SEMINAR TOPIC

PRESENTED BY: RAJAN KUMAR 8th SEM(ENTC-A) REGD.
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OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION WHAT IS VOIP? HISTORY PSTN Vs. VOIP MODES OF OPERATION OF VOIP BASIC PRINCIPLES OF VOIP HOW VOIP WORKS?
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ADVANTAGES

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INTRODUCTION
Ø The traditional method used for transmitting voice is PSTN. Ø Now more and more communication is done in digital format and transported via data networks such as internet. Ø As data traffic is much faster than telephone traffic, so we prefer to send voice over data networks.
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WHAT IS VOIP?
ØVoice Over Internet protocol (VoIP) is a protocol used for the transmission of voice and fax phone calls through the Internet or other packet-switched networks. ØIt is also called IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband, broadband telephony.
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HISTORY OF VOIP
• The commercial Voipsoftware was introduced in 1995 by Vocaltec.

ØDesigned for home PC ØUses H.323 Protocol

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PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK
• POTS (Analog Telephony) It stands for Plain Old Telephone Service. ØDedicated link between partners ØReserved bandwidth • ISDN (Digital Telephony) It stands for Integrated Services Digital
Network.
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ØOn each link a channel is

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Analog Telephony

Digital Telephony

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PSTN vs. INTERNET
PSTN

INTERNET

• Voice networks use • circuit switching. • Dedicated path • between calling and Called party. • Bandwidth is reserved • in advance. • Cost is based on • distance and time.

Data network use packet switching. No dedicated path between sender and receiver. It acquires and releases bandwidth, as it is needed. Cost is not dependent on time and distance.
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CIRCUIT SWITCHING

PACKET SWITCHING

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vPC to PC vPC to Phone vPhone to Phone
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MODES OF OPERATION

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VOIP: BASIC TECHNIQUES qAudio Codecs qData Transport (RTP, RTCP) qAddressing qSignaling (SIP, H.323)
 

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AUDIO CODECS:
vHere analog signal is converted into digital data.
Three popular audio codecs :G.711 G.723.1 G.729

vImplemented using voice coders: Since voice contains lot of data, it is compressed by Vocoders without compromising the reliability and quality of voice signal.
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• Translation of analog signal to digital signal

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DATA TRANSPORT (RTP, RTCP)

RTP
• It stands for Realtime Transport Protocol. • Application layer protocol for transmitting real time data (audio, video, ...) • Includes payload type identification, sequence numbering, time stamping,
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RTCP • It stands for Realtime Transport Control Protocol. • Main functions:
–support for multi-point communication –Periodic transmission of control packets to all participants in the session.
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ADDRESSING • Here phone no. is converted to an IP address. • Simple format addresing:
<user | phone number>@<domain | hostname | IP address>

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SIGNALING
• Signaling in VOIP is needed for : ØLocating partners. ØAgreeing on port numbers for RTP / RTCP sessions. Øagreeing on coding / decoding procedures. • Types of Signaling Protocols:
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H.323 SIP

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H.323
• Recommendation published by ITU in 1996.
• It is designed to act above transport layer and is mainly used for transmission of voice, data and video conferencing over packet networks.
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• SIP stands for Session Initiation Protocol. • Developed by IETF since 1999. • It is an text-based application-layer control protocol for creating, modifying and terminating sessions with one or more participants. • Sessions include Internet
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SIP

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How VoIP Works?

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ADVANTAGES:
• • • • Cheaper call rates Simplification High efficiency Calling person need not necessary to receive call.

• Better Voice Quality Using Wideband Codecs • Adding new features and applications over time is easy. • Integration of voice, data, fax, video is possible.
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LIMITATIONS
qPacket Delay qPacket Loss (no guarantee of delivering packets) qJitter (variable delay)

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APPLICATONS
• Real time applications:
Telephony ( two-way) Ø Radio-TV Broadcast (one-way)
Ø

• Non-real time applications:
Ø

e_mail

OTHERS: • Integration of data,voice and fax • Video telephony • Enhanced teleconferencing • Used in Amateur Radio
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COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 1: VONAGE
• founded in January 2001 • about 130,000 customers

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2: AT&T AT&T is rapidly evolving

from a company that handles mostly longdistance voice calls to a company that provides data and voice communications over any distance.

3: INODE 4:TELEKOM AUSTRIA

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CONCLUSION
● Like everything else, as the technology changes so at first only a few companies like Cisco and Lucent offered VoIP services, but the large telecommunications carriers – such as AT&T and Sprint -- are catching on . ● VoIP is predominately used for personal instead of enterprise-wide use. ●

The availability of high-quality audio using wideband codecs, video conferencing, and document sharing enables more effective and pleasant
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• • • • • • • • • •

ELECTRONICS FOR YOU(VOLUME-37) VoipFundamentals By Jonathan Davidson www.bestneo.com www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.howstuffworks.com www.cisco.com www.seminartopics.com www.quintum.com www.tech-faq.com
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THANK U…

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QUERIES?

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