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LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM
Hullform • Ship hull form refers to the shape of the hull, especially that part of the hull that is under water in normal operating conditions. • Many of the calculations that a naval architect must make in order to design a ship are influenced by hull form • A great variety 'of hull forms have been successfully adapted to ships, reason that their forms are so different from one another is because the requirements of their separate missions especially as regards their required speeds and capacities, dictate that they should be different for each to operate efficiently.
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Hull Form: Ship's Lines • The graphical display of the hull form of a ship is called a lines drawing, or the lines. • A small scale sample of a lines drawing is shown in Figure 1-2. • The three views in a lines drawing have the same relationship to one another as the front, side, and top views in a typical orthographic engineering drawing, but their names are special to ship's lines.
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the lines drawing to show the hull only up to the deck or decks to which the ship's side shell plating extends. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 4 .• Since its purpose is only to define hull form. Deckhouses/superstructure are not included.
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Only half of each station is drawn. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 6 . since the other half is symmetrical. and those from amidships to aft are drawn on the left side. and they are all superimposed in the half-breadth plan.• The view showing stations in true shape is called the body plan. • By convention. • Waterlines are also drawn on one side of the centerline only. stations from the bow to the midship section are drawn to the right of centerline.
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• The other side of centerline in the half breadth plan is often reserved for drawing the true shapes of intersections produced by diagonal planes. which are auxiliary planes. The lines that are drawn are shown the waterplanes and buttock planes. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 8 .
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• On the third view of the lines drawing.” and one of the buttock curves. • The outline of the ship's centerline profile (as seen from the side). EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 10 . The centerline plane is the “zero foot buttock plane. the true shapes of the buttocks are drawn. showing bow and stern profile shapes. called the profile plan or the sheer plan.
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• The two symmetrical halves of the hull. a vertical plane running longitudinally from bow to stern. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 12 .Views and Reference Planes • As shown in Figure 2-2. which is the reference plane from which vertical measurements. are separated by the centerline plane. starboard and port. are made to any point on the hull. or heights above baseline. a ship hull is imagined to be resting on a horizontal plane called the baseline plane.
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which is at the midpoint between the perpendiculars. is vertical and tranverse. Define the location of the midship section.• Transverse or athwartships dimensions called halfbreadths are measured from the centerline plane to the hull. • The third reference plane. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 14 . refers to the location of the mid-ship section plane. thus it is orthogonal to both centerline and baseline planes. the midship section plane. • Amidships.
increasing aft (the convention in the United States and Great Britain). shown usually at either ten or twenty equal intervals along the ship's length are called station planes and the true shapes of their intersections with the hull are referred to as stations. • Stations are identified by numbers.• Horizontal planes parallel to the baseline plane and at intervals of a few feet or meters above it are called waterplanes. • Planes parallel to the mid-ship section plane. starting with zero at the bow. and their intersections with the hull as shown in the lines drawing are waterlines. increasing forward (the convention in Europe and Asia). or with zero at the stern. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 15 .
• The set of planes parallel to the centerline plane. which intersect the hull in curves called buttocks. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 16 . are the buttock planes. at intervals defined by their distances off centerline.
Molded Form. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 17 . workers called loftsmen made wooden full scale templates or molds to confirm to a full scale lines craving laid out on the floor. Each mold defined the shape of a particular part of the hull structure. The term derives from the fact that before computer-controlled plate cutting and frame bending machines were developed. Dimensions • The shapes shown in a lines plan is called the molded form of the vessel.
a vertical line called the forward perpendicular (FP) is drawn. Early in the design process the waterline at which the designer has estimated the ship will float when fully loaded is determined. • At the point of intersection of the DWL and the forward extremity of the ship (called the stem).• The principal dimensions of a ship are those important dimensions that define its basic size. • That waterline is called the design waterline (DWL) or the load waterline. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 18 .
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Common choices for the AP are the centerline of the rudder stock. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 20 . It is intended to be representative of the after end of the ship's immersed body. the after extremity of the design waterline. • An after perpendicular (AP) is also defined for each ship. but its location is not specified by a unique definition for all vessels. This definition of the location of the FP is universally applied to all ships.• The forward perpendicular thus defines the forward end of the immersed portion of the ship's hull.
or length overall (LOA) is important. the extreme length of the ship. • In certain hydrodynamic analyses. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 21 . a principal dimension that is used to determine the ship's coefficients of form and for structural calculations.• The length measured from the FP to the AP is designated the length between perpendiculars (LBP) . • For navigational and docking purposes. such as ship resistance calculations. the most characteristic length is the length on waterline (LWL).
but in a list of principal dimensions. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 22 . its lowest point at or somewhat aft of amidships. or athwartships.• A deck line is usually curved longitudinally. the molded beam refers to the molded measurement at the ship's widest point. • The transverse. the stern. dimension of a ship is called the beam (B) or breadth. Since ships are not box-shaped. This curvature is known as sheer. and again rising toward. the beam varies with position along the ship's length. reaching its highest point at the bow.
• In the half cross section shown in Figure (b), assumed to be at amidships, the molded depth (D), or depth at side, is shown. • It is the vertical distance at amidships from baseline (upper surface of the keel plate) to the top of the main deck beams at the side of the ship.
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• The deck may also have transverse curvature, called camber or round of beam or round down, as shown in the figure, such that it arches upward from the deck at side to the centerline. • The ship's bottom is not flat, but slopes upward toward the sides, the bottom is said to have deadrise, or rise of bottom, or rise of floor. • A flat plate keel, running along centerline, normally has no deadrise, and the half-width of such a keel is called the half-siding.
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• Two of the dimensions shown in Figure. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 26 . measured to the molded baseline. The design draft shown on a lines plan to the design waterline is a molded draft. namely the draft and the freeboard. • Draft (T) is the vertical measurement from the waterline at any point on the hull to the bottom of the ship. are characteristics that depends on ship loading as well as ship geometry.
every ship is assigned a minimum acceptable freeboard at amidships. Since freeboard is an important measure of the safety of a ship.• Freeboard is the vertical distance from the waterline to the deck at side. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 27 . or the difference between the depth at side and the draft at any point along the ship.
shown in the same figure. curve inward from their maximum breadth to the point at which they join the deck. • The opposite kind of curvature. measured by the horizontal distance from maximum breadth to breadth at deck. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 28 . This characteristic is known as tumblehome.• As illustrated in of Figure (c). Sections with flare are common at the bow of most ships. the sides of some ship sections. is called flare. outward as the deck is approached.
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Height above the baseline plane.Table of Offsets • In either case. The numerical equivalent of a lines plan is a table of offsets.Longitudinal distance front the FP. and AP .Half breadth. • To define the three-dimensional ship form numerically. three coordinates of selected points on the molded hull must be specified: . EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 30 . from the centerline plane. . the ship form information documented in the lines plan must be expressed numerically and at full ship scale.
• A typical table of offsets at stations is shown in Figure 2-4. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 31 .
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EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 33 .Fundamental Hull Form Characteristics • All of the hydrostatic properties to be calculated are derived from the following fundamental characteristics of the immersed hull form at each given even keel waterline.
). Units: feet2 or meter2 • A =∑δAi = ∑ yi δx EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 34 . The waterplane area is required to determine the change in mean draft when small weights are loaded or discharged.Properties of the Waterplane • Four properties of each waterplane are required: • 1. Area of the waterplane (AW.
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Its longitudinal position with respect to the midship section (or the FP or AP if preferred as reference planes) must be calculated. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 36 . also called the center of area or center of gravity of the waterplane. or shifting weights aboard ship. The CF is the centroid of the waterplane. It is required for the calculation of changes in draft at bow and stern as a result of loading.)Units of LCF: feet or meters from reference plane.• 2. Center of flotation (CF). The CF is located on centerline because of the symmetry of the waterplane. discharging. The distance so determined is called the longitudinal center of flotation (LCF).
It is the second moment of the waterplane about its centerline. This property of the waterplane is its second moment of area about a transverse axis passing through the center of flotation. It is required in the calculation initial transverse stability. Longitudinal moment of inertia (IL). Units: feet4 or meters4.• 3. • 4. Units: feet4 or meters4 EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 37 .Transverse moment of inertia (IT). It is required for the longitudinal stability and trim (difference between forward and aft drafts).
The molded volume is calculated directly from the offsets of the molded form. Fundamental property of hull form because the weight and mass of the ship are equal respectively to the weight and mass of the water displaced. etc. Volume of displacement (V).. Volumes of the shell and appendages like bilge. keel. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 38 . rudder. are then added to determine the total displacement at each draft.Properties of the Immersed Volume of the Hull • Three quantities ass with the immersed volume must be determined: • 1. Units of V: feet3 or meters3. This is the immersed volume itself the volume of displacement because it is a measure of the volume of fluid displaced by the floating ship.
KB is the height of the center of buoyancy above the baseline or keel. This is the distance of B from a specified transverse reference plane. usually the midship section. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 39 . Longitudinal center of buoyancy (LCB). Vertical center of buoyancy (KB). Units: feet or meters.• 2. • 3. so long as the reference axis is clearly stated. Units: feet or meters. Or LCB may be measured from FP or AP.
powering and seagoing performance at early point in the design of a new ship. • The most commonly used coefficients of form are defined below: EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 40 .Coefficient of form • The coefficients of form are also useful tools for making first estimates of a ship’s resistance.
The coefficients most commonly used by naval architects are as follows. CB = ▼/LBT The block coefficients of typical ships may vary from as low as 0. Block coefficient ( CB) The ratio of the volume of displacement to the volume of rectangular block having a length. beam and draft equal to that maximum section area.45 for a high speed combatant ship like a destroyer or fast frigate to as full as 0.85 or more for a very large crude oil tanker. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 41 .
• Block coefficient (CB) • Prismatic coefficient EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 42 .
fineended ship to 0.Prismatic coefficient ( CP) It is defined as the ratio of the volume of displacement ▼ to the volume of a prism whose cross section is shaped like the immersed midship section. and whose length is the length of the ship.85 for a large bulk carrier or tanker.57 for a high-speed. Typical values range from about 0. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 43 . CP = ▼/ L AM The coefficient that describes the fineness of the ends (bow and stern) of a hull without being influenced by its midship fineness .
the section departing from a rectangle only by virtue of rounded bilges.995. so their mid-ship section coefficients areLTmore like 0. which is the ratio of the immersed midship section area to the area of its circumscribing rectangle CM = AM BT Very fine hulls typical of destroyers might have a CM of 0. EME 4343 KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 44 .Midship section coefficient (CM) The fullness of the midship portion of a hull is described by the midship section coefficient (Cm). but most large merchant ships have vertical flat sides and a flat bottom at amidships.75 or less.95 to 0.
Midship section coefficient (CM) Waterplane coefficient (CWP) EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 45 .
CWP = AW / LWL B Typical values of Cw at the design waterline vary from 0. The ratio of the waterplane area at the designed or loaded waterline to the area of the circumscribing rectangle.67 to 0. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 46 .92.Water plane area coefficient (CWP) Waterplane fullness or fineness may be quantified by defining the waterplane coefficient (CW or Cwp).
L = Length on the designed waterline T = Draft to the designed waterline B = Beam amidships at the designed waterline ▼ = Volume of displacement at draft T AM = Area of the midship section at draft T AX = Area of maximum section to the designed waterline AW = Area of the waterplane at draft T Δ = Displacement tonnage at draft T EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 47 .Where.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 48 . Displacement of ship is a statement of its weight and tonnage is generally a measure of its volume or capacity.The Measure of Ship Size • The ship size is usually characterized by displacement or tonnage.
deadweight plus lightweight. • Lightweight – weight of hull and machinery and permanent fixtures (all fixed weights) • Displacement – the total weight. fuel. It is usually expressed in tons. It is equal to the weight of water displaced by ship (Archimedes Principle). crew and effects (all variable loads).General terms that are used to measure size of a ship: • Deadweight (dwt) – the weight of cargo. water stores. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 49 .
It is used as the basis for such things as docking. light and cargo dues. a measure of earning capacity. the superstructure and all enclosed spaces. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 50 . • Net register tonnage – essentially a function of the total volume of cargo spaces and the number of passengers.• Gross register tonnage (grt) – a measure of the total internal volume of the ship. It is used as the basis for such things as port and harbour. including the hull. pilotage and survey fees.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 51 . Therefore it is essential for those who involve in shipbuilding industry to understand the various types of ship drawing and know how to draw them. Ship is one of the engineering products that require a lot of drawings to represent its unique shape. As in old saying “ A single picture saved thousand words” has made drawing as one of the most important entity and plays important roles in engineering fields. idea and design. function. components.Ship Drawing Drawing is a communication language that uses graphics to present an object. construction process etc. structures.
EME 4343 Lines Plan Drawing General Arrangement Drawing (GA) Shell Expansion Drawing (Scantling Drawing) Detail / Production Drawing 3-D Product Drawing LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 52 . drawing that associates with ship buildings can be divided into following categories: a. b. c. d.Types of ship drawings In general. e.
Lines plan – The exterior form of ship’s hull is a curved surface defined by the lines plan drawing or simply “the lines”. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 53 . The lines consist of orthographic projections of the intersections of the hull form with three mutually perpendicular sets of planes. General Arrangement – Can be defined as the assignment of spaces for all the required functions and equipment. properly coordinated for location and access. drawn to a suitable scale.
Three locations of the structures are generally shown in the scantling drawing are midship. Detail / Production drawing – Production drawing shows the details of the system onboard. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 54 . the fabrication and assembly process of the system.Scantling drawing – Is meant for the construction of the structures and plating of ship during construction. The structure’s dimensions and the plate thickness is determined to withstand the load that is going to apply to vessel during operation. location of 25% from forward of perpendicular and location of 25% from aftward of perpendicular.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 55 .Types of Material Using On Ship Structure Steel in ships Steel is the most important shipbuilding material and includes alloys containing Ferum with a content carbon (Fe-C) up to 15 per cent in terms of weight. Depending on its particular use certain other substances are added to modify the physical. chemical and mechanical properties of the alloy.
the carbon content and the method of annealing affect the microstructure that in turn determines the strength and hardness of the metal.• In general. • Classifications societies such as the American Bureau of Shipping. specify a range of grades of acceptable structural steels with regulations pertaining to their applications onboard ship. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 56 .
• They also specify higher-strength steels because ship designers sometimes choose extra high strength steels for critical. highly stressed parts of the structure.• A single grade of steel cannot be used for all parts of the ship because certain parts of ship structures are more highly stressed than others. and because notch sensitivity is strongly dependent on steel thickness. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 57 . so long as the added expense can be justified by the weight savings.
000 and 71.• Ordinary-strength steels • Six grades of ordinary – strength hull structural steels are specified by the ABS.000 psi (400 to 490 MPa). of 24 percent elongation of a 2-inch tensile specimen. an ultimate tensile strength between 58. the requirements increasing in severity as the steel plate get thicker. • The various grade differ in their required level of notch toughness. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 58 .000 psi (235 MPa). All must have a yield strength of at least 34. and a minimum.
with three “thickness grades” in each strength category.000 psi (471 to 618 MPa). Ultimate strength range from 68.000 psi (353 MPa). The yield strength requirements are 45. respectively.• Higher-strength steel • Two strength levels of higher-strength steels are specified. and the minimum elongation is 22 percent. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 59 .000 to 90.000 psi (314MPa) and 51. These steels are used when the premium cost of 25 to 50 percent over ordinarystrength steel and more difficult fabrications procedures can be justified.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 60 . • For service in liquid cargo tanks that may be used to carry a wide variety of liquids. Alternatively. For low service temperatures like those found in refrigerated ships and liquefied gas carriers.• Special steel • Other steel with special properties are sometimes needed for special applications in ship structures. special corrosionresistant steel may be used. ordinary steel clad with corrosion resistant materials is also available. low temperatures steels have been developed that have satisfactory notch toughness to service temperatures as low as -67°F (-55°C).
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 61 . especially ores carried in bulk.• Abrasion-resistant steels that resists wear caused by abrasive materials dropped into holds. are sometimes used in ore carrier holds.
• In the standard tensile test.Mechanical Properties of Steel • The properties of ship steels that relate to its strength are called its mechanical properties. but the more common procedure is to plot stress (σ = P/A) against strain (ε = δ/L). A plot may be made of load against deformation. a test specimen is subjected to pure tensile loading increasing from zero to the load required to break the specimen. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 62 . Many of the mechanical properties of interests to ship structural designers are determined from a standard test known as the tensile test of the steel.
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the proportional limit. This proportionality. the curve shown in the figure is for typical mild steel or ordinary-strength hull structural steel.• As shown in Figure 7-6. pertain up to point PL on the diagram. that is. the most common steel used in hull construction. • It can be seen from the figure that. known as Hooke’s Law. initially. the relationship between stress and strain in a straight line. stress is directly proportional to strain. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 64 .
and it is a most desirable quality of a structural material because a structure or machine part designed so that the elastic limit is never exceeded will never deform permanently. a point (EL in the figure) called the elastic limit is reached. • When loaded to any point below the elastic limit. steel has a very remarkable property―the deformation or strain caused by the stress is completely recoverable when the load (or stress) is removed. This property is known as elasticity. and the piece of material return to its original dimension. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 65 .• At about the same stress as the proportional limit. or slightly above it.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 66 . a mild steel specimen begins to experience a rapid increase in strain without any increase in stress. • Deformation beyond the elastic limit is called plastic deformation. and the material is said to take a permanent set. This phenomenon is called yield.• At a stress slightly higher than the elastic limit. Deformations or strains associated with yielding are not recoverable. marked YP on the figure. and the stress at which it occurs is the yield stress or yield point.
The ultimate stress of a material is a measure of its strength. marked R. the steel the steel will continue to deform plastically while the stress increases to its maximum value.• Upon further loading. • Reduction in stress that takes place after the ultimate stress is reached. marked U on the diagram. up to the point of rupture. called the ultimate stress. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 67 .
hydrofoil craft. its high strength-to-weights ratio makes it attractive for some special shop structural applications. and surface effect craft. especially highspeed craft such as planning boats. • Aluminum alloys are used as the principal hull material in a variety small vessels.Aluminum in Ship Structures • Aluminum has not been used for the entire hull structure of large ships. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 68 .
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 69 . The most prevalent use of aluminum in large ships has been in the superstructures. so long as care is taken in fabrication of aluminum structures to prevent them from being in direct contact with dissimilar metals by the use of gaskets of special coatings. where the weight reduction results in improved stability.• Aluminum is also very corrosion resistant.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 70 . and the ability to be fabricated into a virtually endless variety of types of laminates and shapes of hull. low maintenance cost.Composites • Composite laminates such as glass-reinforced plastics have become common place as a hull structural material for a great variety of small craft such as recreational sailing and power yacht. • These materials have the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio.
and the fact that they are combustible.• Their disadvantages. however. a very modulus of elasticity (in the order of only 10 percent of that of steel). EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 71 . so that they cannot meet the fire-resistance regulations applicable to ships. so that they deflect a great deal under load. mitigate against their use as a hull material for large ships: the high initial cost of the material compared to steel.
Ship Design Concept EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 72 .
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