WorldOil's Cementing oil and gas wells
. . . including
casing handling procedures
BY GEORGE o. SUMAN, JR. .AND RICHARD C. ELLIS

Acknowledgment
This handbook is the result of a comprehensive study of cementing oil and gas wells including casing handling procedures. The authors' basic work was sponsored by AMF Tubescope, Inc.; Bakerline, a division of Baker International Corp.; Dowell Schlumberger; Oil Tool Division, PENGO Industries, Inc.; Lynes, Inc.; Texas Iron Works, Inc., and Varco International, Inc. The authors wish to express their appreciation to these companies for their sponsorship and for the complete freedom allowed in preparation of all material. Thanks are also due the sponsors and many other manufacturers for providing information and illustrations, and to those in industry who reviewed the manuscript and contributed many helpful suggestions.

All

Copyright@ 1977 rights reserved

WOl'ld Oil

P.O. Box 2608

Houston, Texas 77001

Tableof Contents

CementingOil and Gas Wells Handbook Part 1-Basic functions of cement are given, with concepts to consider in mud, pipe and hole preparation to prevent job failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 Part 2-Casing inspection and pipe handling methods, including thread make-up control, hydrostatic testing, landing practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Part 3-How basic cements and additives can be tailored to give desired properties for completion and remedial operations. . . .22 Part 4-Practical interpretation of rheology, annular displacing forces. How to avoid bypassing mud during primary cementing .32 Part 5-Guidelines for downhole equipment use, stage cementing methods, new concepts for cementing large diameter casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Part 6-Liner applications and equipment used for installation. Common problems to avoid while pumping, displacing cement 50 Part 7-A review of cement plug placement, tubingless completion techniques and the art and science of cement squeezing Part 8-Methods for evaluating primary cementing effectiveness plus a wrapup of several new tools to improve completion operations

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About the authors GEORGEO. SUMAN, JR., attended the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (Berkeley), graduating with a B.SM.E. in 1952. He spent two years with Aramco in Saudi Arabia and 18 years with Shell Oil Co. working primarily with drilling, completion and stimulation design and application. In 1978 he formed Completion Technology Co. which is actively working with a number of client companies in improving well reliability and profitability. Mr. Suman has authored many technical papers on well completion and drilling techniques and he holds numerous patents and applications in these specialties. He is a member of API and SPE and a registered professional engineer in Louisiana and Texas. RICHARDC. ELLIS graduated from the Wisconsin Institute of Technology in 1962 with a B.S.M.E. and from the University of Wisconsin in 1968 with the M.S. in mining engineering. He spent nine years with Shell Oil Co. working on design and application of artificial lift, sand control and well completions for primary, waterflood and thermal recovery operations, both onshore and offshore. His latest assignment with Shell was production engineering section leader for the Western U.S. and Alaska. Mr. Ellis joined the staff of Completion Technology Co. in 1976. He is a member of SPE and a registered professional engineer in Texas.

Suman. common causes of casing and connection failures 2. tubingless completions how to remedial 8. and procedures to prevent differential pipe sticking during cementing are given. The authors make liberal use of published literature with grateful acknowledgment of the original investigators. Job evaluation methods. with concepts to consider in mud. It is important to plan for the primary cement job long before casing is run into the hole. Jr. . Houston 10-second summary Opening article discusses basic cement properties in relation to ability to support casing loads and prevent damage or joint loss.Cementing oil and gas wells . Casing handling. President and Richard C. Ellis. logging. environmental protection and economics to insist that the best-available technology be applied. recent innovations. It is the objective of the authors of this exclusive new series to fill that large gap between research and field operations. pipe and hole preparation to prevent job failure George o. Unfortunately. proper use of downhole and surface equipment 6. Displacement mechanics and rheology considerations. much important research and technical development has not been interpreted and applied directly to the operational phase in a straightforward and concise manner. tests for zonal separation. This article introduces critical concepts to consider in preparing for the primary cement job. precautions to take during drilling. techniques. Project Engineer. It has never been so important from the standpoint of safety. proper primary cementing should be the operator's main concern. and to get maximum benefit from this series. stimulation fluids and enhanced recovery chemicals can bypass the formation. extraneous fluids may be produced and the borehole may not be properly supported. Cement slurry chemistry and use of additives 4. including discussions of: ~ The function of the cement sheath in supporting the formation and protecting the casing from various WORLD OIL 1977 5. An extensive reference list is included. A format similar to WORLD OIL'S Sand Control Series (November 1974-June 1975) will be followed in these presentations. Mud selection. Poor displacement efficiency which leaves a substantial volume of mud at the cement-formation interface can lead to just about every completion and production problem in the book-oil and gas can be lost from the pay zone. Primary cementing. and examples of casing defects found in new pipe are shown to encourage careful pre-job pipe handling. readers are encouraged to pursue the original works where important concepts cannot be adequately discussed due to space limitations. make-up and testing 3. About the series Field engineers and others who handle casing and cementing for present-day wells are responsible for one of the most critical phases of well completion. including casinghandling procedures Part 1-Basic functions of cement are given. Special cementing. plug-backs. need for pipe movement and centralization FROM THE COMPLETION SPECIALIST'Sviewpoint. to avoid common problems such as improperly conditioned mud and stuck pipe. how to locate tops and define bond effectiveness. problems. with frequent reference to preceding material. evaluate results 7. The following subjects will be covered in the eight articles: 1.. recommendations for inspection. CompletionTechnologyCo. including sequential development and discussion of concepts and application. Functions of cement.. Liner cementing. squeezes. -Editor 5 . And the casing string itself should be carefully inspected and handled to avoid damage that can cause failure in otherwise properly designed strings..

2. n. divided by the surface area between cement and pipe.. the ability of cement to support axial casing loads was found to be proportional to the area of contact between cement and the casing. should be more than adequate to handle anticipated axial loads. Cement used in primary cementing is normally designed: 1. '. The load to break the cement bond during hanging and drilling-out operations normally would not exceed weight of the casing string (such as surface pipe) plus miscellaneous loads (such as weight on bit when drilling out the shoe joint).. Thus. the load capacity noted above..:'.FORCE CEMENT SLURRY '" A '_.. '\': .. '. Therefore.390 pounds.. . ModHying their relationship to utilize compressive strength (assumed to be 10 times tensile strength).969 X = 3. kinds of damage such as fault shear. Poorest results were obtained when the pipe was mud-wetted and no attempt was made to remove the mud film.4 as it is described by various investigators. is a direct measure of cement/pipe adhesion strength in samples formed in a 7-inch mold. Therefore... tabular data and photographs. and joint loss while drilling ~ Drilling fluid selection and conditioning cement displacement efficiency and prevent pipe sticking during cementing. which are relatively inexpensive and of low density-and less likely to induce lost circulation when high cement columns are requiredmay have adequate compressive strength to meet axial load support requirements. '. Test B3. :". after cementing under controlled pressure.' ". psi outside diameter of casing. and 4. the casing is sawed off 10 check bonding. conservatively utilizing results for mud-wetted and non-displaced co ndi tions.: PRESSURE ." 0-' ". This allows drilling operations to proceed with little or no waiting-on-cement (WOC) time. To support the axial load of the casing string and strings to be run later 2. "~'. is the load required to break the bond.~: ':':\~ . In addition to water-based mud wetting of the pipewhich is allowed for in the above equation-other factors WORLD OIL 1977 . . And a significant reduction in shear bond was caused by mud wetting of the pipe.1. Based on these worst-case results. the equation permits calculation of approximate load capacity for various pipe sizes and cement compressive strengths. . And the cement strength 6 the productive Required strength. B SHEAR BOND PRESSURE HYDRAULIC U .2 A fairly narrow range of shear bond at a given tensile strength resulted for various cement compostions tested.'. . ':j m I 0 . ~:. cement: F 0.':' ::: f.' ~}-BOND ::. Also. Test A3 measures axial loading strength. feet. . curves. provided by the relatively low compressive strength of 500 psi." ~~'. . ~ Common causes of casing failure that can adversely affect the cement job as well as future operations. low strength "filler" cements. 1(A) .. To support the borehole through interval.. ..=~. support coefficient. In this test where the surface in question is the outer periphery of the inside pipe. .969 Where: F Sc d H using 'C Fig. AXIAL LOAD SUPPORT High axial loads may be imposed on the casing string and/or surrounding cement by landing and suspension methods and later operations. C' and D' measure hydraulic bond.\.. and deforma- = = = = force or load to break cement bond.i~ I .. required to support such axial casing loads has been determined through shear bond testS.390 pounds per foot of cement column. 2. " . . . >':. To protect the casing from damage or failure. Cement compositions normally can be formulated to rapidly develop adequate strength for casing landing loads. pounds compressive strength... . CEMENT SAWED-OFF HERE FOR BOND TEST / 1f7 ~U'.3 The axial load which breaks the cement bond has been measured with the test apparatus shown in Fig. Shear bond strength increases with cement tensile or compressive strength as shown in Fig. 3. .:.~i.. 1-Lab tests to measure casing/cement bonding characteristics. In test C.::j: . as this example indicates. Test D. Bearden and Lane2 provided a relationship for determining support capability of a cement sheath. . ScdH. For one bonded strength to improye differential For example: 500 X 7 X 1 = 500 psi compressive foot of 7-inch casing. inches height of cement column.' .' .2 shear bond3 or sliding resistance. gives the formula: F=O.. including mill defects appearing in new pipe. To seal intended production or injection intervals from overlying or underlying permeable sections (zone isolation) 3.. An extensive reference list appears at the end of the article. perforating tion... Discussions are illustrated by schematic drawings.: .

3. Cement contamination by mud which lowers shear bond appreciably.3. A comprehensive study of factors governing zone isolation under downhole conditions would be very complex. cement and casing.8 WATER/CEMENT RATIO 5 10 15 VOLUME MUD.. see below. sand biast) Invert oil emulsion Oilbase Resin-sandcoat (new. forming a micro-annulus which permits leakage.. Bonding test. 0.. Zone isolation depends.. Test arrangements are shown in Fig. . Mill varnish lowers shear bond on the exterior of the casing which such as increase coating because ci ~ 250. (A) DISPLACED PAST MUD WET PIPE 11...200 100 100 ICO Gas 150 50 50 50 450 55 45 45 - None None Varnishremoved(chemical). which increase the ability of the cement to support axial loads '.2 galjsk Curing temperature: 80°F Curing time: 24 hours Casing size: 2" inside 4" Hydraulic bond strength is improved by resin-sand coatings.. 1(B) .6 Surface finish New mill-varnished. EMULSION CEMENT 9....~.sand blast) Fresh water Resin-sandcoat (new. .. Raw cement characteristics.. as shown above. 2-Effect of cement tensile strength and mud wetting on shear bond.. WATER WASHED 8. . Casing collars.. Pressure/temperature effects which can contract the casing diameter after the cement hardens. m a: 150 <C w 100 50 o o 50 100 150 200 250 300 CEMENTTENSILESTRENGTH. . 50/50 POZ. Fig.100-1. (A) MUD WET. Most cements fall in narrow range except mud is not removed (after Bearden and Lane)'.. None Resin-sandcoat (new. ". 20 0=. For these reasons. and production pressure drawdown and depletion... Oil-based mud wetting of the pipe which lowers shear bond to a greater extent than water-based mud wetting ..:. : ffi is 200 . sand blat) Resin-sandcoat (new. SPECIAL (A) 3....6 0..~ WATER MUD WATER MUD MUD EMULSION MUD ....... 3-Water content and mud contamination lower shear bond strength. No fixed correlation between cement compressive strength and hydraulic bond was found. Therefore. such as fineness of grind. Roughness of the exterior casing surface. Varnishremoved(sand-blast)..5. Hydraulic bond strength in the test shown in Fig. . Invert oil emulsion Oilbase Varnishremoved (sand-blast). OXYCHLORIDE CEMENT 7. . Absolute value of shear bond is not shown but the scale is linear so that percent change can be estimated (after Becker and Petersen)'. cement compositions should be selected which quickly provide adequate compressive strength for continued drilling operations but which also provide adequate strength.. Such coatings consist of graded sand bonded by 7 . may also affect shear bond strength .. " '". 3. Displacement mechanics and efficiency which affect thickness and continuity of the cement sheath around the casing. (A) 5.. Various investigators3. en ~I wt .. Type mud wetting Hydraulic bond (psi) Water 200-250 300-400 500-700 100 100 100 1. if such a determination has been made. 2% GEL 10. 1(B) ranges from 100 to 1.. smaller in diameter and "pull away" from the cement. Hydraulic bond YS. . only when there is no mud wetting. which should increase shear bond due to the increased friction between pipe and cement . . for production operations. 1(C) 5 Pressure is applied to the exterior surface of the casing causing the casing to become WORLD OIL 1977 Fig...... in part. on load interactions between formation...6 have measured hydraulic bond. Radial loads imposed on cement and casing by the formation. some of which are not well understood.200 psi for water and from 45 to 450+ psi for gas (nitrogen) depending on roughness of the exterior pipe surface and type of mud wetting.that affect cement shear bond performance to axial load are: with respect 350 300\ TYPE CEMENT 1.. % ZONE ISOLATION Although cement with a low compressive strength may be adequate to handle axial and rotational casing loads..sand blast) Cement: API Class A Water Content: 5."" .4 .. The actual relationship between hydraulic bond measured in the lab. high ultimate strength may be required for zone isolation and to support the borehole.. This factor will be discussed in a later article. Low water-to-cement ratios which increase slurry density and improve shear bond because of increased compressive strength. Fresh water Varnishremoved(sand-blast). only qualitative judgements have been attempted in studies to date and these usually relate to the "hydraulic bond" which indicates adhesion between casing and cement. casing surface and type of fluid wetting3. see Fig.... and downhole zone isolation has not been reported. and . which can shear bond substantially6 (Normally such special would not be required for axial load support minimum shear bond strength is adequate) -FRESH ---SALT -'-RED CI Z 0' ~-OIL . NO DISPLACEMENT . m J:.. or between cement and formation.... (A) MUD WET. '" " . rust or special resin-sand coatings.6 and Fig.. (C) 2. (A) 6% GEL 4. ...2 0..4 0. PSI where Fig. ~. Further difficulty arises in determining type and magnitude of loads imposed by fluid injection pressures and temperatures. None Varnishremoved(sand-blasl). (A) LATEX 6. ultimately.

.:. doglegged or high angle hole. Effects of mud wetting.. Mudfilm . psi <20 <20 350-450 20-50 250-400 40-50 500-600 50-60 700-950 500-600 . Targets were tested.7 Fig..000 psi (after Godfrey and Methven)13. The pressure at which failure of the hydraulic bond occured in the test shown in Fig. Mudfilm . little or no bond strength would be indicated for these materialsyet zone isolation is obtained in the field. and cement with hairline fractures may still prevent fluid leakage. When a mud cake was present between cement and formation.. I!:\: CJ) w a: 11... mud layer) and applied squeeze pressure was evaluated. as well as from the bottom. which was not apparent in the previously discussed test.. Operators have generally considered cement with 2.Test setup to measure perforating effects on hydraulic bond with pressure from inside and outside. under simulated downhole pressure conditions (3. 8 . HOLLOW CARRIER JET o EXPENDABLE JET . :::E 6000 .. Presumably. The 1-9/16-inch OD hollow carrier gun used a 3.. then returned for testing as shown.. and/or 2.lo Visual inspection of such perforated targets containing higher strength cement revealed cracks in the sheath.8 Cement-formation bond. bond strength was greatly reduced for all cases examined.. Perforations were placed about two inches from the bottom of the 12-lnch targets. epoxy to the exterior of the pipe by the patented RuffCote process. do show an advantage for the resin-sand exterior.... 1(C) can be increased by: 1. And casing using the Ruff-Cote process should be well 8 4000 _ 2%" TUBING PE~FORATION 2000 PRESSURE centralized to avoid imbedding mudcake or shale into the roughened surface.000 psi or less compressive strength optimum for perforating-a belief based on appearance of targets perforated with bullets and/or jets at the surface. Therefore. Dry .. zone isolation is routinely obtained in the field at greater differential pressures than those causing failure in these hydraulic bond tests.. Still other tests have been conducted to examine the bond between cement and formation. These tests.9.. bond strength approached or exceeded formation compressive strength. And the above tests indicate such devices should increase zonal separation efficiency) . Application of results of these tests is wrong because: Atmospheric tests of explosives are more damaging than those performed under pressure due to greater expansion of detonation gases. Attaching seal rings of deformaJble rubber to the exterior of the casing (sealing rings designed to stop migration of fluid between the casing surface and the inside of the cement sheath are available for field installation. in the mud-wetted condition..000 or 5. Although these results may be indicative of various relationships. However. 4. 1(D). Godfrey11 measured shear and hydraulic bond strengths on samples before and after perforating with single hollow carrier and expandable jet charges. One important advantage of the resin-sand treatment would be that formation of a micro-annulus under certain pressure/temperature conditions might be prevented.. Results are plotted in curves. then perforated In a separate pressurized well.4000 BEFORE PERFORATING Surfacecondition Mud film. prevented creation of a microannulus and the cement was loaded in compression from outer and inner surfaces. Fig. tests more closely simulating downhole conditions might provide further insight into the requirements for zone isolation. under simulated downhole conditions. 4. 6-12 mesh sand Epoxy coated. Mudfilm . However. When cement was squeezed against dry cores. Preventing such imbedment might not be possible in irregular. These coatings normally are rated to 3003250 F.. Dry . Test results were not provided for low compressive and/ or low tensile strength formation materials such as unconsolidated sands and some shales. effectiveness should be increased by removing mud from the casing surface using pre-flushes ahead of the cement and cement scouring. or where mud is poorly conditioned. Mudfilm. Further tests were conducted to more directly measure adhesion between cement and pipe. Dry . Ci5 11.Effect of mud film on bond strength 6000 4'12" CASING ... perforating damage.. This result appears to be verified by cement-bond logs. Dry . Cement vs. 6-12 mesh sand Hydraulic bond. the effect of various contact surfaces (dry.. Bond strength was found to depend on degree of contact between cement and formation. see table. it should be emphasized that when resin-sand coatings are used downhole.000 psi). Preventing formation of the micro-annulus by controlling pressure differential across the casing as the cement sets. Dry Surface coating Mill varnish Millvarnish Rusty Rusty Acid etched Acid etched Sandblasted Sandblasted Epoxy coated.. In one lab investigation3 in which cement was placed into contact with formation cores and the interface was tapped by a simulated perforation. such tests are probably not completely representative of downhole conditions everywhere. Lower curve shows bond was usually destroyed when compressive strength was below about 2. :i" 2000 le!) Z W a: Io i CJ) W > Ci5 Curing time: 24 hours Curing temperature: 120 F fl .... The test arrangement.2 gram WORLD OIL 1977 o o 2000 4000 6000 Fig.

Although damage may occur to flawed or mill defective casing.l3 Fig. And expendable guns of nominal charge. as indicated by second curve. hydraulic bond strength increased with increased compressive strength." The cement sheath between casing and borehole serves an important function in protecting the pipe from the stresses of formation movement. Therefore. Fault shear. no data has yet been reported on the effect of using extra strength charges in carrier guns. or three joints have parted from the string and slipped down the hole. top.chaxge and the expendable 1-11/16-inch OD charge was 10. However. high-level torque impulses transmitted to the casing by the bit as it hangs up while drilling cement and cementing equipment out of the bottom joints. Conventional hollow carrier. a :lA-inch sheath held by thin steel and a strongly encased sheath. such as borehole doglegs and sand control failure. but was unaffected when cement compressive strength exceeded 2.000 psi. it was also determined in perforating tests12 that cement compressive strength is not an important factor in preventing casing deformation at the perforation point.1 ~ en o o 10 20 30 STRENGTH FACTOR x 10' (WALL THICK x YIELD) 40 ~ ~ffi0. Fig.3 r-- ~ en t3 o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CEMENTCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTHx 1. The cemen t sheath tends to minimize casing damage caused hy expendable perforating charges. may be used with little or no danger of serious casing damage. However. 4. and in special cases salt-saturated cement is used during cementing.e. cement sheath or no cement sheath. Before perforating.2 0:1: LLO ~ 0. As another important point.2 0. 4. failure in the bottom few joints of casing is not discovered until electric logs show that the bottom one. the parted section uncovers a high pressure or lost circulation zone. casing design.1 (!) z Z o 0. Expandable guns vs. i. frequently damage partially supported or unsupported casing.0 grams. Salt flow.19 In most cases. from tests with 20 gram charges. 6 (top). petrophysics. to withstand uniform salt pressure can be computed on the same basis as designs to withstand fluid pressure. because most of the forces from the exploding charges are contained by the carrier body. 6 (bottom). Fig.000 psi and 1800 F conditions. The three cases represent no cement. Hydraulic bond strength was destroyed by perforating when cement compressive strength was low. In other cases. Analysis of possible causes of such failure19 indicate that the casing is unscrewed rather than broken.3 a: 0.000. 5-Cement support minimizes casing deformation caused by expendable perforating guns as shown by curves. PSI Fig. The unscrewing occurs because of short-lived. high compressive strength cement appears best from the standpoint of zone isolation. certain properties of this cement such as its contriobutions to collapse resistance of the installed casing may be greatly overrated. and operational correlations and measurements of the damage configuration. Failure of casing by non-uniform loading in inadequately cemented washed-out salt sections should be considered a drilling and cementing problem rather than a casing design problem. Compressive strength of the sheath was less important. particularly if unsupported by cement.4 z C/) g ~ w o <I: o <I: ::!E 0. at 1. over about 20 grams.14 Salt may flow in various ways depending on combinations of overburden load and temperature. However. although modes of failure may be different. Casing joint loss. or special chaxges designed to produce larger than normal holes. such as the "flattening" effect illustrated in Fig. 5. restricting passage of drilling equipment. Knowledge of failure mechanism is essential to selection of the failure prevention method. or it shifts laterally.13 And large expendable guns. Casing damage can be caused by lateral loads resulting from flow of salt formations. Fig.5 :I: o ~ 0. Salt-saturated or oil-based drilling fluids axe often used during drilling to minimize washouts. 5.17 also may cause casing damage similar to the types described above. Adequate cement strength and good cementing and operational practices may be required to prevent parting or other failure in the bottom joints of surface and intermediate casing strings. expendable charges may split casing collars that are unsupported by cement.12. The problem is normally prevented by welding or using thread locking compounds on the 9 . Other downhole conditions. WORLD OIL Casing failure caused by formation 1977 move- ment along natural or induced fault planes-as opposed to salt flow-is best handled by elimination of cement through the affected interval and perhaps opening the hole to enable fault slippage to take place without loading the casing in shear/s. The type of load condition may be deduced through geology. and.lG Fig. two. and in preventing unscrewing and possible loss of bottom joints in surface and intermediate strings.18 Tools are available for establishing the cross-section (collapse) and deflection (buckling or shear) of moderately damaged pipe. steel shaped-charge guns cause only slight casing deformation and essentially no damage regardless of support. And it may not be economically practical to design casing for the most severe situations of non-uniform loading which can occur. CASING SUPPORT PROTECTION w 0. carrier guns. bottom (after Bell and Shore). casing is subjected to a nearly uniform loading approximately equal to the overburden pressure. when the annulus is completely filled with cement. for example through-tubing guns. However.

3. well centralized cement sheath. proper downhole casing equipment. H-40 can be WORLD OIL 1977 . Select a competent formation for the casing point. high displacement rates. Release surface pressure following cement placement to minimize chance for a micro-annulus to form between casing and cement. preheating is preferable on J-55. Thus grades should be positively identified before welding. Here are a few important points to remember when welding oil field tubulars: 22 Use only low hydrogen electrodes. Control rotary speed while drilling cement out of casing. Use good quality cement that will develop high early compressive strength. when a plug is not used. as indicated in Fig. 4. or sharp curves 10 Welding recommendations. casing collars and other downhole casing equipment are sometimes manufactured of higher grade steel. Fig.e.in directionally LOADING drilled holes near the casing point. Elevate compressive and shear bond strength of the cement around lower joints by decreasing water-to-cement ratio (increasing density) of last portion of slurry. for example: For 10. respectively.000 psi) at time of drilling-out. 1/16. and 130 feet.21 7. mud is removed after slurry passes to build up under the plug and be deposited in the critical area around the shoe joint (after Owsley)'. 260. and controlling rotary speed. and apply thread~locking compounds to both sides of the lowermost couplings. 6. When a bottom plug is used. six couplings. Drawing shows how. adequate centralization. Strong. to 400 feet (or 10. pipe movement. Keep drill pipe out of the hole until after this time. Schuh19 recommends strengthening three couplings. Also. 6-Cement sheath effects with formation loading. permissible rotary of values shown.000 feet of 5~-inch casing. accurate displacement calculations should be made to avoid over-displacement and mud or water contamination around the shoe. with top plug only. and C-75 should never be welded).- ---- ~MUD I MUDACCUMULATION FROMFILM CEMENT SLURRY 8.000 psi yield strength pipe can be downgraded to H-40. 7. Even when a top plug is used. etc. up to 80. Fill-up for various film thicknesses can be significant. for the last portion of the slurry to fill the annulus-from shoe upwards 200. Always preheat N-80. i. can prevent flattening effect of salt flows in washed out holes (Cheatham and McEver)".e. chemical washes or spacers ahead of cement. connections below.. 1/32 and 1/64-inch thick films would fill 510. cement sheath may cause more damage by holding pipe rigid through shear zone. as discussed To avoid loss of joints when cement is to be drilled out of the shoe. 7-Mud film on casing should be removed by bottom plug when displacing. Use two plugs. Welding on high grade tubulars is critical. However. surface pressure is sometimes used as an aspect of casing landing operation to prevent casing instability and buckling conditions. these practices should be followed: 1. But In fault slippage zones. The cement composition should have minimum 500 psi compressive strength (some say 1. Without a bottom plug. H-40. But if the casing joints have been improperly strengthened.--- 1--' -. 8. 3. bottom. speed may be only one-tenth or less Fig.% of casing length) . 2. Weld threads on H-40 pipe with a ~-inch fillet weld (see cautions below) or properly clean threads on J-55or higher grades with volatile (not oily) solvent. 5.e. including the three to six couplings joining the bottom four to seven joints. However. Do not disturb casing until cement has obtained initial set-about three times thickening time. CEMENT SLURRY MUD FILM CASING TOP PLUG . SALT FLOW ~ MUD ONLY FAULT SLIPPAGE Fig. and adequate shear bond. Avoid dogleg sections. mud film from the inside casing wall can accumulate beneath the top plug and be deposited in and around the shoe joints/a Fig. Drill-out with drilling fluid which will maintain stability of this formation. requiring careful preheating and use of special electrodes (P-IIO. i. top. misapplied thread locking compound or welded J-55 or higher grade casing. Lower casing grades. i. present few problems.. Follow other good practices to be discussed in this series. field personnel should be a ware that higher grades can be downgraded and sold as lower grades.

in deep. an effort should be made to achieve the conditions noted above. the contact area increases.. This differential pressure causes water in the mud to continuously flow through the filter cake into the formations. 26. minor radial or longitudinal discontinuities in the cement sheath eliminate this support.23 Such a practice is not valid. However. safe speeds can be one-tenth those shown.. the ideal drilling fluid: 1. Otherwise the casing may become stuck after being run to WORLD OIL 1977 bottom and before completion of cementing. A Tempilstik type crayon should be used to verify and carefully control temperatures. and drilling fluid properties. ~~ :E ~ .@ ~ :E300 Cl)CL >a: a:. A lowered casing design safety factor in collapse (perhaps 0. and movement during that most critical period28 may not be possible. However. left. when effective cementing is important. hot wells it is difficult to maintain low gel strength. Other tests24 suggest that a cement sheath may provide greater collapse resistance support for lower casing grades (H-40. and for H-40 grade casing strengthened with a full-circumference weld (after Schuh)'". yield point and plastic viscosity-particularly with weighted muds. lead to mud properties that can be most unfavor3lble by the time the job is initiated. on the assumption that cement will provide additional support. PRECAUTIONS DURING DRILLING Favorable conditions for primary cementing should be established long before the actual cementing operation. According to Cheatham and McEver/4 cement in the annulus between salt and casing is compressed by salt pressure. in turn increasing force holding pipe to wall (after Outmans)". Further. and 3. External pressure is the pore pressure of the surrounding permeable formation. 500 . see Fig. (1) to (2). Fig. with pressure on the inside consisting of mud column weight plus pressure increase due to annular flow... 2. the casing seals off the cake from the filtrate supply in the contact area and the cake begins to thin as water continues to be driven into the surrounding permeability.. When pipe movement is interrupted or stopped. which continues to supply filtrate.85 versus 1. Collapse support questionable. Other factors influencing favorable mud displacement and swab/surge pressures will be discussed in a later article. and this problem must be prevented if casing movement (reciprocation and/or rotation) is planned during cementing operations. which increases contact area. 9-Differential sticking of casing occurs in a permeable zone when pipe contacts mud cake as shown. this load reduction depends on uniform placement of cement in the annulus-a condition which is not normally achieved throughout the column.000 psi acting on the cement. or about 200 psi for a pressure of 6. Is non-thixotropic (little or no gel strength) with low plastic viscosity and yield point.welded without preheat. Is compatible with cement composition. Such conditions cannot always be attained in actual practice. the cement sheath should have no bearing on the decision to use a low collapse safety factor. While the casing is in motion. INCHES 9 10 Fig. and it is feasible to maintain low density fluids. then filtrate loss causes cake thining. and the contacted surface changes from mud to solid clay particles. Has low weight with low solids content and low filtration loss with a thin cake to minimize likelihood of differential pressure sticking. this reduction is calculated to be less than 5% for 8-5/8-inch casing cemented in 12-inch hole. w:::! <5 ~~ 150 Cl)Cj :Ez =>a. These conditions. which maximize mud displacement efficiency and minimize likelihood for differential pressure sticking and swab/surge pressures. During cementing. However. The differential pressure sticking concept25. contact with the filter cake is lubricated by a thin layer of drilling mud. the pipe is pressed against the wall with greater force. right. This pressure loading effect and the high friction factor between pipe and cake solids can increase hook load until the casing cannot be moved. The weld should cool at ambient temperatures. b0200 a:. It is particularly important to select hole and casing sizes. Therefore. 8-Maximum safe rotary speed for drilling out cement and cementing equipment for all grades of casing strengthened with thread-locking compound. As the cake thins.27 is very important to understand. How to prevent sticking. Differential pressure exists across a mud cake. 9. Note: If joints are not properly strengthened. combined with long trip time and casing running time. Preheating temperature should be 500-600° F and it should not drop below 4000 F during welding. Drilling fluids should be selected and drilling operations conducted-so as to minimize borehole washouts.1100 90 80" 70 60 4 5 5'12 6 6'12 7 7'12 8 DRILL COLLAR SIZE. J-55). For instance. differential 11 . For instance.125) is sometimes considered for casing to be used below the cement top. reducing stress transmitted to the casing. to maximize displacement efficiency and minimize swab-surge pressures.

.~. . and .110inch in a 0. Common causes of connection leakage under external or internal pressure as identified by API/2 are also shown in the above table. even properly designed casing may fail. . Mishandling in mill. particularly where pressure is depleted and/or high mud overbalance pressure exists A survey conducted by the API Southern District Tubular Goods Committee a number of years ag033 revealed that over 80% of tubular string failures occurred in the connections.. Photo A shows part of an eight-foot long seam penetrati ng 0. or . Photo C is another example of pitting caused by removal of foreign material rolled into the outer surface.. From such information. depth was measured by grinding as shown. care and handling. Things to remember sticking are: regarding differential pressure . Photo B shows internal grooving in seamless pipe caused by pieces of hard metal adhering to the plug. . mishandling. which would likely prevent circulation A .217-inch wall. in transport and in the field Poor running and pulling practices Improper landing tension Improper cutting of field-shop threads. Fig. . High deviation of the borehole also tends to increase contact area. . galled threads Improper engagement (cross-threading) Excessivemaking and breaking Improper joint inake-up at mill Casing ovality or out-of-roundness Improper cutting of field-shopthreads Wrong thread compound or mis-application Over-tensioncasing. The external longitudinal gouge in Photo C could be mill or transit damage. Poorly manufactured couplings for replacement Leaking joints Drill pipe wear Wireline cutting from swabbing. . and Dropping the string. and make-up of the casing itself. if interrupted. . .. and Corrosion. .. Photo A shows pits left by mill slugs that penetrate 0.337-inch wall. . sticking tendency may also increase because of the disturbance and reformation of filter cake caused by some preflush fluids. High weight. Sticking generally occurs after an interruption of pipe movement or long interruption disturbances of wall cake of circulation. . WORLD OIL 1977 12 .210 inch into a 0. Under (or over) tonging Dirty threads. . Photo B shows the hole left by a broken-out metal fold (lamination) that was rolled into the wall but did not fuse.ra. .. . many of which will be discussed in the next article. Texter30 and Casner. high water loss and high-solids-content fluids can increase the friction factor between casing and filter cake. Sticking occurs opposite permeable formations.->c. A small clearance between casing and borehole is conducive to /Wall sticking because it tends to increase casing/film cake contact area.:~~~>""""". Without such treatment. API has developed recommended practices for the care and use of casing32 and has defined the principal causes of trouble in otherwise properly designed casing strings. can be restarted after the casing becomes stuck. 10-Defects Obtaining an effective casing/cement installation requires proper inspection.31 and others. . borehole doglegs and corrosion.29 B c CASING FAILURE CAUSES rolled into the pipe wall at the mill. Muds are available which provide cakes with lower coefficients of friction. change-over of fluids and/or mechanical cake removal techniques. have identified a variety of potential casing failures such mill defects. Circulation. Principalcauses of connection failures B c Fig. Most of these causes for leaking joints can be avoided through proper inspection and make-up practices. see below."'*. Seam was detected by magnetic particle inspection. . This contact area can be reduced by using centralizers and/or designing the well to have a larger borehole. 11-Longitudinal imperfections in new pipe. . . Principal causes of failure in otherwise properly designed casing strings A . This helps identify sticking. . etc."* . as opposed to wall caving.

Dec. and Carter. ".' Trans. and Farris. Seams . pp. .resented at 48th Annual Fall MeetinJI SPE of AIME. R. Schuh. 192. B. K. J. "World Oil's Sand Control Handbook. · Bearden. B.y. May 1962. H.. J.. and McLean. ISMcCauley. transverse cracks A Casing joints containing such imperfections may be identified and segregated by non-destructive testing and inspection techniques. P. "Failures in The Bottom Joints of Surface and Intermediate Casing Strings. PI'. 65-68. I.. J. and Shore. 265-274. '.\. L. LITERATURE CITED 'Farrisl R. D." B&W Publication. 1972. 231. 13-Example of eccentric pipe that failed in collapse because one side was too thin. Tenth Edition. G. 175-168. . . "Dellinger. 1964.. Sept. Amarillo. Germany. the Critical Period. 607-61'7. Eccentricity . AIME (1951'). " Casner. F. Houston. . D.'! SPE Paper 4088. 29Annis. 1301'-1314. B. use of thread compounds. J. longitudinal cracks Upset." The Oil and Gas Journal. "Preventing Instability in PartiallyCementea Intermediate Casing Strings. 1069-1075. Evans. January 1968. T. The etched and enlarged sample in Photo C is a wall cross section through an arc weld with a hook-crack that has penetrated the pipe 00. D.. J. F. 18Suman. O._' Trans. W. July 15. 1972 Deep Drilling Symposium.Mill defects in casing. S C. Coated Casing-A Technique for Improved Cement Bonding. The example in Photo B illustrates a transverse crack on the pipe upset with a grind mark showing penetration. 10-13. R. B.::. .. p. soHelmick. G. 225-242. June 1974. 4-. "Oxford... The Oil and Gas Journal. March 1975. PI'. " Calvey. J. Jr. . AIME (1946). "Primary Cementing.. PI'." Paper SpE 3043. 33-38. Sep. G. . Morgan. "Spot Fluid QUIckly to Free Differentially Stuck Pipe." Journal of Petroleum Technology (November 1968). and Harriman D. D. H. and McEver. and Mona~han." APi DrillinK and Production Practice (1. "Outmans.. J. AIME (1'958). 8-11. Imperfections that penetrate over 5% and less than 12%% of the wall thickness must be removed by grinding. C. shown approximately in decreasing likelihood of occurrence are as follows: Defects found in new casing . "Casing Designs and Programs Considered in the Anadarko Basin.. 1949. Barkis. iI.. "A Look at Cement Bond Logs. H. API rilling and Production Practice (1964)." Journal of Petroleum Technology (July 1974).. 165. The remaining joint continues to meet API specifications if it is within one of the permitted API length ranges. L. W. B." Trans. Although such imperfections may not actually lower a casing joint's burst. 1'i6. "Bond of Cement Compositions for Cementing Wells. 93-1\)1. hydrostatic pressure testing and landing practices. C. 169-1'76. 739. Rolled-in-slugs . W. AIME (1%4). W. Oct. W. and Longley. W. Imperfections may be found in new casing as delivered by a mill.. WORLD OIL 1977 13 .. W. 11Godfrey. 165-1/0. Figs. · Oliphant." API Drilling and Production Practice (1953).." Houston. Coming next month: Casing inspection and handling. E. 1 Scott." API Drilling and Production Practice (1964).. "Pressure Differential Sticking of Drill Pipe and How It Can Be Avoided or Relieved. (1975). H. p. H. "New Technique for Improving Cement Bond. Otherwise the portion containing the defect must be cut off.. etc. API specifies that high strength casing (P-llO) be inspected by non-destructive test methods at the mill. and Howard. March 1966. and Peterson G. San Antonio. G. W. · Becker. 170. 47th Annual Fall Meeting.. . W.. June 10-26. Cheatham. p. K. However. joint make-up. "A Modified Low-Strength Cement. (April 19/4). 15. T.. PI'. G. I. 537-543.. 12-Types of cracks occasionally found in new pipe. PI'. G. G." Trans. Gouges . and Lane." Gulf Publishing Co. Roberts. R. · Evans G. Examples of the above imperfections are shown in accompanying photographs taken during field inspections. pp. Photo A is a longitudinal. W. 55-61. 7-14. 30'texter. Pilkington P. "CasinR Buckling in ProducinJt Intervals.966). PI'. 45th Annual Fall Meeting. PI'. "Method for Determining Minimum Waiting-on-Cement Time.. "Engineered Cementing Operations to Elimmate WOC Time. 11-12. Sixth World Petroleum Congress. "API Southern District Tubular Goods Committee Summary of Inspection for Period Jan. G. G. E." SPE Paper 4606 !.. 1'1'." Petroleum Engineer. Jr. and Methven.. the joint is considered to meet API specifications.. W. 1972. Frankfurt. . "Differential Pressure StickingLaboratory Studies of Friction Between Steel and Mud Filter Cake. PI'. 43-47." Trans. 8 Ferd W.. D. J. collapse or tensile strength below acceptable limits because of size... "Care and lIandin/( of High-Stren/(th Tuhular Goods. 3. and Scott. 12Ben. . lvl. "Oil-Well Casing and Tubing Troubles. Pits Plug scores Weld area cracks External. A. "lVlcchanics of Differential Pressure Sticking of Drill Collars." Paper SPE 3909. AI ME (1947). and b Carter. "Improved Casing Cementing." 11Suman. and Dumbald. Bearden. Laps . F." API Driling and Production Practice (1955). 11963to Jan. K. 72. J. p. PI'.. I. PI'. D. p. 1973." API Drilling and Produc/lon Practice (1957). T. N.. 26Outmans. "CasinK Damage from Gun Perforators." Journal of Petroleum Technology (May 1965). This is caused by a layering in the plate edge that turns toward the surface (10 or 00) during welding." Proc. 7. F..~ ) B C Fig. A." Journal of Petroleum Technol0y. G. . W'l" "Behavior of Casing Subjected to Salt Loading. H. Such imperfections. l' 17. E." Journal of Petroleum Technology. H. "PlanninJI Workovers in Wells witlt Fault-Damaged Casing_-South Pass i!1ock 27 I"ield. L. "Laboratory Tests on Collapse Resistance of Cemented Casing. B. V. "Casing Damage Caused by Jet Perforating. Personal Communication. E. Fig. Spurlock". 1. PI'. "Godfrey. Jr. PI'. "Control and Prevention of Inter-Zonal ~Iow. "Effect of Jet Perforating on Bond Strength of Cement. Oct. G." Journal of Petroleum Technology. "Evans..]. if the imperfection can be removed by grinding and the remaining wall thickness is equal to or greater than 87%% of the specified wall thickness. J. O." API Drilling and Production Practice (1196'r) . " Dalrymple." API Drilling and Production Practice (1961).. 213." API RP 5Cl. 36. and Brace R.. W. "A Study of Some Factors Affecting Gun Perforating. API conservatively considers an imperfection to be a defect if it penetrates deeply enough so that less than 87~% of specified wall thickness remains. 579-584. '0 Owsley. 1974. 1970. "Shear Prevention in the Wilmington Field. B. orientations. 36-Oct. external crack detected by magnetic particle inspection. T~3.. Las Vegas. ::2API Recommended Practice for Care and U!"c of Casing and Tubing." API Drilling and Production Practice (1962). "Bonding Studies of Cementing Compositions to Pipe and Formations. PI'..

President.) system illustrates how flux diversion detects seams...4% of the joints tested leaked. rig site or mill i~ Pipe handling: Recommended procedures for transporting and running casing. WORLD OIL 1977 . 14 ~G' MAGNETIC SOURCE 1([lIQ PIPE Fig. or poor running practices. more severe environments emphasize the need for strict attention to casing quality control and handling before cementing. Seams. and techniques and principles of non-destructive inspection in the pipe yard. improper connection make-up. Project Engineer.for optimum connection performance. Ellis. In one study. Houston 15-second summary How electronic inspection at the mill.35 usually as a result of: Metallurgical flaws. CASING INSPECTION Casing inspection can mean anything from visual rig crew checks of pipe body and threads while running. oriented along pipe axis. N-ao detected by inspection. Pipe handling discussion tells why torque cOlitrol alone is inadequate for thread make-up. to extensive non-destructive inspection (NDI) of each joint. rig floor practices to avoid slip and tong damage ~ Casing make-up: Functions of threads and thread compounds in sealing-off fluids.34. Before-and-after photo of 5V2casing segment. and ~ Rig floor connection testing: Internal and external hydrostatic tests for leakage. hydrostatic testing. pipe yard or rig site finds serious metallurgical defects. 32. Obviously in this example. The cost for NDI of pipe body and end areas varies with location and other factors. LONGITUDINAL IMPERFECTION SEARCH COIL TRANSDUCER recommendations. field casing inspection. as shown in the table on following page.Cementing oil and gas wells Part 2-Casing inspection and pipe handling methods. 14-Magnetic particle inspection defines mill imperfections that are otherwise not visible. shows how seam in the metal was inch. generally. search coil (EDFSC. including: i~ Casing -inspection methods: Need for. 14.000 casing joints inspected did not meet API specifications because they contained defects. Fig. an example is shown in the with-and-without magnetic particle inspection of the same section of pipe. including threads and couplings. and systems to control make-up . visual inspection alone would not be adequate. including thread make-up control. Many casing problems are directly related to casing condition existing prior to cementing/a. landing practices George o. etc.and Richard C. over 5% of 33. Jr. In another example. This article tells what can be done to prevent the running of defective casing. 15-Schematic of transverse electromagnetic-diverted-flux. casing landing practices. Axial load in slips is explained as are hydrostatic rig floor tests for connection leaks and landing practices to correct for future load changes. Completion Technology Co. damage in transit or on location. Suman. But. cost for complete inspection of casing is less than 10% of total casing cost. factors affecting torque Fig. rolled-in-slugs and eccentricity are some imperfections that are not visible without aid of some type of NDI. and results of. how thread configuration affects test application. rig floor testing revealed 1. HIGHER EQUIPMENT and service costs and the trend towards completion of iWells in deeper.

. $* Total cost End BodyPercent of casing cost. . . .60 13% 9% 7 5!h 19.. as shown helow: Number of defects by casing grade Pipe manufacturers have extensive quality control procedures. Note: API defines a defect as any imperfection that effectively reduces the wall thickness of any grade pipe to less than 871'2% of the specified wall thickness.38 Over 80% of the problems included in the a:bove study originated in the mill. ..465 0. ...7 109 1. .0 Total defects 82 3...38 Most manufacturers utilize in-line NDI equipment.70 13.. . C-75.connectionImperfections Casing Size 4!h 5 5!h 7 70/8 90/8 Seam Ext Int 71 86 64 78 162 14 3 10 1 3 Lap Ext Int 11 117 156 99 21 60 2 41 4 4 2 2 Roll-Inslug Ext Int 1 24 43 46 14 53 20 1 2 . .. .861 5.sing Size..2 1. .. . However. . Percent. . N-BO.861 joints of a total 33.562 External bodywall 116 287 354 271 124 305 36 2 2 1.0 24..2 1.45 5.874 2. approx.. in highstrength casing (such as P-11 0) an imperfection penetrating 5% or more of the specified wall thickness must be removed by grinding. . ... 132 Connection 2 266 109 94 64 220 22 22 1 1 801 Drift. 18 Pit Ext 23 31 51 6 10 Int 3 2 6 5 1 Gouge Ext Int 32 11 24 6 2 10 Crack. Casing of all grades was included in the study. . no action is required for imperfections that do not classify as defects. In.. f. .. 1975/1976..6 719 3. and API specifications call for nearly 30 separate tests during the manufacture of casing.. . .. . .001 100.377 5.. . P-llO... ..54%) failed to meet API specifications.. Percent. WORLD OIL 1977 15 ... .. wall area per foot* K-55 0.. ** Typical casing costs. 19 Plntt Mfg Hdg 7 23 1 6 55 9 2 4 41 57 23 94 13 17 Coupllngtt Hdg Mfg 251 37 18 34 49 5 1 1 396 53 4 8 18 1 22 10% 11% 16 20 6 1 1 9 1 3 3 1 1 130/8 Total 575 17 466 53 204 121 17 85 8 101 251 * Source: AMFTuboscop.. . No.41 9.48 3. .629 8.. .369 6.. ..00 14.. .o..ereports to several operators on new casinginspection in various yard and field locations. .. . grades were mostly N-80 or higher. . . Jan. ...536 100. compiled over a 12-month period in 1975/1976.4 :::::: Percent.0 7.lengths Inspected 934 4.. .6 808 2. type of Imperfectlon** Casing Size 4!h 5 5!h 7 7% 9% 10% 11% 13% 16 20 Total No. 40 I lengths.60 4. Percent. . .421 4. casing costs Typical Inspection costs per length... t Includes 1-3 lengths of wronggrade or wrongweiht. .59 3..861 Descriptionof bodywall. .682 Total defective lengths 40 467 373 259 152 479 59 26 3 3 1. tt Analysisof connectiondamage by manufactureror 10handling. eccentric 33 17 104 1 26 1 Total Imperfect 118 642 509 517 205 596 63 26 3 3 2..497 Internal bodywall 52 25 26 4 20 4 1 .06 7.. .. . however.b. .37. .. . other. .612 0.. lengths Inspected 2.. .36. ..40 * Range3 casing. It is estimated that only 15-20% of oil field casing and tubing is currently inspected by inde- New casing inspection results* Location.. . . othef defect 41 1. Only such "imperfections" are included in the table. .147 1.95 4.othert 4 4t 22t 12t 25t 1 2 70 182 Thlnwall... .. 46 5 12 2 .. S-95.. 1977.. . Total. see table below: Need for inspection.cut Ext Int 1 12 14 5 3 10 1 . ..416 75 1...... .772 7...68 4. pipe mill** N-80 2. ..7 402" 5. " An additional821 "imperfections" were noted for this grade. However.50 4.6 658 2.. .562 100. .7 1. ...5 Body defects 41 1.491 0. ** SeeAPI definitionof 'imperfection"and"defect" in text..... .39 Ca. .109 114 123 33...36 In lower casing grades.32 p-no 2.90 12. And such inspections are required for P-1IO grade casing. ...... ... . .1 End afea.. . a study of an independent service company's casing inspection statistics. .562 inspected (5... .0 293 4. the remainder was handling damage.Inspection costs vs. . . .. .025 100... . shows that 1.053 3. . . .0 33.70 4..37 5.. . . Industry efforts.23 5. ... Grade K-55 & H-40.

Then as the pipe is inspected. This comparison is a quick and easy. i. it is only qualitative. There are three common arrangements of source and detector for gamma-ray thickness gaging. or for inspection of used tubulars. In critical applications where thick-wall casing is used. variation in the balance is an indication of metallurgical change. like the stripe on a barber's pole." whereas. additional inspection with internal magnetic particle techniques. as the path of investigation is a helical trace around the circumference. a radiation wall thickness measuring device. II -:':- _ \. ~ Non-destructive inspection techniques. The semiautomatic non-destructive inspection units that many inspection companies have developed feature: Two electromagnetic-diverted-flux. positive identification of grade change. 15 and 16. However. that penetrate 12~% or more of the specified wall thickness on a "go. 17-Radiation wall thickness measurement uses a highly focused beam to irradiate the casing wall as system rotates around pipe. these are also defects. or other special methods. tional speed of the single-wall system can be faster than backscatter or double~wall systems. cut through these diverted flux fields and generate electrical impulse. These systems are used to detect imperfections in the pipe body as the pipe moves through the NDI unit at a constant speed. grease. and between detector and pipe /Wall. an independent inspection company usually adjusts equipment to a higher level of sensitivity.e. increase or decrease in grade. TRANSVERSE IMPERFECTION EDFSC system used to LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD Fig.40 These systems are sensitive to distance between pipe wall and source. Rota16 ROTATION GAMMA SOURCE OETECTOR / SHIELD RADIATION BEAM SINGLE-WALL BACKSCATTER THROUGH DOUBLE-WALL SHIELD THROUGH SINGLE-WALL Fig. These particle accumulations are visually located. It does not define either magnitude of metallurgical change or direction of change. where mixing of grades may have occurred. This system induces eddy current into the pipe which is adjusted until balance is achieved with the standard.36. thread compounds. cuts. 38 SEARCH COIL TRANSDUCER ELECTRIC COIL ~. This system is not used to detect cracks. Drawings indicate three common arrangements of source and detector (after Kahil). Wall thickness of 0.within API specifications. Pipe movement vs. magnetic flux field energy level. search coil (EDFSC) testing systems. Prior to inspection.315 to 14-inch aD. A large number of variables affect EDFSC sensitivity. Various units have inspection or scanning speeds that vary from less than 30 seconds to over 60 seconds. This system is most commonly used for inspection in the yard and at the rig. The technique is very sensitive and even different heats of pipe of the same grade can be detected. or change of weight betiween different joints of the same grade. shape and orientation of the search coil with respect to the imperfection and direction of diverted flux field. End area magnetic particle inspection is a procedure separate from those performed by the NDI unit. all three systems can detect general wall thickness variation. Specific combinations of the controllable variables are proprietary information of inspection companies. to a dry surface. The radiation source and detection equipment does not come in contact with the pipe being inspected. pipe yard or mill. shoulders or other imperfections breaking the contour of the threads. then relies on detailed examination of the imperfection to determine if it is . The end area being inspected must be cleaned with a solvent. Principles of EDFSC systems are illustrated in Figs. rotational speed of the gamma-.41 And. Precise alignment must be maintained to avoid inaccurate readings. A magnetic flux field is induced into the wall of the pipe. shape and orientation of an imperfection. Flux diversion or leakage occurs through air near the pipe surface. as defined by API. Radiation wall thickness measuring is an efficient method for inspecting oil field tubulars for general (not localized) wall thickness variations like eccentricity within a joint. except that dry iron powder that is "sprayed" onto the surface is magnetically attracted to flux leakage occurring at imperfection. no-go basis.ray unit affects the percentage of pipe actually scanned. per Range 3 length. One possible reason that manufacturers' NDI does not discover all problems is that sensitivity of plant equipment is adjusted to detect defects. pits or other surface imperfections. This field flows in one direction and diverts around imperfections. threads should be visually examined for tears. etc. and an electronic metal comparitor. Units are available that can handle tubulars of 1. may be required. Most units are portable and can be used at the well site. 17. 16-Schematic of longitudinal detect transverse imperfections. However. while WORLD Oil 1977 .e. to prevent powder accumulations on moisture.'. Electronic metal comparitors electronically compare the grade of pipe being inspected with a grade standard. Fig. i. between source and detector. This method is based on the same diverted magnetic flux principles of the EDFSC system.pendent service companies utilizing NDI techniques.. Search coils.75-inch or more reduces EDFSC sensitivity to internal body wall defects. The recorded magnitude and pattern of these impulses indicate imperfections.

Lack of space at the !Well site may preclude use of NDI. adjacent to threads Near coupling or box end Indicates Meets API specs Imperfections not repaired API Std 5AX Imperfections repaired as per API std 5AX ID imperfections. However. At least two of the larger service companies provide technical seminars for operating company personnel. Planning for well site equipment and pipe rack arrangements should include the well site inspection program. with high strength (P-IlO) casing. hardness. When NDI units indicate presence of an imperfection. CASING HANDLING During the past 40 years. it represents common practices used by most inspection companies. diameter. Some units have single pass capability while others require pipe to pass through the unit in both directions. imperfections on the pipe's outer diameter are measured by grinding to the base of the imperfection. Mechanical measurements are made to verify that joint lengths meet industry specifications and/or will be satisfaotory for a specific application. Inspection equipment must be maintained in excellent operating condition to provide consistently accurate results. 32. Thus. there is no commonly used. Pipe thaJt has been inspected is usually identified by stenciled information and color coded bands. Ultrasonic wall thickness instruments use a compression-wave source and a detector to spot check wall thickness. How to find imperfection depth. and people operating the units have to be competent.36 However. it is extremely difficult to do a good inspection job on casing ends that overhang the mud pit. etc. Occasionally independent company inspection is conducted at the pipe mill. Inspection close to the pipe source cuts the cost of transporting defective pipe. clamping systems. Unfortunately. In application. if it is only cleaning and visual inspection by the rig or casing crew and application of compound to pin and coupling threads prior to running. the pipe complies with APJ. Methods for specifying and inspecting these types of materials are available in the literature. 39 Such tests can he conducted anywhere. Further examination of imperfections is required to determine if they arein fact-a defect. above right. For example. zig-zag pattern Length fails to pass API drift mandrel Where to inspect pipe. sand blasting will improve magnetic particle inspection sensitivity. magnetic particle inspection. While this is not an official code. the pipe rack arrangement and casing location should he compatible with the inspection program and NDI unit capability.38 The ultrasonic wall thickness spot check device is usually used to determine remaining wall thickness. oil or antifreeze that contain no gas. And occasionally when a larger than standard drift diameter is desired. non-destructive method to thoroughly examine imperfections on the internal diameter surface. is frequently required. depths cannot be measured accurately ID or OD defects that fail API acceptance specs Defective box or pin as per Orange. Preliminary planning greatly reduces time required for well 'site inspection. Also. as"defined earlier.32 But casing is still subjected to damaging handling practices in many locations. Significant industry effort !Was expended to develop C-75 grade materials for severe sour gas environments. Move casing only when thread protectors are in place 17 .it is not always essential. The stencil usually states who did what type of inspection and when. Hardness testing is commonly used to verify a restricted range of yield strength for casing that is to be used in sour (H2S) environments (except C-75 grade casing which has been manufactured for this application). a liquid couplant-like water. Some of the more important handling practices are shown in the following table. More complete handling procedures are documented in the literature. However. special drift mandrels are used to cull the pipe stock. In any case. any imperfection .w casing occur on the outer diameter as a consequence of the manufacturing process. If 87Y2% of the specified wall thickness remains.31. Once located. in any grade. An extra pipe rack may simplify the job. These instruments can be accurate to + O. as was described. choice of location 'should be based on operator control of pipe prior to well site delivery.that penetrates 5% or more of the wall thickness must be removed by grinding. recommendations for proper care and use of casing have been defined and encouraged by APJ. 43 Recommended casing handling practices . consistently accurate data are difficult to obtain in less than lab type environments. Length. When NDI units are to be u'sed at the site. However. some type of inspection is required at every well. The operator should demand optimum performance. This and other special inspections requested by an operator should be performed in the pipe yard or mill to avoid transporting a large number of unusable lengths. less than 5% of the defects in the major study previously discussed are internal.005-inch when the sonde is properly coupled to the pipe.42 Identification bands. well site inspection minimizes the running of casing that was damaged after yard or mill inspection. Accuracy will depend on surface preparation. WORLD OIL 1977 Recommended inspected tubular goods identification Type paint band White Yellow Yellow and white Blue Red Red Location Near box Near box Near box Near box Near box Around coupling. Although this is a disadvantage. solids or fibrous materials -is applied to the clean pipe surface and the ultrasonic sonde is pressed firmly against the moistened pipe. it is not a significant problem as most surface metallurgy imperfections in ne. . The most common locations for non-destructive casing inspection are pipe yards and well sites. to locate the imperfection in the pipe body.

Where casing is gripped by wedges or tapered elements with slip-type equipment.+ tan a I-p. weight and grade of casing. 18. Critical axial load (Fe) for slip-type equipment.2) for lubricated hardened steel against hardened steel at the slip-bowl interface. 7 po= 0. configuration and symbols used in calculating load where radial force starts to deform the for adequate length and bearing area to minimize damage. where permanent deformation of the casing occurs. It also prevents the running of a joint with a restrictive ID. pipe threads can be damaged SLIP' BOWL ANGLE (a) . The torque gage should be reliable and in calibration so that irregularities in torque required for casing make-up can be observed. use a rope sling to control pipe momentum and prevent pipebanging after rolling down the skids. psi A = Cross sectional area of the pipe body. The development of power tongs in the 1940s provided the means for improving make-up practices as well as reducing rig time required to run casing. To minimize this damage. Vertical alignment should be maintained and the casing should be rotated very slowly at first to assure thread alignment. = Crushing factor = 1/ 1 + L + (L ) J And: r = Outside casing radius.2 (usually) Fe (lbs.000 pounds. it should be set aside until positive identification can be made. Radial force (W) is related to axial load (F) by slip geometry and the coefficient of friction (p.aX F = Slip bowl taper angle. The joint then should be lowered carefully to avoid thread damage. the WORLD OIL 1977 For a given size. L = Slip gripping length.tan. Slips should all lower together and seat properly in the slip bushing or bowl. [ rK rK 2 1/2 CASINGMAKE-UP I TORQUE The thread protectors should not be removed until joint is ready to be stabbed into the box end of the preceding joint. Do not unload pipe by dropping. K = Transverse load factor = 2. and . When unloading by hand. Even with protectors in place. N-80 casing.606 (T = Fe= 0. It is critical that the casing be gripped so that no permanent deformation results from the gripping forces. This relationship is W (lbs. Design details identifying various weights and grades for each section of the string should be available. the bearing surface should be inspected to be sure that the load will be uniformly distributed. casing strings where collar-pull elevators are used. In rare instances where odd-size casing is required. slip length (L) is the primary variable controlling critical load. in good repair and they should be selected to fit casing OD closely. Running casing. 47 pound/foot. sand or other debris free SLIPS .606 X 13. Side load on a collar could "jump" the collar off. Slip-type elevators and spiders are recommended for long casing strings. Casing ID can readily be checked (drifted) as it is pulled into the derrick. lightweight. Fig. based on acC cepted API slip bowl taper of 2 inches per foot and minimum coefficient of friction (0. Slip marks should be examined periodically for uniform impressions. The back-up line should be positioned on the back-up post so tong gripping surfaces exert an even load and minimum bending force on the casing. slips should be clean.44 axial load (F) due to casing lWeight tightens the gripping elements with radial force (W) due to wedging action of slips in the tapered bore.57 in2 C = 0. Axial loads in slips. However. by dropping a drift mandrel through the joint.57X 80.) Where: a = p. using 14-inch slips: A 13. in. as in Fig.. For short. Tong dies should be examined for wear prior to running casing. is determined as follows: 45 RADIAL FORCE (W) . special slips should be provided. Drifting at this time removes any debris that could interfere with cementing equipment. If weight and grade of a joint cannot be clearly identified. Use spreader-bar and choker-chain arrangement near each end to prevent crushing when handling bundles of casing joints with a crane . 18-Slip critical axial casing. in2 Slip marks damage the integrity of high strength or sour service casing. Avoidall rough handling.000psi.) between slip and bowl.636. The back-up line must be lined up at a 90-degree angle to the power tongs to obtain an accurate indication from a torque gage that measures tension in the back-up line. AXIAL LOAD (F) Fig. Slips used for heavy casing 'Strings should be checked 18 = 80.) = C X A X Where (T (T = yield strength of the casing. Store or rack casing only on wooden or metal surfaces of rocks. Example calculation: For 9%-inch.000 = 657. in.

Therefore. Make-up control (Torque-Turn). then 2. as joint make-up and thread compound. over 30 years ago. Buttress thread connections have triangles stamped on the pin ends. Pressure tests have shown that marked variation in sealing ability exists between different brands of API Modified thread compounds as well as with specialty compounds. thread compounds and the size. 51 And when API conducted tests that measured ~! :tTW~. Sealing ability-as well 8. resilient Teflon seal. development of power tongs made it very convenient to use torque as the only guide for make-up control. the API Southern District Tubular Goods Committee conducted a survey of tubular string failures. Fig. When using API RP 5C1 recommended make-up torque tables. variations in thread design. They can have both shouldering and non-shouldering connections with "metal-to-metal" seals. the recommended torque values listed in API RP 5CI are calculated from the following relation: TRIANGLE STAMP[> . on the basis of friction and leak resistance characteristics. 19.) = 0. use API Modified thread compound and observe the make-up position of each connection. Proper make-up is achieved when the coupling face is opposite any portion of the triangle. Continually observe make-up position for verification of proper make-up. forms several metal-to-metal seals. and that solids from thread compound fiU the void space between the threads.).49. is encouraged. The two most important factors that influence leak resistance of threaded pipe joints were identified. surface finish.01 Minimum joint strength (lbs.VANISHING POINT \c / MAKE-UP The API round thought to contain thread pullout strength formula was several variables that affect make-up torque. Use of different compounds can cause make-up torque variations of up to 500%. Make-up control with this system involves pre-setting 19 . In 1967. API recommends: 1. Careful selection of compounds for each set of conditions. WORLD OIL 1977 API RP 5C1 further states that torque W8.33 This survey (still the only comprehensive study published) showed that 86% of reported casing failures occurred in connections." practice of using torque alone as the means for make-up control was never intended by API. 19.~~RE~D I TURNS OK HANDTlGHT POWERTIGHT MAKEUP BEARING PRESSURE API ROUND THREAD <J ! I I I MAKE-UP OPPOSITE ANYiPART OF STAMP OK torque required to make up API 8 round threaded connections lubricated with API Modified thread compound. the pin should be stressed to about the yield point to obtain maximum leak resistance. For clean. attempting to develop more precise standards for friction and leak resistance performance. damage-free threads. For Buttress threads. Torque required to properly make-up connections depends primarily on friction between pin and box threads.46 Non-API connections. it was found-emperically-that these torque values were about 1% of the calculated pullout strength. Fig. to force the pin and box mating surfaces together. but 3. These solids are required to transmit bearing pressure from one threaded surface to the other. Fig.49. An API subcommittee is currently reviewing thread compound standards. 19. Use that torque to make-up the balance of the same weight and grade pipe in the string. These characteristics should be clarified by discussions with both pipe and Iu b r i can t manufacturers. The connection seal is maintained only as long as bearing pressure is greater than the internal or external differential pressure. HANDTIGHT BUTTRESS THREAD Fig. However.52 Such large variations indicate that. Obtaining a pressure seal in connections that rely on metal-to-metal sealing requires make-up.'Sthe influence on friction-of different thread compounds varies greatly. Torque (ft. Two methods for making such measurements will be discussed. Although it was never intended. Determine torque required to make-up each of several connections to the proper position.48 and latest data on premium thread designs are available from manufacturers or COMPOSITECATALOG.52 Torque-Turn make-up control device.5o A precise make-up procedure is required to achieve these maximum leak resistance conditions. During 1963.43 The basic sealing principle for API 8 round threaded connections.46 is that contact (bearing) pressure between pin and box. an auto- mated make-up monitoring system for API type connections that cross-checks torque with turns (make-up position) to determine connection acceptability. produced by make-up. make-up torque is significantly affected by type of thread compound. to establish maximum bearing pressure between pin and box mating surfaces-and not risk overstressing pin or box-a more accurate means of measuring make-up (than torque alone) is required. lbs. 19-Thread configuration and basic make-up positions of API 8 round and Buttress threads (after API Spec 5A). Such connections employ several different basic types of thread designs. This keeps the connection in the ela:stic stress range and produces the maximum amount of bearing pressure between mating surfaces for leak resistance. Several different types of nonAPI tubular connections are commonly U'sed. while other connections rely on a 'Supplementary. weight and grade of pipe all interact and influence make-up torque.'S selected to give optimum make-up of API 8 round connections under normal conditions and should be considered satisfactory only if the face of the coupling is within plus or minus two thread turns of the last thread scratch (vanishing point). API torque recommendations.. Theoretically. Exxon began licensing its newly developed 47. Descriptions of these have been reported in the literature. Effect of thread compounds.

left. The location of the gage on the threads is checked per API Standard 5B. . When casing is run. tion of the differential pressure and connection geometry.-"". visual inspection of a leaking connection is not possible with external testing. Fig. ui a: ::> en en w a: Q. right (courtesy AMF Tuboscope). : I I B(BEARING PRESS. T (PIN) P(INTERNAL) Fig. There are advantages and disadvantages of both internal and external testing. These torque and turns settings vary with size. Insufficient make-up (position-wise) due to damaged or defective threads or seal surfaces can result in low initial bearing pressure even with apparently adequate torque. 20. and e is a function of connection geometry. internal or external. AT SEAL POINT) . Tools are currently available that provide for internal testing of up to 8%-inch casing. and make-up position is verified on the rig floor using calibrated window in special card. however. Fig. t r I I I I I I I I Ie P (EXTERNAL) CASING OD . Reference marks. is initial bearing pressure from make-up in the metal-metal inner seal. the internal system can test the entire joint. and external testing of up to 16-inch casing. Conversely. 21. PE and p. collars made-up in the mill should utilize the same control so that the first-half of the connection is not disturbed. The length of time that test pressure is held on the WORLD OIL 1977 . API ring and plug gages are run on both threads to the hand-tight plane using a power driven tool with controlled torque. e approaches zero and the energizing effect of pressure in either direction is not significant. minimum and high turns. non-premium connections. 21. A new make-up control system recently developed by AMF Tuboscope provides a method to evaluate the condition of pin and box threads before casing is run into the well. increase in external pressure has very little energizing effect on the seal. are theoretical external or internal pressures required to initiate a leak at the seal. Torque reference marks are inscribed around pipe circumference and coupling if the relative position of the hand tight plane agrees with API. test procedures used may be of more importance than the test method. In such connections. When thicknesses are nearly equal. -c' I) : I I _____ I """. then are applied to pin and box. as in API connections. minimum and maximum torque.. Thread compound is applied and cleaned thread protectors are replaced. But the same pressure differential. for example. In this thin-pin. Hydrostatic tests have been proven capable of detecting (on the surface) connections that will leak under pressure. in turn. B. and measure connection make-up. For API. and low. RIG FLOOR LEAK TESTS Hydrostatic testing of casing connections on the rig floor is a technique used to prove leak resistance of connections. . in which pin and collar thickness difference is less significant.S. External testing. Torque is recorded on a chart and used to verify proper thread engagement and make-up. each connection is made up to a specified torque load and the distance between pipe and coupling reference marks is checked with a special gage card on which the mark shows in an "acceptance window" when proper make-up position is achieved. the metal is much thinner in the pin than in the collar. right. thread compound and type of connection. steel mills for installing collars.-. Therefore. Specific setting are considered proprietary information of various licensees. thick-collar situation. The system is available in most U. Such a detectable leak could easily result in a casing leak downhole. On the curve representing the thin-pin. 21-Energizing effect of pressure applied across a connection.. if specified. -. thick-box connection in the drawing. higher internal pressure "energizes" the otherwise insufficient seal by expanding the pin into the box. Where the system is to be used on the rig floor. 2D-New make-up control system uses controlled-power unit. Then. increasing bearing pressure. To prevent leakage. to run ring and plug gages to "hand-tight" positions to check pin and box thread quality. for example: The small fluid volume used in external testing increases sensitivity and shortens test time. 53 To apply AMF's Torque at Proper Engagement (TAPE) control system. Fig. ternal pressure would detect the problem. This new development will be available initially in California. weight and grade of casing. has an "energizing" effect on the bearing pressure that can alter the true leak resistance of the connection. And this effect varies greatly with direc20 Fig.of reference. I I Q. at the sealing point. Double-end make-up is used when the mill provides collars separately or "hand-tight" (floating) which need to be made-up on the rig floor.. protectors are removed and threads are cleaned. P. The system can accommodate single-end or double-end connection make-up. connection bearing pressure must exceed pressure differential from either direction. Also. 20. Fig. can be more effective in detecting leaks in premium type connections that have a metal-to-metal seal surface at or near the tip of the pin. Connection geometry has a significant effect on whether a connection is more subject to leaking due to high internal or high external pressures.'~"_.. a lower ex- Test procedures.

require even more careful evaluation and perhaps specialized landing practices. ultra deep. And the strip chart can be retained as a permanent record of test time and leaks found. 51 sets. 31"API Specification for Restricted Yield Strength Casing and Tubing.. March 1967. Orange Calif. 'because practices vary widely. and/or hold an internal pressure on the casing until cement Increasing height of cement is usually more economical as it requires less rig time. J." World Oil. Second Edition. and location of the permanent (and temporary.Thirty-third Edition. R. Recommended test pressure also varies with application and with operator. in Sour Service. Many leaks have not been detected in less . Most testing companies recommend that test pressure be 80% of pipe yield pressure. W. . Chesney. F. p. LITERATURE CITED F. API 1976 Stand. 30-0cl. "Preventing Instability in Partially Cemented Intermediate casing Strings. Hasha. J. However..55 it is recommended that equipment eaoh job.connection varies widely in practice. "Experience With High Strength Steel Oil Field Tubular Goods. p. 1965. of course.. H. B. presented at the Petroleum Mechanical Engineers Conference..." API Drilling and Production Practice. "1976..e. "External Testing Finds Hidden Connection Leaks. March 1976. T. Ninth Edition. 1946. E. M.lable from Varco Oil Well Tools. D. J. W. D. M. November 1974." Paper 69-Pet-lS. P." report ava. M. . 20-30 seconds (or more) would give. T. E. Equations. Tenth Edition. it is necessary to anticipate changes in downhole conditions that may occur during well life to determine correct adjustments or landing procedure. API Drilling an Production Practices. as do opinions on the subject. Philadelphia. For pressures over 2." World Oil. R. D. . Weiner. . 1969. and Garcia. Tulsa.." API Drilling and rroduchon Practice. 14. '3 Kemler. . October 1969.. Jr. "Thread Leaks in Tubing and Casing Stringo. and McLean. Severe conditions such as arctic (permafrost). P.. M. "Develol'ment of Casin". R. 21~25. Tenth Edition. Sept..6. B. Tulsa. 1967. H. and Taylor D. H... and True. Wellhead loading is affected by: Changes in temperature and pressure. "Relative Sealing Characteristics of Thread Compounds. Grenawalt. Sept.000 psi. Drill Pipe. E. 51Dellinger T.. Use of a strip chart pressure recorder is a simple way to obtain a permanent record of connection testing. "Davis. internal and external fluid weight variations. Holding internal pressure normally results in a net WORLD OIL 1977 21 . 195. September 1973.. Vol. applications in common downhole problems. Tubing and Line Pipe . 21-2S." Paper SPE 4606. '2 Swanson. and Roblin. 1976 p. P. 55Cox. In any case.58 'two methods that can be used to adjust wellhead loading offshore where ocean bottom suspension precludes use of conventional onshore landing practices are: Increase height of the primary cement column. 1973. K. W. 56.. "API Specification for Casing Tubing and Drill Pipe. 629.than 10 seconds. 3." ASME Paper 7S-Pet. i." JPT. or tension." API Spec SAX." API Drilling and Production Practice. Okla." Worla Oil. thermal or geothermal environments." API Paper 926-14-M. 76.42.. classifications. March 1976.. Conf..Thread. L. It can be slacked off to reduce Which procedure is used and to what degree slack-off or tension is added is a function of anticipated changes in wellhead loading that will occur during the life of the well. and Line Pipe Properties.. "Key Factors Affecting Landing of Casing. 51"Formulas and Calculations for Casing. . and procedures be carefully examined before CASING LANDING Casing landing practices should for each well to minimize chances during future ope. Normally. 3. certain problem formations or lost circulation zones may not tolerate high cement columns. and Nippert. And-attempting to duplicate downhole conditionssome testers recommend that pressure be applied and released at least once before performing the test. "Why Drill Pipe Fails in the Slip Area. and Schmieder. W. 19S7. "TAPE Control: The New Reliable Method of Evaluating Threaded Connections and Controlling Makeup. Pl'. B. April 13. special cements for special purposes. "New Technology for Improved Tubular Connection Performance. l?~ 'Automatic Nondestructive Testing of Oil Field Tubular Goods. It allows development of more dependable test duration statistics. . L. Because of an increasing awareness of bonding and micro-annulus problems.. 40Kahil. Nev. J. casing is landed in the wellhead in the position in which it was cemented. Jr. D. Okla. presented March 1969. No. and Reinhold. 38"API Specifications for High-Strength Casing." World Oil. presented at the Fall Meeting of SPE 01 AIME.. Box 6626. Sept. and True.. more reliable results. 3. } are usually implemented: 1. Broussard. 3. Since there are no industry standards for hydrostatically testing casing connections on the rig floor. Tubing." AMF Tuboscope Factsheet. Hamby. and lengthening of casing as the piston effect causes more lengthening than the shortening effect of swelling (ballooning). This "stretch" is cemented in when the cement sets. It can be stretched to increase tension. Las Vegas. . swelling that increases casing diameter slightly may create a micro-annulus between cement and casing when pressure is released after cement has set. B.vvice. "Unique Device Eliminates Leaks in API Connections. R. Practices field may not be appropriate for Three variations be specifically defined of buckling or parting effectively used in one another. 55Eaton. 41Weiner. and that all testing be conducted with the connection in tension. Pallante N.. J. . P." . SS-4:3.. E. if any exists) freeze point (free point).. Gaging and Thread Inspection of Casing.. Sept. "Why High-Strength Tubular Goods Fail" Oil & Gas Journal. 52Weiner. H. presented at the ASME Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Conference. Handling Equipment for Ultra-Deep Gas and Oil Wells. March 1976. Anon." API Standard 5B. "Load and Stability Analysis of Tubular Strings. and Snyder. M. 22S-2S0.. Spiri. "Oil-well Casing Failures. H." JPT.. 1945. N... 1964. P. However. "Detecting Leaks in Oil Field Tubular Connections.. Dallas.77 Tubing Tables" World Oil.." API Spec SA. Texas June 1~-18. January 1976. July 1969. useful nomographs and analytical procedures in the literature can be used to determine appropriate landing procedures. operators in certain geographical areas are reluctant to hold pressure on casing greater than the differential required to support the denser cement column in the annulus. February 1971-. 55Kerr. A. and Sewell. Pa. W. Tubing and Drill Pipe. June 1976. A. "A Method of Obtaining Leakproof API Threaded Connections in High-Pressure Gas Service. and many testers recommend that 10 seconds be the absolute minimum even in low pressure se.ra:tions.. Coming next month: Cement slurry composition. 84. 17-20." presented at the Srmposium on Line Pipe and Tubular Goods. March 1974. types and availability of additives. Leakage depends on time because of the tortuous path fluids may follow through voids between threads and/or because of the slow displacement of viscous but nonsealing thread compound. 275. "as cemented" 2. . also R&D report of Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. p." presented at the Petroleum Branch ASME Meeting. 41"API Specifications for Threading." API Bul 5C3.. "Factors Influencing the Leakage Resistance of Threaded Pipe Joints. S. p. J. p.. Kettenbur~. "Producing Mississippi's Deep High-Pressure Sour Gas. 1975." API Spec 5AC..

Moderate Basic cement. as follows: Cementing oil andgaswells Part 3-How basic cements and additives can be tailored to give desired properties for completion and remedial operations George o.high Coarse grind.000-16. and fineness is the particle size to which a clinker is ground. Mod. coarse grind no chemical retarder. and :~ Special cements: A discussion of salt cement. ft. Suman. with maximum percent of the above chemical components designated...000-14. These materials semi-melt into glass-like balls or clinkers of complex calcium silicate which then are re-ground with gypsum.000 0-6. Because sulfate salts have low solubility at temperatures above 140° F. Soundness is a measure of the expansive properties of a cement. Examples of applications where special cement formulations may be needed are: High pressure gas containment. sulfate resistance is not normally a consideration at that temperature or higher.. It is manufactured from limestone. sand and iron ore. U. GulfCoast &Mid-Continent Resistsstrength retrogression. President. which are finely ground and blended. Available sulfate resistance Ordinary Moderate - Characteristics.. North America Same as D Mod. not avail. tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite.000 0-8. Portland cement consists primarily of: Tricalcium silicate.000-10.high West.high Same as D Mod. California. This article covers these important considerations with discussions of: ~ Basic cement properties: Chemical and physical characteristics. Mod. widely avail. extreme temperatures and lost circulation conditions. and a wide variety of depth and temperature/pressure conditions with addition of accelerators or retarders. Special (construction). how to calculate slurry density. avail..000 Common(construction). clay. temp. Some 40 manufacturers around the world are authorWORLD OIL 1977 . Completion Technology Co. Houston 10-second summary API's classification of basic cements is presented. fineness.000 12. early strength and water addition. CEMENT SLURRY composition can be tailored-by selection of the correct API-classified cement. hydration. no chemicalretarder.BASIC CEMENT PROPERTIES "Neat" oil well cement-the basic powdered material. Canada Ord. without additives-is commonly called "Portland cement" after the small town in England where it was first made.availability 0-6. The function of various cement compositions in typical and special downhole applications is explained. soundness. API also has specifications for certain additives such as bentonite. as manufactured.000 0-8. Particle size can affect setting time.. minimum thickening time. High 2300 F on normal size cement job in well with geothermal gradient of As manufactured. ulations for high/low temperature conditions. high High early strength.800 m). barite and fly ash.000 0-6. Jr. In addition. including: water addition.000-16. avail. early strength. and Richard C.59 The percentage of these components in the final blend can affect early strength. retarded. 22 form- API cement Class A B C 0 E F G H J classes Depth range.000 10. proper use of one or more additives and addition of the desired volume of water-to meet demands of nearly any modern well completion. squeezing and plugging. 1. fine grind.high Basiccement. dicalcium silicate. . high or low density and fluid (filtrate) loss ~ Properties of set cement: How cement composition affects strength and expansion characteristics. it contains free gypsum (CaS04) magnesia (MgO) and lime (CaO).. Cement classifications provided by API for nine classes of cement allow for various pressure/temperature conditions. GO API has developed physical requirements as well. Based The nine classes cover applications to depths of 16. Project Engineer. swelling and cracking during cure and/or rate of hardening. sulfate resistance.600° F. commercial additives are listed and effects of slurry formulation on properties such as thickening time. API has established cement classes. adaptability to modification with accelerators and retarders and availability.50 F per 100 teet. Ellis. yield and cost ~ Cement additives: A listing of what's available under what trade name. minimum compressive strength and free water content. widely avail. mod.. compressive strength and density are discussed.000 6. sulfate resistance. then fired in a rotary kiln to about 2. how additives are used to develop slurry properties such as fast or slow thickening time. .S.min. API classifications and geographical application.000 feet (4.000 10.

8 to 2.... . en w a:: a.. For instance.. F. 22-Compressive Class A. .28 4.. . How to calculate yield.19 6.. To estimate job cost..4 15.0-15. ::. However. ..000 .J: I(!) Z W a:: Ien w > c. .000-foot and 2. Va.3 ppg). two "basic" cement classes can be modified with accelerators or retarders to cover a wide variety of pressure/temperature conditions-Class G (available in Colorado.. .. Water is added to cement to make the slurry pumpable.8 16. still..S.05 1.05 1.. .8 16.28 4. Excess water should be avoided to prevent cement-water stratification. and the resulting mix has reduced strength.. . and provide for hydration (the chemical reaction). E. G.. .. Free water content is usually higher at increased temperature due to thinning. yield and cost can be calculated.~ WATER CONTENT.. For example... U. Box 25286...... Free water can be minimized by: Limiting the amount of mix water. only a few classes are available in a given area.. Service companies can also supply such data..4 16. conversely..4 16.. ... Geological Survey. Depth ratings of cement are based on lab determinations of thickening time and minimum compressive strength development. as follows: Given: . Although only 25% water by weight of cement (Fig.. A recent (1976) compilation of subsurface temperature data by the American Association of Petroleum WORLD OIL 1977 46 46 56 38 38 38 44 38 38-43... .. depth rating might be extended.. as shown below: PUMPABLE 46.61 Thickening time is the time required to reach the approximate upper limit of pumpable consistency.. Since actual geothermal temperature gradient.05 1..000 NOT PUMPABLE 30 Geologists and Uni~ed States Geological Survey has been published in two map sets "Subsurface Temperature Map of North America" and "The Geothermal-Gradient Map of North America... geothermal temperature gradients range from about 0.. D.6 14.. retarded thickening time and excessive free water. Class H is sometimes inadvertently handled like Class A. B..32 4..19 5. Where the gradient is low. ppg* 15.. ft. Colo.. J.17 1.5° F per 100 feet)..000 psi except for 1..'/sk* 1.28 .' Fig.. price per sack is not as important as cost per cubic foot of slurry because the latter varies with yield due to different water contents..... Approximate points for water required for hydration.4° F per 100 feet in various parts of the southeast United States. . per sack cement equal 3.75 per sack 23 .. API requires that Class G and H slurries have less than 1.. bulk weight and water required by the cement-or additive-and cost of the material.. .000-foot simulations) and temperature (based on a geothermal gradient of 1... Minimum compressive strengths are specified after 8 and/or 24-hour curing times for samples subjected to pressure (3.. normal water content is higher to provide for pumpability... Care should be taken to add the proper amount of water for the cement to be used. such ratings will not always be applicable..09-1.28-4.. '" . Arlington. bottom hole circulating temperature and time requirement may differ from those used in the lab to establish depth ratings.... 22202 (or same office.32 1. . o () 8...14 1... .4% top settling (free water) as measured in a 250 ml graduate in two hours. given specific gravity. 1200 South Eads St. Minimum thickening time specifications (and maximum for classes G and H) are based on pumping times from field data. Denver..96 4.. The normal water content differs for various classes according to fineness of grind.... California and Alaska) and Class H (available in Mid-Continent and Gulf Coast). H.. Slurry density.05 1.... "minimum" water and "maximum" water are also indicated.28 4...5 * Based on absolute vol.4 16.. % I 50 Neat cement slurries strength of cement is reduced nearly in proportion to amount of water in slurry. 22) may be needed for hydration (a slurry density of about 18. 80225) at a price of $4 per set. Cement cost is $3.. .6 15.. Federal Center.. depth rating might have to be reduced where the gradient is high.17 ized to use the API monogram for one or more classes of cement.91 Slurry den.. .4 Slurry yld. cost..... C..water 5.. . 4..... and lab tests at elevated temperature are sometimes required..59 gals..17 1. in which samples are subjected to simulated temperature/pressure behavior representative of a large percentage of actual jobs. One sack (one cubic foot) of Class A cement weighs 94 pounds . Percent water I per sack Gals.... adding bentonite in small quantities or selecting and controlling quantity of other slurry additives." These maps are available through the Branch of Distribution.

5.19 gallons of water required per sack . Specific gravity of water is 1.0, density is 8.34 ppg . Specific gravity of cement is 3.15, absolute density is
3.15 X 8.34 ppg

.

= 26.21

ppg, and

A listing of selected additives available from major U.S. service companies is shown in the accompanying table. And the following discussions explain functions of these additives in modifying cement composition. Mud contamination also acts on the slurry to affect some or all of the above properties; these effects will be discussed in a later article.

. One cubic foot equals 7.48 gallons. Then:

. Absolutevolume of cement = 94/26.21 = 3.59 gallons · Weight of water per sack = 5.19 X 8.34 = 43.28 pounds . Absolutevolumeof water = 5.19 gallons.
And:

. Slurry density (3.59 + 5.19)

= 15.6

=

Weight/volume

ppg

=

(94

+ 43.28)

/

. Yield = gals. per sack/gals. per ft.' = 8.78/7.48 = 1.17 ft.' per sack . Slurry cost = $3.75 per sack/I. I? ft.' per sack = $3.21 per it.'
Most slurry additives are expressed as percent by weight of cement. One exception is salt which is expressed as percent by weight of fresh water. When additives such as bentonite are used in the mixture, this calculating method must be expanded. Densities and water requirements of most additives are included in the accompanying table. Service companies can also provide such information to customers, with density and yield already calculated for most mixtures. Another source of information aspects of cement and additives Cementing, by Dwight Smith.62 concerning the chemical is the SPE Monograph,

CEMENT ADDITIVES Almost all cement used in oil and gas wells is Portland cement. However, "neat" cement is seldom used throughout a job as various additions are usually made to modify the following properties of either slurry or set cement:
Slurry Thickening Time Density (yield) Friction during pumping Fluid loss (filtrate) Lost circulation resistance Set cement Compressive strength Strength retrogression Cement strength downhole Expansion

Thickening time. may be varied using accelerators or retarders. The most common accelerators are: Calcium chloride, sodium silicate, sodium chloride (low concentrations), seawater, gypsum and ammonium chloride. Additives that retard are: Calcium lignosulfonate, organic blends, carboxy methyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose (CMHEC), borax, sodium chloride (high concentrations) and most fluid loss agents. Thickening time is a function of both temperature and pressure, Fig. 23.63 Thickening time can also be shortened by interruption of pumping (loss of agitation). And API tests can be done in this manner to simulate actual interruptions during squeezing (tentative). Thus, thickening time of a slurry must be esta:blished for realistic conditions to ensure adequate pumping time for slurry placement. Avoid excessive thickening time to prevent: Delays in resuming drilling operations, settling and separation of cement slurry components, formation of free water pockets, loss of hydrostatic head and gas cutting. Increased water lengthens thickening time of unretarded cement (Classe A, C, G, H). However, with retarded cements (Classes D, E, F) increased water or solids may shorten thickening times by reducing the concentration of retarder.64 Thickening time can be measured using pressurized consistometers. API has developed schedules, for pressure/ temperature increases versus time, that simulate cement placement conditions for different types of cementing operations such as squeeze cementing (also plug back), liner cementing (tentative), casing cementing and alternate hesitation squeeze cementing (tentative). Thickening time tests can also be tailored to individual well condi-

---10 API CLASS AS NOTED

- ----------5,'

8

4 00 a: J: W :2 i= Q :E I-

CLASS A

3

2

2

180°F I 2

14QOF

o 40
60 80 140 160 180

o

I 3

4

5

Fig. 23-Effect of temperature and pressure on thickening time of Portland cement. At atmospheric pressure, left, thickening time is reduced by high temperature. At constant temperature, right, thickening time is reduced by pressure (after Bearden)..'

24

WORLD OIL

1977

Selective products of major U.S. service companies
Product Accelerator
Calcium chloride. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Specific gravity 1.75-1.96 2.16-2.17 2.00 esl. 2.00 esl. 2.62 1.5-1.56 1.23-1.30 1.22 1.26 1.36 2.16-2.17 1.73 5.47 2.65 2.10 2.46 .. 2:66 2.71 2.40

Bulk density, Ibs./ft3 50 70-71 50 esl. 50 esl. 60 35 30 23 .29 70-71 65 .. 60 16.7 74 .. 60 87.0 75 .. 100 135 165-193 150 29 37-40 40 50 50 50 8 43 70 100 40-43 .. 94

Water required, gal./sk None None None None None None None None None
o (up to 0.7%)

Tradename OJ-Hughes A7, A7-l, A6 A-5 A8 DiacelA R-5 R-5 Rll, R14-l R-IOl R6 (Diacell Wl) A-5 Borax .. BJ Gel DiacelD DiamlxF (74#) DiamixA (47#) .. Trinity ll. WI. lodense Frac sand 20/40 W-l W-5 .. R-6 D-19 0-7 Cello-Flake Tuf-Plug BJ Perlite Oil Patch Nine D-8 D-8C D-31 D-31l Chem Comp 0-6, D-6l, 0-21 Gyp-Seal Dewell SI D44 D43 il57 DI3 D81
D28, D99, D100

Dresser CaCI, Salt MA-2 DiacelA MlR-3 MlR-I MHR-8 MlR-l MFlR-7 Salt MHR-9 .. M-Gel DiacelD
Magco POI A Magco POI N

Halllburten CaCI, Sail HA-5 DiacelA HR-4 HR-7 HR-6l
HR-12, HR-20

Western CaCI, Salt .. illacel A WR-2 WR-I WR-6 WR-ll Diacell Wl Salt Borax WR-IO Bentonite DiacelD POlmentA (74# ) .. .. ..
TLWi TXI Thrlty liteLt. WI.

Salll-6%.............. ............ NaCl,CaCI, mixture....... ...... .... . Sodiumsilicate. .. . .. .. . ... ........ Retarder
Calcium lignosulfonate... CH.CI, CaCI, blend. . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . .. ..... .. ....

Calc. ligno.(Kembreak).......... .... .. Hightemp. blend. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . lignin-liquid. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. CMHEC (carboxymethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose). . .. . .. . .. ... .. .. .. Salt (saturated)......... ... .. . . . .. .. Borax............................. . Thixotropiccml. retarder. . . . . . . . . _. . Extender Bentonite........................... . Diatomaceousearth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POllolan: Fly ash. . . . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. Fly ash (NewOrleans, Houston)....... Cement Pouolan and Bentonite.. . . . . . Calcinedshale-cemenl.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . Anhydroussodium meta-silicate. . . . . . Weight material Ottawa sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barite............................ .
Hematite (iron oxide). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural pOl. (S. Tex.). . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural poz.(Calit.)..... .. .. .. .. ..

.. .. ..

D8, lWl D44 D93 D74 Gel D20 D56 035 (74#) ilin (47#) D48(60#) litepoz 300 D79
D49, Tl W, Dl W

Diacell Wl Salt Borax .. Gel DiacelD POlmixA (74#) .. .. Hallib.light Trinity ll. WI. Econolite Sand Barite HiDense3 .. DiaceI l Wl CEMAD-I
Halad 9, 22A

1.3 (2% gel) 8.2 (cu. II.) 10%-5.0gal 3.6 .. .. 10.9 (max.) 7.66 (max.) 6-6.8 (2% sil.) 0 2.4 0-0.36
gal/IOO Ibs.

..

2.89

Eeonoblend Trinity ll. WI. Thrilly mix MS-3 Mcobar M -2 MW-I MFlR-7 MFl-5 MFl-4 Gilsonite Cell-O-Seal Nut Plug Perlites MS-I MS-2 MCD-l
MCD-3, MCD-4

2.63 4.25 4.93-5.02 4.45 1.36 1.36 1.22 1.31 1.07 1.30 1.28 2.40 2.40 2.63 2.63 1.30-1.63 1.18 3.15 ..

Sand D31 D76 D18 D8 il59 D60 D24 D42 D29 J51 072 .. D66 D30 D65 D80 Chem Comp D46,D47 D71 D53,RFC Arcticset D-15 lumnite Mud KiII, 2 094 M54,F33 Swcer 1000 C 7, CWlOO OBMSpacer

Sand Barite Hematite Ilmenite Diacell Wl CEMAD-I CF-I, CF-2,CF-6 CF-3(ultra low) Gilsonite Cello-Seal Tuf-Plug .. SF 3 SF 4 TF-4 .. ChemComp AF-8,AF-l VCT Thixad CLX-I lum., C.F. .. Excello-Gel WMW-I APS-I, APS-2

Ilmenite. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . Fluid loss additive H............................ CEMAD-I (Amer.Cyananid).......... Organicpolymers................... OrganicpOIr,mer blend.... .. ... . _ ... Lost clrculat on material Gilsonite................ _.......... Crushedcoal (Kolite)................
Cellophane..

None

o (up to 0.7%)

None None None

Halad 14

2.0 (50 Ibs.) 2.0 (50 Ibs.) 0 4.0 (cu. II.) 6.0 (cu. fl.) 4.8 (100Ibs.) None None None 6.3 .. 4.8 4.0 0 4.5 None None None .. ..

Gilsonite FloceIe TUf-PIU Perlite ego Perlite Six SSA-I SSA-2 CFR-I,CFR-2 CFR-22L ChemComp NF-P NF-I D-Air1,2 ' Cal-Seal Permafrost II latex lA-2 lum. C.F.
fda. Ii 2

Walnutshells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perlite expanded.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perlite semi. expanded. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .... .. ... .. ..... .. ... .

HIi::r;:::.t.re................... . Silicasand. . . . . . . _. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dispersant liquid.. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. . .. Special materials
Organic.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Expanding cemen!. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Defoamers(Powder,liq., other)... _ .. Gelagent blend (Slo Flo)....... ... .. Plaster paris (Gygsumcement). . . _. . . :r:xu.t . 'n:: : : : : : : : : : : : : : Aluminate(CimentFondu,lumnite)... MudKiI(lo temp. and hi temp.)... . . . Nylonfibres... .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . Dieseloil cement (additive). . . . . . . . . . Prefiush-thick.................. _... Preflush-thin................... _... Oilmud spacer. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ChemComp MFP-5, l .. .. MCl-2 Hard Set I, 2 .. .. MMW-l MCS-2,MCS-3

2.90esl.
1.10 3.20 1:23 0.90-1.00 I.Ui'esl. 1.10esl.

2.26 2.70

75 75 90

0-5
lumnite Firm Set I, 2 VisqueezMK-II MudSweep MudClean Unimul

.. .. ..

g2-SAM-4

DOC-IO

MCA, Mud Flush

Basic cements' (Class A, B, C, D, G, H): Specific gravity 3.15, bulk density 94 Ibs';sack (80 in Canada). See accompanying table for water requi remenl. Note: "None" means water required is not significant or is not intended to be used. " . ." means data or trade name is unknown, product may be available. This table is not a complete listing of available products. Please check with local service companies.

tions by service companies, if the published API schedules are not applicable. Note: These measurements are made in metal vessels which prevent any fluid loss. Thickening time values determined are therefore higher than they might be opposite a permeable zone, after partial dehydration. Slurry density may be reduced with extenders such as bentonite, pozzolan, diatomaceous earth and anhydrous sodium meta-silicate. Gilsonite and crushed coal also reduce density. And special calcined shale--cement (such as Trinity Lite-Wate or Texas Industries Light Weight) are used for this purpose. Low density is frequently desired, to decrease likelihood of breaking-down the formation and causing lost circulation. In addition, such slurries cost less per cubic foot, as yield per sack is increased. Density decrease results in large part from increased water content. Extenders permit water addition without separation. However, cement strength is reduced approximately in proportion to water content increase, Fig. 22. WORLD OIL 1977

However, as was discussed in Part 1, high cement strength is not always required. Bentonite has for years been the most commonly used additive for "filler" type cement.65 In addition to its effect on density, yield and cost, bentonite increases viscosity and gel strength, which reduces settling of high density particles (weight material, cement) or floating of low density particles (Perlites, pozzolan, gilsonite, crushed coal). Bentonite al:;o reduces API fluid loss. However, cements containing bentonite are more permeable and have lowered sulfate resistance. Pozzolans increase slurry viscosity and provide low permeability. Sodium meta-silicate provides a very lowdensity slurry with early compressive strength; this material and calcined shale-cement are becoming popular, particularly offshore. The latter is a special cement, not an extender, as mentioned earlier. Light-weight cements are listed in the accompanying table which separates slurry compositions providing more 25

:2
ui I-

Il. (XI

25

~

1% ORGANICDISP. ADDED

c::::::J WITHOUT DISPERSANT

« a:
o ..J U.
3i:

..J « o
i=

a: o

o

CLASS A

CLASS E

50/50 POZ

flow at reduced pump rates in a 5V2 -inch casing by 7\18-inch
wellbore annulus.""

Fig. 24-How

dispersants reduce yield point to allow turbulent

than, and less than, 500 psi compressive strength.66 The lowest-weight slurries providing more than 500 psi compressive strength are Class C cement with gel, and Class C cement with silicate.

A density of 22 ppg can be obtained with hematite or ilmenite plus friction reducing additives. Fine barite (325 mesh grind used in mud) requires a large amount of water, which reduces compressive strength and retards thickening time, and therefore is rarely used. A slurry weighted with solids must have viscosity and gel strength needed to carry and suspend high specific gravity solids. And it should be noted that some additives tend to significantly thin or thicken a slurry (fluid loss agents, retarders, water content)_ Pretesting of such high density slurries should include density, thickening time, compressive strength, settling, free water and viscosity measurements. High density (up to 17.5 ppg) may be obtained by adding dispersant to the slurry to provide pumpability at lower than normal water/cement ratios. This approach is most expensive, but results in highest compressive strength. Cement densified in this manner also may need an additive to reduce filtrate loss because further reduction in water content may make the slurry unpumpable. Also, densification tends to accelerate curing time. Friction reduction. Dispersants can also be used to reduce the yield point (consistency index) of the slurry, which reduces friction and allows turbulence to occur at reduced pump rates, Fig. 24. Common dispersants are: Alkyl aryl sulfona~e, polyphosphate, lignosulfonate, salt and organic acid. Turbulent flow additives tend to cause settling and excessive free water. These effects should be tested in the lab prior to field use. Fluid 1055 (filtrate). Addition of fluid loss agents has important application in: P reven ting gas leakage, in squeeze cementing and, occasionally, to maintain pumpability in primary casing and liner cement jobs. Fluid loss additives may also reduce likelihood of differential pressure sticking where stuck pipe has been associated with mud cake removal. Fluid loss additives might be considered when there is little or no mud cake on the borehole wall-for example, when drilling with water. In normal primary cementing, high fluid loss cement does not dehyrate significantly in permeable zones because filtration is controlled by the mud cake. The API fluid loss test on cement is conducted at 100 or 1,000 psi differential pressure through a 325 mesh screen. 1,000 psi is used when the slurry has been elevated in temperature and pressure in a consistometer in accordance with one of the API simulation schedules. Testing conditions .need to be identified for the true meaning of the data to be known. In addition, many 100 psi tests are mistakenly run on No. 50 Whatman paper instead of 325 mesh screen. Water dehydrates almost instantly from a neat cement tested in the above manner. The 30 minute fluid loss (100 psi) of neat Class A cement is about 1,000 ml. Early in 1960, significant progress was made in developing cement additives that lower fluid loss with a high molecular weight, synthetic polymer.68 Such additives may provide fluid loss in a low range. These additives usually are affected by temperature, Fig. 25. Generally, thickening time is retarded and, at low temperature, this WORLD OIL 1977

Common light weight cements
1-.-.--.-.-.Type cement Gel Class H ..... Extender, % by wt. cement

Density, ppg, for
compo strength:

Gel 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 1.5. 2.0. 2.5. 3.0. 3.5. 4.0. 4.5. 2 6 10 18

-1-1-1--1-1-

Salt

Sodium metaI sll. Water

I

I

Dlacel

D

I

Above

500psi SOD psi 14.1 13.1 '13".i 12.5 'l,i.2 13.7 12.8

I

Below

Class C" . .. . . . . . . . . .

Prehydrated

gel.

. . .. .

'l'2j 12.1 11.8 10.7 13.3 12.8 12.4

Pozzolan and lIy ash 50/50. . .

14.1

Silicate......
Calcined shalecement.. . . .

'i.o' 2.0 3.0
65 85 95 115 ....
I

'1.1.2 12.5

....

I

13.7 12.8

Pozzolan and bentonitef
Class H . . . . .

ClassC... .. .. . .. .. Dlacel D... ... .. .. ..

6f 6f 6f 6f

83 104 104

74

I

I

13.6
'13'.2

. io'
20 30 40

I

13.1 12.4 12.0 12.4 11.7 11.0

.. Trin ity Lite-Wate data. Similar cement available from Texas Industries.
f 65/ 35 cement and Pozmix A, % gel based on combined weight.

.

Perc ent by weight water

Density may be increased with weight material such as sand, barite, hematite or ilmenite, and/or salt dissolved in the mix water, as shown in the following table:66

Weight material for cement
"'aterlal -Speci fie gravity 2.63 4.25 4.00 5.02 4.45 .... ...

Jttawa sand....... 3arite.. . ... .. . .. .. :oarse barite. . . . . . Hematite.. .. .... Ilmenite..... . Dispersant..... ... Salt..... ......

-

Grind (mesh) 20-100 325 16-80 40-200 30-200 ...... ......

Max. density, ppg 18 19 20 20 20 17.5 18

-

Extra water needed None 20% None 2% None None . ..

-

Elf. on compo strength None Reduce None None None Increase Reduce

-

Elf. on pumping time None Reduce None None None Increase Varies

26

J . Fig. in relation to cement formulations 27 .. 120 20 30 40 50 FLUID LOSS (ML/30 MIN. In addition.6-18% particles larger than 200 mesh) is less susceptible to loss in permeable formations. Fig. gelation (or a significant viscosity increase) of the column from slurry chemical reactions.. and/or bridging due to caving or sloughing formations. Cement with its larger particle size (neat cement has 2..... .." low final squeeze pressures..002-inch (300 mesh). Allowance may have to be made for the possibility that after lengthy circulation.. .."."" ". ° 200 a. it can cause failure of liner laps. clean completion fluids (such as salt water) and relatively WORLD OIL 1977 220 II. 1.~. ..-. OF CORE g y ~ wn- BOTTOM n g BOTTOM OF CEMENT BOTTOM CEMENT DENSITY. concentrations of such materials must be more carefully controlled to avoid bridging the casing or liner/borehole annulus. Highly successful results are obtained when squeeze operations are conducted with: Low fluid loss cement. Under certain conditions associated with gas sand cementing. formation gas can move through the pipe/borehole annulus as the cement sets.: -. These fluids may also be lost through highly permeable formations-starting at about 5 darcies for drilling fluid with a maximum particle size of 0..retardation may have to be offset by accelerators.. but this can. Concentration and/or combination with other fluid loss materials may have to be adjusted accordingly... fast setting of a portion of the cement column.J>I. Example shows effect on API Class E cement (after Stout and Wohl).."... There was no cement in the bottom of the perforated interval (after Beach.". .. of course. The best time to treat the formation to reduce such fracture or formation permeability-and thus increase the downhole pressure at which circulation is lost-is during drilling when high concentrations of bridging materials and various types of plugs (pills) may be utilized.d'. A most important aspect of gas leakage prevention is reduction of cement fluid (filtrate) loss. Bentonite and CMHEC are also used to reduce filtrate loss. When pressure is applied. The annular seal may be caused by: Bridging from cement dehydration. '.: :::i: w 180 Iw .. or plugging of downhole equipment such as bottom wiper plugs.. 26-Results of a core test through cement following an attempted perforation squeeze indicates slurry dehydrated at the top of the perforations.. small diameter storage tools and float equipment. synthetic polymer greatly reduces fluid loss.. 25-High molecular weight.73 During primary cementing. PPG .. . A low filtrate loss formulation may have prevented such dehydration and bridging.' C :.9. There was no cement across lower perforations-although squeeze pressure exceeded fracture pressure-as the dehydrated neat API Class E cement had bridged-off the casing. and water from the slurry seeps through the mud cake into permeable formations... lowering column weight... et al). The effective hydrostatic pressure may be reduced by this mechanism to less than reservoir gas pressure.."...~"'''''''''' .a c'" 'C c~ ::'C [J:~ 0 PERFS. 26. If the cement contains no fluid loss control agents.... Fluid loss vs.1 CORE CEMENT TOP OF c... be avoided by proper design. The subject of lost circulation during drilling is discussed briefly below.'" TOP OF "I ~ u. 50-150 ml fluid loss cements (30 minutes at 1.000 psi) are used.760 9.. For most cement squeezing and gas leakage applications. Drilling fluids or slurries are usually lost to either natural or induced formation fractures. gas leakage. Squeeze techniques plications will be discussed in a later article. .J W " I. W o . The solid particles become compacted and slurry density increases. water or fluid will be forced from the slurry if it is in contact with a permeable surface free of mud cake. cement slurry temperature may be highest some distance off bottom.OF PERFS...71 Fluid loss in squeeze cementing. Control of cement fluid (filtrate) loss can be important in this application. Another mechanism for gas entry would be for the hydrostatic pressure of mud...000 PSI) Fig...J 0 J: :::i: 160 0 lI0 CD 140 "\ 0°/0 ~O~ i~... This concept was demonstrated in a core taken through cement remaining in the borehole following the squeeze of a perforated interval."...72 Density measurements showed signficant slurry dehydration across and somew ha t above the upper portion of the perforations. or removed mud cake/cutting debris..". and ap- Lost circulation. even blowout of surface pipe... This leakage can pressure-up the annuli between casing strings or between pipe and formation.69 Such gas entry into the cement column occurs70 when a column-supporting seal forms in the slurry in the annulus above the gas zone. steps may be taken to ensure that the cement slurry opposite the gas sand will set up faster than other slurry in the annulus.... the cement particles may eventually bridge and prevent further slurry move ment. ".... ~ I0.770 -------------17 18 19 --20 .. preflushes and cementbefore any water loss-to be less than reservoir pressure...

Assuming that frac pressure exceeds reservoir pressure. 6. 27.000 18.5° F r - . pressure and time to an ultimate value which depends on cement composition. Bridging materials can be used in most of the above compositions when loss is severe.: B / A "nnnL J/ .0001 (i5 a."... bentonite and cement. Neat or low density cements.1 . Gypsum is considered a temporary plugginl{ material as it is water soluble after it sets up. etc. pumping time should be checked before the job.000 4. most other fibrous materials contain organic chemicals that can seriously retard cement thickening time.' K}... \ \\ \ 9. Compressive strength measurements are obtained on the basis of 11 API pressure/temperature/time schedules. . 16 20 PROPERTIES OF SET CEMENT Cement compressive strength increases as a function of temperature.{" . 5. -. it differs from construction gypsum in that it is semi-hydrated to control pumping time. Soluble salts in mixing water can greatly accelerate thickening time. or diesel. Other cementicious.C. gilsonite. Slow set..- -. Perlite-expanded and Perlite-semi expanded) which form bridges. fluid loss (filtrate).J o CONCEN1:RATION. plugs.J 00 .: ::2 0 () 6.. . The product also should be easy to handle and "weevil-proof..000 o 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 CURING TEMP.08 .'"' '" Field experience has shown that quick-gelling cements stay closer to the wellbore (within surrounding fractures. for depths from 1. 28-Effect --- PSI . these cements are thin while beinl{ pumped.000 II. a complete review of the lost circulation problem during drilling is beyond the scope of this series. neat and thixotropic cements have high filtrate loss..) in lost circulation applications. In application. The latter can be formulated to 21 ppg.. *72HR I\. Therefore. w C) a: « .. Fig.600 '8:000 .12 . permeable formations. and lamellated materials (cellophane flakes) which form flake type mats. On the basis of lab work by Howard and Scott. :i' IC) Z W a: I00 0. AT 200°F 4. high-solids slurries such as Diaseal M and barite. but develop gel strength quickly when pumping stops.000 PSI 1. these materials are pumpable until they set up or expand upon contact with water. Blends of Portland cement and gypsum. 2.M.000 feet. At constant temperature. Various compositions-diesel and bentonite.14 W a: () « a: I0 ."73 The following compositions are used as cement plugs (pills) : 1.000-20.000 1. . low density (high yield). considering the water on location.000 3. A quick setting hard cement for use at shallow depths. and cement plug drillout rate. thus blocking further fluid loss.000 PSI CLASSC :i' IC) z w a: I00 0. A temperature gradient of 1. bentonite and 7.uuu ASTM TYPE 1 C ::2 0 0 a: :J: oqN n/ V 0 ATMOS 2. Gypsum cement.16: « w 00 ." 28 WORLD OIL 1977 .000 5.---TYPICAL L. 4. Also.. Mixtures with diesel-oil. --- .x I and additives that might be considered for such applications. crushed coal. rapid set. Fibrous materials (such as nylon fibers) are effective in drilling fluid for sealing large openings but are not normally used in cement because of the tendency to plug surface and downhole cementing equipment. However.000 psi. high-water-loss.. Control of lost circulation during primary cementing will be discussed in greater detail in a later article.000 . top. of curing pressure and temperature on compressive strength.000 CURING PRESS." 10.-- Fig. shows significant strength retrogression as curing temperature increases ('curing pressures). As discussed above. Cement plug formulations may be selected on the basis of these characteristics: Quick-gelling. Class C cement.000 (i5 a. bottom..18 . 3.-. However. Thixotropic cements.Fig. The cement also has high filtrate loss. high filtrate loss cements (such as untreated thixotropic or neat) can dehydrate and bridge within such fractures.. Types of lost circulation additives available for cement are blocky-granular materials (walnut shells. Note: Fluid (filtrate) loss is important when dealing with mud or slurry loss to fractured. 24-hour strength changes little above 3.000 _ " 9. diesel.. of 10. .J ci w .. 27-Granular lost circulation material was most effective in sealing simulated downhole fractures in lab tests (after Howard and Scott).. low density cements mayor may not have high filtrate loss. LBSJBBL.74 granular material was found best for bridging fractures (slots).000 CEMENT /'I 2.06 FIBROUS polymer-can be effective when water bearing sands are present.

Fig. illustrates one severe example. cement compositions may retrogress (lose strength) after reaching a high value and never attain the strength reached at lower curing temperature.000 psi or less is that compressive strength changes very little above that pres'Sure level. The reason why API tests are run at 3. com pres'Si ve strength is very close to ultimate within three days. depending on job requirements (such as waiting-on-cement time or strength retrogression).000 psi. left. a neat retarded cement with 0. 28. i.000 and 2. Fig. diatomaceous earth and expanded perlite should not be added to Portland cement for use above about 2500 F in concenMost crushed Strength retrogression. Tentativp data indicates.79 Silica flour also reduces permeability of set cement. 0 0 q 'X I(!J Z W a: }j) w 20 I- « 5 . and becomes severe at 2900 F. right (after . 7-day compressive strength of neat cement to 12. The pressure is 3. Recommended curing periods are 8. coal. at 2900 F (after Ostroot). Fig: 28. Usually.'. pressure and time-affect compressive strength. Silica sand is used when high density is desired and silica flour when low density is adequate.77 However. 18. Four variables-composition. weight materials. CMHEC and "maximum" water. Generally complete strengt!1 retrogression has taken place within seven days. "minimum" water and heat. bottom.02+ md permeability at 2900 F after three days may have 8+ md at 3200 F after seven days. addition of silica flour to the slurry provides a way !o maintain strength. 29.000 feet) for which it is less.. that actual well pressure should be more closely simulated. at least.000 psi. is similar to that of typical 1977 29 .000 feet without retarder-this class should not be used at less than 2300 F. at high temperature. top. Maximum strength cccurs at 300-4000F when 30-50 parts of silica flour are added to 100 parts of cement.e. and high water content cement. ultimate strength of cement. 'Sodium chloride.78 Retarded cement for high temperature application.per 100 feet is provided-for in each schedule. 36. at high temperatures (about 250-3000 F) pressure effect may be more significant than those of Fig.30-Under Handin). Silica flour in high percentages inhibits strength retrogression and produces compressive strength far in excess of neat cement.000 PSI confining pressure. Early strength is decreased with lignosulfonate.--Fig. its addition to cement cured at 3500 F reduces permeability to less than 0.:! 10 5 10 15 0 10 reservoir rocks. Early strength is increased with calcium chloride. 28. nonreactive additives (salt. 24. 12. temperature. However. 29-Silica flour inhibits strength retrogression at high temperatures as indicated for Class E cement.78 Although remaining compressive strength may be adequate for many applications. seem particularly subject to strength retrogression (Fig. Silica sand ground to 200 mesh reacts with cement in the same way as fine ground 325 mesh silica flour.81 WORLD OIL - EFFECTIVE CONFINING PRESSURE. For cement types used in deep and/or hot wells the phenomenon begins at around 2600 F.000 psi for all schedules except the two shallowest (1. 28). For example. Compressive strength inf orma tion is available through service companies. 20% silica increases the 2.80 Bentonites.80 Usually 35% silica flour is used. for instance. This strength retrogression is accompanied by increased cement permeability. Compositions containing silica sand or flour can be retarded effectively for high temperature wells. _0 c::::J 20 -PERCENT I SILICA ~ 30 :~I 3 1 7 3 230'F 260'F 290"F CURING TIME(DAYS)I CURING TEMPERATURE Fig. mica and other bulking agents) can be admixed with a silica stabilized cement without adversely affecting temperature stability.79 Class J cement does not require silica flour and can be used to about 16. 1.001 md. ammonium chloride.79 II I I 50 ---I I (j) 40 0. 48 and 72 hours.

about 2. 100% DIAMIX A. even under low confining pressures. Neat cement shows least compactability. Can increase slurry weight by as much as 1. CONFINING PRESS. original mud cake normally prevents such filtrate loss. .000° F. Loose permafrost is cemented with either: Calcium aluminate cement/fly ash mixture or Gypsum-Portland cement blend. 2. .88 Characteristics . 30. 32. some proprietary. This cement is used as a mortar for fire boxes. ductility might be small.000 psi.7 ppg. Clay dispersion is minimized to aid well productivity should cement filtrate loss be significant. and is more or less comparable to rock for similar conditions. softening or sloughing of shale beds. Fig. expand during setting.' 30 . but has little or no effect on ultimate strength. .' Theoretically less disruptive to swelling and non-swelling clays. 7. 200°F EXCEPT 1. Bulk volume reduction (of lab 'Samples) of 30% or more are attainable for some formulations. At higher concentrations.000 psi in 24 hours. SPECIAL CEMENTS Unique cements and additives are available for nonconventional or extreme service applications such as high temperatures found in geothermal wells and other thermal projects. . certain other reduction (after Handin). hot wells and many thermal recovery and geothermal wells. Cement expansion may increase thickness of a cement sheath by a few thousands of an inch.500 PSI EFF. Fig.000 psi compressive strength in 7-28 days.000-2. mud cake thickness.3 AT 110°F) 7. At a temperature of 600° F. The early strength comes from WORLD OIL 1977 ?J? u. reduces turbulence-critical-flow velocity through dispersion and reduced viscous properties. 40% DlACEL D. . Handin conducted triaxial compression tests on various cement samples with independently applied external confining pressures and internal pore pressure such as encountered downhole. and low temperatures in Arctic permafrost. 32 and the accompanying table.000 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH. Admixes are fire brick.80 Strength at downhole conditions. range. The cement will develop about 500 psi compressive strength in 1-3 days and have 1. over 18%. compositions had over 30% volume samples under confining significant except for neat 15.. 8% GEL 3 CLASS A. 4. Calcium aluminate cement is manufactured from limestone and bauxite ores. However. However. Saturated cements minimize solution of formation salt sections. thereby minimizes cleavage. for rapidly applied strain associated with gun perforating. relative to the magnitude of other downhole effects such as: Inadequate mud displacement. Large variations in the standard compressive strength. as measured at zero confining pressure. butthe effect is neutral throughout a broad range in between.. PSI Fig.000 8... ductility and compactability. Salt in small concentrations tends to increase early compressive strength. These blends contain dispersant. 30 Salt cement is now used fairly extensively.5% NASILICATE 2 INcaR. the surface temperature is so cold that underlying formations do not reach 32° F for several hundred feet. fly ash and silica flour. Saturated salt cement. 86. 31. in many cases.0% CAC" 4 CLASS A. cement expansion and/or contraction would appear to be of minor importance. Fig. At higher confining loads. Cementing conductor pipe and surface pipe in permafrost presents a special problem because neat Portland cement will not set up and provide strength before it freezes.. 30% BENTONITE.87. At present. o . retarder and enough salt to depress the freezing point to about 20° F.J o > ~ 10 .66 This problem is overcome in hard rock areas by heating the hole with warm drilling mud.000 6. In high concentrations. In Arctic permafrost. Pozzolan cement. of salt cement Osmotic pressure will causewater from sand or shale to migrate to the saltcementcausing expansion which improves bond log. have a low heat of hydration. Gypsum-Portland blends and several other formulations. no free water separation and they are stable under freeze-thaw cycling.000 PSI. Expansion. The upper limit for silica-Portland cements is around 700° F. These mixtures will set up and provide more than 500 psi compressive strength in 24 hours. . Bulk volume reduction is cement. In the 3-5% High temperature cements are now required for conditions which extend beyond the upper (in-situ combustion and some geothermal steam) effective limits of basic Portland cement. . This cement has application in deep.66. cause cement to weaken and become more permeable.trations of 5-15% without adding about 20% extra silica. Gypsum-Portland cement blends90-92 are available through several service companies. Salt is an accelerator in low concentrations and it retards at high concentrations. Natural pozzolans and fly ashes produce a strong material with silica stabilized cements up to 450° F.81 These tests show that strength increases. 31-Compactibility of cement pressures. However. this effect is minor and typical dispersants may not be effective. The heating delays freezing of the cement until after it has set up. tend to disappear under load.000 feet on the North Slope. fly ash and-to a lesser degreenatural pozzolans. some important characteristics of salt cement are shown in Fig. Permafrost is some 300 feet thick in the Mackenzie River Delta.89 Calcium aluminate cement (Ciment Fondu or Lumnite) has been used in in-situ combustion wells where temperatures may reach 2. MODIFIED 12% GEL 5 CLASS A. This method cannot be used through unconsolidated formations held together by ice because the hole will enlarge and create a void between cement and formation. it reduces early strength and can cut ultimate strength in half.000 4. permanently frozen subsurface formation. Neat calcium aluminate cement has high heat of reaction and attains almost full compressive strength of some 12..J :::J IJJ 1 CLASS A. NEAT (SAMPLES CURED AT 3. the latter is in greater use. borehole elastic/plastic deformation.82-85 Suggested as a benefit of this expansion. 32. and oil well cements become very ductile. This tolerance can. then cementing with heated cement and mix water. Fig. is elimination of the microannulus at the cement/casing interface. and cement loading conditions.i C) z 2 « J: 20 o w :2 :::J . The slurries will set up at 15-20° F. permit use of either fresh or seawater for mixing without affecting thickening time. Cement can be highly compactible under confining loads.

347. 18Carter. 20." Manual. W. 1958. LITERATURE CITED .. 6200 N. "How to Combat Lost Circulation. etc. B. fluid behavior. 1974. C. G. W. G." Oil-Well Cementing Practices in the United States.. K. and Slaglel K.. Texas. Pl'." Petroleum Engineer. Manry.. April 1973.. 1960. M... API. 1970. "The Role of Filtration in Cement Squeezing. Jr.. W. and Goins.. 91Maier. G. and Scott. Houston. Coming next month: The displacement process during primary cementing: Flow theory. gypsum cement. H. K. "Expanding." Journal of Petroleum Technology. 27-37. SPE of AlME. 1972. Ludwig N. inconsistent field water characteristics. F. K." Paper SPE 3346. . the specially compounded cement should be blended at the bulk stations at least a day prior to use. K. "Bearden W. Persocnal communication.. L. TO Ostroot." Oil and Gas Journal. May 13. D. 1977." Journal of Petroleum TechnologYJ Oct.93 And API has established Arctic cementing testing procedures including freeze-thaw cycles. "Improved Compositions for Cementing Wells with Extreme Temperatures.. 27. "The Real Story of Cement Expansion. Amarillo. A.3 Root. and Smith D. Presented at Central Plains Regional Meeting. pozzolanic-lime cements. J. Vol. "Strength of Oil WeII Cements at Downhole Pressure-Temperature Conditions." World Oil. G. "API Specification for Oil-Well Cements and Cement Additives. Pl'.. . Cunningham. 277-284. Presented at the AIME Symposium on Formation Damage Control. pp. T." Paper SPE 5028.." API Drilling and Production Practice. Feb. 29-37. 20-27. Jan. Cements for Primary Cementmg." Journal of Petroleum Technology. S. J. and George. D.." API Drilling and Production Practice." Petroleum Engineer. C. A. 192." Paper SPE bUll. 1968. Houston. March 1008. 1954. March 1961. Presented at 51st Annual FaII Meeting. fW Beirute.. The test mixture should use water from the location. . are available. Carter. Ostroot. "Messenger. pp. Slagle. 1974. Anon.. Feb. "Cementing Geothermal Wells. 1968. "Calculation of Circulating Mud Teml'eratures.the gypsum. 10Carter.. 1964.. Smith. 670-674. Small concentrations shorten thickening time. resin cement and cement containing nylon fibers for reinforcement. W." API Sp. 90Cunningham. and Smith.. G. 6-9. H. bottom. top.." API Drilling and Production Practice. 19&1. 213.. "Beach.... Oct. E. Wag~oner. 1965. 1974. "Properties of Cementing Com~ositions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressure. "A New Organic Fluid-Loss-Control Additive for Oilwell Cements. Presented at the 51st Annual Fall Meeting. June 1970. and Shryock.. R't "Expansive and Shrinkage Characteristics of Cements Under Actual Well Conditions. Stone. 1959. 1971. May 1966. April 10-12. who provided valuable information and data included in this article. W. C. . March 1973. Byron Jackson Inc.. A. Presented at 49th Annual FaII Meeting. "Arctic Cements and Cementing...27. 1. L. G.. G. Cementing operations at Prudhoe Bay have been discussed in the literature. Oct. K.. 81Handin. D. Feb. .: 5 I-CI) Cl)Do ::2:0 0": U '0 Doo Other special cements and additives available for nonconventional appliCations include: The Trinity Lite-Wate and Texas Industries Light Weight cements mentioned earlier." Oil-Well Cementing Practices in the Unite 'J States. C. pp.' Paper SPE 3164. La. C. Pl'.." Paper SPE 904. 1. 32-Effect of sodium chloride (salt) on cement properties. "Salt Cement for Shale and Bentonite Sands. how to improve mud displacement. . L.. 1967. variations in manufacture. G. W. ¥"J Telford. 341. 1953. Morgan. W. 1. 88Ludwig. and Calvert. W. New Orleans. H. C'~A"A Scientific Approach to the Usage or Thixotropic Cements. 49-59. "True Expansive Characteristics of Commercially Available ExpansIve Cement Under Actual Well Conditions. La. "A Study of Completion Practices to Minimize Gas '-'Ommunication." "Spangle. "Effect of Salt Cement Filtrate on Subsurface Formations. and Walker.8 Stout. D.. Data taken from tests of retarded oil well cement (after Ludwig). "Cementing Materials for Cold Environments. "Improved Primary and Remedial Cementmg with Thixotropic Cement Systems. and Wahl. C. "Cementing... and Smith. 94 7 :z: l6 e!) Z W a::. "How BP Alaska Cements Through Permafrost. A. . La..." The Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. Kljucefl. G. Dallas.000 PPM 300 6 5 CONSISTOMETER en a:: J: ui U :i: I::a: DEPTHS 4 3 2 1 0 100 200 300 Critical cement iobs for difficult wells should be planned in detail and the slurry must be carefully designed. and Bombardieri. 1974.. 1972. variable operating conditions. Godfrey. Kerr Godfrey of Atlantic Richfield Co. "Chemistry of Portland Cement Used in Oil Wells. Presented at Rocky Mountain ReglOnal Meeting... Colo. 1951.. S." Journal of Petroleum Technology. 55Beirute) R." Transactions of AIME. W." Paper SPE 3833. 1976. W. K. C. and Smith. L... R. Billings. Radioactive tracers are sometimes used in cement for location purposes following primary cementing or squeezing." API Drilling and Production Practices. the only way to verify thickening time for critical jobs is to test the planned slurry at anticipated actual pressure/temperature conditions.. P.. and Calvert. C. W... Due to the large number of possible combinations of cement types and additives. so Eilers. Mont. H. C.ec lOA. 11-14. "An Analysis and The Control of Lost Circulation. G. K. Aug. WORLD OIL 1977 31 .. W. C.. Carter. Nov. Presented at The 39th Annual Meeting. and there is a broad range where the effect is minimal before salt retards set-up. A. Jr.. "Cement Blends Can Be Tested for Arctic Environments. Fehrenbach. Carter. W.. "The Inability of Unset Cement to Control Formation Pre. 1976. 20. T. Early compressive strength is increased by small salt concentrations. pp.'H." Journal of Petroleum Technology.. Denver. . F.sure. 19th Edition. N. H Anon.. Oct. "Howard. 1963. G.. P. L. and Dumbould. 171-182. 3-6. 100 200 SALTCONC. . 1973'. "Long-Term Effects of High Temperature on Strength Retrogression of Cements. O'Brien. 4 a:: J: '<t" '" 3V 2 CURING TEMP. J. to allow time for a sample to be lab tested... C. "Clement." Journal of Petroleum Technology. 'API Recommended Practice for Testing Oil-Well Cements and Cement Additives... 72-81. Three Part'Series. "Stress Capabilities I':'1J>roved by Resilient Cement. Texas 75206. Vol. G. D.95 Information is available through the service companies.. And after preliminary design work is complete. R. Jr. Expressway. New Orleans. "Gypsum-Cement Blend \'Yorks \'Yell in Permafrost Areas. . M. "Applied Engineered Cementing.. and Whitaker. Oct. 27-35. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the contribution of Mr. Pl'. 251-260. Vol.. .." Transactions of AIME. "Effects of High Pressures and Temperature on Strength of Oil-We II Cements. "McLean. F. Also. R. 16-17. later strength from the Portland cement. 71Holmes. 163-176. Pl'.pp.. . 1977." Journal of Petroleum Technology. i= SALTCONC." Journal of Petroleum Technology. 81Cunmngham. "Effects of Sodium Chloride on Setting Properties of Oil-Well Cement. D. B.. L." Paper SPE 4783." Journal of Petroleum Technology.. K. Atlantic Richfield Co. and Bosley. .. additives such as defoamers and those which offset the retarding effect of mud contamination. W. Vol." Journal of Petroleum Technology. C. "Displacement Mechanic." SPE Monograj>h Series. and Swift. pp. H. 19. API.000 PPM Fig. N. New Orleans. C. "Effect of Temperature and Pressure on Ph sical Properties of CemenU. 1971. .. 4. and Christian." API RP lOB. Pl'. U. 7-8. what causes channeling.. 1TMid-Continent District Study Committee on Cementing Practices and Testing of Oil-WeII Cements. L." API Drilling and Production Practices. in Primary Cementing. Dec. 3-6. Presented at Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting." Paper SPE 6013. 18th Edition. 93Anon. June 2-4. and Root.61. S. W. B.. C. W.. latex cement. J. "Recent Developments in the Use of Bentonite Cement. L. . Jan. S.. Slagle. 1959. R. and Maier. Sept...

and cement-on-mud (fluid-on-fluid) drag forces.. and resist displacement.) Fig. For most muds and cement slurries.. Jr. density and gel strength. 33-Various forces acting to displace. of a by-passed vertical mud column during primary cementing . FLOW REGIMES TURBULENT ~ '% en en w a: Ien a: « w ::J: en SLOPE IS CONSTANT JRANSITION ZONE I Two basic forces associated with drilling mud displacement during primary cementing are: Differential pressure. etc. Houston 1O-second summary Basic principles of mud and cement slurry behavior in the annulus. that caused WORLD OIL 1977 32 . CEMENT ON MUD (POS. The character of flowing fluid is described by the relationship between flow rate (shear rate) and pressure (shear stress). Fluid design factors and guidelines for improving the displacement process to prevent mud channeling are given. 33. 34-Newtonian fluid flow starts when pressure is applied. which can leave vertical. formation swelling. - en en w a: a. President. '\ . Ellis.98 And with constant displacement en a. Project Engineer. oil well cements must exert a combination of differential pressure and drag forces of sufficient magnitude to overcome forces resisting displacement.) DRAG FORCE. mud filled channels in the cement. Completion Technology Co.) DIFFERENTIAL PRESS. These resisting forces are pressure. and casing-mud or borehole-mud (solid-on-fluid) drag forces. Suman. MUD ON WALL (NEG. How to avoid bypassing mud during primary cementing George O.) CASING ECCENTRIC ANNULUS rheology. Such velocity changes have significant and complex effects on pressure required to maintain flow in these fluid systems. and Richard C. directional changes.e. Annular flow area also varies as a result of decentralized casing.) PRESSURE DUE TO MUD COLUMN WEIGHT (NEG. This mud may be displaced later under producing conditions to create open channels that permi t formation fluids to migrate vertically behind the casing. DISPLACEMENT PRINCIPLES DRAG FORCE.96. Newtonian. i. annular displacing forces. flow velocity changes with variations in flow area. washouts. 91 The resisting pressure is related to properties of the mud. as mud is being displaced.) BY-PASSED MUD CHANNEL CEMENT SLURRY BUOYANCY EFFECT OF DENSER CEMENT (pOS. Flow regime and velocity profile inside pipe are shown in small drawings. Fig.Cementing oil and gas wells Part 4-Practical interpretation of DRAG FORCE FROM CASING MOVEMENT (POS. MOVING CEMENT ALSO ACTS ON MUD (POS.. A COMMONCAUSEof failure in primary cementing is incomplete displacement of drilling muds. non-Newtonian flow. are explained. BPM (SHEAR RATE) Fig.96 To effectively displace muds. filter cake thickness changes. The resisting drag forces are some function of mud gel strength and viscosity and distance between casing and borehole wall. rate.. some residual mud pockets likely will remain in irregularities in the borehole. Drilling mud and cement slurry fluid properties vary in the well bore due to lack of uniform makeup and temperature/pressure effects.LAMINAR ~ INTER~. effective viscosity (a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow) decreases as flow velocity increases. Even with good displacement procedures. The displacement process and key factors for improving displacement efficiency are described in this article. FLOW.EPT AT ORIGIN FLOW.

.o30/25 = 0. These data then are plotted on log paper and (n') is the slope of the line through the converted readings at 600 and 300 rpm and (K') is the intercept of the extrapolated straight line at unity rate of shear.. 300 and 600 rpm./lp = 25 . Fluids with gel strength can flow at very low rates in a solid or plug-like manner. Fig. Extremely useful in analyzing the displacement process.' Fig. is not widely used.1111 . A Newtonian fluid begins to flow when pressure is applied.p) .05173.25 0. The former has been utilized for drilling fluid anaysis since the mid-1940s. lab models have six speeds: 3. As pressure increases. Non-Newtonian fluids are more complex. Newtonian fluids. A recently proposed yield-pseudoplastic model that theoretically improved the above. If it shows acceptable displacement conditions.103 104 Flow analysis calculations. they are not precise techniques. 36. 35-Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit pressure is applied. and shear rate in sec.23 0.l300 rpm read.103 Field models have two speeds.. as in Fig. to fully developed turbulent.) for Bingham Plastic Model equations. The Fann V-G (viscosity-gel) meter is used to measure plastic viscosity.ENGTH! FLOW. Drilling muds and oil well cement slurries are nonNewtonian. 35. yield point and gel strength of mud. results should be interpreted as more qualitative than quantitative. DENSITY = 12. 6. do all that can be done to enhance the dispacement process anyway./sq.102 Such models attempt to describe the relationship of shear rate and shear stress for muds and slurries. ft.2PPG S\.-') 1000 Fig.o 600 rpm read. 34. Details on operation of the Fann V-G meter are available elsewhere. N = 1 d. flow velocity increases. respectively.1i W ' II: IC/) II: « W J: f/) ::::::::J. ui C/) W II: D.-I. Fann dial readings and rotational speeds are converted to shear stress in lbs. Fig. That is. are 10 t: 61 C/) . The lab model can measure properties over a range of speeds. Basic equations for flow to flow when types of flow SPRING FACTOR. Fig.3 0.FLOW REGIMES TURBULENT en C/) W II: IC/) II: ~ TRANSITION « w J: ~ LAMINAR en D. if the analysis indicates a potential displacement problem. 37.. the two speeds of the field instrument are enough to measure plastic viscosity (p.066/100 X 511° 288 = 0. The Bingham Plastic Model and the Power Law Model are most commonly used. Newtonian and non-Newtonian. 100. and relevant nomenclature.066/100 (511)"'= 1 X 25 X 1.26288. Consistency index (K') and flow behavior index (n') are also determined from the Fann V-G meter readings. and cement slurries.19 . For data shown: n' = 3. 200. 30 25 23 19 10 8 Oil I 600 viscosity (/lp) and yield point (t. However. (Jj !XI SPRING FACTOR.) 3.32 (Iog. resistance of various Law Model equations-presented in the late 1950s_101 are generally considered to be more accurate than those of the Bingham model.25 = 5 cpo And t.OO Non-Newtonian fluids thus can have three flow regimes-plug. 33 = WORLD OIL 1977 . Velocity profiles are shown.l100 ft. For data shown.O~ RPM K' 600 300 200 100 6 3 ~___~I~ (\' ~.. and yield point (ty) used for pressure drop and flow regime determination with the Bingham model.100 The Power Law Model requires two different fluid property descriptions. FANNV-GMETER SHEAR DIAL SHEAR RATE READING STRESS 1022 511 341 170 10 5 I I 11. with readings and speed.2 PPG f/) SLOPE PROPORTIONAL TO PLASTIC VISCOSITY CJ z 30 II: 20 . = 300 rpm reading .300 rpm reading = 30 . 36-Example use of Fann V-G meter to calculate plastic analysis of Newtonian and Bingham/Power the movement. /lp = 600 rpm reading .011.5 = 20 Ibs.01 . 37-Example use of Fann V-G meter. laminar and turbulent-with transition zones between each. But. And K' = N (300 rpm read. Fluid property measurement.. exhibit a straight-line relationship between flow rate (shear rate) and pressure (shear stress) while the fluid is in laminar flow. believe it.. BPM (SHEAR RATE) Fig.. such as water. There are two basic fluid types.32 X log. to develop shear rate at 300 and 600 rpm. N = 1 DENSITY = 12. from laminar. through a transition zone (part laminar and part turbulent).008 111_11 10 100 SHEAR RATE (SEC.100 Power Law models of non-Newtonian fluids. they may exhibit resistance to flow (gel strength) when pressure is applied. NO FLOW TRANSITION FLOW BEGINS (G~L STR. They should be used to determine flow regime and pressure requirements for displacement.J is i5 : RPM 600 300 200 100 6 3 « is DIAL READ.. to calculate flow behavior index (K') and fluid consistency index (n') for use in Power Law Model Equations.) 1. 1 30 25 23 19 10 8 . Extensive study has developed mathematical models that can be used to predict flow properties and pressure-velocity relationships of such muds and cements. I I I 0.

For example. of critical velocity (Vc) of fluid. PI P. the analytical procedure. Flow regimes. Plug.31 5. p.000.900 Db = Ho)e diameter.0517258.. = Modified Reynolds Number (Bingham and Newtonian) Nne' = Modified Reynolds Number (Power Law) P = Pressure drop.500 Where: V < V. cp p.' K'96-'/1. . BJ Hughes Dowell Halliburton Western Critical velocity in two different annuli.8 0.965 (Dh-Dp) Where V ~ V. 39. Pressure drop determinations with Power Law equations or the Bingham model for turbulent flow use friction factors taken from a Stanton-type diagram.15 Q/(DhZ-DpZ). ft.000 have been used although the latter is more generally accepted.. These equations can be used to calculate pressure drop.105 Complete pressure drop and flow analysis calculations. ttReynolds Number = 4.340 .5OO (Db-Dp)Z. tReynolds Number = 3..500 n' 0.14 6..03 t .200 3.A.3 0. N.9 5.86 (Db-Do)-' p]1/(Z-n') (Dh-Dp)2 + ty L/225 (Db-Dp). V. in two different annuli. turbulent flow and transition zones for any nonNewtonian fluid are functions of velocity and fluid properties. in. critical flow rates and to determine flow regimes. as shown in the accompanying table. psi Pt = Pressure drop. n' = 0.500 3.. Fig. Service Co. ft. bpm p = Density." 5Y2" x 8Y2" 5. to avoid misleading results. 56. P Bingham Plastic Model 5 X 7U** 5 X 8** 4. Where: V < V. NR. 37) Nn. Fig. Ibs.z.500 3.2 0. However. p = 12. In the Bingham model. . shown in accompanying tables. pressure drop determinations.= Viscosity.9 1. Pt = fLVZpj25.000 ft..46* 5. for full turbo flow.60* 6. 5Y2" x 7%.7 NRe' 3.A. 3. = [NR. across the area of flow. ppg t7= Yield point. variations of flow area due to borehole irregularities. ft.6 (Db-Do).9 6. For comparison. = f L VZp/25.. the type of mathematical model Nomenclature for flow equations used and input data should be comple~ely understood. calculations frequently assume NR. 39) K' = Consistency index (Fig.5 N.4 NRe/ 4. by various service companies./l00 {t. are tedious but acceptable results can be obtained.' (Fig.000./100 ft. and many operating companies. in.400 n' 0.100 2. and presence of more than one type of fluid can be easily considered. 2. PI = I1pVL/1.5 0.000.039 L p V2f'/(Dh-Dp) *Power Law Model V. 38. 36) V = Velocity of fluid in annulus. k' = 0.Dp = Casing OD.. using fluid data from Figs. = 2. 36) n'= Flow behavior index (Fi~. 34.. Thus. Power Law Model 5 X8 X 7U 6./sec. In the Power Law Model./sec.. A non-Newtonian fluid in either turbulent or plug flow has a flatter velocity profile. laminar.A. **5~" casing in 7U" and 8~" wellbores.. ft. turbulent flow. Reynold's Number has varied.2 (Dh-Dp)Z (Db-Dp) p PI = 11VL/1. 39101 Displacement pressure. More than one organization prefers to use a sliding value based on flow behavior index. 34 ./sec. f = Friction factor (Bingham-Newtonian. 39. 5./Sec. NR. V pill *Y.62* 5.5 23" 4. min. these data have been converted to critical velocity.2 ppg. .800 3. described by Fann V-G readings from Fig..789' *11= 5 cp. have made more detailed flow analyses practical. = Critical velocity. Fig. 36 and 37. V p/l10 P = 0..0+ NRe' 3. Mathematical determinations of veloci~y at which turbulence is fully established have been based on some form of Reynolds Number for both models.0 ft..6 (Db-Dp).48 4.29 6.15 V. The Modified Reynolds Number (Bingham model) is calculated and used to find friction factor (f) as shown in Fig. = 1. ty = 20 Ibs. laminar flow.25 t 5. Computer facilities in most service companies. Q = V (DhZ-DpZ)/17. than when it is in laminar flow. 38) f' = Friction factor (Power Law. 37) L = Length. with computerized analyses. iii. Shown below are some example computer calculations.. P.' = 3. 39): n' 0.17 6.26288. Fig. n'. Note that they correspond closely to similar data calculated by hand. Since NR.2 5. 5 N.11+ 6. = 928 (Db-Do) Where: V ~ V. ~Note close correlation of hand calculations to service company computer calculated results shown in text. psi Q = Pumping rate.000 was used to derive critical velocitythe minimum velocity that will maintain full developed turbulent flow...48 6. * Function NRe' Na..100 and 3. V V.500 3. psi P1= Pressure drop.62 [I1pZ + 8..p= Plastic viscosity.262 '2.6 0.23 40'" . even with electronic calculators..37* '*Computer output presents critical pump rate. selected from Fig. 36 and 37.' for critical flow varies as a function of n'.62 I1P+ 1.Summary of flow equations for fluids in casing/wellbore Non-Newtonian Newtonian fluids V annulus Power Law Model fluids Bingham Plastic Model For all fluids and models typ)I/Z = 17. the following values are sometimes used (Source Fig.106 The Modified Reynolds Number (Power Law Model) is used to find friction factor (f'). cp (Fig. cement in turbulent or plug flow will exert a more WORLD OIL 1977 Example flow calculation results Hand calculated for 12 bpm flow over 1.

--- --- n' g5 0. fluid in narrow side will not move before average flow exceeds 10 bpm. Fig.000 20./min. This erosion will reduce the area of contact between mud and casing and mud and borehole.01' . An indicator of the degree of decentralization is percent standoff. and investigations have shown that standoff increases the velocity required to initiate mud flow from the narrow side of the annulus. see table. STANDOFF 0.000 Fig.000 REYNOLDS NUMBER.000..000 100."1 w > ." with a high velocity difference between cement and mud achieved only with cement in turbulent flow. These will be disTIME. higher gel strength increases differential resistance to flow across a non-concentric annular area.'07 Fig. Contact time in minutes = T.. 40-How decentralization affects velocity on the narrow side of the annulus in relation to over-all rate of flow for one set of fluid and hole conditions. 39-Friction factor.001 1.2 100% STANDOFF 1.l100 FT.001 2.008 0.006 ~ ~ . 6" CASING IN 9" BOREHOLE FLUID DENSITY = 10 PPG PLAST. The resisting drag force between mud and casing can BOREHOLE ~ u.340. i.MIN. and calculated NRc'= 4. Drag force is the other basic mechanism that displaces mud from the casing-wellbore annulus.000 40. Example use: For calculated N". Knowing displacement pressure and flow rate that will keep a slurry in turbulent or plug flow in the annulus is essential for primary cement job design. and contact time is long enough. = VT/235. In laminar flow..6 Q. 3S-Friction factors for use in Bingham Plastic Model or Newtonian fluid equation.lo7 Contact time is defined as the period during which a position in the annulus (generally above the zone of interest) remains in contact with a cement slurry that is in turbulent flow. 41-Mud displacement is improved by additional contact time. NRE FROM BINGHAM PLASTIC OR NEWTONIAN EQUATIONS Fig. Fig.0041 (after Dodge et al).02 cussed later in this article. of 111.262.000 REYNOLDS NUMBER. Drag forces that aid in displacement exist between mud and cement at the fluid-to-fluid interface or contact plane. 37.8 > ~ 0." uniform displacing force against the mud in the casingwellbore annulus.000 10. This difference increases with decentralization and increases the likelihood of bypassing mud on the narrow side of the annulus. . When casing is not centered. However.'o' >. Under conditions that contribute to mud bypassing in an eccentric annulus. (after Brice et al). 41. derived from Fig. Example use: For n' = 0. Physical limits of pumping equipment and well bore formation strength also have to be considered to determine what flow regime can be established and maintained. complete mud removal should be achieved.26288.008 .. 00 (2) wO.006 b z i= () 0 0.96 Resisting drag forces have an effect on displacement efficiency that is also proportional to mud gel strength. cement has a parabolic velocity profile across the area of flow and it is likely to "telescope" through the mud. read f' = 0.000 1. = 10 CP YIELD STR...000 10.. VISC.003 . NRE' (FROM POWER LAW MODEL EQUATION) 100. Displacement drag forces increase with increasing velocity of cement at the contact plane and with increasing pressure between mud and cement. the period during which a point. T1 TURBULENT lEAD SLURRY TIME. T2 placement rate... it is never more than 60% of total flow rate.003 if 0." Fig. a: . for use in Power law Model equations.01 o .6 >.4I I I 33'13'/. 40. Example use: With 50% standoff. A. gal.004 0.000 4.0067 (after Ormsby). resisting drag force effects will not be uniform across the annular flow area. VT = Volume of slurry in turbulent flow. These forces develop after a portion of mud has been bypassed and a cement-mud contact plane exists. (after McLean et al).. Standoff % = 100 Wn/radius (1)radius (2)..' .'~ TOP PLUG NEAT TAil SLURRY CASING '. read f = 0.002 a: u. Note that NRC'for critical velocity varies with n'. = 10 LB..'" "- 0..0 (CENTERED) W:~HOLE ~SING 10(1) ci 0. If cement-on-mud drag forces are high enough to cause mud erosion.e. in alignment with the direction of flow.. drag forces at the cement-mud interface should cause erosion of the bypassed mud. above 20 bpm.T. . f'.004ICLMN TUBULARS INTERNAL FLUSH . is in contact with slurry in turbulent flow. . leaving bypassed channels. Q = dis- WORLD OIL 1977 35 . those conditions are most likely to exist when cement has adequate "contact time. Resisting drag' forces exist at contact planes between mud and borehole wall and between mud and casing.002 0. o 9 ~ ~ o o -' 1.

. In addition to the mud-casing drag forces. 42-Rotational displacing drag force aids in removal of by-passed mud in the narrow side of an eccentric annulus (after McLean et al). However. Pipe moving techniques. many times. velocity in the annulus decreases. use of these devices is strongly resisted-under certain conditions-by some drilling personnel. where differential sticking is a problem.be altered to a positive mud displacing force by rotating the casing while displacing cement. Rotating vs. Reciprocal movement also affects flow rate and velocity of fluid in the annulus. Fig. Mechanical centralizers are available for nearly every possible casing-hole size combination.in removing bypassed mud. During the upstroke. ANNULAR FLOW (UPSTROKE) = 20 + 5 = 25 BPM ANNULAR FLOW (DOWNSTROKE) = 20 . Therefore. the casing acts like a piston. displacing fluid in the wellbore below the shoe up the annulus. or changes in standoff. STROKE. 42. 43.. This problem will be discussed later in this article. Fig.0 2. conditions that generate greatest concern about centralizers-like highly deviated wells with numerous washouts-are. to a positive displacement force from a resistive displacement force. as will be discussed later.. it is very important to know the magnitude of pressure changes to avoid breaking down the formation and causing lost circulation. 9%" CASING. and control certain variables. This concept has been encouraged for over 30 years. 43-Effect of reciprocal casing movementon annular flow rate. Thread compounds with Teflon and/or Silicone additives should be avoided where high torque ranges are WORLD OIL 1977 . Generally. i. 44. reciprocal casing movement.5 = 15 BPM I: ~2:.5 1.. Centering pipe in the borehole creates a uniform annular flow area perpendicular to flow direction.5 3. Either type of pipe movement alters drag effects between mud and casing. MINUTES Fig. 0 0 "" o o EXAMPLE: FOR Q = 20 BPM. CYCLE TIME = 1. 10. centralizers can actually increase chances of getting casing down. During rotation.oo -- -- o C\I 00_ . where casing is severely off center. to develop best displacement pressure and most positive drag forces during primary cementing. see Part 1 of the series. Unfortunately. the very conditions that make their use one of the key requirements for success. This motion creates substantial pressure and velocity surges in the wellbore. Reciprocation-moving casing up and down-exerts a somewhat less-positive displacing drag force.0 MIN. But based on model studies/6 rotation appears to be more effective than reciprocation . and minimizes variation of resistive drag forces across this flow area. But they will subs~antially improve standoff conditions.109 which improve the erosional effect of cement on bypassed mud by substantially increasing displacing drag forces.0 1. as part of the fluid pumped out of the shoe occupies the volume previously occupied by the casing and fluid inside 36 CASING ROTATION STATIONARY 8TARTED FLOWING CEMENT MUD ALMOST REMOVED Fig. there are cement-casing drag forces that also aid displacement. along with the volume of fluid being pumped through the shoe. Maximum displacing rate assumes uniform acceleration. However. as centralizers move across wellbore irregularities.0 -- CYCLE TIME FOR A 20 FT. Pressure velocity surges. such forces should not exceed casing makeup torque.108 Centralizers do not provide perfect casing-borehole concentricity. rotation generates more total drag force during displacement. This lateral movement alters the flow area and encourages bypassed mud displacement. this resistance is due to a concern that they will "hang up" and prevent casing from being run to desired depth. However. Reciprocating can cause lateral casing movement. as they tend to "pull" the cement into the bypassed mud column instead of alongside it. reciprocation also affects velocity of cement and mud. The following is a discussion of: Conditions that limit different aspects of displacement and controllable variables in the system.5 2. cement-casing drag forces are more effective than during reciprocation. On the downstroke. HOW TO IMPROVE MUD DISPLACEMENT It is necessary to operate within limiting conditions of the borehole. deceleration over 4 feet at each end of stroke.e.96 This positive effect is illustrated in Fig. Rotating casing at 15-25 rpm provides more pipe movement relative to annular fluids than reciprocating 20 feet on a one minute cycle. A power swivel should be used to rotate casing to avoid over-torquing the connections. as casing without centralizers will lie against the borehole wall. the casing. in addition to the more effective direction of casing related drag forces. In some cases.

computer programs and nomographs have been used to simplify analysis and predict swab-surge pressures for a given set of well conditions." Fracture gradient knowledge is important in determining safe slurry density and/or pump rate. to determine what running speed to use to stay within limits (the pressure window) of a well. This information is essential.required for rotation. Then. Therefore. but if total cake removal were achieved it could create lost circulation or other problems related to cement dehydration. Occasionally. Casing centralizing and movement was developed as a "package" that included use of scratchersmechanical devices designed to remove filter cake and. If lost circulation occurred. Many other conditions can be used to define a well's "pressure window. Also.112 Review of the drilling history should help identify pressures that existed in the wellbore during drilling. to be discussed in a following article. Scratchers. development wells drilled in the Texas Gulf Coast. Other devices that aid pipe movement are positive standoff rings. This equipment is recommended for: Highly deviated wells.111 The difference in indicator readings on upstroke and downstroke is very important.ll0 While reciprocating. The low friction character of these compounds may allow over-torquing and excessive makeup that exceeds pin or collar yield strength.e. with improved mud conditions. Reducing gel strength and plastic viscosi~y greatly improves displacement efficiency. pressure window limits. As cement displaces mud up the annulus. well defined. These tools ride freely on the casing between collars. Clark presented a graphic view of typical bottomhole pressure variations during normal drilling and completion and a theoretical bottomhole pressure chart where formation strength was exceeded. i. reducing contact area between casing and formation. to substantially reduce forces required to move casing in either reciprocal or rotational motion. And it is important to note that casing weight variation will occur during the completion operations. Centralizers that rotate on the casing also reduce rotational resistance. Standoff rings. This difference indicates whether casing is moving freely or is tending to stick. One company obtained breakdown gradients with drilling mud in open hole as part of the normal plugback and abandonment procedure for offshore exploratory wells. pick-up loads clearly have to be less than pipe tensile strength. and records of breakdown pressures encountered during stimula~ion and squeeze operations. Indications of fracture gradient are obtained for a given area through: The presence of lost circulation during drilling. where differential sticking is expected. 45. Such a profile. This may be the case opposite non-permeable zones. This includes fluid properties and regime determinations and an accurate prediction of borehole ID variation. Stuck pipe is indicated by an increase in the weight difference on up and down strokes and not by weight increase alone. scratchers likely remove only the outer.116 Effects of pipe movement on wellbore pressure have have been defined in the literature. along with gel 37 WORLD OIL . upper limits may be more definite. Many operators and mud companies have computer programs available for de~ermining surge pressures due to casing running. . improve the surface for cement bonding.11a And attempts have been made to determine fracture gradient through log measurements. where no filter cake has formed. accurate fracture gradient profiles are not always available. A recently published review of this method. depth is desirable. However. The lower limit must be high enough to prevent entry of formation fluid and to stop formation sloughing. Fig. 111-120 There is general agreement that accurate determination of swab-surge pressures associated with pipe movement requires consideration of properties of the systems at work in the wellbore. softer portion of the filter cake that has built up opposite permeable zones. Well bore formation 1977 pressure limits. A profile showing fracture gradient vs. However. scratchers mechanically disturb mud gel strength and induce added turbulence. Equipment is available that reciprocates and rotates casing simultaneously. Condition mud before cementing. If kicks were encountered and formation fluids entered the well bore. Mechanical devices can be used to minimize frictional forces between casing and wellbore that resist movement during mud conditioning and cementing. there is a weight reduction. and whether stage equipment is needed. but difference in upstroke and downstroke weight should remain fairly constant if casing is moving freely. It also reduces displacement drag forces required to erode and remove bypassed mud by reducing casing-to-mud and wellboreto-mud resistive drag force effects described earlier.lla. Every borehole has limits on bottomhole pressures. these rings act as bearings. lower gel strength and plastic viscosity. minimum pressure limits should be clear. it may be desirable to lower mud density. operators invest an extra effort to make systematic and intentional measurement of breakdown pressure. and it reduces pressures required at the cement-mud interface to displace mud. or where any conditions are expected that would make casing movement difficult. This should positively affect cementing. Normally located above zones of interest. and they have ODs slightly larger than collars. theoretically. the indicator will reflect weight increase from pumping heavier cement into the casing. Under certain. 45. The upper limit must be lower than pressure that would induce formation fractures and cause los~ circulation. showed definite improvement in success ratio of primary cementing jobs in conventional completions with small annular clearances in Exxon Co. compared to reciprocation alone. Hand calculations required ~o do this accurately are complicated and time consuming. Placing scratchers opposite washouts should improve mud displacement. While circulating and conditioning mud prior to cementing-with casing on bottom-the difference between upstroke and downstroke weight decreases. enables systematic design approach. directly to the formation. Fig.

strength and plastic viscosity. it is best to minimize contact. This verifies that float equipment is clear of foreign objects. it is possible to pick up the landing joint prior to tagging bottom. which can accelerate setting. Casing running tips. pipe should only be rotated. GEL +200 BREAKS a: ::::> " 00 w a: ::::> 00 00 M:! a. Severe thickening with oil muds occurs with cement mixing because such muds are thickened by water wet solids that are readily available in the high solids content cement.'.' CjCj z Za: ZOO ::::>< 0 I. Also. The minimum amoun~ of mud circulated prior to mixing cement should be the casing's volume. With casing 10-15 feet off bottom. The bottom wiper plug prevents contamination in the casing. reduced cement compressive strength. establishing circulation and starting to move the pipe requires careful planning and a well coordinated effort.124 but generally tend to accelerate-the effect depends on concentration. With good hole stability and an accurate casing tally. checked and ready for makeup. and may completely inhibit cement set in some instances. final mud circulation should be started-slowly-while moving the casing. which is most serioU's when oil base mud and cement slurry densities are high. With the casing "free" it can be picked up to verify ability to reciprocate. 44-Measured pressure surges associated with picking-up and running of a single casing joint. Pre-job tests at various oil mud/cement slurry ratios can indicate extent of potential thickening problems. Part 1). but difference between up and down stroke should remain fairly constant if pipe is free (after Barkis). It may be desirable to circulate even longer if circulating pressures are abnormally high.. Mud contamination effects./ HOLE UPSTROKE -'-' - 15 lJ: Cj ijj 3: --------I I --" I I DOWNSTROKE EQUALIZATION I TIME ECj II Fig. the cementing head should be made up on the landing joint. inertia and mud gel characteristics (after Burkhardt). Changing weight reflects mud gel strength changes and density differences as cement is pumped. Maximum resistance to casing movement is experienced at this time and maximum pick-up load should be accurately defined to avoid overstressing the pipe. Such contamination can result in: Accelerated or retarded thickening times. Casing should not be stopped within 15 feet of bottom or with less than 10 feet between elevator and spider as this is the minimum space to permit adequate weight slack-off to overcome most differential sticking tendenCIes.a:() < () CONDITIONING F xZ _w ::!:::!: w () . As circulation progresses. Organic chemicals generally retard. and a spacer fluid reduces cementWORLD OIL 1977 . nearly to the minimum wellbore pressure limit. 45-Pipe weight on indicator on upstroke and downstroke indicates whether casing is moving freely. +100 o -100 PIPE STOPPED~ -200 1 o PIPE LIFTED TIME Fig. PIPE VELOCITY +400 +300 '0 Q. increased filtrate loss (higher than in either mud or cement). Clearly shown are the swab and surge effects caused by viscous drag. and with oil base mud. 3.121-126 An API study showed that inorganic chemicals have an erratic effect on oil well cements. oil emulsion muds often contain calcium chloride in the water phase. If possible. . to prevent a swabbing action that may reduce pressure below the lower limit. The final steps of: Making up the last casing joint (landing joint) and the cementing head. If this is done. In most cases. Casing was lowere<l smoothly after lifting. the mixture may become an unpumpable mass. This would permit a larger pressure increase for displacemen~ pressures.''' To prevent mud/slurry problems. The small average cement particle size and large particle surface area contribute to the thickening problem. 38 +500 MAX. mud circulation to clean up the hole and remove cuttings from the mud should be adequate if good mud properties were maintained while drilling the final portion of the hole. otherwise it should be on the rig floor. The possibility of mIxmg cement and mud always exists during pumping and displacement. reduced bond strength (see Fig.123. pressures normally decline as mud gel strength and plastic viscosity (shear stress) decrease with slowly increasing pump rates (shear rate).

Fig.0 DENSITY = 10 PPG PLAST. the resulting displacement should be better. die'Seloil (weighted or unweighted). The buoyancy effect of higher density cement slurry on lower density mud is a controversy in the literature. requires 1. Example: At 5 bpm: To get cement to 1. fresh water. This accumulated mud then can contaminate the cement. Multiply volume factor times volume of annulus from shoe to desired cement column height.2 2. 40 (after McLean et al). = STANDOFF = 80%. The value of properly conditioned mud has been discussed. DISPLACEMENT RATE. Salt water has less tendency-than fresh water-to cause shales to swell or slough. = 10 10 YIELD PT." After turbulent flow is established. Final cement top on wide side will be 2. However.Type of curve that can be designed for individual conditions to determine additional cement. along with the desired velocity profile..6 times the 1. it is likely that a large portion of the bypassed mud will not be removed unless turbulent cement flow is maintained. Formation conditions that determine the pressure window are fixed. RHEOLOGY DESIGN Generally. if wellbore conditions can tolerate higher displacement pressures.5 DENSITY. an increase in effective contact time can be realized.. This can be desirable where high pump rates would otherwise be required. including water.t28 Such effects should provide a positive displacing force on bypassed mud as long as there is vertical continuity of the mud column to the top of the rising cement-mud interface. will remove the film and accumulate mud ahead of the plug and behind the spacer fluid (see Fig. = 9. Sufficient contact time should be provided to allow the cement-mud 39 Fig. may aid mud displacement efficiency.. but additional turbulence may not be "better yet. and one behind the spacer fluid-to prevent mud-cement contamination if: Contamination would create serious problems. BPM 30 40 FRICTION PRESSURE LOSS FOR MUD.. Conditions that may prevent such flow include: Limited displacement rate capability (pumping equipment). oil base fluids and emulsions (oil in water. 7.J 0 > Ia] w t) ::E MUD PLAST. Providing extra pumping equipment is basically an economic decision. Contact pressure at the base of the bypassed mudcement interface increases with increasing height of cement.e. PPG = 5. and spacer and cement should be veriWORLD OIL 1977 . Selection of amount and type of spacer depends on type of mud being used and interreaction problems between cement and mud. solutions of acid phosphates... A variety of spacer or preflush fluids are available.8 2. thinning the slurry to get "more" turbulence is not recommended. water in oil).. HOLE. A single bottom plug. Note how volume factor decreases with higher pump rates (after Graham).. VISC. VISC. 2.OOO-foot annulus volume. high displacement rates improve displacement efficiency if cement can be in turbulent flow up the annulus. Part 1). 47. = 10 CP 6" CSG IN 9" BOREHOLE 50% STANDOFF ~ a: 0. if the cement bypasses a portion of mud and then ree'Stablishes complete displacement of the movable mud in the annulus above the bypassed mud.. However.8 1. displacement efficiency increases with increased slurry flow resistance. Thus.0. for Bingham Plastic fluid with turbulent flow through annulus.000 feet above the shoe on the narrow side. turbulent flow is better than laminar flow.8' 2. as displacing drag forces increase with increasing contact pressure at the cement-mud interface. a pressure window that limits displacement pressure and improper flow (rheological) properties of mud and/or slurry. Two bottom plugs may be required-one ahead.6 o 1.4' a: 0 lt) « u. and the spacer fluid does not by itself strip the mud film from the casing bore.. dispersants can be added to lower gel strength to attain turbulent flow at lower displacement rates. Compatibility of both spacer and mud. By adding dispersant and lowering pump rate. see Fig. However. salt water or fluids containing dispersing sur f act ant should not immediately precede a high density cement slurry as thinning and weight material settling may occur. w ::E ::> .2 il ~ o 0.e. CEMENT 30 50 13." mud contact in the annulus. 1 In. if turbulence can be achieved at reasonable pump rates without dispersants. A water flush. normally in turbulent flow..'6 3.OOOFT.6 2. i. ahead of the cement. Fluid properties of the cement slurry can also be altered.8' a: a: « ~ 0.0 1. and attempts to exceed those pressure limits may create serious problems. to assure coverage of the narrow side of eccentric annulus.> IU oJ W > (!J > « 1. IN. PSI/1. displacing drag forces may be the only effective force working to remove the mud. With these conditions. Use of dispersants.6 TOP ON NARROW SIDE I 3 10 I 5 I 10 -20 I 15 PUMP RATE. This should increase both displacing pressure and erosional effects due to increased contact pressure near the bottom of the bypassed mud column.200 feet above shoe.5 DIA. 46-Effect of fluid yield strength on velocity required to initiate flow in narrow side of eccentric annulus. i. brine.4 fied on every cement job.

Jr. "An InvesJIgation of Oil-Well Cementing. Under some conditions this cannot be accomplished by controlling pump rate.. Fig. pp. Wellbore and/or surface conditions that prohibit turbulent flow may al'So prohibit plug flow." Paper SPE 1'234. R. and Holmes. provide adequate contact time for mud removal . M. displace at the highest practical rate and use sufficient volume to get desired height on narrow side of eccentric annulus 00Brown." Petroleum Engineer.97 How to utilize plug flow. "An Imeroved Mathematical Model for Relating Shear Stress to Shear Rate in Drdling Fluids and Cement Slurries. M. 1~. W. "Primary Cementing. ..127 Centralized pipe and rotational movement may improve displacement efficiency. Rotation is best for removing mud channels from narrow side of non-centered casing . A. Colo. Move casing during mud conditioning and cementing . across interest zones . This data should be derived from well site measurement'S of mud and cement slurry rheological properties and calipered hole size information.. "Cementing in Oil Muds.. A. E. August 3. A.. . W. C. Displacement. . "Displacement 1'967. Jr. When these not-uncommon circumstances exist." API Drilling and Production Practice. August 1. 'J . May 1964..353-1. Las VeBas. Pumping rates should produce annular rising velocity not greater than 90 feet per minute. H... 1965.. Graham. H.Technique Using Low Displacement Rates. 44-55. Julr. its resistance to hydraulic fracturing 4.06Ormsby. 97:1112. 1964. "Pressure Changes in Drilling Wells Caused by Pipe Movement. B. as intermittently increasing cement velocity could bypass mud." JPT Vol. 424-438. Inc. presented at Formation Damage Control Symposium. "An Evaluation of a Primary Cementing . F. and if sufficient volumes are used to obtain desired cement height on the narrow side of an eccentric annulus. W. Sixth Edition. A.. . K." Paper SPE 5691. Dodge. and Stiffs." Paper SPE 4521'." JPT June 1961. presented at Fall Meeting. G. Houston. . and Owen. and Slagle. Combined rotation-reciprocation is most effective when displacing with turbulent flow 3. 1967 pp./.drag forces to erode away any bypassed mud. with U-tube effect of higher density cement." JPT. m MacPherson." U6Taylor. . even in laminar flow can be effective if the slurry is thicker (has higher yield 'Strength and plastic viscosity) than the mud....." O&G ] ." API Drillinc_ and Production Practice.!." API Drilling and Production Practice 1970 pp. April 1976. and Clark.. Mechanics in Primary Cementing. How to improve laminar flow displacement... consider lower rates to achieve plug flow in narrowest annular areas. Corrected Edition March 1963. Also.Techniques. 92-106. J. Use high rates where turb~lence can be maintained in the widest annular area.98 Coming next month: Primary cementing techniques. u'Matthews. with Cement Primary Suc- 40 WORLD Oil 1977 .ers. "Cement Spacier Fluid. "Factors to be Considered in Obtai'!inJ! Proper Cementing of Casing. and Metzner. Robertson. displacing with cement in a plug flow regime can maintain a flatter velocity profile in the annulus. McLean. October 11969pp. With turbulent flow. Vol. H.. New Orleans. A. 'Rheology-Balanced Cementing Improves cess. E. pp. T.Holt "] . H. across interest zones . "Turbulent Flow of Non-Newtonian Systems." The Log Analyst.. U8Schuh F. Nineteenth Edition January 1-974. J. February 07Clark. L. B. and Modey. W. B. and Hassebrook.. Las Vegas. L. "WeIlbore Pressure Surges Produced by Pipe Movement. adjust cement properties to achieve high yield strength and plastic viscosity. Technical Literature. 12-19. J. Third Edition 1963 Gulf Publishing Co.976. Reciprocation aids in achieving turbulence. cement density can improve plug flow displacement when it is maintained at least two pounds per gallon heavier than the mud. Know formation pressure limits in the wellbore . Nev. N. '\94ti. . J. D. "Mud Displacement Slurries. L. "Fracture Gradient Prediction and Its Application in OilPT." API Drilling and Production Prac4ices. .127 While drag forces are not as effective as with turbulence. field uperations. December 18. 1'974.e. J.23Beirute. and Berry. Lower limit is that required to maintain positive formation control . K.. Ne!'J September 30-0ctober 3.. "Field Application and Results of Pipe ripping Nomographs. Cementing Programs Using Turbulent Flow .00Burkhardt. Denver. H. When turbulence cannot be developed and maintained. Jr. I'p. L. . 47. A. N. T. September 1972.. La. particularly in the lead part of the slurry. "Computer Makes Surge Pressure Calculations Useful." Paper SPE 4784. 96. G. C.360.. .1>Bazer D. But reciprocal movement should be avoided. How to improve mud displacement primary cementing Center pipe in the borehole during 2.. "All Purpose Cement-Mud Spacer. j t LITERATURE CITED . 76-103..' API Drilling and Production Practice 1956. T. Houston. I28Garvin. 1976. an alternative is to alter cement rheological properties to increase apparent slurry viscosity. No. 11. Manry. 1969. February 7.." JPT. R. '. W.. "Cement Rheology-A Tool for Better Completions. E.. Even though turbulence will not be achieved. 257-272. "Calculation and Control of Mud Pressures in Drilling and Completion Operations. as the difference between mud and cement velocities on the wide side vs. If neither condition can be attained. the narrow side is reduced as rate increases. "A Graphic View of Pressure Surges and Lost Circulation. proper use of downhole and surface equipment.. 1972. 1954.. JOt"TestinJ! Oil Well Cements and Cement Additives. D. Jr. F." SPEJ. Upper limit is a function of the formation's strength. May 1975. R.23Anderson...3 "Standard Procedure for Testing Drilling Fluids. "The Effects of Drilling-Mud Additives on Oil-Well Cements. G. m Carney. "O&GJ September 29." API RPI0B. pp. and Clark R. B. Avoid adverse mud-cement reactions . "How to Predict Formation Pressure and Fracture Gradient from Eiectnc and Sonic Logs. S. Condition mud prior to cementing 5. Fig. A. '28. September 3D-October 3. 5... Petroleum Engineer Februa ." IPT. presented at Fall Meeting. ". K.. i. "Field Proven Techniques Improve Cementing Success. Composition and Properties of Oil Well Drilling Fluids. R. K. the highest practical pump rate is recommended. '00 Ror." API Bulletin D-4. January 29-30. us EatonA B. W.. Control displacement rates and slurry rheology . and Kelly J.. and/or presence of lost circulation. 8. When wellbore conditions are such that turbulence cannot be achieved. L. Do not use when displacing in plug flow .. presented at Fall Meeting. C. 107 Brice.. 1952. February 20. B. "An Improved Method for Calculating Pressures in a Drilling Weh. "Engineered Casi!. "Scale Model Displacement Studies to Predict Flow Behavior DurinJlt Cementing. Jr." O&GJ. and Whitake~ W.. "Oil Base Spacer System for Use in Cementing Wells ContaimnJ! Oil Base Drilling Muds. F.98 One guide for cement rheological design i'S to have cement yield strength exceed mud yield strength by a factor equal to maximum annulus clearance divided by minimum annulus clearance. I22Morris. H. L. no Clarki E.Tschirley." B&W. February 1. September 1911'." Paper SP~ 2656. a minimum of 10 minutes is recommended. "improved Fracture Gradient Estimates in Offshore Drilling Operations. Parker.." 1963. This volume can be determined from design curves based on specific mud and cement properties and casing-wellbore configurations (eccentricity). c.." API Drilling and Production Praclices~ 1953.. they can be maximized by increasing cement gel strength as high as possible. June 1959. P. Teplitz A. The detailed design curve determination is available in the literature. 1. "Prediction of Fracture Gradients from Log Derived Elastic Moduli.. Fontinot. 1973.. presented at Formauon Damage Symposium. N. 1948.976.. E.B. pp. 46. October 3-6. 1973.. The cement volume used under these displacement conditions should be such that the final height of cement on the narrow side i'S above any zones to be protected." Paper SPE 4610. eI al. pp. 41-50. I.00Howard. R. k. W... S." Oil and Gas Journal." AIChE Journal. "Effect of Mud-Treating Chemicals on Oil-Well Cements. et al. W. . 1973. m Barkis. and Carter. B. J. Use proper spacer fluids or flushes and wiper plugs 6. R." API RPI3B. The Critical Period.2." Worl 0. an Smith. R. m C~well.

Special considerations for each of the casing strings-conductor. The casing is normally filled at regular intervals (say every five to 20 joints). the casing rides or floats down to the desired depth because it is partially empty and somewhat buoyant. 48. stage cementing methods. The guide shoe or baffle collar has an open bore somewhat smaller than pipe inside diameter. Completion Technology C. and how to cement large diameter casing by the stab-in method. Most single. new concepts for cementing large diameter casing George o. and general precautions. the collar should be positioned to minimize the amount of contaminated cement pumped out around the shoe. intermediate and production-are reviewed and new ideas are presented for cementing large diameter casmg. In other types. When using float shoes or collars. Located one or more joints above the shoe. it is the intent of the authors to stress basic concepts and applications. Fig. This type preserves the "automatic" fill-up feature if attempts are made to break circulation during running. cement slurry chemistry and additive selection-and how mud is displaced by the cement slurry. unless the well's fluid level is low due to lost circulation. 1 O-second summary Concepts and applications of cementing equipment used on casing strings during primary cementing are explained along with a discussion of stage cementing. surface. PREVIOUS ARTICLES in this series have presented the basic principles of hole preparation. float collars. bouyancy is controlled by the amount of fluid placed inside the casing from a surface fill-up line. casing handling. cementing head. This article will discuss downhole and surface equipment used in conventional primary cementing. resin-sand coated casing. with emphasis on the common problem of lost circulation. Project Houston Engineer.131 Rotating or reciprocating type scratchers. Collars have basically the same features as shoes. and differential or automatic fill-up collars. Differential/automatic fill-up shoes and collars provide partial fill-up of the casing during running.129. COLLARS In most cases.wells Part 5-Guidelines for downhole equipment use.. Differential fill-up equipment is frequently used on long 41 . and controls the amount of cement left in the casing. This feature also prevents flow into the bottom of the casing during running. Pumping fluid through some types of "automatic" fill-up units converts them to conventional float valves. 49. 50. They are commonly known as baffle collars (without valves). mixing equipment and pumps. Since cement immediately below the wiper plug may be contaminated. except in certain shallow wells. the collar. Of course. It thus indicates when cement placement is complete. Jr. 49. An additional differential fill-up unit results in about 81 % fill-up.130. a ball is pumped through the tool for conversion. When float equipment is used. Partial filling is also required to prevent collapse of large diameter casing. Realizing that this subject covers a broad range of commercially available products and that design features of the equipment mentioned may vary widely among manufacturers. differential fill-up units (shoe or collar) keep the casing about 90% full. Three types of shoes are commonly used: Guide shoes (without valves of any kind). external casing packers. float collar. Suman. bottom and top wiper plugs. neither type of "auto- / or other specialized cementing equipment are frequently required. TYPES OF SHOES. Equipment used in conventional primary cementing normally includes a casing guide shoe. acts as a seat for pump-down wiper plugs. Fig. President. mixing and density measuring devices. And.Cementing oil and gas. Fig. Co. external casing seal rings and devices for increasing the annular velocity and/or swirling cement are sometimes applied.. centralizers. using either differential pressure.and Richard Ellis. Fig. 49. The float type contains a check valve which prevents backflow of cement into the casing after the cement job has been completed. in addition to float and fill-up functions. multiple staging equipment. Fig. float shoes and differential or automatic fill-up types. metal petal baskets and past borehole irregularities encountered while running the string. a roundnosed shoe is run on the bottom joint to guide the casing WORLD OIL 1977 matic" fill-up equipment should be run in combination with float equipment. or-for the automatic type-a predetermined-size orifice.

For shoes. however. pressure must be maintained until the cement sets up. . proximity of the shoe to total depth. As an extra precaution to supplement visual tool inspection. bottom wiper plugs and float equipment-perhaps with the exception of flapper valve types with straight-through openings-may have to be avoided. possibly. rather than all being forced up the annulus. the number of scratchers and centralizers. Some reasons for selecting float equipment without fill-up features are: · The casing can be filled with well-conditioned mud. etc. thereby reducing running time. This equipment . 43. and it offers positive downhole casing shut-off if the well tries to kick. Running casing at speeds which provide annular flow rates acceptable during drilling is normally safe (see Fig. Pressure surges causing formation fracturing and lost circulation can be prevented by limiting casing running speed. to activate the check valve. 48-Main equipment components of a typical primary cement job in a moderate depth well where additional accessories such as scratchers. and. Surge pressure should be calculated to determine safe running speed where clearance between hole and casing is small (Part 4). WIPER PLUGS. and prevents this mud from accummulating beneath the top plug and being deposited around the lower casing joints (Part 1) .is somewhat simpler in operation and. However. This release should be rapid. Part 4). are not required.strings to: Reduce surge pressures by permitting part of the displaced mud to enter the casing. "automatic" fill-up equipment should not be used. If backflow is observed. to provide continuous partial fill. Following cement placement-and after bumping the top plug-the pressure normally is released. occasionally. 42 . Other considerations in establishing running speed include: Presence of bridges or key seats or doglegs. Float. PLUG CONTAINER · It gives more positive indications of wellbore fluid gains or losses. baffle and fill-up collars are normally made with equal or greater burst and collapse strength than the casing on which they are run. as high burst and collapse strength is not required at this location in the string after drill-out. the diaphragm in the bottom plug ruptures and cement is displaced out the bottom of the pipe and around the casing. There is a more or less continuous and progressive "breaking" of gelled mud in the borehole. cuttings and LCM. If there is lost circulation material in the mud system.e. The top plug seats on WORLD OIL 1977 FLOAT COLLAR CENTRAUZER GUIDE SHOE PUMPING CEMENT Fig. 51. CEMENTING HEADS Wiper plugs are used to separate the cement from preceding or following fluids. The bottom plug also removes mud from the wall of the casing. these design criteria are not generally considered critical. . stage collars. and to avoid the hazard of casing collapse. After reaching bottom. excessive internal pressure expands the casing and it can contract and form a micro-annulus when the pressure is released-after the cement sets (see Part 1). more reliable. shale cavings. Fig. and entry of extraneous materials from the borehole is avoided. fluid can be pumped through float and fill-up equipment after make-up to verify operation before running to bottom. And if use of lost circulation material in the slurry is planned. i.

A mechanical device should be used to give visual proof when the top plug leaves the head. split body or hinged. A bottom plug is not recommended with large amounts of lost circulation material in the slurry or with badly rusted or scaled casing. the operator should verify that the bottom plug is. in fact.e. 52.the bottom plug or float collar. displacement should be stopped. At this time the cement is usually falling down the casing on a vacuum. Insert float fits in casing collar recess between joints. A mud line pop-off valve is a desirable safety precaution. and occasionally WORLD OIL 1977 GUIDE SHOE OR BAFFLE COLLAR FLOAT SHOE (COLLAR) DIFFERENTIAL FILL-UP. Therefore. Fig. The cementing manifold should be connected so that the plug can be pumped out of the cementing head with the displacing fluid. Correct positioning requires a caliper log of the wellbore so that locations correspond with to-gauge sections of the borehole. Effective cementing is important through production intervals and around the lower six joints of surface and intermediate casing strings-to minimize likelihood of joint loss. placed in the bottom position in the cementing head. CENTRALIZERS Casing centralizers are used to: Improve displacement efficiency (Part 4) . solid body. Installation method depends on type. Centralizers are held in their relative casing either by the casing collars or collars. as such material may collect on the ruptured diaphragm. Two general types of centralizers are spring-bow and rigid. they are effective and should be used where applicable. (Courtesy Bakerline and Dowell) on casmg passmg through dog-legs where key seats may exist. Since the fluid can be siphoned through the cementing pump. and to keep casing out of key seats. to avoid sudden bumping of the top plug and excessive pressure. Pup joints may have to be used to keep the cementing head within reach so that such delays can be minimized. The rigid type provides more positive stand-off where borehole is togauge. converting tool to flapper type float. high circulation rate shears the orifice retainer. Although centralizers may appear to be unnecessary obstructions on the pipe. CIRCULATING TYPE FLAPPER TYPE FLOAT AUTOMATIC FILL-UP NON-CIRCULATING INSERT FLOAT Fig. If available. Particularly susceptible to differential pressure sticking are permeable zones where pressure is depleted and/or high mud overbalance pressure exists. If the cementing head is located far out of reach. i. If the top plug does not bump at the calculated volume (allowing for displacement fluid compressibility). proper centralization reduces the harmful effects of these conditions. method of installation and spacing. Another precaution taken by some service companies is to pump a small volume of cement on top of the top plug before switching to displacing fluid. to prevent differential pressure sticking (Part 1). to Cementing heads are available which hold one or more plugs. Important design considerations are: Positioning. high deviation of the borehole and poor quality mud all increase differential sticking hazard (Part 1). The hinged type is most commonly installed. 49-Examples of commonly used shoes and collars. after being displaced bottom. and shuts off flow. delays may be encountered in releasing the top plug and pumping may be interrupted for a period of time to the detriment of the operation. Small clearance between casing and borehole. Special close-tolerance centralizers may be used on liners. When the two-plug system is used. the centralizer should not be allowed to casing joint. the differential shoe or collar allows circulation while running pipe. Accurate volume measurements can be important III trouble-shooting a problem cement job. as well as in keeping track of the location of the top plug. API has established specifications position on the mechanical stop (collar or stop the bow-spring be pulled-not bow-spring type ride free on a for casing central43 . The restraining device collar) should always be located within type centralizer so the centralizer will pushed-into the hole. The spring-bow type has greater ability to provide stand-off where the borehole is enlarged. Two fill-up devices are shown. Pumps should be slowed as the pre-calculated displacement volume is reached. And displacing fluid can be siphoned into the casing below the top plug (before it is released) if the valve to the supply source is not kept closed. the valve should not be opened until the top plug has been released. With orifice type automatic fill-up device. Displacement of the top plug should be carefully monitored. The volume of fluid behind the plug should be determined from calibrations on the cementing unit tanks or by measuring out of a mud storage tank. on casing adjacent to (and sometimes passing through) intervals where differential sticking is a hazard. a flowmeter can be used to verify volumes pumped. Another method is to count pump strokes and convert to volume by applying a known pump efficiency. Centralizers should be positioned on casing: Through intervals requiring effective cementing.

9% inch casing. The equation is: Lateral load Fig. Permanent set is the constant bow height of the bowsprings after each bow-spring has been flattened 12 times. center. expressed in degrees per 100 feet. The load then (0. = Casing sin e weight component + 2 (T) sin 8 + tension Where: W = Weight per foot of casing. 51-Top and bottom wiper plugs. e = 25 degrees. as determined by API test. VALVE OPEN (FILLING) SHEAR SCREW SHEARED KIRKSITE BALL ~ CIRCULATING BACK-PRESSURE VALVE RELEASED FOR CEMENTING Restoring force is the force exerted by a centralizer against the borehole to keep the pipe away from the wall. All plug material is drillable.L. The positive sign provides a more conservative (higher) calculated load and may be acceptable because of other unknowns in a deviated hole. SIZE. casing weight.847) (40..487 = 157 lb. hole angle. The factor (2) compensates for doglegs and is not applied for casing sizes from 10%-20-inch. 50-Principle of differential fill-up operation.200 1. izers. then u: 8= HOLE SIZE.847 (10 ppg mud). 7" z <I: %. permanent set and restoring force are defined and specified for individual sets of conditions.4226) + 2 [(0. Solid plug. spacing). And it should be noted that stand-off required to prevent differential pressure sticking will normally be less than that to properly centralize casing for good displacement efficiency.) x Spacing (ft. Diaphragm in bottom e = Borehole angle.0) (916)] 0. 9'12" 400 800 1. T = ~ m' W . permanently releasing the upper flapper. Lateral load (Subtractive dogleg) = 644 . u. DIAPHRAGM CAST ALUMINUM INSERT component = m. T = Tension (pulling force) due to casing below centralizer 8 One-half the change in angle between centralizer and next lower centralizer = :i 1'h 1'14 When a dogleg exists between centralizers.600 2pOO 2~00 o c CENTR.W. 52.- Fig. lb/ft. Load-deflection curve for a centralizer gives lateral force on casing at various deflections.52-Example of spring-bow centralizer contained by stop collar so that device is pulled into hole. L 45 feet (centralizer = below cen- = 644 + 487 = 1. cos e for casing sections below the centralizer (the weight of the casing in mud is a close approximation for hole angles below the centralizer of 25 degrees or less) The sign (+) for the second term depends on the direction of the dogleg (usually the sign is negative for a build-up in angle and positive for a drop-off in angle).700 pounds to move the casing V4 inch off center. Pressure area differential on valve sleeve favoring the inside makes it engage lower flapper when casing is 90% full.0 calculation: For: m = 0. -. follows slurry. right.132 Starting force. Maximum starting force is determined before permanent set-restoring force after. LBS.00785 = (0. it takes over 1.67 times average casing to borehole clearance. Starting force is the force required to start the centralizer into previously run casing. 916 feet of casing tralizer. covering specific hole sizes and casing sizes and weight. pounds L = Distance from centralizer to next lower centralizer.133 The minimum API restoring force must equal 2 (w) sin 30 degrees-where (w) equals weight of 40 feet of medium 'Weight casing and 30 degrees represents an average hole angle-at a casing to borehole stand-off 0.FLAPPER VALVE SHEAR SLEEVE SHEAR SCREW VALVE SLEEVE FLAPPER VALVE RUNNING IN. feet m = Steel in mud buoyancy factor BOTTOM PLUG TOP PLUG Fig.847) (40. until dropped ball shears the second sleeve. The lateral load imposed on a casing centralizer is the combined effect of centralizer spacing. Load-deflection curves may be used for determining spacing required to achieve desired stand-off. Centralizer restoring force capacity is determined through API test procedures and can be presented as a loaddeflection curve.) 200 ~ HINGED CENTRALIZER 'h RESTORING FORCE. Some iteration (trail and error calculation) is required in calculating centralizer spacing in this manner because a centralizer spacing must be assumed and then the lateral load on the centralizer calculated. right. For the example curve shown'''. weight of casing below the centralizer and dogleg (even though minor).0) (45) 44 WORLDOIL 1977 . Fig. degrees plug ruptures with pressure increase to allow slurry passage. The maximum starting force permitted is less than the weight of 40 feet of medium weight casing on which the centralizer is run. Example . Dogleg (degrees/IOO ft. Centralizer spacing. L. Circulation has no effect on tool. and a 2 degree/lOO foot dogleg: Lateral load (additive dogleg) W = 40.131lb.

If no pipe movement is planned. If not. When wipers or scratchers are used. C) are spot welded or clamped. Fig. 52. 53 (also see Part 4). Both rotating and reciprocating styles are available.for centralizer spacing in vertical holes Surface casing-One centralizer should be placed immediately above the shoe and one at the top of each of the bottom six joints. . retarded cement with adequate thickening time for hot formations may not set-up if it is circulated to low temperature. size of both casing to be installed and the previously installed casing (or hole) should be specified when equipment is ordered. 54. Other potential problem zones.e. or when special situations exist such as in the Arctic where casing suspension is desired below the base of the permafrost. Productioncasing-Place one centralizer immediately above the shoe and one at the top of each of the bottom six joints.1 I . Centralizers may also be installed to improve cement placement around any critical water sands. an upper high pressure gas or water sand). Therefore.must be compared to the centralizer load deflection curve. sticking areas. Intermediatecasing-One centralizer should be placed immediately above the shoe and one at the top of each of the bottom six joints. E. Stage cementing-Centralizers should be spaced over the cemented interval above the stage collar and one joint below. these devices should not be run. When reciprocating. Rotating type wipers or scratchers are run across the zone of interest plus an additional 20 feet above and below the zone. Centralizers may also be placed within the cement interval to ensure uniform cement distribution opposite critical zones. They also aid in breaking-up gelled mud. to determine whether the desired stand-off will be achieved. MULTIPLE STAGE EQUIPMENT Multiple stage cementing consists of conventional placement of cement slurry around the lower portion of a casing string followed by placement of successive upper stages through ports in a stage or port collar. WIPERS. Rotating type (A.134 Although most stage cementin~ is done in two WORLD OIL 1977 . with several bow-spring sizes to accommodate starting and restoring force requirements for different previously run casing sizes. etc. Fig. the vertical casing movement should always exceed the distance between wipers or scratchers. Rules of thumb . If reciprocal movement equals the spacing. if applicable). hot wells. Stage or port collars may also be used for placing special fluids in upper portions of the casing string for 45 . I. 55. And pipe should be moved slowly at first. place slurry with proper temperature characteristics at the desired level. removed mud cake and cuttings can accummulate at the end of each stroke. B Some manufacturers provide centralizers for installation on a given casing size. mud circulation should always be started before pipe is moved. stage cementing may also be required to. In deep. F) move between stop collars or are secured in-place with driveset nails. These devices are rarely used on liners because of close clearances. They should be placed on every joint through the producing zones and extending 100 feet above (and below.. Reciprocating types (0. Figs. 53-Examples stages. SCRATCHERS Wipers and scratchers are used primarily to remove borehole mud cake. '( A D r of commonly used rotating and reciprocating type wipers and scratchers. i. " L c I . When used the external packer would act as the lower centralizer. shallow zones. then a closer spa c i n g must be assumed. Stage cementing can be used: When a long column of cement is required and weak formations are present which will not support the hydrostatic head. additional stages are possible. since there is no casing movement in such jobs. key seats. should also be protected with centralizers. Fig. B. to insure centralization and uniform placement of cement in this critical section for reasons given in previous articles. Liners-Use centralizers if clearance and hole conditions permit. when two or more widely separated intervals are present which must be cemented (for instance. Reciprocating type scratchers are generally spaced at 5 to I5-foot intervals throughout the zone plus the additional 20 feet above and below.

't I 0 o . This increases the possibility of channeling and incomplete mud removal. The sleeve (s) can be moved downward to open the ports-and later close themwith a special bomb or tripping plug. The stage collar contains ports which are initially isolated by a sliding sleeve (s). Advantages of port collars are that they can be opened and closed repeatedly. When lower stage is complete. The stage collar is used in combination with: Special plug catching bafHes. right. a column of cement which would otherwise have fractured the weak zone and caused lost circulation can be introduced at the stage collar. if desired. satisfactory remedial cementing at shallow depths. When a port collar is used. The stage type tool is installed in the desired place in the casing string as it is being run. That collar then is closed. or by vertical movement. an external casing packer or metal petal basket is commonly installed below the coUar to prevent cement from falling through mud in the annulus. WORLD OIL 1977 46 . port opening bomb or tripping plugs and closing wiper plugs.134 Fracture gradients in the above example were determined primarily during stimulation treatments. Drill pipe is run with a special tool for opening. the next collar is opened. However. Use of cup type packers and additional ported sleeves on the inner string (see Fig.. 55. One disadvantage to stage cementing is that the casing cannot be moved (rotated or reciprocated) after the first stage has set.UPPER SLEEVE CLOSING PLUG LOWER VSLEEVE )f'ri. excess cement is reverse circulated. center. %. left. the multiple stage tool is opened hydraulically by plugs. After cement has been placed around the bottom of the casing. corrosion or fault movement. the stage cementing operation can be tailored more specifically to existing conditions. following the upper stage cement slurry. 59) allow cement to be placed through one or more casing port collars. Other combinations of formation fracture gradients and cement densities and column height can be handled utilizing two and three stages. conventional stage.135 For example. closing and packing-off the collars. Fig. After that stage has set and the weak zone is sealed-off. moves upper sleeve down closing all ports with cement outside casing. When wellbore fracture gradient profile is known. If this happens. closes the ports in the stage collar. cement is placed. high density cement can be utilized and the cement column brought above the weak zone during the first. When these devices are used. left.~ {. 54.11 ' . particularly when the well is completed in deeper high pressure zones. casing is run with one or W D- t z o w en o -' o ! ROTATING SLEEVE VERTICAL ACTION SLEEVE Fig. This precaution is particularly appropriate when weak zones exist below the collar.. bypassing bottom and shut-off wiper plugs. (Courtesy Dowell) protection against freezing. the only alternative to use of ~. or the lower stage may be permitted to set-up. right. ~bENING MB CLOSED CLOSED OPEN Fig. Squeeze cementing fracture gradient information was also utilized. and so on. 54-Stage collar operation. Tool is run in closed position. With all collars closed. The casing then is landed. The upper cementing operation(s) may proceed immediately. Fig. Although stage cementing equipment has proven to be quite reliable. Typical application. The well then can be circulated with mud. 55-Operating principle of two types of port collars that can be repeatedly opened or closed by rotation of tubing or drill pipe.J1~:/ PORTS more port collars in-place. Wiper plug following second stage slurry. 1 l 'I . in the closed position.i. and cement placed. Stage collars are most commonly used for this purpose. may not be possible. it is always possible that the collar will not close and seal completely. The final plug. bomb is dropped to move lower sleeve down exposing ports. cement is circulated around the shoe and part way up the annulus-sometimes up to the location of the stage collar.136 In the first stage. The first stage primary cement job is conducted in the conventional manner. One port collar can be opened.

collars-if stage cementing is absolutely necessary-is perforating. Density is measured as samples with balances (two types). easy to use and gives reasonably correct values when precautions are taken to avoid air entrainment. pneumatic mixing. The service company should be consulted regarding specifications. For most slurries. Mixing and/or blending is achieved with continuous methods through: Cyclone or whirlpool action. Density measurements are used to control the mixing operation. The jet mixer induces a partial vacuum at the venturi throat which draws in the dry cement. Use of stage cementing collars is certainly preferable to this alternative. Density measurements are used to verify proper cement/water mix ratios during the job. the other pumping fluid downhole. aerated portion of the slurry in tub. High stream turbulence then provides thorough mixing. 56-Schematic of inflatable external packer used with a stage collar to pack off above a weak zone or open hole section. or a combination of these possibilities. The device is simple. recirculation. cementing and squeezing the perforations.VOLUME CALCULATIONS Lost circulation is normally handled in primary cementing by either: Using a low density slurry to prevent formation breakdown and/or using stage equipment if 47 . storage or "holding" volume and pump rate. The various types of equipment have different limits in mixing rate. paddle mixers. Special mixing equipment available through service companies utilize a variety of mixing principles. availability and suitability of units for particular applications. Inflatable external packers and port collars have also been applied for cementing between zones to be open hole gravel packed as discussed in a previous series (see WORLDOIL'S Sand Control Handbook. page 44). Accuracy can be improved by using the API pressurized fluid density balance in which the slurry is pressured to ahout 400 psi with a hand pump before weighing. WORLD OIL 1977 CEMENT STAGE COLLAR FLEXIBLE PLUG Fig. Variations in density during a job can result from: Non-uniform blending of dry components. Avoid sampling the upper. blender or mixer. or a combination of these actions. reliable and rugged.137-139 Density is usually obtained with a standard API mud balance. DENSITY CONTROL Dry cement must be mixed with the proper amount of water to ensure that slurry and set cement properties are as designed. Larger "tub" storage of mixed slurry tends to improve uniformity. This combination has been effective in preventing loss of cement to rathole and contamination of the primary cement job cement with mud. Batch mixing provides the most accurate and thorough mixing of all slurry components.135 Special mixing e qui p men t is sometimes required for high density cement. high viscosity cement and jobs in which precise composition and blending of all additives is particularly critical (such as liner and squeeze cementing operations). Effects of inadequate or excessive water are discussed in Part 3 of this series. jet turbulence. Other variations are possible using hydraulically operated cementing collars. Packers also help centralize the casing. MIXING EQUIPMENT. and rotation of the cement tank (similar in appearance to those used in construction). available in both solid rubber and inflatable styles. several batch type units can be combined to provide continuous operation on large jobs. Two basic types are "continuous" and "batch". the jet mixer will provide a uniform mixture. changes in the water-to-cement ratio. However. Mixing and/or blending is achieved with batch methods through use of: Propeller or imp e 11er type mixers. The external casing packer is frequently applied in lieu of the metal petal basket where positive control is required. or continuously with radioactive devices or a force-balanced U -tube. One disadvantage of high pressure jet mixers is that two pumps are tied-up during the mixing operation-one mixing. Some cementing compositions require the use of specially designed and sized nozzle units. External casing packers. In this device the air occupies a negligible volume. This type of mixer is simple. Continuous and batch units can also be combined in series. Jet mixers are capable of handling 50 sacks per minute. The amount of cement that can be mixed in a batch unit is limited. Flexible plug is first pumped to the shoe and pressure is applied to inflate the packer element. The tripping plug opens the sleeve for cementing and the shut-off plug closes the sleeve permanently.137 LOST CIRCULATION. 56. ribbon blenders. air entrainment in the sample. are becoming more widely applied in primary cementing to reduce the cost of remedial work. The use of the external casing packer and a stage collar as a pack-off shoe or collar is illustrated in Fig.

the breakdown pressure would be exceeded by bringing the cement up in one stage.. Perlite Expanded. dye.. Although high filtrate loss may be favorable for blocking fractures in permeable zones.. Walnutshellsfine. Donotusein smallannularclearances or smallpipe. **Concentrations of 2-5Ib. This can aid in determining cement volume. . at 3. . . In such cases. Gilsonite. an accelerated neat cement is used to provide maximum compressive strength and rotational/axial shear resistance.30 2. . METHODS FOR VARIOUS CASING STRINGS Conductor pipe. . Preferably./sk.. . .000 psi before perforating.. . . (8/100) (8/200) (10/50) 50%(50/200) 50%( < 200) % in.. .OOO°F .. Donot usemorethan25Ib. . Also. ... dilution and thinning of slurry from water in pumps.ft.. protection against bottom joint loss. Bridging material is added in only small concentrations.ft. Walnutshellscoarse.. Ib. whether or not the interval will be perforated. . Normally. . to avoid problems with plugs and float equipment. . . Depth can be a few feet to 200 feet. the following precautions should be taken: Precautions to avoid plugging . to seal off problem sections of the hole (such as caving) . ... .129 It also prevents washing out around the rig base and sometimes it provides a base for blowout preventers where gas sands may be encountered at shallow depth.smallannular clearance or small pipe...smallannular clearance or smallpipe.28 1. . Onlysizeto usewith stagetoolsor ball typefloats. . Bridging hazards are decreased when slurry free of bridging material initiates flow through restrictions./cu. volume is based on experience in the area and is some factor applied to the volume removed by the bit assuming no washouts. .with stagetools./sk. intermediate and production casing strings have different requirements for accessory casing equipment and cement composition (see Parts 1 and 3). For instance.. lines or spacers should be avoided. 143Ib. if at all.40* 1. Usuallymosteffective.. Semi -expanded. .000 psi. a guide shoe and top plug may be used when water is the drilling fluid and mud is not adhering to the inside surface of the casing. Surface casing is run: To protect the shallow fresh water sands from contamination by brines.. Cellophane flakes. Low density slurries may be desirable for minimizing downhole pressure and avoiding lost circulation. Bridging material should be used in primary cementing only as a last resort.. and surface. design considerations may include: The need for zone isolation... . but the high strength of neat cement may be preferred through completion intervals and around lower casing joints... Compressive strength should be at least 500 psi before drilling out and 2.. and so on. .. to provide support for the wellhead. the first and last portions of the primary cement job will not contain lost circulation material.. . Rig crews commonly calculate hole volume by timing the circulation of marker material (oats. . In addition. ....stagetool or ball typefloat equip. .Somewhat fragileandwill not performas well asothergranularmaterialsunderhighdifferentialpressure. . Slurry free of bridging material at the end of the job will tend to wash away solids left in collars and baffles to improve operation of floats and stage tools.. as will be discussed below. Depth can range from a couple of hundred to several thousand feet and is frequently specified by government regulations. . particularly if high pressure treating or fracturing is planned./sk.../sk. *Absolute density83Ib.-(100) (10/100) (30/100) Temp. Walnutshellsmedium... And plugs wipe better with less chance of accumulating bridging material beneath the plug and stopping it prematurely. . The job should be continuous with no shut-downs. . When such logs are not available.. High compressive strength cement should be used at the shoe of all strings and opposite the producing zones. . . etc../cu. Precautions should be taken to avoid pumping this string (or any large diameter casing) out of the hole. \Is -Yz Normally 5-25** Normally 5-25** 15-20 15-20 1-5 1-5 1-5 Comments Do not usebottomplugs. an accelerated neat cement is used to protect a short surface casing string or the lower section of a long string.40 * 2. .jsackmaybe added to cement slurry with minimumdangerof bridging.Not likely to bridge bottomplugor annulus. .) and applying mud pump rate and drill pipe displacement data. . with stagetools. .. . particularly large solids..28 1. .. . some filtrate loss control may be desirable to prevent slurry dehydration and bridging in the wellbore annulus. 48 WORLD OIL 1977 . And it may be used to support some of the wellhead load. Expanded Perlitetakesonwateraspressureincreases downhole. Normally.07 1.. only granular type materials should be considered. . see table. About 300°F l. limit '" Cone...000 psi. Surface pipe is usually cemented to the surface.. . .. Perlite tendsto float in thin slurries due to entrappedair. Donotusemorethan25Ib. Cement volume required in primary cementing can be calculated using a caliper log and tables provided by the cementing company. Minimal accessory downhole casing equipment is used. Avoid reducing slurry bridging material carrying capacity with excess water or dispersants. An excess of 15-35% is used as a safety factor when a caliper log is used. Conductor pipe is used to raise the circulating fluid high enough to return to the mud pits. Lowgel strength slurrieswill not carry Perlite..28 material Size (Mesh) -% in. Crushed coal. . "Filler" cement is placed across the upper section because such a cement usually: Provides adequate Properties Type of bridging Specific gravity 1. For instance. If it is used and stage tools are necessary. .at over Ib. and bridging in the casing-well bore annulus. .at zeropsi. a good compromise is to use a cement with about a 200 to 500 ml filtrate loss at 1. This pipe is cemented to the surface. and to provide blowout protection in combination with blowout preventers..

. K. and appli- ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the contribution of Mr. October 1966. 1977. R. Precautions may have to be taken to prevent bottom joint loss as described in Part 1. 57. in addition to its borehole support function.. Stage cementing is sometimes required. sloughing shales or other problems exist. "Multistage Cementing and Alternations. "Surface Cementing Equipment and Supplies. pp. One method of stage cementing large diameter. M. San Antonio. 87-89. Large casing can also be floated out of the hole if the weight of casing and mud in the pipe does not exceed the buoyancy provided by the annular column of cement. Hanger devices are available that may be placed in the surface casing a few hundred feet above the shoe to suspend part of the weight of an inner string from that point.) Coordinator.U Petroleum Engineer. API (I 959). as discussed in Part 3. if salt zones. "Compensated Gamma Ray Densimeter Measures Slurry Densities in Flow. and second stage is pumped. Owsley. Neat cement with retarder. The string is drill pipe stung into a special sealing With this method there is less likelihood CASING PORT COLLAR 11 " . R. If only small annular fill-up is required. of pumping the casing from the well. Intermediate casing-protective casing-is most often used to seal off weak zones that might be fractured by heavy muds used to drill deeper. W. When cementing off bottom an external casing packer and stage collar might be required as a pack-off shoe. provides an upward force exceeding the buoyed weight of the casing. pp. Kerr Godfrey of Atlantic Richficld Co. Heavy mud may be required to prevent these occurrences. "Delaware Basin Cementing:-Problems and Solutions. "How to Control Slurry Density. Production casing.. Nickles. and Hartweg. April 28. 133Anon. is normally used. Other aspects of slurry design may have to be considered. 109-117. February 1973 and Supplement 1'.. (1) With seal nipple latched into casing shoe. "Cementing Program. using both a guide shoe and float collar. S. Coming next month: Liner cementing-design cation. API (1959).I' :1! ECP I COLLAR CEMENT INFLATE TOOL INNER STRING I. 141-147." The 011 and Gas Journal. 131Moscrip. and displaced with the flexible latch-down plug. 57-Stab-in stage cementing for large diameter casing. API (1959). Such casing is subject to being pumped out of the hole.. High compressive strength cement is preferred in this application. inexpensive and low-density filler cement is followed by neat cement at the shoe. Running and Cementing Casing. and it is less expensive than neat cement. "An Instrument for Measuring the DensIty of Air En- WORLD OIL 1977 49 . Some operators use a flQat shoe and a float collar as added insurance for positive shut-off. This will occur when the pump or hydrostatic pressure acting on the cementing head area. Pressure increase on bumping a plug is. LITERATURE CITED ". 13. 13. 1958. 1281-1285. 111 trained Fluids. Jr. 186Gibbs. 133 Moran. 134Pela. Personal communication. A. shallow casing using an inflatable external casing packer and port collar is shown in Fig. Intermediate casing is also used to isolate corrosive water. D. G. using both a guide shoe and float collar. this string is sometimes used to isolate high pressure zones so lighter drilling fluid can be used for drilling deeper zones with more normal. Cement density and strength retrogression were discussed in Part 3 (two ppg more than mud weight is desirable) . stab-in cementing is now a fairly comlarge diameter casing. API (1959). offset and does not contribute to the problem. And "automatic" fill-up equipment is often used on production casing. if required. LATCH SEAL FIRST STAGE INFLATE PACKER SECOND STAGE Fig. pp. who provided valuable information and data included in this article. 101'-107. Cementing large diameter casing requires some special considerations. O." Oil-Well Cemenllng Practices in The United StaJes. neat cement is used. Second Edition. pp. J. pp. first stage cement is pumped. 1972." OilWell Cementing Practices in the United States. Gage. P. Texas. geopressured zones. (2) A ball is dropped into the cementing tool. Oct. it is less likely to "break-down" any weak zones.'. j . including: Strengthening the lower joints by welding or use of thread locking compound. C. and centralizing the pipe. D. September 1973." Journal of Petroleum Technology. March 1976. C. Willard. less wasted cement. 139Guest. "Preparation of Hole. is run to prevent interzonal flow while producing from or injecting into (such as stimulating) the production interval." SPE Paper <W92Presented at 47th Annual Fall Meeting. Wm.. of course. and there is less cement to drill out. When high slurry volumes are needed." Oil-Well Cementing Practices in The United States. Inner string or mon practice for cemented through sleeve in the shoe. Then ports are closed. and Zimmerman. Conversely.' Weatherford. running and cementing techniques. 132"API Specification for Casing Centralizers. the inner string is raised. There is less mud contamination. "Subsurface Cementing Equipment. equal to the casing inside cross sectional area. G. R." API Spec 10D. and the inner string is reverse circulated for clean-up.) Coordinator. The possibility of casing collapse must also be considered. Downhole equipment will normally include two plugs. hydrostatic pressure. 8-11. E. (3) Tool is raised and rotated to open port collar. and cups are located over ECP port to inflate packer element.axial shear bond strength and zonal isolation.." Oil-Well Cementing Practices in The United States. P. using two plugs. J..

.. I t is the same reasons as the tie-back liner. Tie-back casing is used primarily for ning such a string protection of fresh.and Richard C.000- .. and which does not extend up to the wellhead.000- 1/ 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 EQUIVALENT MUD WT. . greater cross section above liner top enables use of larger drill pipe and/or reduces annular pressure drop... .'" Runat the end of a drilling operation assures the unworn casing. Solutions to common problems encountered in conventional and special liner cementing. Houston 10-second summary Liner running and cementing methods are illustrated and applications of various types of liners are discussed. i. . Liners that are discussed are described in the accompanying table.000Fig.. Wells drilled in 50 WORLDOIL 1977 . displacing cement George O. cementing applications./ . Jr. the well's capability to produce will likely be reduced and the advantages of the liner installation will not be realized. some associated problems and solutions. 58-Example of casing and liner program to seal off high pressure zones in a deep well (after Mahoney and Barrios).. .. the drilling liner improves drilling hydraulics. President. A tie-back stub liner extends from the top of a liner to a point uphole. inside another string of casing or liner. used to extend a liner to the wellhead. If a liner is not effectively cemented. This article describes liner equipment.Cementing oil and gas wells Part 6-Liner applications and equipment used for installation. In one generally accepted definition.''' of casing that is used to case-off the open hole below an existing casing string..000- . are suggested. Production liners are required to provide isolation and support functions when casing was landed above the producing interval. and to provide an added measure of protection against corrosion and/or pressure. . a liner is: A string 16. .. .e. TYPES OF LlNlRS Drilling liners are used to permit deeper drilling operations by isolating lost circulation or highly pressured intervals and controlling sloughing or plastic formations. The stub liner is used to: Repair damaged or worn casing above an existing liner.140 Included in this definition are slotted. I . Ellis. . Such liners are not included in this article as they are not ordinarily cemented in-place. LINER CEMENTING is one of the most difficult operations associated with drilling and completion. Completion Technology Co.000PRODUCTION LINER I I I I I I I SURFAC~ 2. Project Engineer. and basic job design criteria... 14. 18.000- 8.. pre-perforated and wire wrapped screens that are placed in an open hole primarily for sand exclusion during producing operations. Common problems to avoid while pumping. Suman. PPG 20.000- I SURFACE L CASING INTERMEDIATE CASING PORE PRESSURE 4.000- / (NORMAL) 6.000- FRAC PRESSURE 10...000- TIE-BACK STUB LINER . 12. And in lieu of a full length casing string.' .

WIPER PLUGS A float shoe is placed at the bottom of the liner. which aids the drilling-out operation. Fifty to five hundred feet of overlap have been used in various applications. It prevents the liner wiper plug from moving uphole if a check valve fails and also prevents it from rotating. Equipment locations are shown schematically in Fig. It contains a check valve designed to prevent back-flow of the cement.. Liner length WORLD OIL is selected to extend across the open hole 1977 FLOAT SHOE DISPLACING CEMENT INFLATE PACKERS Fig.. 61-External casing packers used to provide positive seal between open hole intervals behind drilling liner (after Cov- lin). Packer is run after liner is cemented and cleaned out (after Lindsey). 59. The length of the overlap varies with operators and applications.1<3 Fig. 58.CEMENTING MANIFOLD . A landing collar is usually run one joint above the float collar or two or more joints above the float shoe to provide space for mud contaminated cement inside the liner. INTERMEDIATE CASING TIE-BACK PACKER LINER TIE-BACK SLEEVE SETTING TOOL PACKOFF BUSHING (RETRIEVABLE-OPTIONAL) HANGER GAS MIGRATION WIPER PLUG (SHEAR TYPE) STANDOFF DEVICES LANDING COLLAR HIGH PRESSURE GAS ZONE FLOAT COLLAR FLOAT SHOE Fig. setting and cementing operations. A liner is normally run on drill pipe that extends from the liner setting tool to surface. 60-Schematic of a liner tie-back packer used to repair a leaking liner top where high pressure gas has penetrated the cement. equipment used to install and cement a drill- the deep basins of the United States frequently all of the liner types described.143 Automatic fillup type float equipment may be selected (Part 5). The following equipment is discussed from float shoe (bottom) to cementing manifold (top). Special tools are available to perform various running. A float collar can be run above the shoe to provide a back-up check valve to assure that cement cannot re-enter the liner after displacement. 59-Typical ing liner. The overlap should place the hanger above any weakened or suspect lower joints in the preceding casing string.142 LINER EQUIPMENT reqUire .'" and overlap the existing casing or drilling liner. The landing collar's function is to latch and seal the liner wiper plug. Longer overlaps are used when high pressures are 51 . see Fig.

COMMON RUNNING CEMENTING PROBLEMS Small annular clearance is the primary problem in liner operations. Seal elements may be rubber or lead or a combination of both. The liner is run to bottom on the cementing string and the cement job is completed.145 External casing packers have also been used to seal the liner top. by indicator weight loss. It may be desirable to extend a liner uphole. Once the liner is hung. Hydraulic hangers are either hydraulic release or hydraulic set. after the liner has been suspended from the hanger and the setting tool released.143 The tie-back packers are not exposed to potentially damaging circulation and have been successful in controlling gas leakage around the liner top. Release of this type can only be affected by engagement of the drill pipe wiper plug. Hangers are available with multiple split slips which increase the fluid bypass area and provide increased slip contact area. Fig.being isolated behind the liners. drill bits. A liner packer does enable reversing-out of excess cement without imposing high pressure on the formation. behind the cement. A liner tie-back sealing nipple run on the bottom of the tie-back string should be designed to fill the full length of the tie-back sleeve with multiple sealing (packing) elements to assure an effective seal even with localized damage to the receptacle ID. The liner is first run into the well. or the drilling liner. These should be used on long liners for added bypass area where formation strength is low. This can be accomplished by installing a tie-back sleeve or receptacle on top of the liner hanger. Except in unusual cases where buckling is not expected or where it can be prevented through centralization. etc. A special float shoe can be run on the bottom of the liner with an extra internal left-hand thread. the drill pipe extends from the liner setting tool to the surface. The manifold provides a means of pumping mud and cement down the drill pipe and retaining the pump-down plug until it is to be released. It is not uncommon to have a 5-inch OD liner WORLD OIL 1977 . Liner packers can be installed at the top of liners to seal between liner and casing. As mentioned. 61. They are inflated following cement displacement-before the cement sets upto provide more effective zone isolation. . Inadequate circulation clearance. This type packer is not recommended for high pressure gas control. The selection of the proper shear rating is very important to prevent premature shearing and release of the liner wiper plug. Equipment is available for the special application in which liners are cemented and set on bottom. Cement float equipment should not be used. Longer overlaps also reduce cement volume displaced around the drill pipe above the liner running assembly. However. The slips of hydraulic release types require slight downward movement of the hanger for setting. to provide more cement volume in the liner-casing annulus. to avoid a pressure block which would prevent full insertion of the seal nipple into the receptacle. Liner stage cementing is possible with the inflatable external casing packer and hydraulically operated cementing collars.143 The liner setting tool. tools. requiring careful control of cement displacing pressures. The presence of slips between liner and casing reduces the bypass area for circulating. Short liner assemblie~ have been run and set on bottom. Swab cups attached to tail pipe144 or a pack-off bushing and slick joint are inserted into the liner to provide a seal between the setting tool and the liner. Although the small annular clearance limits the degree of liner buckling. this type of packer should be considered only if clearance between casing and the packer element is such that the hole can be circulated at desired rates without increasing back pressure excessively on the open hole. Fig. 62. any buckling will result in liner-borehole contact-the worst possible position for the liner from a cement placement standpoint. The tail pipe or slick joint is usually 10-15 feet long. Special packers can be set in conjunction with a tieback sleeve (to be discussed later) after cementing and clean out operations have been completed. This is especially important when a high density slurry is to be used or where a large pressure drop is expected across the liner wiper plug ID. liners to be cemented should be suspended from slips set in existing casing. The slick joint method reduces piston force effects of pressure on the formation. Fig. A liner wiper plug can be attached to the end of the tail pipe or slick joint with a shear pin arrangement. Liner top packers may be run as an integral part of the liner hanger and set by manipulation of the liner running tool.141 Mechanical set hangers require manipulation of the drill pipe (rotation and/or reciprocation) to engage the slips. A minimum-restriction liner hanger without a packer may permit more effective cementing and desired sealing of the overlap. with a tie-back "stub" liner. The cementing manifold and pump-down plug dropping head are connected to the top of the drill pipe. This reduced fluid bypass area can create a high pressure loss during circulation and cementing. These "linertie back packers" seal both in the tie-back sleeve and against the suspending casing. The tie-back sleeve is usually polished 3-6 feet on the ID surface and is beveled on the top to guide entry of seal nipple. a rental item furnished by the liner hanger service company. after cement placement. or to the surface with a tie-back casing string. that the setting tool has separated. Slips of hydraulic set types are driven into place by differential pressure. could result in seal failure. The liner hanger is installed at the top of the liner. External casing packers have been used on liners to isolate between zones in open hole. 60. the setting tool can be released and picked up a short distance to confirm. Tie-back liner or casing. provides the connection between drill pipe and liner. The cementing string then is run and engaged into the thread at the shoe. The cementing string is disconnected from the shoe by rotating to the right. A relatively new innovation is the retrievable pack-off bushing that eliminates bushing drill-out. Two classifications for hangers are: Mechanical and hydraulic. combined with the possibility that the main sealing element could be damaged by mud and cuttings circulating past the packer. Hangers are usually classified by the method used to wedge slips against the casing wall. The liner wiper plug can also be latched to the tail pipe to prevent pre52 mature shearing.

146 Detailed evaluation of swab/surge pressures should be part of a liner running program. are helical grooves in the OD surface of the pipe. It is likely that even less clearance would exist. This operation concerns most drilling and operating personnel because premature set could lead to an expensive fishing operation or even well loss. Temperature differential. This makes it easier to move the liner. A good cement job on a drilling liner is one that allows drilling to the next casing (or liner) setting depth without: Having to squeeze either at the liner top or at the shoe joint. the small annular clearance between liner and open hole often prohibits use of centralizers. 26.lly achieved in casing cementing practices where. and without experiencing buckling or other liner damage. as gas "honeycombing" of the unset cement may occur and prevent setting and desired top seal. And effective cementing can be made more difficult. A recent innovation is a pressure relief sub. Cement volumes are necessarily small and bypassed mud. However. if release from the liner is not achieved. Developing the seal at the top and bottom of a liner and between the liner and open hole requires effective mud displacement by the cement slurry. An effective production liner cement job provides a seal between liner and borehole such that remedial cement squeeze jobs are not required-basically the same as for a production casing string. it is common to run 5 1/2-inch casing into a 7 7/8-inch drilled hole. resulting in severe eccentricity or actual borehole contact. High pumping pressures could fracture weak zones or cause the fluid to be forced from the slurry and the cement to bridge in the annulus. Careful design is important. Another innovation.000-5. The design of some liner setting tools and hangers makes it possible to move the liner during cementing. requires that excess cement be circulated over the top of the liner through the casing-liner annulus. conversely. particularly if the mud system was not properly conditioned. Long-liner installations may encounter problems due to a substantial temperature differential between liner top and bottom. Although pipe movement is considered one of the most important factors in achieving a successful cement job. prior to the job. Part 4). It is frequently necessary to restrict running speeds to one stand of drill pipe every two to three minutes. and with good rheological properties of both the mud and cement. Moving the liner while cementing. selective underreaming opposite critical zones has been applied. Cement contamination by mud is increased by the small clearance between liner and open hole. selectively underreamed sections can be similar to borehole washouts. Where this is not practical over long intervals. inside a 6y/!-inch drilled hole. intended to reduce differential sticking and improve cement placement. Where high pressure gas is to be isolated behind the liner. additional pressure (4. Centralizing the liner in the hole is very critical to effective cement placement. Cement formulated to accommodate the higher. as discussed. Obtaining competent cement at the liner top with a single-stage liner cementing technique. Swab/surge pressures can be extremely severe and running speeds should be slow to avoid pressures that could break down formations and cause lost circulation. This is less than half the clearance norma. Special equipment is available that permits liner rotaS3 . And restricted clearance may inhibit use of centralizers. this problem is severe. Contamination. The small clearance also makes it difficult to' run liners. Cement channeling or mud bypassing is most likely under these circumstances. under such conditions. will be most difficult to remove. run smaller liners. After bumping the plug. Another solution is to underream the open hole. However. Centralizers or positive standoff devices also reduce the likelihood of differential pressure sticking between liner and open hole. rather than simplified. However.000 psi) opens ports and enables excess cement to be reversed out of the hole. bypassed mud may not be removed due to insufficient "contact time" . liner movement during cementing is rarely attempted. Mud-cement reactions may develop excessive viscosity at the interface which could increase pressure drop in the annulus. And moving the pipe is one factor that greatly affects cement placement efficiency (Part 4). Detailed computerized analytical procedures as well as simplified nomographs are available in the literature to aid in determining maximum running speeds (see refs. Clearance and centralizing. deeper temperatures WORLD OIL 1977 may require prolonged WOC time at the liner top to achieve adequate set. collapse resistance of such pipe should meet requirements.lo7 Lack of pipe movement while cementing.) CEMENTING TECHNIQUES. (See Fig. This is particularly true in deviated holes. Small clearance causes high pressure losses during circulation and cement placement which increase the possibility of lost circulation. Thus. Fluted positive standoff collars will improve standoff conditions. Centralizers or positive standoff devices on the liner could be essential for success of cementing operations. for example. as a thin non-movable layer of mud cake may be present opposite permeable zones. Drilling mud properties for different wells may result in substantially different swab/surge effects. moving a liner while cementing is seldom' done because of the desire to be "free" from the liner prior to pumping cement. Even with cement in turbulent flow.extend below 7-inch casing. 118-120.with the cement slurry. Fluid rising velocity decreases appreciably above the liner running assembly and debris and cuttings can accumulate around the drill pipe making release difficult. particularly near the top of the liner. and cement properties that permit strength development without excessive waiting on cement time. A way to increase clearance would be to redesign the casing program and drill larger holes for a given liner size or. DESIGN CRITERIA An effective cement seal is usually required at both ends of a liner. the annular clearance is only %6 inch. the desire to be "free" from the liner usually precludes the opportunity for pipe movement. With the liner perfectly centered. once it is in-place. Part 3. They can be run with as little as ?'4-inch clearance.

Generally. As a result. To compensate for the temperature variations it is essential to have accurate downhole circulating and static temperature information. Tests have shown that a cement slurry that had a thickening time of 4 hours and 54 minutes at 125°F had its thickening time reduced to only 2 hours and 57 minutes at 144°F. mud is usually circulated. A clean mud system is important so that such materials will not fall out on top of the liner running assembly during the cement job. Different types of spacers have been used depending on the type of mud used for drilling and the cement slurry selected. debris and cuttings should have been circulated from the well before the liner was run to clean up the system. But. It may be necessary to retard the cement to compensate for higher temperatures at the bottom.575 psi but at 200°F that same cement may not even set in 8 hours. Slurry formulation for liner cementing is not simple. The cement volume placed around the shoe is only 70-80% of the annular volume behind the COARSE THREAD FOR RIGHT HAND TOOL RELEASE FOR HANGER ASSEMBLY RECEPTACLE Fig. in wells where high pressure gas is being isolated behind the liner relatively short thickening and setting time are required to reduce chances of gas penetrating the unset cement (honeycombing). 125-150% of the required volume based on caliper surveys is used in liner cementing efforts. The primary disadvantage is that a long gap will be left between upper and lower cemented intervals. at the same time. WORLD OIL 1977 54 . For example. there can be a contaminated layer in the lead part of the cement slurry which may become very viscous. to avoid plugging float equipment or the narrow annulus. Temperature also affects set time and com pressi ve strength. DISPLACING. a spacer fluid is pumped between mud and cement to provide a buffer to avoid serious contamination. and to condition the mud. But. Spacer fluids were discussed in Part 4 of this series and additional details are available in the literature. Spacer fluids. JOB EVALUATION A conventional liner cementing sequence is shown in Fig. 150. One technique that has been used primarily to assure a cement seal at both the liner top and bottom is a "planned squeeze" job.''' liner.147 Wide temperature variations usually require special cement formulations. Normally. 63. In some instances multiple stage spacer systems have been employed to improve mud displacement and reduce chances for adverse mud-cement reactions. to be sure that liner and float equipment are free of any foreign material. There are special testing schedules for liners. Of course. Slurry density has to be adequate to prevent formation fluid from entering the wellbore. unsupported section of liner may buckle under sever stresses due to temperature and pressure changes. Fluid loss additives are usually required to prevent formation damage and to reduce any tendency for building a cement filter cake that could cause bridging in the annulus. but the combined density and displacement pressures must remain below fracture pressures of the weakest zones open in the wellbore. Each liner installation has to be examined to define hole conditions and develop the specific combination of properties that are best suited for the job. it is necessary that the cement set at the lower temperatures near the liner top in a reasonable time. slurry density slightly exceeds mud density. However. (Part 3) .121-12i!. Cement volume used on liner jobs has varied from less than 100% to over 300% of the required volume. The plug arrangement for liner cementing eliminates the opportunity to run a bottom plug ahead of the cement. The maximum liner length to be suspended below a rotation collar should be confirmed with the manufacturer. 62.Tie-back sleeve and seal nipple used to connect tieback liner or casing to an installed liner (after Lindsey).148 Special downhole temperature recording devices have been used to measure actual temperatures to make effective cement formulation decisions. And the mix water should be from the field water source to "bring to light" any incompatibility between the field water and some admix and/or the cement. Pumping time (or thickening time) is usually designed to allow "reversing out" the cement in case of a problem. The problem of achieving a cement seal at both ends of a liner increases with liner length. at 230°F a cement may have an 8-hour compressive strength of 1. This technique has not had wide acceptance. then a secondary cement squeeze is conducted at the liner top. If this material is absolutely essential for lost circulation control it should not be included in the lead or tail portion of the slurry (Part 5) .152 The following precautions should be observed while pumping and displacing: When the liner is in position. the small bearing surface area on rotation collars limits the amount of weight that can be suspended below the device. Important information can also be obtained while circulating the . as was mentioned. And the uncemented.61 Such tests should be conducted using cement samples and additives from material to be used on the job.well after the liner is run.151 PUMPING. No lost circulation material should be used in liner cementing. At a minimum.149 Cement testing. Excess volume increases the likelihood for good cement placement but it also increases the possibility of operating problems. Cement design criteria.tion after detaching the setting tool from the liner. Normally. Temperature compensation.

His latest assignment with Shell was production engineering section leader for the Western U. The test of the seal at the shoe should be conducted at 55 . He is a member of API and SPE and a registered professional engineer in Louisiana and Texas. working primarily with drilling. The cement job is conducted before landing the seal nipple in the tie-back receptacle. Or. Suman has authored many technical papers on well completion and drilling techniques and he holds numerous patents and applications in these specialties. in 1976. circulated through a holding tank or ribbon blender and/or double pumped in order to obtain and control desired cement slurry properties. for instance in pump rate. This mud collects below the plugs and can contaminate cement in the bottom of the liner. excess cement can be reversed out.. as mentioned. SUMAN. Or it can be cemented in-place.M. in mining engineering.E. of course. Fluid should be weighed and examined for gas or formation material. With cement in-place the liner running tool is raised until the slick joint or tail pipe is clear of the tie-back liner top and excess cement is reversed out.S. Returns should be gaged and pit level observed for indications of lost returns. and from the University of Wisconsin in 1968 with the M.M. JR. Cement displacement rate selection should follow guidelines suggested in Part 4. waterflood and thermal recovery operations. Most operators prefer to limit the excess cement volume which. where necessary. accelerated cement on top and neat cement in-between. And. both onshore and offshore. When reverse circulating cement into place. an adjustment may be required. However. Pumping against the hydrostatic pressure of the cement column is not required. completion and stimulation design and application. A liner packer keeps reverse circulation pressures off the formation. graduating with a B. Cement is pumped and displaced down the drill pipe and liner with the liner wiper plug used to close a stage cementing collar located just above the seal nipple.153 This technique has been used in some deep wells-above high pressure gas zones and leaking drilling liners-so that leaking gas would be conveyed up the inside of the tieback string with mud and cement returns. It may also be desirable to test the seal at the bottom of a drilling liner after the float shoe has been drilled out. the cement composition can be correctly tailored to the job-for exWORLD OIL 1977 About the authors GEORGEO. Mud accumulations beneath a wiper plug can be substantial (Part 1). Waiting on cement time depends on cement composition and hole conditions. the pump down plug latches into the liner wiper plug.bottoms should be circulated to the surface-a full circulation is preferred. it is usually desirable to pump some type of spacer fluid (buffer) ahead of the cement. With cement in the casing. a cement squeeze is most easily applied at this time. Pump rate and pressure should be monitored and checked against the plan for the job. High differential could be assured by using a DST tool for the test. Such differential pressure should be equal to or greater than the maximum differential expected during the remaining drilling operation or during future production operations. ELLIS graduated from the Wisconsin Institute of Technology in 1962 with a B.E. and this additional pressure should be precalculated and controlled. Ellis joined the staff of Completion Technology Co. Mr. The overlap pressure tests may use applied internal pressure to create a differential toward the formation. He spent two years with Aramco in Saudi Arabia and 18 years with Shell Oil Co. Plugs. by circulating cement through a stage collar located above the tie-back nipple. the pump down plug is released and displaced between cement and mud. and Alaska. A tie-back stub liner is usually cemented after the seal nipple is landed in the tie-back sleeve and the tie-back liner hanger has been set. Turbulent or plug flow rates are encouraged. If a serious deviation exists. With the tail pipe above the liner top. He is a member of SPE and a registered professional engineer in Texas. Since there is no bottom plug. He spent nine years with Shell Oil Co. attended the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (Berkeley). after landing and testing the tie-back connection. Tie-back casing is usually cemented by conventionally circulating the cement. RICHARDC.S. shearing or unlatching it from the tail pipe. low density fluid inside the liner may provide sufficient differential toward the borehole to indicate leakage. in 1952. One practice is to simply pull the drill pipe and leave cement inside the casing to be drilled out. The two plugs then move as a single plug down the liner and latch in and seal at the landing collar. Mr. Then a bit change is made to clean out cement inside the liner.for casing cementing operations. ample. reverse circulation places an extra pressure on the annulus. At the bottom of the liner setting tool and tail pipe. volume to displace cement to bottom cannot be as accurately determined. evaluation. A tie-back casing string may also be cemented by reverse cementing (cementing down the annulus). a bit and casing scraper are used to drill out to the liner. If the liner is not sealed. When the cement has been pumped. which is actively working with a number of client companies in improving well reliability and profitability. where high formation pressures exist. In 1978 he formed Completion . is pumped into the drill pipe-casing annulus. Such flow minimizes excess cement volume requirements.S. to avoid formation breakdown. Job testing. With cement in-placeit is standard procedure to pull the liner setting assembly out of the liner hanger. Spacing between landing collar and float shoe should be adequate to keep contaminated cement out of the liner-open hole annulus. The cement can be batch mixed.S. pump down and liner plugs wipe mud film off the ID of the drill pipe and liner. retarded cement can be used on bottom. However.Technology Co. working on design and application of artificial lift. I t is usually desirable to pressure test the overlap to check the seal at the top of the liner prior to cleaning out the float collar and/or float shoe. sand control and well completions for primary. Excess cement.

April 11377. E. DSTs). Carneu L. A. 33-34. November. Cement recommendations Weight. Davis. April 1972. Tulsa. Smith. Plugs Size. June 1975. grade and joint size hanger FLOAT COllAR (OPEN) PLUGS lATCHED TO COllAR .. hangers ." Chapter 17. (See note about tests with low density fluids. Float collar Fill-up or straight float type Spacing above float shoe Combination landing collar Weight. March 1977.9 Lindsey.. . Coming in October: Remedial cementing." Preprint SPE 3891. Type of liner for equipment. Griffin. weight of drill pipe operating string Shear pin rating of liner wiper plug Displacement to shear wiper plug Displacement volume to shear liner wiper plug and bump plugs .T. Procedure Pre-cementing conditioning Pump rate Bottom-hole treating or break-down Spacers. 153Lindsey. Post-cementing procedures Clean-out with mill or roller bit Preparations for completion LITERATURE CITED ". "Cement-Mud Spacer System Improves minois Welts. Liner selection . S. '. T.. December 1974 and January 1975. reciprocation be performed during cementing Hole geometry Does hanger have to pass through top of another liner .." Petroleum Engineer. Improved primary cementing will be realized when accurate information on the liner cementing technique and results is communicated back to drilling personnel responsible for design and implementation. World Oil. H." Three-part series. squeezing. 141 Tragesser. Plug dropping head and cementing manifold Connection Latch-under type or handling sub pick-up type Is ball dropping manifold required (for hydraulic-set and ball and seat test subs) Tell-tale for plug . 1974.ngineer. "2 Mahoney.. H. H. E. F. "How to Run and Cement Liners in Ultra-deep Wells. P. 1968. compressive strength. Lubbock. March 1974." API Drilling and Production Practices. and Barrios. "API Is Seeking More Accurate Bottom Hole . '" Crowe.. July 1973. F. Chapter 16. In locations where well completion is conducted after the drilling rig is moved off. Float shoe Fill-up or straight float type Weight.. . June 1'966. Okla." World Oil. The Petroleum Publtshing Co. 1972. "s Covlin. viscosity. B. Liner hanging equipment is not shown (after Smith).." Drilline DCW. K.. "Setting Liners in Shallow to Medium Depth Wells.. R. "Cements and Cementing" by D. Oil Well Cementing Practices in the United States. "Cementing Practices-Elk Basin Field.2 Moore. API. July 10. and Lindsey. Provisions for future tie-back string Use of setting collar only or tie-back Length of receptacle bore. May 1977. E." Petroleum Engineer.'" a pressure equal to or greater than the highest mud weight expected to be used prior to setting another liner or casing. Texas. and Parker.. fluid loss and loss circulation material Use of bottom-hole temperature subs for information necessary to slurry design .. E. pp. will liner withstand maximum internal and pected Should the setting collar or tie-back for retrievable pack-off bushing receptacle 6 feet hanger and receptacle external pressures exreceptacle be modified .. "Running and Cementing Deep Well Liners.. Size... 63-Schematic representation of the typical liner cementing process. W. H.J and Puntney. R. Primary cementingaids Centralizers or standoff devices should be compatible with hanger setting equipment Externally grooved pipe to reduce differential pressure sticking Sizes. 143 Lindsey." Petroleum l!. "Cementing Liners . weight. A. Running and Cementing Liners in the Delaware Basin. H. flushes Displacement efficiency . other specialized applications. J. L.. "Single Stage Spacer (or Deep Liner Cementing.Temperatures. C. Type liner hanger to use Mechanical or hydraulic set Single or multiple slips (bypass area) Will rotation.. Drilling Practices Manual." 001 & Gas Journal. 3 feet or If tie-back is completed. E. and Bateman.. 1959. W.. feed-back on success or failure of production liner primary cementing is essential.Through Deep High Pressure Zones. grade and joint size LINER WIPER PLUG . pressure *After Lindseyl" 56 WORLD OIL 1977 . L. "Cementing Liners. "6 API Bulletin D-II')'. and Tra~esser. thickening time. J. 1« Lindsey. "Improve Cementing o( Drilling Liners 1U Deep Wells. Texas. Eo. R. H. October 1973. 141 West. Also paper to Southwestern Petroleum Short Course. J. J.Checklist . "Using Improved Technology to Obtain Better Cement Jobs on Deep Hot Liners. Landingcollar Regular or combination with float Is ball and seat test sub to be used to set hydraulic Spacing above float collar Weight." World Oil. grade and joint size . weight and grade Length Joint selection CEMENTING JOB COMPLETE . S. W. to. "0 Shell. production ." World Oil. "Techniques for Liner Tie-back Cementing. A. December 1974. First Edition. grade of suspending Casing wear Slip load distribution casing string Fig. cementing method selection* or stub liner DRill PIPE WIPER PLUG DRill PIPE READY TO PUll DrilIing.

how to avoid buckling. PLACEMENT METHODS A cement plug is a volume of cement designed to fill a length of casing or open hole and provide a seal against vertical fluid movement. Device in bottom releases plate or opens ports to dump cement on bridge plug or sand/gravel fill. special slurry design ~ Cementing single or multiple tubingless completions-displacement problems due to small diameters. Suman. special methods for cementing small diameter. and ~ Use of a selective completion protects the pay zone. and/or 10 second summary Problems and solutions associated with cement plug placement.157 Open hole plug back operations can be utilized to: Abandon the lower part of the hole. Bailer of variable length is lowered on wireline.. and Richard C. President. and describes methods and equipment for both high and low pressure squeeze cementing. tubingless completion techniques and the art and science of cement squeezing George O. Cased hole cement plugs are usually placed to: Abandon lower depleted zones. Project Engineer. tubingless completions are discussed. balanced placement. isolate a zone for formation testing. Ellis. Jr. use of wiper plugs. CEMENT PLUGS. to plug and abandon an entire well. Special cement operations covered are: ~ Placing of cement plugs in open hole or casingbailer methods.. Houston. WIRELlNE THIS ARTICLE discusses specialized cementing operations and remedial cement squeezing. Common misconceptions about squeeze cementing are corrected and recommended procedures are presented. Completion Technology Co.154-156 WORLD OIL 1977 BRIDGE PLUG CASING Fig. tool that isolates and DUMP BAILER CEMENT ELECTRICAL/MECHANICAL DUMP RELEASE The extensive analysis of squeeze cementing: Corrects common misconceptions. or to provide a "kick off point" for sidetrack drilling operations. applies the important principle of proper filter cake formation versus undesirable vertical fracturing. 57 . 64-Dump bailer method of cement placement.Cementing oil and gas wells Part 7-A review of cement plug placement. Thru-tubing tools and techniques are available that permit plug placement without pulling tubing and killing the well. seal-off lost circulation zones.

And compressive strength of cement at lower temperatures will decrease as sand concentrations increase. Pipe then is raised and additional pressure shears seat to open pipe for circulation. Fig. (Lost circulation cements are discussed in Part 3. the primary problem with cement plugs is contamination of the cement with drilling mud or well fluids. lab testing does not support use of sand to make slurries "harder. quality. or a permanent type bridge SPACER plug can be placed at the base of the plug-unless the well is to be plugged from TD. DRILL PIPE SEAT SHEARED CEMENT PLUG TOP PLUG SEATED BOTTOM PLUG DISPLACINGCEMENT AND FLUID CEMENT IN PLACE RAISEPIPE. but it can be used in deeper. Other operators specify that sand should not be used. 56-Two plug method for deeper wells or where displacement is difficult to calculate. Displacement volumes are measured. or reverse circulation. The two plug method is used for: Placing plugs at substantial depths.initiate directional drilling. sand may affect hardness in a manner not related to a sand-cement reaction. cement slurry and spacer fluid are displaced down the drill pipe with mud until cement level is about equal in annulus and drill pipe. Seat stops top plug to indicate when slurry is spotted. Only limited volume can be placed at one time and this must take an initial set before another batch can be dumped.159Placement control and cement composition are critical due to the small volume of cement normally used. 55-Schematic of balanced plug method. Fig. and displacement is stopped. Some operators prefer mixed sand sizes grading from fine to coarse. In such applications there is little problem with contamination. additional pressure shears a pin in the plug seat and circulation or reverse circulation can be established. Sand filler. Cement is lowered in a dump bailer on a wireline and dumped on the plug. mud present. All fluid volumes are carefully calculated so that hydrostatic pressure on plug in final location is identical in drill pipe and annulus." Yet operators who specify sand use in directional plugs claim improved "hardness" and higher success ratios. 65. where displacement volumes are difficult to calculate. The dump bailer method is normally used in low pressure. the event is confirmed by a sharp pressure increase. fine sand does not react with cement (see Part 3-Strength Retrogression). higher pressure wells with thru-tubing techniques. Thus. Applications of this method are normally limited to conditions where gravity displacement of well fluid by cement will readily occur. Thus. Sand or gravel may be placed below the desired plug interval. The pipe then is pulled leaving the plug "balanced" in place. Unless well temperature exceeds 2300 F. This method reduces problems that over or under-displacement can create with the balance method.) Regardless of application. In simple plug backs.158.~ iil PULL PIPE SLOWLY CONDITION MUD ROTATEPIPE DISPLACECEMENT ANb FLUIDS SPOT BALANCED PLUG Fig. but when the top plug reaches the catcher. The dump bailer has been used in open holes with lightweight drilling. and/or where cement volumes are small. Cement slurries should be densified with dispersants. WORLD OIL 1977 58 . Neat cements that are densified with a dispersant have the highest compressive strength.160 Evaluate plug location. drilling mud is not required as the well can be controlled with produced brines or field water. CIRCULATE Fig. Sand may improve mud removal by some type of scouring action and this could reduce mud contamination. Open hole inflatable bridge plugs can be used to bottom the plug above TD. This procedure appears to be quite simple 'but failures are not uncommon-and they are usually related to contaminated cement. Preflush. placement depth is easily controlled and cost is low. Recommendations that should reduce probability of mud contamination and increase chances for successful plug placement by balance or two plug methods listed in the accompanying table. 66. Drill pipe then is pulled slowly above the cement plug. are CEMENT SPACER AND PREFLUSH ~~. Fig. Some operators use sand to "improve" the "hardness" or "toughness" of a cement plug. and sand (if used) should be angular rather than rounded. The method uses a wiper-plug catcher in the bottom of the drill pipe which permits passage of bottom wiperplugs but stops and seals the top wiper plug. 64. In shallow low pressure wells. Sand concentrations should not exceed 10-20% by weight of cement. This method is used for both cased and open hole plugs. cased holes at shallow depths. The balance method is most commonly used for plug placement.

i. Due to close tolerances of downhole completion/production equipment in the small "casing. In directional work. and 3. cement baskets and packers or basket-type shoeS. Use preflush fluid ahead of cement-in some operations this can be water. Fig. successful cementing operations have been achieved165-161 by emphasizing: Casing centralization. These cements develop high early strength and will tolerate a greater degree of mud contamination and still develop adequate strength after necessary woe time.. an alternative is to place another plug above the first. pick up 10-15 feet to reduce exposure of cement to mud below the plug . double pump-or simply mix slow enough-to assure uniform high density slurry . or if density is critical.16l Where conditions permit. Usually after 24 hours. viscosity increases with shear rate. Types of pipe movement critically analyzed in the above noted references were rotation or reciprocation (or simultaneous rotation and reciprocation) of single strings.162-164 Several cementing problems that are particularly significant in the case of tubingless completions are: 1. avoid rotation until pipe is pulled above the plug.e. "Prudent" use of wire loop type scratchers served to break up gelled mud and create flowstream disturbances to aid displacement-not to remove mud filter cake. Oil base mud spacer should be used where oil based muds are present. Fig. The conclusion was that pipe movement by either 59 4-6 hours may be adequate before setting down on the plug to check its position. and lack of turbulent flow. cement has set properly. It may be desirable to use excess slurry then pull tubing or drill pipe to desired location of plug top and reverse out the excess . This is. and reciprocation only of multiples strings (rotation of multiple strings may wind the strings together and cause restrictions). float shoes and collars. a weighted water base mud flush can be used. Mud displacement is more difficult due to irregular geometry and lack of turbulent flow. * For use only with balance method . 8-16 hours or more may be required. Use adequate cement volume. When drilling a directional plug. Minimum vertical fill for directional or sidetrack operations should be 300 feet. Almost all equipment used in cementing conventional casing strings is available for cementing these small diameter tubulars-including: WORLD OIL 1977 . Once cement is spotted. .75-1. Subrounded or ball shaped cuttings indicate drilling is premature and additional WOC is recommended.How to minimize mud contamination of cement plugs Select an in-gauge section of the hole to position the plug.166 Efficient mud displacement is difficult due to the irregular geometry. *. and move the drill pipe. However. Special precautions used to prevent buckling include leaving pressure on the strings while cement sets to impart additional tensile loading within the cemented interval. With water based muds the flush can be water with a mud thinning chemical. Use carefully calculated volumes of preflush and spacer between mud and cement to obtain equal height in annulus and drill pipe when displacement is complete." buckling of the strings can create serious problems 2. Provide adequate WOC time. A thickening time of about 30 minutes in addition to a realistic placement time is recommended . Continue to rotate drill pipe until cement displacement is complete to reduce chance of cement channelin~ through mud in the annulus. Anticipate that at least the top 50 feet of the plug will be contaminated with mud. check cuttings for premature drillout. multiple stage cementing collars. TUBINGLESS COMPLETIONS In so-called tubingless completions. commonly avoided by placing baffles or float collars below zones to be perforated. 17-18 ppg slurries can be prepared by adding 0. Wiper plugs ahead of the cement will be pumped out of the drill pipe and the wiper plug behind the cement will remain in the cement near the top of the plug. but drilling experience in the area and mud loggin~ data can be valuable aids . Where chemical flushes are to be used. Effective use of preflushes is also important. Drill pipe should be equipped with centralizers and scratchers to help remove mud cake and/or reduce cement channeling . scratchers (rotating and reciprocating). Casing buckling is a great concern to operators utilizing tubingless completions. Preflush volume should provide at least 150200 feet of fluid in the annulus Drill pipe wiper plugs can be used ahead of and behind both preflush and cement. Condition mud prior to mixing cement. and use of cement slurries having dilatant rheology. Drill-out can be more difficult. Use a dispersant additive to densify the cement slurry.5% dispersant to class A. as a minimum. In addition. 57-Possible irregular geometric arrangements of single or multiple strings in tubing less completions causes inefficient displacement of mud by cement. SMALL DIAMETER CASING *. inadequate set is an indication of serious contamination and the plug should be drilled out and replaced. increased displacement rate (by pumping through more than one casing string). pipe movement. special precautions are taken to avoid pumping excess cement on top of the upper plug.' '. Circulate bottoms up. If the cuttings are sharp edged and angular. A caliper log gives the most accurate evaluation. type will depend on mud composition and density. Batch mix cement or mix thoroughly through a ribbon blender. After 2-3 barrels of cement clears bottom of drill pipe. or pulling additional tension on the string after the initial cement set to add tensile loading above the cemented interval. relative rheological properties between mud and cement (yield point and density). G or H cements when mixed with less than normal water. Guiding equipment. one or more tubing strings are run and cemented in the borehole to serve as both casing and tubing. 67. centralizers.

An extensive study utilizing a special computer program indicated that for 2%-inch tubing in 7%-inch hole. WORLD OIL 1977 . In the case of Bingham plastic fluids. they may be pumped into simultaneously. These fluids. most desirable mud properties for maximum displacement efficiency was a plastic viscosity equal or less than 12 centipoise.166 Due to the large annular space and limited conduit size. When two strings to be cemented are located at the same depth. Turbulent flow would tend to reduce the magnitude of these comparisons.166 Use of cement slurries having dilatant rheology was shown to be more favorable for mud displacement efficiency. viscosity decreases with shear rate (shear thinning). Rheology design. Fig. Fig. i. For dilatant fluids. 69) are Bingham plastic fluids. Four possible time-independent isothermal rheologies of fluid exhibiting stable properties in laminar flow are: 60 Bingham plastic fluids. The extreme differences between rheological types noted above apply only to laminar flow. a string which could be landed at a shallower depth is run to bottom to increase flow velocity by decreasing annular cross sectional area. a cement bypass arrangement and sliding sleeve port-type collars run as an integral part of the casing string. Shear stress and shear rate of pseudoplastic fluids are not proportional. Class H plus gel (straight line) is a "Bingham plastic" fluid. shear stress and shear rate are also not proportional. ~ iIi J: (f) i£ SHEAR RATE- Fig. SELECTIVECOMPLETION TOOL One special equipment item which eliminates several possible restrictions to flow or production from the formation and provides unusual production or stimulation flexibility is the Selective Completion Tool developed by Gearhart-Owen Industries (see article "New completion technique keeps formation faces clean. An example would be hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) based completion fluids. 68-Four time-Independent rheological fluid characteristics in isothermal. When the strings are at different depths. A variation of this method is to spot cement through the longest string then lower other bullplugged strings through the unset cement.1 SHEAR RATE (FLOW) Fig. pseudoplastic fluids. Water is a Newtonian fluid. 68. November 1973). and Newtonian fluids. a finite shear stress and shear rate are proportional in the laminar flow region. 69-Rheology of four types of cement slurries. Efforts have been made to improve relative rheologic properties between mud and cement. increase mud displacement efficiency in the laminar flow region. The inflatable packers are expanded by increased mud pressure after the bottom plug seats on the baffle or collar. and water suspensions of finely divided solids. After running casing to bottom. Occasionally.167 Multiple casing strings have been cemented by pumping down only the longest string. Pumping through more than one string can improve results by increasing displacement rate.'. reciprocation or rotation is effective. i. mud returns can be watered back during the entire circulation period to lower mud weight. However. simultaenous rotation and reciprocation desirable for conventional completions was not economic for 2%-inch tubingless completions in 7'Vs-inch hole. if circumstances require and permit. and viscosity increases with shear rate. all others exhibit "dilatant" properties (after Clark and Jenkins). therefore. This increases the difference between flow properties of mud and cement. fluids in the annulus are almost always in laminar flow. dilatant fluids.e. and yield point equal or less than 5 pounds per 100 square feet. This tool consists of inflatable packers. 68. Such a "delayed setting technique" requires careful planning. Bingham plastic and Newtonian fluids are discussed in Part 4. However. the equipment is properly positioned downhole with respect to the productive formation using a gamma ray log for correlation. yield point and plastic viscosity.. gelled drilling muds and gelled Class H cements (Fig. yield point and density. Such fluids can be non-thixotropic and should be readily displaced by cement. from which the slurry re-enters the annulus above 0--0 DENSIFIED CLASS H 0-0 1-1 LlGHlWEIGHT-CLASS H 2-1 LlGHlWEIGHT-CLASS H _ CLASS H PLUS GEL (f) t 13 a: I(f) a: 1200F~ " /.e. turbulent flow in single and multiple string tubingless completions is unlikely. Before cementing. laminar flow. 70. This feature increases displacement forces acting on the narrow side of an annulus and on gelled mud." WORLD OIL. Fig. The bottom packer then diverts flow of primary cement from the casing-wellbore annulus into the tool's by-pass area. initiation of mixing and pumping cement into each string must be staggered.

And as cake forms on part of the formation. The fundamental concept of squeeze cementing that cement filter cake forms the initial seal. Yet many applications are still based on these misconceptions. Production or stimulation treatment flow is established through one or more of the sliding sleeve port-type collars which can be repeatedly opened or closed by a mechanical shifting tool run on pipe or wireline. is followed by a second stage of moderate fluid 61 A cement slurry consists of finely divided solid particles dispersed in liquid. Sliding sleeves then can be opened to expose inside of casing to the isolated formation. the dehydrated cement filter cake will form a nearly impermeable solid. And flow restrictions associated with perforations are avoided. And. the solid particles will filter-out on the formation face as filtrate is forced into the formation permeability. By placing such a collar just above the lower packer and another just below the upper packer. Repair casing leaks due to corrosion or split pipe .) cannot be displaced into normal formation permeability as it would require permeability in excess of 100 Darcies to allow a normal slurry to penetrate a sand formation without fracturing. High final squeeze is a positive indication of a successful job. Repair a primary cement job that failed due to cement by-passing mud (channeling) or insufficient cement height (fillup) in the annulus . And certain components may have to be custom made for specific applications. when slurry is forced against a permeable formation. stimulation fluids may be circulated in the annulus across the productive zone to remove mud-caused impairment. Inc. Plug all. Cement circulates through the tool's internal bypass and re-enters annulus above the upper packer. perforating debris and convergence of flow within the formation towards perforation tunnels. or to shut-in a zone. Tool length can be varied (courtesy Gearhart-Owen Industries. thereby developing a barrier to vertical fluid movement 2. Ports may be opened or closed by wireline for test purposes. or within the hydrocarbon producing zone . and . The primary objective of squeeze cementing is to develop a seal in the casing-wellbore annulus between formation intervals penetrated by the casing. cement penetrates the formation without fracturing. The most common purposes for squeeze cementing are to:16B . Squeeze cementing can 'be classified as high pressure and low pressure. Tool length can be extended to 100 feet or more by adding modules. Eliminate water intrusion from above. These classifications and techniques will be discussed later in the article. 7o-Selective completion tool features two inflatable packers that straddle and isolate the pay zone. Misconceptions.169 and later operations have proven that some early concepts were incorrect. and 4. Injecting drilling mud into perforations at high pressure opens all perforations 3. In some cases.e. some people erroneously assume that: I. Most successful squeezes in fractured formations have used a staging technique in which a highly accelerated slurry. A properly designed squeeze job will cause dehydrated cement filter cake to fill the opening(s) between the formation and the casing. Such particles in the slurry WORLD OIL 1977 . Techniques and technology of squeeze cementing have been developed over a period of more than 40 years. or part. Cement does not contact the weIlbore through the productive formation.16B Therefore. For example. Equipment is available for use in sand control. Reduce the producing gas-oil-ratio by isolating gas zones from adjacent oil intervals . is INFLATION VALVE _INFLATABLE PACKER ANNULAR BYPASS SLIDING SLEEVE I-INFLATABLE PACKER -INFLATION VALVE Fig. 'REMmIAL SQUEEZE CEMENTING Squeeze cementing is the process of forcing a cement slurry through holes in the casing. below. if allowed to cure. Cement squeezed through holes (perforations) in casing under high pressure generally forms a horizontal cement "pancake" opposite the holes. or a slurry with bridging agents such as gilsonite or sand. slurry can be diverted to other exposed formation permeability. And more than one unit and sliding sleeve may be run at one time. of one or more zones in a multizone injection well to direct injection into desired intervals. greater than normal casing to borehole clearance is required.the upper packer. Plug and abandon a depleted or watered-out producing zone. In cases where slurry is to be placed in a fractured interval (either natural or induced) the cement solids will have to develop a cake on the fracture faces and/or bridge the fracture. And two techniques used are: Bradenhead squeeze and packer squeeze. The filter cake has much lower permeability than most sand formations. In zones with good permeability. i.

Horizontal fractures containing cement "pancakes" cannot be generated by high pressure squeeze cementing in deep wells. sealing-off the fracture may be difficult because fracturing is usually initiated with mud. However. and techniques to be used. Formation fracturing during high-pressure squeezing may be counter-productive. fracture initiation may occur anywhere along the length of the channels-above or below the perforations. the successful squeeze must deposit cement filter cake in openings between casing and formation.000 feet. of course.l11 Slurry fluid (filtrate) loss can be varied and controlled as required. fluid loss and filter cake growth rate vary directly. i. a slurry with a high fluid loss will have a fast filter cake build-up. particularly if it is vertical and extends into a zone being isolated. 26. More details on hesitation squeezing are presented later in this article. Slurry solids content affects time required to develop cement cake and time required for adequate dehydration at a given fluid (filtrate) loss. FRAC. with various cement additives112 (Part 3). Fluid loss control. Thus. even if the casing-wellbore annulus is sealed. If fluid loss is uncontrolled. and attempts to purge the fracFures may only extend WORLD OIL 1977 VERTlCALSTRESS. these factors also are functions of formation character and type of fluid in the well.000 psi differential should provide satisfactory caking for most "low-pressure" squeeze jobs. PRESS. PF important factors are rate of deposition and amount of filter cake deposited. The WELLBORE. 71.e. The fracture will be oriented perpendicular to the least principal stress as shown in Fig. this is usually the case at depths greater than 3. HIGH PRESSURE SQUEEZING High pressure squeeze cementing is defined as a job in which fluid pressure in the wellbore exceeds formation fracture pressure prior to or during the time that cement slurry is in contact with the formation. When squeezing against shales. After fracturing. Where the previously-cemented annulus contains fluid or mud filled channels. dolomites-or permeable formations where natural permeability is plugged with mud-a low fluid loss cement may not be desirable.16D Thus. Note that horizontal fractures will not be created if fracture pressure is less than overburden pressure.. dense limestones. However. Use of the hesitation technique under these circumstances may develop additional fractures and a more effective cement seal. INDUCED HORIZONTAL FRACTURE FRACTURE PF~"HI or "H2 "HI or "H2<"y Fig.e. High-pressure methods are recommended only when squeezing relatively impermeable zones or where the squeeze is to be conducted with drilling mud in the hole. The slurry then displaces this fluid into the fractures.4 (by weight) and a low fluid loss of 50-150 cc in 30 minutes under 1. cement may dehydrate and bridge off the upper portion of a perforated interval before slurry is displaced to the lower perforations. permitting development of cement filter cake on the fracture surfaces. Part 3. Since it is likely that perforations will be at an intermediate part of any channels. over the wide range of temperature and pressure conditions normally encountered in oil and gas wells. INDUCED VERTICAL J~___~_ -.loss slurry. pore pressure and fracture pressure). and squeeze pressure (differential between downhole slurry pressure and formation pore pressure). As noted above.. formation characteristics (permeability. very low fluid loss can result in very slow filter cake development and unacceptably long placement operations. 71-Effect of well depth and vertical-horizontal formation stresses on type of hydraulic fracture induced by injected fluid. Potential Problems. time and slurry composition are the primary controllable variables. This system encourages bridging and filter cake development and helps divert movable slurry to unsealed fractures. drilling mud or "clean" workover fluid. Fig. vertical communication between zones may be established in the fracture. In formations with unimpaired natural permeability. only that part of the channels between the perforations and the fracture initiation point is filled with cement. Fracturing of the formation permits displacement of mud or work over fluid through holes in the casing.000 feet are nearly always vertical. 62 .l11 Once a fracture is created it must be sealed-off with cement. "HI I I I I I . And.110 To achieve this it may be necessary to control cement fluid (filtrate) loss. Key factors that affect rate of filter cake growth are: Slurry properties (fluid filtrate loss and water-to-solids ratio) . cement displaces and follows fluid from the channels into the fracture and cement is deposited in the channels between perforations and the fracture initiation point. In these situations a "high-pressure" squeeze job is usually performed and low fluid loss slurry could be undesirable' because its restricted filtrate loss could inhibit filter cake development. squeeze pressure. as fractures induced in formations deeper than 3. "y HORIZONTAL STRESS. Conversely. With high-pressure squeezes there is no contrQl of either location or orientation of the generated fracture.. slurry with a water-to-solids ratio of 0. Horizontal fractures will not be created if fracture pressure is less than overburden pressure. The composition of a squeeze slurry should be based on characteristics of the formation opposite the interval(s) to be squeezed. i.

The general procedure. Successful squeeze jobs are routinely obtained with only one or two cubic feet of cement displaced through the perforations. Such problems with mud-filled fractures have been minimized by using a high-fluid-loss fluid (water) for breakdown. 74. Do not exceed "safe" squeeze pressure. perforations and channels must be clear of mud or other solids. such openings may have been purged. If the job is to be performed through new perforations. 72-Schematic 45 minute squeeze (after Rike). Low pressure squeeze cementing175 utilizes a small volume of low fluid loss sl urry placed against exposed permeable formations with a moderate squeeze pressure. And the ability to reverse out excess cement in many applications makes low pressure squeezing compatible with "thru-tubing" techniquesY6 SQUEEZE TECHNIQUES Squeeze cementing in permanent and tubingless completions requires some special precautions but basic techniques are similar to those used in conventional wells. And. Apply moderate squeeze (downhole) pressure. Squeeze cementing in these wells can be performed with concentric small diameter tubing. 6. if necessary.000 PSIIlP) 800 CEMENT NODES 150 50 6" CASINGPERFORATIONS 15 Fig. When bleed-off ceases for about 30 minutes. 72. or pull work string leaving cement to be drilled out later. stop displacing cement slurry and hold the pressure. and varied. Gradually increase downhole pressure to 500--1. small scale squeeze cementing operations. cement is circulated into place for squeezing. for the most part. Initiate injection. Thus. In fact. as hesitation time and pressure change during pumping and waiting are observed. results may be enhanced by perforating in a solids-free. all perforations may not be forced open when the formation is fractured by the high pressure. Another problem in a perforated interval is that mudfilled perforations can withstand large pressure differentials. Determine downhole injection pressure 2. the low pressure squeeze job is generally conducted as follows: 1. and during. can result in excessive caking with enlarged nodes. The alternating of pumping and hesitation are continued until the desired final squeeze pressure is obtained.173 of cement filter cake node building after with various fluid (filtrate) loss properties. 171 Fig. The hesitation is to encourage cement filter cake buildup. as illustrated in Fig. Fig. non-damaging fluid-such as filtered brine to prevent clay swelling-with pressure underbalance to permit purging of perforation cavities. Consider increased hydrostatic effect of cement column 4.attributed to the unplugging of mud-plugged perforations after the squeeze job. And. it is recommended that solids-free workover fluids be used whenever fluid has to be displaced into the formation ahead of cement. Several clean-up techniques and chemical wash formulas are presented in the literature. Filtrate from the slurry is forced into formation permeability allowing build-up of cement filter cake. In practice. Improperly designed slurries FLUID LOSS (ML/30 MIN. based on experience. It is not unusual to use 100-500 sacks on a high-pressure squeeze job. Therefore it is particularly important to maintain accurate volume control of all fluids pumped into the well to assure proper slurry placement. Restore squeeze pressure by engaging the pump as bleedoff occurs. includes WORLD OIL 1977 63 . Acid or chemical washes can also be used ahead of the slurry. (Note: During steps 2 and 3. the necessary volume of cement can be large. If the well has been on production. After breakdown. A permanent completion is one in which tubing and wellhead remain in place during life of the well. The Bradenhead squeeze technique normally is used on low pressure formations. Circulate slurry to desired location in the casing 3. Usually the interval to be squeezed is at or near the bottom of the well. the most common cause of squeeze cementing failures is . Low fluid loss reduces dehydration rate and discourages bridging as the slurry is forced along openings or channels. In practice. Reverse circulate excess cement from casing. Squeezing through small concentric tubing uses very small slurry volumes which are susceptible to contamination by fluids in the casing and in the tubing-tubing annulus. or inadequate caking and inability to hold pressure.them. The hesitation squeeze is a subclassification of squeeze cementing that can be used in either high or low pressure applications. "safe" squeeze pressure is usually specified as some value below established fracture pressure (300 psi has been used in some areas). Procedure. The casing can be left with cement nodes small enough that drilling-out is not required. Where mud is needed for control. In low pressure squeezes. such fluid is spotted before setting the packer. especially toward the formation. AT 1. In existing perforations pressure/ suction washing with or without acid may be considered. the time slurry is in contact with the formations. Thru-tubing tools such as inflatable bridge plugs and packers have been developed to be run on wireline or small diameter tubing strings to permit conventional. Generally. cement filter cake is deposited in perforations or holes) 5. A properly designed slurry will leave only a small cement filter-cake bump (node) inside the casing after circulating out excess slurry. Hesitation procedures are much more of an art than a science.000 psi above pressure required to initiate flow.173-177 LOW PRESSURE SQUEEZING Low pressure squeeze cementing is defined as a job in which fluid pressure in the wellbore is maintained below fracture pressure of exposed formations prior to. only low pressure squeeze jobs are attempted. The principal aspect of the technique is alternate pumping and hesitation (not pumping). 73.

Fig.000 0ur BLED PRESSURE TESTED BACKFLOW !5 1. Retrievable packers can be set and released repeatedly on a single trip. and drill out as required. 'I SPOT CEMENT APPLY SQUEEZE PRESSURE REVERSE CIRCULATE Fig.200 w () 800 II: ::> rn 400 0 0 20 40 60 TIME. were that it prevented backflow and disruption of the filter cake and provided the ability to isolate perforations from circulation pressures above the packer. is closed (center) and squeeze pressure is applied. Reverse circulating through perforations (right) removes excess cement. 64 WORLD OIL 1977 . When retrievable packers are released. It is not a precise cement placement technique and is not generally recommended when there are several open intervals and onl} one is to be squeezed. such as retrievable bridge plugs that can be run below the squeeze packer and set at any point below the packer.'" these steps: Circulate cement across zone to be squeezed. Drillable packers can be obtained with either of two valve systems. or let cement set. The choice between drillable or retrievable packers is primarily dependent on well conditions and squeeze technique. Wellbore fluid below the packer is usually displaced through perforations ahead of the cement when this method is used. close blowout preventors (or shut off flow from the annulus) and apply pressure to drill pipe or work string to force slurry to dehydrate against the formation. A packer squeeze can be conducted with either drillable or retrievable squeeze packers. 73-Example of hesitation squeeze technique shows alternate pumping and hesitation to allow cement filter cake formation and gradual buildup to desired squeeze pressure (after Beach et al). pull drill pipe (or tubing) above the perforations. and less rig time is required if cement is to be drilled out. If set too far above Packer squeeze techniques permit precise slurry placement and isolate high pressure from casing and wellhead while high squeeze pressures are applied downhole. Cement is circulated into place down drill pipe (left). reverse out excess cement in the work string and casing. In the past. as may be required to locate holes in the casing. it is possible to run and retrieve the bridge plug on the same trip with the retrievable squeeze packer. The "two-way" valve will retain pressure from either direction and closes when drill pipe is pulled above the packer. Dirty fluid may block flow of cement to a portion of any exposed permeability. Packer location should be carefully considered and may vary depending on the type job.Ci5 2. main advantages of a drillable packer or retainer. The "poppet" type back pressure valve will prevent back-flow only.600 fd g: 1. 74-Schematic of Bradenhead squeeze technique normally used on low pressure formations. And. Squeeze pressure is limited by casing string and wellhead burst strength. It is also possible to squeeze multiple zones on the same trip with this equipment. Many accessories have been developed for use with the retrievable squeeze packer. Drillable packers can be set on tubing or drill pipe. or plug can be drilled out. The two-way valve system makes it possible to reverse circulate any excess cement from the drill pipe without exerting pressure below the packer. differential pressure between casing and formation must be controlled to prevent displacement of unset cement filter cake. and by electric (logging) line. or where casing is not pressure tight above the zone to be squeezed. and they can be of particular -advantagewhen it is necessaryto remove the packer from the wellbore after squeezing. Generally the retrievable packer is less expensive to run. as mentioned earlier. With new technology. The retrievable bridge plug will hold pressure from either above or below. or BOP. MINS. Details on specific capabilities of either type should be obtained from the service company or manufacturer (supplier) . then wellhead. these capabilities are available with some retrievable cement retainers. However. Although this isolation technique is most always required for high pressure squeeze jobs it can be effectively used on low pressure squeezes where accurate cement placement is desired. so the Bradenhead technique is normally used with a low pressure squeeze. over a retrievable packer. differential pressure from the formation must be controlled to prevent back-flow and cement filter cake disturbance. with a low pressure squeeze.

" API Drillinll and Production Practice. "Open hole plug-back Operations. G. Volume 243. L.. 210. & DublIn. m Binkley. 64-71....1969. In squeeze jobs where cement is to be drilled out. B. Las Vegas. Rate Improves Cement Squeezing. '" Fischer. "Methods and Materials for Placin Cement Plugs in Open Holes. E. excessive volumes of fluid-either workover fluids or mud-must be displaced into the formation ahead of the cement. "Plug-back Ce1l1enting Methods. high pressure block squeezing may actually aggravate communication between zones. August 1968. A.. P.. C.. A. 1963. And mud cake filled perforations are also capable of withstanding high differential pressure. and Smith. W.. W. PJI. "Bentonite Cements Proving Successful in Permanent-Type Squeeze O{)erations." 160 Banister J. A. J. \973.. packer or casing. "Small Diameter Well Completions. J.. R. Job evaluation. Squeeze cementing is a remedial tool.. high final squeeze pressure was one primary indicator used to measure success. API. W. Vol. E." AIME Petro Trans.. H. and Ernst. A." API Drilling and Production Practices. '00 Clark. and. R. less effort and expense are required to repeat the squeeze operation at that time.03Willingham. or the slurry may channel through the mud. soft spots or voids usually indicate an unsuccessful job. 1957..." Petro Engr. ." Presented at the National Interstate Oi Compact Commission's Convention. 1963.S. high final pressure may occur because dehydrated cement has bridged-off the casing or perforations. Differential into the wellbore may be obtained by swabbing or displacing workover fluid with field crude.. 15-23. "Oil Well Cementing Practices and Mater. Annulus pressure can also be used to prevent collapse pressures from developing during high pressure jobs. careful design and execution of primary cementing is a much better way to get zone isolation than relying on high-pressure "block squeezing" above and below the pay. Wadder. pp. Fig.. K. particularly in the direction of the formation." World 0. Denver. July 29. pressure testing can be relatively quick and inexpensive to perform. "Field Proven Techniques Improve Cementing Success.. G. Mont/5omery.. "A Method of Protecting Cements Against the Harmful Effects of Mud Contamination.ng Practices in tne U. K. R. H.. In this example. 30-0ct. V. Even though it is not conclusive. G. K." Paper SrE 24114. B.. It is desirable to test and then maintain some pressure on the casing annulus above the packer. ." 116 Huber. In some production wells it may be impractical to unload the wellbore without returning the well to production. February 1976. Presented at the SPE Rocliy Mountain Regional Meeting. A. ". prevention-where possible-is a more effective. H.. G. and Carter. 31'-33. III~ "A Simplified Cementing Technique for Recompletion OperatIOns. it is usually desirable to test the squeeze job before removing the work over or drilling rig. It should not be used as a planned supplement to primary cementing. J. "Remedial Cementing of Plugged Perforations. 118 (1936). O'Brien. & Goi~1 W. 110Hook. C. May_and June. Beach. Vol." world Oi. . D. P. Tausch. A. '0' Murphyl. C.. J. 1'959. Proof of a successful squeeze is the withstanding of differential pressure between casing and formation after the well is returned to operation. "Problems Related to Squeeze Cementing. Dumbauld. if required. '0' Buster.o "Controlled Filtration I May." Paper SPE 759. However." Engineering Practices Manual No. 169 Torr~y. Usually. C' J!. Many diagnostic tools and evaluation procedures that can be used to gain an understanding of downhole conditions before and after squeezing. "The Effect of Low-Water-Loss Additives. along with some recent cementing innovations. Jr. . B.'68 by squeeze cementing is likely the most important rule of preparation. and Jenkins. In these cases a positive pressure test that does not exceed formation fracture pressure should be conducted after cement has set and. E... "Experience with 2-%" Casing in the West TexasNew Mexico Area. K." Paper SPE 4608. E. .. J. J. 1957. "Squeeze Cemenunj! Requires Careful Execution for Proper Kemedial Work." Transactions of AIME." Paper SPE 891'-G. G. L:t "Obtaining Successful Squeeze-Cementing Results.als. Reprinted from World Oil. 75-Packer location is important.. C. "Cementing Practices for Tubin!!less Completions" SPE Paper 4609 Presented at the 48 Annual Fall MeeUng. L. K. If it drills hard all the way. m Beach. 1968. W. Observation of this annulus pressure can be effectively used as a check for leaks in the squeeze string. W. F. et al. y 65 . less expensive solution than squeeze cementing. 1954. As mentioned. G." Paper SPE 2455. Conversely. H. 1961. May 25-27. . 164 Scott. 75.. C. 1963. after drillout. results may be good. and McGuirel. the packer should be set 30-60 feet from perforations.. G. 1969. PI'. Jr.4." AIME Transactions. . "Use of Activated Charcoal in Cement to Combat Effect. G. F. either production or injection. S. J. "hn. or after primary cementing. ." Oil Well Cement... 1~73 m Carter.. '" Harris F. and Dumbauld. A. R. E.. & Dumbauld. 116Morgan. "Factors Affecting the Rate of Deposition of Cement in Unfractured Perforations During S~ueeze Cementing Operations. However. Yellowstone Wyo." Oil & Gas Journal.161 Remedial squeeze cementing techniques and technology provide a wide variety of "cures" for problems related to fluid movement behind the casing and/or in the wellbore. P.1 August 1976.proving Production with Electrical Workover System. J. T.. Sept. & Slagle. "Pr~Kress in Squeeze Cementing Application and Technique" Oil Weekly. and Goins..perforations or holes to be squeezed. J. T. Thirty (or more) years ago when squeeze cementing was more art than science.. Childers. Squeeze Pressure and Formation Permeability on the Dehydration Rate of a Squeeze Cementing Slurry. CASING PACKER CEMENT CHANNELLED THRU MUD MUD Fig. '" Rike. It may detect a job failure. E. 16'Holley." API raper 85'1-37-H. Thus high final squeeze pressures can be achieved where the squeeze is unsuccessful. For example.. Morgan..~ "Effectiveness of Chemical Washes Ahead of Squeeze Cementing. Procedures for evaluating cement jobs will be discussed more fully in the next article. "Cementing Multiple Tubingless Completions. 1963. S. M. WI... Goins. an indication of success is the way the cement drills." AIME Trans. 3.. If corrosion holes or split pipe are being squeezed. of Contamination by DrilIing Muds. R. 1940. However. Shryock. more space is recommended. a packer set too close to perforations or holes could become stuck if pressure on the outside of the casing is transmitted above the packer and causes the casing to collapse. June 11957.. However. 1965. packer is set too high allowing cement slurry to be contaminated as it channels through mud to reach perforations or holes (after Shryock and Slagle). & Collins." /PT. "Ptim"ry Cementing of Multiple Casing. Final squeeze pressure.. C. are discussed in the concluding article.. D. . in most cases. 1'971... Coming next month: Defining the problem to be "cured" WORLD OIL 1977 LITERATURE CITED 'M Parsons. Vol.

bond logging and various tests for proving fluid shut-off by primary cementing are described. Setting cement generates "heat of hydration" which in- ~ A new through-tubing.. through-tubing work and whipstock installation..Cementing oil and gas wells Part 8-Methods for evaluating primary cementing effectiveness plus a wrapup of several new tools to improve completion operations George o. The system can cut costs and eliminate cement plug placement problems. 66 WORLDOIL 1977 . it failed to provide a seal at the casing shoe (or at the top of a liner). inflatable bridge plug that can simplify plug back operations in casing. acoustical cement bond logs.119 Reasonably accurate in this application. Temperature surveys are used to detect maximum height of cement in the casing-wellbore annulus. Also discussed are several recently introduced downhole tools that are closely associated with cementing operations. IN. bonding or possible mud channeling-and various positive performance tests such as pressure tests. below the tubing string.. 76-Lab tests of various cement thicknesses with InsulatIng and non-insulating material simulating surrounding formation Indicate that temperature rise Inside casing from setting cement can vary significantly with rock thermal dlffusivity properties (after Gretener). pressure tests. or it failed to provide effective isolation of the zones of interest.178. Pro j ec t Engineer. squeeze cementing remedial operations are usually required. and production and/or production logging tests. Houston 10-second summary Basic principles of temperature logging. and ~ A permanent packer arrangement for positively anchoring a whipstock tool.180 evaluating the effectiveness of a primary cement job. o 40 20 2 3 CEMENT SHEATH THICK.. When any of these failures are detected. to prove whether the job accomplished its intended purpose. THIS CONCLUDING article discusses several methods of 60 u. Fig. thickness. The techniques include logging methods-to determine factors such as cement height. such surveys cannot determine cement quality. including: Temperature surveys. The method consists of running a recording thermometer in the casing following the cementing operation. or a remedial squeeze. These include: ~ The new Pack/Perf Completion vides positive isolation and formation the perforated interval system that prosupport through EVALUATION TECHNIQUES Evaluation of primary cementing is usually based on one of the following basic failure definitions: Cement failed to fill the casing-borehole annulus above the minimum acceptable cement height. perforating and bailing. or effectiveness in preventing vertical fluid migration. and Richard C. along with three new tools for completion. and production testing and production logging. Suman. Jr. Completion Technology Co. in this application. radioactive logs. President. A number of evaluation techniques are available. Ellis.

..700 years. 4 5 6 o TIME. o Ii ~ W I- . dolomite.182 If the cement top is between casing strings.000 200 L 11.000 FT TEST above the expected top. 160 150 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 TIME. 76. . shale. Addition of radioactive tracer material to the lead portion of the cement slurry provides a positive indicator of the cement top. To locate the cement top.'" 67 . 79-Temperature and pressure effects within fluid filled casing shut in immediately after cementing.200 1.a lithology change as a cement top. cement has invaded the formation through fractures or a thief zone.. Caution should be observed when mixed lithologies (sand. Radioactive surveys. and high costS. Carnolite has a half-life of approximately 1. the temperature log will indicate relative thickness of cement behind casing. . APPARATUS TEMP. HOURS Fig. Therefore.) \ \ ENLARGED HOLE SECTION n. Curve C compared to Curve B illustrates effect of enlarged borehole with corresponding increased cement thickness (after Folmar). In wells in which particularly heavy or viscous drilling fluids are used. Fig. 77.. they. of course. the temperature will be greater than. Pressure tests are conducted 160 120 80~ 4.400 PRESS. limestone. cement channeling should be suspected.000 feet WORLD OIL 1977 210 2.. If the indicated cement top is higher than calculated.. Temperature remains elevated for several hours (after Farris). HOURSFROM STARTINGTO MIX Fig..600 Ci. This is usually a function of depth of the cement job.181 Peak temperatures often occur 4-12 hours after start of mixing operations but remain elevated for more than 24 hours.. but parallel to. the geothermal gradient.800 1. In these areas it is advisable to run a base log prior to running casing.178 Pressure. The rate at which temperature changes depends on temperature to which the cement is exposed. salt.180 The magnitude of the anomaly will depend on thickness (or mass) of cemen t behind the casing. inflow tests. PRESS. special cement displacing fluids may have to be used to permit running of the survey.179 Fig.. to avoid possible erroneous interpretations. as shown in Fig. Maximum temperature anomalies may be expected to range from 10-40° F. 78-Cement temperaturedevelopmentwith time as a function of well depth is indicated by lab results in a simulated wellbore apparatus preheated to temperatures of various depth levels.000 800 cri (f) w II: 11. Principal disadvantages of radioactive survey techniques for cement height determination are: Special health precautions.i 11. 1.'" creases the temperature of adjacent fluid in the casing by several degrees.179 240 200 11. etc. Fig. have no application in old wells.--12. the temperature survey should begin either at the surface or at least 1. Either long or short half-life material can be used. ) B . Temperature rise is greater in higher temperature environment (after Farris). temperature surveys normally should be run between 8 and 24 hours after cement is mixed. as well as the thermal diffusivity of surrounding formation. 0 VI b '" 1. TEMPERATURE - C Fig. It is desirable to run the survey at 50 F per inch sensitivity under normal conditions. If a hot area is noted where there is no hole enlargement. Because these surveys are only applicable for this short period after cementing. Tests show 800 F slurry first cools fluid inside casing. 78. Note maximum temperature buildup 8-12 hours after mixing. There are conditions in some areas where extremely high well temperatures override the temperature increase of the hydrating cement. and permanently affects natural gamma-ray emissions near its location in the well. And well conditions must remain static from the time the plug is bumped until the survey is completed.CEMENT TOP :I: .000 FT TEST f 2 ___ 3 SLURRY TEMP. interference with natural radioactive surveys. Several radioactive materials that can be used as tracers have half-lives of 8-80 days. Caliper surveys can be particularly helpful in analyzing the temperature survey.) are present because it is possible to misinterpret.RELIEVED 190 180 170 a: ::?E W . 1. Where lithology is fairly uniform. 77-ldealized temperature log in homogeneous lithology environment. 79. w 0 I I A I II \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I . then maximum temperature develops several hours after placement.

a cement squeeze of the WSO holes will be placed opposite a non-productive formation. Single packer type (left) must be set above single test point.ddle packers can be used to test more than one set of WSO holes above and below zones of interest.. A WSO test can give positive indications of communication problems. These tools are primarily used to perforate through to the zone of interest and obtain a sealed reservoir fluid sample that could be suitable for PVT analysis. to verify a good test. 80. the lower the chances of missing a channel. And specific procedures are specified by government regulations in most locations. inflow likely will purge mud from the perforations. a conventional tester is run on tubing and the test is conducted. However. Fig. The casing pressure test is conducted after cement has set but prior to drilling out the cement shoe. Two objectives of this procedure are: To test effectiveness of the cement seal at the casing shoe. 80..1 ] SCREEN SUB. rather than opposite the zone of interest. Also. The size of the sample chamber limits the application of this type equipment. and to determine formation strength (fracture gradient) at the shoe. The amount of open hole to be drilled . regulations require that the casing be perforated and tested by either bailing or inflow evaluation tests.e. perforating and testing is more commonly conducted with combination tools that can be run on tubing or wireline. A minimum cushion. Stra. has been used to verify a cement seal above and/or below hydrocarbon producing zones in many areas. SO-Two types of drill stem test tools used to check pos- to verify integrity of the casing following primary cement jobs. However. Fig. In some locations. The amount and type of fluid inside the test string can be checked by reverse circulating the sample to surface or by retention in the string and later recovery. if one is present. a desired preparation for low pressure squeeze jobs. j The WSO procedure can be as simple as bailing fluid from the casing and checking for fluid rise-after casing has been perforated or drilled out. A pressure test can also be conducted after drilling out the casing shoe and 5-10 feet of open hole. In California the WSO tests provide assurance that a cement seal of the annulus exists. each set of WSO holes can be isolated and tested. to protect shallower freshwater reservoirs from brine and/or hydrocarbon contamination. And a small channel can be missed with zero-degree gun phasing. Inside and outside recording pressure instruments are also included as an integral part of most testing tools.). prior to final completion. HYDRAULIC JARS TOP PACKER TEST PORTS OUTSIDE RECORDER CARRIER SAFETY JOINT PACKER SPACING PERFORATED ANCHOR BOTTOM PACKER OUTSIDE RECORDER CARRIER ANCHOR SHOE SINGLE COMPRESSION PACKER INFLATABLE STRADDLE PACKERS t BELLY SPRING sible fluid entry from a cement job test. The tester is usually left open for a:bout an hour. if any. setting the packer and opening the tester valve. If strong entry is indicated by a heavy "blow" at the surface. California. as with the combination tool.below casing is specified by law. The advantage of this technique is that if a failure is indicated. is placed inside the test string. Fig. 68 . but is usually 5-10 feet. In some locations regulations specify the maximum amount of cushion.~. a wireline perforator can be used with a collar locator and/or gamma ray log for correlation. WSO perforations must enter the mud channel. the casing shoe can be drilled out and the casing seat inflow tested. or lack thereof. One indication of cement seal failure at the casing WORLD OIL 1977 HYDRAULIC VALVE INSIDE RECORDER CARRIER . With a bottom packer added to the test assembly. REVERSE CIRCULATING SUB. Pressure charts are checked to confirm that the tester was open and exposed to cushion/formation pressure.DRILL STEM REVERSE CIRCULATING SUB. Where there is a need for very accurate location of WSO holes. Inflatable straddle packer tool (right) can test more than one interval (courtesy Lynes Inc. This procedure of perforating and checking rate and content of inflow. the tester may be pulled sooner. i. HYDRAULIC MULTIPLE SHUT-IN VALVE ROTATING SHUT-IN VALVE n ] INSIDE RECORDER CARRIER JARS SAFETY JOINT PACKER INFLATION PUMP ] . called water shut-off (WSO) tests. The testing procedures are the same as those used with the perforating and testing program. Where additional drilling is to be conducted and when the casing is cemented in an impermeable formation.183 This test is conducted by perforating an impermeable zone above or below the zone of interest. Wireline perforating and testing tools are available for obtaining small fluid samples following selective perforating. The tighter the phasing. in some locations. After perforating. After drilling out. fluid or gas. Combination of a mechanically fired perforating device and a testing tool makes it possible to perforate and test on a single trip with tubing or drill pipe. Tests can be made with a conventional tester set near bottom. These tests are not an indication of cement effectiveness.

''' GAMMA API GAMMA RAY UNITS 10 110 AMPLITUDE . 81 (B). 81 (C). Amplitude-time display (right) indicates weak pipe amplitude signal (grey tone left half) and strong formation signal (black line right half) comparable to signal B in Fig.\ated to a varying degree depending on material outside the casing. ONE SIDE NOT BONDED TIME_ Fig. Thus a CBL usually includes an amplitude curve that measures a specific time segment of the acoustic signal and one or more of the following: . When cement is firmly bonded to casing and formation. GOOD BOND TO PIPE AND FORMATION This surface test pressure must also be less than the pressure rating of equipment. Additional details of CBL techniques. XV. D = Depth.N_~q. ppg. 81 (D). signal amplitude is attem. GOOD BOND TO PIPE. Then both casing and formation signal are present as shown in Fig. 81 (A). Fig. Acoustic signals travel through fluid in the wellbore. 81-Examples of acoustic signals actually received in test wells under various cementing conditions (after Walker).184-196 Acoustic signals in a cased borehole consist of all arrivals along any coupled path between transmitter and receiver.shoe is loss of drilling fluid at pressure less than calculated fracture pressure. casing. Transit time of the first acoustic signal that exceeds a predetermined amplitude 69 C. The time and amplitude of the combined signal from the various paths are such that all information cannot be presented adequately by a normal logging curve. Acoustical cement bond logging in use since 1960.) is a log in which both time of arrival and amplitude of vibrations are used to evaluate bonding conditions. there is a low casing signal and the signal received is characteristic of formation behind pipe. i. The cement bond log (CBL) combined with an acoustic signature log (MSG. 82-Example WORLD OIL 1977 . ft. 81 (courtesy Welex). The casing and formation signals are of primary interest. Fig.0. casing. etc. technology and procedures are available in the literature. LOG 1. In some instances. Thus a high amplitude casing signal is indicative of no bond between cement and casing. In traversing through casing. preventing cement from surrounding the casing. p = Mud density. poor cementation and/or formation yield (fracturing). VDL. When this occurs it usually indicates channeling during cement displacement. A. it may be difficult to distinguish between fluid loss to permeability. BOP. H the drilling fluid has low mud weight and high fluid loss.e.. wellhead. provides an evaluation of the cement column behind casing.200 PIPE BOND MICRO-SEISMOGRAM .!_0!l~~I!<2. cement and/or annular fluids and formation. NO BOND TO FORMATION D. DECENTRALIZED PIPE. and steps should be taken to squeeze cement the shoe. When casing is resting against the borehole. channeling commonly occurs. When cement is bonded to pipe bu t not formation. FREE PIPE o a: w N W ::E i= I C)I ~I !. It is important to receive more than just the casing signal. Attenuation effect will be greater if that material is solid and bonded to the casing. Sonic signals are transmitted to a receiver that is acoustically isolated within a combination tool. Fig. psi be checked Where: PST FG = Fracture gradient.052p X D = Surface test pressure.(I C)I I I B. etc. Fig. of a cement bond log display of a section of well-bonded casing shows typical data included on field log. psi/ft.N'p_ 200 ~ o o Co> o o o eBL presentations. Thus casing is free on part of its circumference and formation-cement-casing coupling exists around the balance. both casing and formation signals have low amplitude. It is recommended that estimated surface test pres- sure (PST) required to fracture the formation prior to the test. using the equation: PST = FG X D . rate of pressure bleed-off may be considerable. Signal amplitude is converted to electronic signals and varies inversely with degree of attenuation.

. A microannulus is a very small gap between casing and cement.h" CSG. . and . If a high degree of sensitivity is applied where low-density cementing materials have been used. Cement thickness can be critical in certain liner completions where thickness is less than ~-inch. Fig. Here are other factors that can introduce errors in CBL interpretation: . this information has proven helpful in CBL interpretation.18O Vertical zone isolation does not exist in the latter case.0 0. Factors that significantly affect tool response include: Acoustic frequency of tool. gel which forms around the cement particles is apparently an excellent absorber of acoustical energy. There are no industry standards for tools or procedures. opposite zones of interest. 84-Relation of cement bond log pipe amplitude to cement compressive strength and percent circumference bonded.3" THICK. The entire CBL WORLDOIL 1977 . thermal expansion of the casing while cement sets and subsequent temperature reduction. tool calibration. This gap will affect a CBL. Therefore. INCHES 3 Fig. > ::!: ui C :J I::i Q. ::E <I: I <I: Z (!j en o o 2 CEMENT SHEATH THICKNESS. Validity of CBL interpretation is a controversial issue. lack of effective tool centering in the casing and/or poor running procedures have resulted in misleading interpretations. Q. 70 A microannulus can be caused by: Shutting in the casing and allowing pressure on the casing to increase due to temperature rise. Fig.000 psi. electronic control that determines the acoustic signal segment measured (Gating systems and bias settings). Interpretation of a specific CBL depends on how and what portion of the acoustic signal is measured and recorded. ::!: <I: 10 . grease. and logging speed. Inadequate information on CBL headings. As cement hardens. and by displacing drilling mud with lighter-weight completion fluid prior to running the CBL. It is not possible to determine the difference between a job in which cement strength is lower than anticipated. Tests in dril1ed holes with casing cemented with API Class A cement. Cement composition also affects acoustic transmission. Thus it is best to run CBLs at least 24-36 hours after the cement job is completed or when compressive strength of cement reaches 1. Extent of cement set (hardening) affects sonic signal velocity and amplitude. contaminants on the external surface of the casing such as mill varnish. 84. poor bond may be indicated although good bonding actually exists. spacing between transmitter and receiver. Fig. However. 1. centralization. it is recommended that a short overlap CBL be run under pressure. During the setting process. and a job in which cement strength is as estimated but small mud channels exist. indicated that small sections void of cement could be located only by using high sensitivity.OOO-psicement with 40% bonded (after Schlumberger). Where a microannulus is indicated by logging. amplitude increase tends to indicate free pipe. 0. An acoustic scope picture-XY presentation. voids or channels may not always be indicated on CBLs unless proper sensitivity selection-with respect to cement composition-is used.5 en I-I o > ui c ::) I::::. casing should be sized to provide a minimum of ~-inch clearance in the drilIed hole. include a gamma ray curve and a casing collar log. 83-Effect of cement sheath thickness on pipe amplitude signal (with pipe bonding only). oil-wetting. 83. 100 . Amplitude of the formation signal. Cement sheath thickness may vary. etc. Thus. acoustic transmissibility increases significantly and the casing signal is dampened out. A variable intensity recording where dark and light streaks represent positive and negative half cycles of the acoustic signal. the presence of a microannulus normally does not prevent isolation between zones and it usually tends to "heal" with time. causing changes in attenuation rate. with adequate centralization.1" . miscalibration of tools. Lab tests indicate that a thickness of ~-inch or more is required to achieve full attenuation. 82. Though not directly related to acoustic properties measured by CBL. Interpretation. 51.2 _ o 20 40 60 80 100 % CIRCUMFERENCE BONDED Fig. Example: 500-psi cement with 80% bonded shows same signal as 4.. With less than ~-inch. or .. Additional measurements frequently included on CBLs 1. Cement compressive strength and percent of casing circumference bonded affects CBL amplitude.

and 11. weight. if any) 2.)". service company. And. when properly applied. running speed. RUNNING POSITION COMPLETED SYSTEM Fig. petal baskets. Remember. Production tests-flow rate and content (water. poor mud conditions. should be run under pressure if there is a significant change in amplitude with the casing pressured. equipment (centralizers. detail of any operating problems like pump break down or delays. subsequent stimulation. Cement details Volume. a channel may only be on one side of the casing and chances of perforating into such a channel with a singlephase gun are minimal-use a 90-degree phased gun to perforate when channeling occurs. As mentioned in Part 7 of this series. Flowing fluid density vs. Noise-logging to detect behind-casing fluid movement. 8S-Schematic of Pack/Perf Completion System illustrates inflatable external casing packer as primary cement is being displaced (left) and after rubber element has been filled with cement and the pay zone has been perforated (right). etc. These methods include one or more of the techniques shown below: 197 -203 Production testing/logging techniques 1. scratchers. portant rule of preparation for remedial cementing operations is to accurately define the downhole problemif any exists. CEMENTING EQUIPMENT INNOVATIONS The Pack/Perf Completion system. density. premature build-up of pressure. When mud channels are present. etc.workover effectiveness requires the same tests and/or other combinations of tests and logging procedures.'o. Evaluation of historical production data and comparison between wells with common completions (production surveil. Without zone isola:tion.10. etc. float shoes and collars. Other details Lost circulation. Pressure build-up and fall off measurements with down. preflush and spacer fluids including description and volume. rheology characteristics. Production testing. This information is invaluable for evaluating cement jobs-it is absolutely essential if improved procedures and equipment are to be developed. Generally a combination of production tests and production logging procedures are required to identify and locate channels or other problems associated with lack of effective zone isolation. surface circulating temperature. This procedure: Purges by-passed movable mud. and before cement sets. details of movement during cementing (if any). Perhaps the most important primary cementing procedure is accurate and detailed documentation of the casing running and cementing operations. depth measurements with high resolution surface recording thermometers 8. surface flowing pressures 3. gas and solids. The most positive evaluation of cement effectiveness has been obtained by production testing and production logging methods. inspection procedures. Flowing and/or static temperature vs. joint make-up tests and procedures. Inc. following completion operations. And detailed information on cementing and logging operations are essential for accurate interpreta:tion. Radioactive fluid injection and surveys to identify injection points and possible presence of migration channels behind casing. use of top and bottom wiper plugs. anticipated set time. borehole wall support is established that substantially exceeds such support obtained through conventional cementing methods. and mechanically dehydrates residual mud cake against the formation. displacement procedure (rate. oil. pressure and rate charts. And there is universal agreement that effective primary cementing is a critical requirement for effective completions and minimal operating problems. at best. Inflow vs. the ECPs are inflated with cement.195 With channeling. Downhole fluid samples Recommended job documentation Casing details Size. Cement inside the casing is drilled out after necessary WORLD OIL 1977 71 . landing practices. lance) 5. the most im~. Inflow evaluation by determination of flow rates and con. Verification of remedial . etc. etc. type and composition. And secondary recovery efforts will be much more difficult to monitor and control. if any. special handling. production logging. provides one technique for assuring a positive barrier to vertical fluid movement in the casing-wellbore annulus. depth measurements 9. The completion consists of locating one or more inflatable external casing packers (ECPs) opposite zones to be perforated. Following conventional cementing operations. ten t vs. and manufactured by Lynes. stage collars. hole pressure reorders 6.195 CBL interpretation is not sinJple and straightforward as is often assumed.).. effect on the CBL. Comparison of 1 and/or 2 with fluid rate and content expected based on open hole logging data 4. vertical isolation does not exist and remedial squeeze cementing should be considered. depth measurements with downhole flowmeters 7. encourages casing centralization. reconditioning and recompletion will be less productive and more costly. developed by Completion Technology Co. Primary cementing has been called "The Critical Period" of drilling and completion operations. grade. The CBL can be an important aid in estimating cement bond quality. pressuring the casing will have little.

Once set. This new support mechanism provides the means to establish stabilized arch sand controla method that could increase productivity at minimum cost. Increased borehole wall support can be a significant advantage where wells are completed in weak fonnations or where the reservoir is geopressured.). etc. of new whipstock anchor offered by Baker Fig. The Pack/Perf system contacts the formation with a pressurized rubber seal. 86-New through-tubing inflatable bridge plug can be run through 3V2-inch tubing. are frequently used to ensure that each perforation receives treating fluids. DIA. Fig. backed by non-contaminated cement. after improper conventional cementing. It can be run. ball sealers. has recently introduced a new tool that can supplement. The tool can be used to bottom a cement plug or. Inc. However. In unconsolidated sands. Casing will be centered in the borehole at the ECP and a unifonn cement sheath thickness will exist. Permanent packer is set first in oriented position (if desired) then whipstock anchor is run on the pilot mill and stabbed into the packer. Tool holds 700-psi differential pressure (photo courtesy Lynes. Such formations are particularly subject to failure if mechanical Through-tubing bridge plug. Fig. such fluids may move vertically in the annulus even though they entered individual perforations. WORLD OIL 1977 72 . that positively blocks vertical fluid movement in the annulus. lateral support can be a factor preventing initial sand movement that leads to sand control problems. 85. hydraulic frac fluid. TUBING DRILlPIPE ELEMENTS __ DEFLATED INFLATED STARTING MILL WITH PilOT CASING . Mud channels or pockets left from conventional cementing can be "drained" when the well is perforated and produced. 86. support is not provided. System provides positive seat without danger of disturbing tool when bit is pulled back through casing window.SMALL. Additional set-down weight then shears mill free to begin sidetrack operation. Lynes Inc. This can remove lateral support and cause failure of the formation rock. Isolation packing. TOOL aD 2 "/16" WHIPSTOCK PERMANENT PACKER MODIFIED TO RECEIVE AND lATCH WHIPSTOCK Fig. The need for remedial squeeze cementing for zone isolation should be eliminated. chemical diverters. on a macaroni string or coiled tubing.205 wac time. and cement filled ECPs are perforated to establish exclusive communication to zones of interest. up to 7 5/8 inches. chemical sand consolidation fluid and other treatments will enter the fonnations for which they are intended. on macaroni string or coiled tubing. Acid. through 3~-inch tubing and be expanded with fluid and set inside casing. The pennanent through-tubing inflatable bridge plug device has a 2 11/16-inch aD. simplify or even eliminate certain cement plug back operations in casing (or possibly open hole) below an existing tubing string.204. and set in casing as large as 7o/s-inch. 87-Schematic Packers. the plug is capable of withstanding up to 700 psi differential pressure.

August 1'968. The system is an alternative to a cement plug placed for sidetracking operations. 119 Folmar. . 1963. T. LITERATURE CITED 178 Teplitz.H..E. Winn." SPE 5717..... 87. I. Anderson." ]PT. and Walker. and Hasselbrock. '96Fertl.E. et ai. and Hutchins. T. "A Qualitative Cementbond Evaluation Method." Petroleum Technology. P." SPE 798.. "Methods of Detecting Top of Cement Behind Casing.. 19. R. '83Young. January 1963. Jr.W.P. T." API 1946 Drillin~ & Production Practices. 1955.The Production Combination Tool-A New System for Production Monitoring.. "What's New in Well Completion. Anderson. 20'Witterholt. 1973. "Use of the Micro-Seismogram and Acoustic Cement Bond Log to Evaluate Cementing 'Techniques.Walker. it eliminates the potential problem of whipstock movement when the bit is pulled up through the window. and Anderson. "Temperature Anomalies in Wells Due to Cementing of Casing.S. Kading.S. J. April 1962. And. "Method for Determining Minimum Waiting-on-Cement Time.F.W.. "The Structure and Interpretation of Noise from Flow Behind Cemented Casing. 1959... April 1966. 188 Winn. Eng. C. The packer also functions as a permanent bridge plug to isolate the casing below the window.. and Hutchins. less rig time and lower total cost will be realized for sidetrack operations with this new innovation." SPE 2957. January 1974. if directional orientation is required. "Testi!'$ of Primary Cement Jobs.G.P. "A Preliminary Study of Factors Influencing Cement Bond Logs." ]PT. the packer and anchor assembly positively anchors the whipstock in place. R. It can be run on electric line or pipe. "A Full-Wave Display of Acoustic Signal in Cased Holes.J. "Two-Rate Flow Test.M. ." ]PT. . April 1:176." ]PT. Bower.. A... '00Meunier D. L.." SPE 632. '1964.." SPE 4022. 1964. etc. et ai.. End of series WORLD OIL 1977 73 ." API Trans..Techniques-How They compare and Some Variables Affecting Interpretation. 18. "Cement Bond Logging . "Comparing Cement Bonds After Ten-Plus Years." API Drilling & Production Practices.H. J.. "Some Effects of Frequency Upon the Character of Acoustic Logs...W. P.O." API-Oil Well Cementing Practices in the U.E. to shut-off bottom water from a perforated interval.. "Acoustic Wave Propogation in Bonded and Unbonded Oil Well t.L. 1973.H. R. November 19611.H. Walker..by itself. will have to be run on pipe. 18. "Case Histories of Bond Logging. T. '1975. Pilkington.O. H.. Rumble." ]PT. ChaRter 111'... such movement can cause re-entry difficulties." ]PT.B. Developed by Baker Packers.. R. C. J. June 26.." Pet. 1972. "Temperature Surveys: The Art of Interpretation. Tixier. Horace W. 'Research Predicts Improved Cement Bond Evaluations with Acoustic Logs." O&G].. W. 1959 (Chapter 12).A.... and Bonnet. J.L. February 1965. October 1962. W. "Temperature Surveys. P.L..H." ]PT. '86Walker...M. V. Whipstock anchor.. Fig.. "A Look at Cement Bond Logs..S. Wilson. "An Investigation of Oil Wen Cementing. '00 Pilkington.J..B... a Division of Baker International Corp.." API-Drilling and Production Practices 11969.." ]PT...: The Art of Interpretation.Chaney..M.G. preventing both rotation and vertical movement. J..Anderson..L. McKinley. Odeh..T. January 1946. M. L. "Field Observations on the Use of the Cement Bond LOR and Its Application to the Evaluation of Cementing Problems. Variable-Rate CaseApplication to Gas-Lift and Pumping Wells. T. Kading. . "Unconsolidated Sand Stabilization Through Wellbore Stress State Control. February 1968. . 181 Riddlo.." World Oil. "'" Snyder. P.. "Production Logging_The Key to Optimum Wen Performance. T. T. A. E. A new system is now offered for setting an oriented...S. and Walker. L. R. 1962.. 108 Wade. W. "Temperature Logging in Injection Wells. G.C. ." ]PT. G. '90Harcourt G. However. and Scott. 19.. the packer. March. 1970. Suman. May 1977. ". Robert E. Jones. '8' Farris. .J.. and Feaster. Tixier. W...O. and Scott. Carter..T. 1969. F. API-Oil Well Cementing Practices in the U.<asing. Zimmerman. M. 180 Flournoy. May 11963." SPE 4512." SPE 454." ]PT.. Bade. R. '8.F. whipstock on a permanent packer arrangement prior to cutting a window in casing for sidetracking operations. 188 Pardue.S. May 7.E. et ai.. J. R.E. G. . Generally. or non-oriented.R. "How Good is That Wen Completion?" O&G]. Unless prevented.Gretener... "Cement Bond Log-A Study of Cement and Casing Variables. Anderson..

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