Which of four major mechanisms of coagulation predominates will depend on the coagulant used, the dosage, and the

raw water characteristics including turbidity, alkalinity, and pH.


m-Endo: Frequently background bacterial growth may conceal test results, or cause false positive (APHA, 2005). When the TC result is positive, an accompanying test (usually MUG procedure) is required for confirmation of E. coli and a second sample is often needed.

Limitations of the Procedure 1. Due to varying nutritional requirements, some strains may be encountered that grow poorly or fail to grow. 2. A few non-fecal coliform colonies may be observed on m-FC Agar due to the selective action of the elevated temperature and the addition of rosolic acid. It may be useful to elevate the temperature to 45 ± 0.2C to eliminate Klebsiella strains from the fecal coliform group.2

As chlorination increases, the time required to disinfect decreases. • Chlorination is more effective as the temperature increases. • Chlorination is less effective as pH increases (becomes more alkaline). • Chlorination is less effective in turbid water.

M-FC: Non-fecal coliforms are grey to reddish-blue grey. Fecal coliforms will be various shades of dark blue. m-Endo

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