is the difference between synchronous generator & asynchronous generator? Answer:In simple. . What is an exciter and how does it work? Answer:There are two types of exciters. 12. What is the Polarization index value ? (pi value)and simple definition of polarization index ? Answer:Its ratio between insulation resistance(IR)i. What is the difference between surge arrestor and lightning arrestor? Answer:LA is installed outside and the effect of lightning is grounded. if it is dc generator.746 = 3.000 * 0. That y always vaccum used as inHT breaker and air used as in LT .715 hp therefore 1 ton = 4.purpose of excitor is to supply the excitation dc voltage to the fixed poles of generator. static exciter and rotory exciter.5 KW.the die electric strengths equal to 8 times of air .

In circuit where measurements of high voltage and high current is involved they are used there. it allows the ac components to pass through. which is based on linkage of electromagneticflux produced by primary with secondary. what is power factor? whether it should be high or low? why? Answer:Power factor should be high in order to get smooth operation of the system.the anti pumping contactor prevent re close the breaker by close push button after if it already close. it has to be ideally 1. . if it is too low then cable over heating & equipment overloading will occur. hence the load current in the transformer is because of core loss so it is minimum.Particularly when a measuring device like voltmeter or ammeter is not able to measure such high value of quantity because of large value of torque due to such high value it can damage the measuring device. Secondly.t.They work on the ratio to they are designed. and the transformer is only producing the working flux and its not consuming. CT and PT are introduced in the circuits.Low power factor means losses will be more. There are a Transformer and an induction machine.T means potential transformer.T means current transformer.result in more lossesif pf is good ex: 0.but it will help depends up on the engine capacity of the alternator. if it is greater than 1 then load will act as capacitor and starts feeding the source and will cause tripping. Why the capacitors works on ac only? Answer:Generally capacitor gives infinite resistance to dc components(i.95 to meet actual power load has to draw less current(V constant).and the term P. What is the function of anti-pumping in circuit breaker? Answer:when breaker is close at one time by close push button.e.E. For which device the load current will be maximum? And why? Answer:The motor has max load current compare to that of transformer because the motor consumes real power. block the dc components). ? Answer:The term C. don't connect a capacitor across an alternator while it is picking up or without any other load.then ANS=8000*5\5000=8Aand this result will be given to ammeter . They work on the same principle of transformer. Those two have the same supply.(if pf is poor ex: 0..t.other wise the alternator will be over loaded due to the extra watts consumed due to the improvement on pf. and p.so.and after measuring 8A we can calculate the primary current..it is the ratio of true power to apperent power. Tell me in detail about c.17 to meet actual power load has to draw more current(V constant).result in less losses).g if CTis of ratio 5000\5A and it has to measure secondary current of 8000A.What happens if i connect a capacitor to a generator load? Answer:Connecting a capacitor across a generator always improves powerfactor.same is the operation of PT but measuring voltage..

the boucholz relay at once gives a horn for some time.It is inverse in the sense . first the load on it must be made zero and then it can safely operated. . Define IDMT relay? Answer:It is an inverse definite minimum time relay. it is a gas based relay. what is meant by insulation voltage in cables? explain it? Answer:It is the property of a cable by virtue of it can withstand the applied voltage without rupturing it is known as insulation level of the cable.the tripping time will decrease as the magnitude of fault current increase. What is the difference between MCB & MCCB.What is the difference between Isolator and Circuit Breaker? Answer:Isolator is a off load device which is used for isolating the downstream circuits from upstream circuits for the reason of any maintenance on downstream circuits. overload etc. Normally it is used where normal current is more than 100A.In IDMT relay its operating is inversely proportional and also a characteristic of minimum time after which this relay operates. its specification only rated current is given. Where should the lighting arrestor be placed in distribution lines? Answer:Near distribution transformers and out going feeders of 11kv and incomming feeder of 33kv and near power transformers in sub-stations. whenever any internal fault occurs in a transformer. if the transformer is isolated from the circuit then it stop its sound itself other wise it trips the circuit by its own tripping mechanism. what is boucholz relay and the significance of it in to the transformer? Answer:Boucholz relay is a device which is used for the protection of transformer from its internal faults.under voltage and under frequency may be inbuilt.. it should not be operated while it is having load. Where it can be used? Answer:MCB is miniature circuit breaker which is thermal operated and use for short circuit protection in small current rating circuit. it is manually operated and does not contain any solenoid unlike circuit breaker.But circuit breaker is onload automatic device used for breaking the circuit in case of abnormal conditions like short circuit. MCCB moulded case circuit breaker and is thermal operated for over load current and magnetic operation for instant trip in short circuit condition. it is having three specification 1 is rated current and 2 is short circuit breaking capacity and 3 is instantaneous tripping current.

If one lamp connects between two phases it will glow or not? Answer:If the voltage between the two phase is equal to the lamp voltage then the lamp will glow. it still continue running due to inertia. What is meant by knee point voltage? Answer:Knee point voltage is calculated for electrical Current transformers and is very important factor to choose a CT.there is no generation in the plant then plant may take power from grid. It is the voltage at which a CT gets saturated. This assures Safety for the person who uses the electrical instrument. trench. depth of trench. buried etc. motors.only resistance will act in the electrical circuit. Why in a three pin plug the earth pin is thicker and longer than the other pins? Answer:It depends upon R=rho l/a where area(a) is inversely proportional to resistance (R). Considering this condition actual current currying capacity of cable reduce than current currying capacity (which given to cable Catalogue) this is called derating. R decreases & if R is less the leakage current will take low resistance path so the earth pin should be thicker. A generating stations is supposed to fed power to the grid and in case generating units are off. It is longer because the The First to make the connection and Last to disconnnect should be earth Pin. so that back e.f voltage is made to apply across the resistor and due to load the motor stops quickly.and cables. What is reverse power relay? Answer:Reverse Power flow relay are used in generating stations's protection. Answer:The current currying of cables will change depending upon the site temperature (location of site). To stop the flow of power from grid to generator we use reverse power relay.m.So for this reason coil and insulation will burn out.In case of DC supply there is no inductance .(CT-current transformer). why it is necessary. What will happen if DC supply is given on the primary of a transformer? Answer:Mainly transformer has high inductance and low resistance.What is meant by regenerative braking? When the supply is cutt off for a running motor.).This type of breaking is called as "Regenerative Breaking". . type of run (it will run through duct. When the voltage difference is big it will damage the lamp and when the difference is smaller the lamp will glow depending on the type of lamp. What is derating?. so if (a) increases. So high electrical current will flow through primary side of the transformer. it is same for all means for drives. In order to stop it quickly we place a load(resitor) across the armature winding and the motor should have maintained continuous field supply. number of tray. distance between cables.

. What is the necessity of Double circuit lines and List out the advantages of double Circuit lines? Necessity of Double circuit lines is to enhance the power handling capacity Advantages of double circuit lines: a)Half of the load is shared by the other line b)The increase in load current can be easily handled c)In case of power failure in one circuit. the power will be supplied by the other lines. Advantages of bundle conductors: a)Reduced reactance b)Reduced voltage gradient c)Reduced corona loss d)Reduced Interference. What are the different types of conductors? a)Solid conductors b)Stranded conductors c)Composite stranded conductors (upto 200KV) d)Bundle conductors ( above 400KV ) What is a bundle conductor and mention the advantages of using bundled conductors? It is a conductor made up of 2 or more sub conductors and is used as one phase conductors.What are the advantage of free wheeling diode in a Full Wave rectifier? Answer:It reduces the harmonics and it also reduces sparking and arching across the mechanical switch so that it reduces the voltage spike seen in a inductive load.

That is why skin effect is absent in DC system.M. Write the expressions for the inductance and capacitance of a 3-ph. Advantages of transposition: a)Elimination of interference by using Transposition of lines b)Average Inductance is same in each section of the line. and the increase of resistance. What is meant by transposition of line conductors and advantages of transposition? Transposition of conductors is defined as the interchanging the positions of the line conductors at regular intervals along the line so that each conductor occupies the original position of every other conductor at an equal distance. This phenomenon is called as proximity effect.3-wire lines? .Diameter of the wire. does not distribute uniformly. This phenomenon is called skin effect Why Skin effect is absent in dc system? The steady current when flowing through a conductor distributes itself uniformly over the whole cross section of the conductor .It reduces the complexity of Inductance calculation GMR = 0. i.What is skin effect? The steady current when flowing through the conductor. On what factors the skin effect depend? Nature of the material.7788r =1r Mutual GMD: The mutual GMD is the geometrical mean of the distances from one Conductor to the other. What is the effect of proximity effect? It results in the non uniform distribution of current in the cross section. Define proximity effect? The alternating magnetic flux in a conductor caused by the current flowing in a neighboring conductor gives rise to a circulating current which cause an apparent increase in the resistance of the conductor. Frequency and shape of the wire. rather it has the tendency to concentrate near the surface of the conductor.D’s are equal for each section. Define Self GMD and Mutual GMD? SelfGMD(GMR) :The Self-GMD means self geometrical mean distance .e G.

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11. 38. For an open circuited transmission line the reflection coefficient is 1 34. The effect of bonding the cable is to increase the effective resistance but reduce inductance. 12. 6. Bus coupler is very essential in main and transfer bus. The insulators used on 220 kv transmission lines are of suspension type. The intersheaths in cables are used to provide proper stress distribution. 10. 20. The reflection coefficient for the voltage wave in the overhead line is given as RL-R0/(RL+R0) 37. 9. A fuse is normally a current limiting device. 30. 13. 18. 3. Earth wires are made of galvanised stranded steel. 16. 28. The dielectric strength of air is proportional to barometric pressure. A booster is a series wound dc generator driven by dc shunt motor. Magnetic circuit breaker has instantaneous trip action. Guy wire is employed for supporting the pole. 21. The inductance of a line is minimum when GMD is low but GMR is high. The minimum clearance of high voltage lines from ground across street is 6m. A material used for manufacturing of fuse wire is silver. 29. HV transmission uses pin type insulators and suspension insulator. 19. 27. 40. A booster is connected in series with the feeder. The topmost conductor in hv transmission line is earth conductor. Rewirable fuse has inverse time current characteristics. Negatively charged cloud causes more stroke. 36. Location of a lightening arrestor is near a transformer.Points to remember 1. The contact resistance is least affected by the ambient temperature. 23. The insulators used in guy cables are stay or egg insulator. 32. Protection by fuses is generally not used beyond 200A.ampere rating of relay. 25. A thermal protection switch provides protection against overload. Admittance relay is directional relay. The ratio of puncture voltage to flashover voltage of a line insulator is much greater than 1. 4. 5. Pin type insulators are generally not used for voltage exceeding 33 kv. Insulators used in EHT transmission lines are made of porecelain. Shunt compensation is used in an EHV line to improve voltage profile. The dielectric stress in a cable is maximum at lead sheath. 2. 14. 26. 15. 8. For ground fault we prefer reactance relay. For an short circuited transmission line the reflection coefficient is -1 35. 31. The pressure of SF6 gas in the circuit breaker is around 4kg/cm2. 24. The colour of the neutral wire of a three core flexible cable is blue. By burden of a relay we generally mean volt. Surge absorbers are used for protection against low voltage high frequency osscilations. The pressure of air used in the air blast circuit breaker is around 20kg/cm2 22. 33. . Bus bars are usually made of aluminium mainly because of cost. 39. High speed circuit breaker should complete its operation in 3-8 cycles. 17. 7.

three phase induction motor. .

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which also stabilizes the relay against pilot capacitance currents. A restraint torque is produced by bias loop 18. . Equal and opposite voltages are induced in the secondary windings 12 and 12a and no current flows in the pilots. No magnetic flux is set up in the bottom magnets 16 and 16a so the relays do not operate. making the circulating current additive so that both ends operate to trip. A fault fed from one end causes current to circulate in the pilots and the relay at that end will operate to trip.Feeder protection cable feeders and overhead lines Translay Scheme Translay is a voltage balance system Whilst the feeder is healthy. Under heavy through-fault conditions there may be a small circulating current due to line CT mismatch. A fault fed from both ends will cause a current reversal in the remote CTs. the line CTs at each end carry equal currents.

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capacitance.c Bridges Wheatstone Bridge: Kelvin Bridge: Kelvin bridge is a modification of the Wheatstone bridge and provides greatly increased accuracy in the measurement of low value resistance. inductance. to point (m) or to point (n). and other circuit parameters directly derived from component values such as frequency.If the galvanometer connect to point (n) then R4 = R3 + Ry therefore unknown resistance will be lower than its actual value by R y . and temperature. It is eliminate errors due to contact and leads resistance.Bridges and Their Application Bridge circuit are extensively used for measuring component values. D. such as resistance.If the galvanometer connect to point (m) then R4 = Rx + Ry therefore unknown resistance will be higher than its actual value by Ry 2. generally below (1Ω). (Ry) represent the resistance of the connecting lead from R3 to R4. Two galvanometer connections are possible. phase angle. 1.

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No need of extra commutation circuitryNatural commutation Fixed AC to Variable AC Output frequency = input frequency Implemented by AC switch AC switch – Bidirectional switch Applications Lighting control Industrial heating Resistance welding On-load transformer tap change Speed control of IM .AC Regulators Alternatively called as AC voltage controllers RMS value of the output is varied by using a semiconductor switch.

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Equivalent Ckt. Generally. . The output of cycloconverter provides ac power at a lower frequency than input. output frequency is lower than source frequency. Bidirectional power-flow is possible. input power factor is worse if the fabricated output voltage is decreased. Able to operate with loads of any power factor.Cycloconverters AC power at one frequency is converted directly to an AC power at another frequency without any intermediate DC stage.

Fundamental wave is generated by the two. Ripple content is neglected. . 2-quadrent phase converters. Diode for unidirectional conduction. Positive current is carried by positive converter and negative by negative.

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