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WHAT IS TRAINING??
• "Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.” -Edwin Flippo
• Development is any learning activity which is directed towards future needs rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (T&D) Training - Designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs – formal and informal Development - Involves learning that goes beyond today's job – more long-term focus Learning Organization – firms that recognize critical importance of continuous performancerelated training and development and take appropriate action
2. Importance of Training
1. Respond to technology changes affecting job requirements.
2. Respond to organizational restructuring.
3. Adapt to increased diversity of the workforce.
4. Support career development.
5. Fulfill employee need for growth.
Creativity Training. Retraining. 7. Team Training. Skills Training. 8. Diversity Training. 6. Types of Training 3. Types of Training 1. Customer Service.3. 2. . Literacy Training. Cross-Functional. 3. 4. 5.
. • Overcoming performance deficits of the workforce.1. SKILLS TRAINING Focus on job knowledge and skill for: • Instructing new hires.
Retraining Maintaining worker knowledge and skill as job requirements change due to: • Technological innovation • Organizational restructuring .2.
3. . Cross-Functional Training Training employees to perform a wider variety of tasks in order to gain: • Flexibility in work scheduling. • Improved coordination.
4. • Cross-functional skills. • Coordination skills. . Team Training Training self-directed teams with regard to: • Management skills.
Creativity Training Using innovative learning techniques to enhance employee ability to spawn new ideas and new approaches. .5.
etc. Literacy Training Improving basic skills of the workforce such as mathematics. and effective employee behaviors such as punctuality. writing. reading. responsibility. cooperation. .6.
. tolerance. respect. Diversity Training Instituting a variety of programs to instill awareness.7. and different backgrounds. etc. and acceptance of persons of different race. gender.
better response to customer needs. and ways to enhance customer satisfaction. . Customer Service Training Training to improve communication.8.
Need for Training • Develop hidden talent • Improve Job satisfaction • Employees become more Competent & Responsible • Improve inter-personal relations • Multi-skilling .NEED FOR TRAINING 4.
T & D Process Determine T&D Needs Establish Specific Objectives Select T&D Method(s) Implement T&D Programs Evaluate T&D Programs 15 .5.
16 .Determining Training and Development Needs In order to compete effectively. firms must keep employees well trained.
Establishing Training and Development Objectives Desired end results Clear and concise objectives must be formulated 17 .
Select Training and Development Method(s) • Training Methods – On the Job • Job Rotation • Coaching • Mentoring • Internship – Off the Job • Role Play • Classroom Training • Case Study • Simulations .
Job Rotation Employees move from one job to another to broaden experience Helps new employees understand variety of jobs .
Coaching Often considered responsibility of immediate boss Provides assistance much as a mentor .
Mentoring Approach to advising. and nurturing. personal. for creating practical relationship to enhance individual career. coaching. and professional growth and development Mentor may be located elsewhere in organization or in another firm Relationship may be formal or informal .
Internship Training approach where university students divide their time between attending classes and working for an organization Excellent means of viewing potential permanent employee at work Students are enabled to integrate theory with practice .
Role Playing Respond to specific problems they may actually encounter in jobs Used to teach such skills as: interviewing grievance handling performance appraisal reviews team problem solving communication .
Classroom Programs Continue to be effective for many types of employee training May incorporate some of other methods .
Simulations Training devices that model the real world or programs replicating tasks away from the job site .
Implementing Human Resource Development Programs Implies change Feel they are too busy to engage in T&D efforts Qualified trainers must be available Trainers must understand company objectives .
Evaluating Human Resource Development Ask participant’s opinions Determine extent of learning Will training change behavior? Have T&D objectives been accomplished? Benchmarking Evaluation difficult. but necessary .
Benefits of OD: • Change throughout the organization • Greater Motivation • Higher Job Satisfaction • Reduced absences • Increased Productivity • Lower turnover • Better quality of work • Improved teamwork • Better resolution of conflict • Commitment to Objectives • Increased willingness to change • Creation of learning individuals and groups . The process is carefully planned and implemented to benefit the organization. its employees and its stakeholders.Organization Development DEFINITION: Organization Development (OD) is the process of improving organizations.
Techniques of OD: Survey feedback process Quality circles Team building Sensitivity training .
interviews and other objective data Can create working environments that lead to better working relationships. greater productivity and increased profitability SURVEY PROCESS STEPS: Step 1: Identify project plan and objectives Step 2: Brief team leaders and employees about the process Step 3: Administer survey Step 4: Conduct interviews and focus groups Step 5: Train leaders on facilitating team discussions Step 6: Analyze the data and construct a report Step 7: Provide feedback to leaders Step 8: Team leaders conduct feedback action planning and meetings Step 9: Leaders present reports on progress and results to Senior Management Step 10: Follow-up by senior leadership to ensure progress and accountability .Survey Feedback Description Process of collecting data from organizational unit through use of questionnaires.
Quality Circles Groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss problems Investigate causes Recommend solutions .
Team Building Conscious effort to develop effective workgroups Uses self-directed teams Small group of employees responsible for an entire work process Members work together to improve their operation .
authority.Sensitivity Training Participants learn about themselves and how others perceive them No agenda. power positions People learn through dialogue Participants encouraged to learn about themselves and others in group Also called T-group training . leaders.
CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT .
Career Planning and Development Career – general course that person chooses to pursue for working life Career Planning – process whereby individual sets goals and identify means to achieve them Organizational Career Planning – paths identified for employees to assist in development .
Traditional Career Stages Exploration Establishment Mid career Late Career Decline High Job Performance Will performance increase or decline? Low Transition from school to work Getting first job and being accepted The elder statesperson Preparing for retirement 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Age 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 .
Traditional Career Stages exploration includes school and early work experiences. involves: trying out different fields discovering likes and dislikes forming attitudes toward work and social relationship patterns this stage is least relevant to HRM because it occurs prior to employment . such as internships.
Traditional Career Stages establishment includes: searching for work getting first job getting evidence of “success” or “failure” takes time and energy to find a “niche” and to “make your mark” .
Traditional Career Stages mid-career • challenged to remain productive at work • employee may: – continue to grow – plateau (stay competent but not ambitious) – deteriorate .
Good resource for teaching others • those who have declined may experience job insecurity • plateauing is expected. life off the job increases in importance .Traditional Career Stages late career • successful “elder state persons” can enjoy being respected for their judgment.
either paid or volunteer .Traditional Career Stages decline • may be most difficult for those who were most successful at earlier stages • today’s longer life spans and legal protections for older workers open the possibility for continued work contributions.
skills.A Model of Career Development Exploration Developmental tasks Identify interests. fit between self and work Establishment Advancement. develop life style Maintenance Hold on to accomplishments. growth. update skills Disengagement Retirement planning. security. change balance between work and non-work Phasing out of work Activities Helping Learning Following directions Apprentice Making independent contributions Colleague Training Sponsoring Policy making Relationships to other employees Typical age Years on job Mentor Sponsor Less than 25 Less than 2 years 25 – 50 2 – 10 years 50– 70 More than 10 years 70+ More than 10 years .
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