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LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM
Hullform • Ship hull form refers to the shape of the hull, especially that part of the hull that is under water in normal operating conditions. • Many of the calculations that a naval architect must make in order to design a ship are influenced by hull form • A great variety 'of hull forms have been successfully adapted to ships, reason that their forms are so different from one another is because the requirements of their separate missions especially as regards their required speeds and capacities, dictate that they should be different for each to operate efficiently.
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Hull Form: Ship's Lines • The graphical display of the hull form of a ship is called a lines drawing, or the lines. • A small scale sample of a lines drawing is shown in Figure 1-2. • The three views in a lines drawing have the same relationship to one another as the front, side, and top views in a typical orthographic engineering drawing, but their names are special to ship's lines.
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the lines drawing to show the hull only up to the deck or decks to which the ship's side shell plating extends.• Since its purpose is only to define hull form. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 4 . Deckhouses/superstructure are not included.
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• By convention. Only half of each station is drawn. since the other half is symmetrical. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 6 . • Waterlines are also drawn on one side of the centerline only. stations from the bow to the midship section are drawn to the right of centerline.• The view showing stations in true shape is called the body plan. and those from amidships to aft are drawn on the left side. and they are all superimposed in the half-breadth plan.
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EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 8 . The lines that are drawn are shown the waterplanes and buttock planes.• The other side of centerline in the half breadth plan is often reserved for drawing the true shapes of intersections produced by diagonal planes. which are auxiliary planes.
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showing bow and stern profile shapes.• On the third view of the lines drawing. the true shapes of the buttocks are drawn. • The outline of the ship's centerline profile (as seen from the side). called the profile plan or the sheer plan. The centerline plane is the “zero foot buttock plane.” and one of the buttock curves. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 10 .
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• The two symmetrical halves of the hull. or heights above baseline.Views and Reference Planes • As shown in Figure 2-2. starboard and port. a ship hull is imagined to be resting on a horizontal plane called the baseline plane. a vertical plane running longitudinally from bow to stern. are separated by the centerline plane. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 12 . which is the reference plane from which vertical measurements. are made to any point on the hull.
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Define the location of the midship section. which is at the midpoint between the perpendiculars.• Transverse or athwartships dimensions called halfbreadths are measured from the centerline plane to the hull. is vertical and tranverse. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 14 . refers to the location of the mid-ship section plane. • The third reference plane. • Amidships. the midship section plane. thus it is orthogonal to both centerline and baseline planes.
• Horizontal planes parallel to the baseline plane and at intervals of a few feet or meters above it are called waterplanes. shown usually at either ten or twenty equal intervals along the ship's length are called station planes and the true shapes of their intersections with the hull are referred to as stations. increasing forward (the convention in Europe and Asia). • Stations are identified by numbers. starting with zero at the bow. increasing aft (the convention in the United States and Great Britain). • Planes parallel to the mid-ship section plane. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 15 . and their intersections with the hull as shown in the lines drawing are waterlines. or with zero at the stern.
are the buttock planes. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 16 . at intervals defined by their distances off centerline. which intersect the hull in curves called buttocks.• The set of planes parallel to the centerline plane.
workers called loftsmen made wooden full scale templates or molds to confirm to a full scale lines craving laid out on the floor.Molded Form. Each mold defined the shape of a particular part of the hull structure. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 17 . Dimensions • The shapes shown in a lines plan is called the molded form of the vessel. The term derives from the fact that before computer-controlled plate cutting and frame bending machines were developed.
• At the point of intersection of the DWL and the forward extremity of the ship (called the stem). Early in the design process the waterline at which the designer has estimated the ship will float when fully loaded is determined. a vertical line called the forward perpendicular (FP) is drawn. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 18 . • That waterline is called the design waterline (DWL) or the load waterline.• The principal dimensions of a ship are those important dimensions that define its basic size.
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EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 20 . • An after perpendicular (AP) is also defined for each ship. Common choices for the AP are the centerline of the rudder stock. This definition of the location of the FP is universally applied to all ships.• The forward perpendicular thus defines the forward end of the immersed portion of the ship's hull. the after extremity of the design waterline. It is intended to be representative of the after end of the ship's immersed body. but its location is not specified by a unique definition for all vessels.
• For navigational and docking purposes. such as ship resistance calculations. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 21 . • In certain hydrodynamic analyses. the extreme length of the ship. or length overall (LOA) is important. the most characteristic length is the length on waterline (LWL).• The length measured from the FP to the AP is designated the length between perpendiculars (LBP) . a principal dimension that is used to determine the ship's coefficients of form and for structural calculations.
the molded beam refers to the molded measurement at the ship's widest point. reaching its highest point at the bow. the stern. but in a list of principal dimensions. and again rising toward. This curvature is known as sheer. dimension of a ship is called the beam (B) or breadth. its lowest point at or somewhat aft of amidships. or athwartships. the beam varies with position along the ship's length.• A deck line is usually curved longitudinally. • The transverse. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 22 . Since ships are not box-shaped.
• In the half cross section shown in Figure (b), assumed to be at amidships, the molded depth (D), or depth at side, is shown. • It is the vertical distance at amidships from baseline (upper surface of the keel plate) to the top of the main deck beams at the side of the ship.
LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM
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• The deck may also have transverse curvature, called camber or round of beam or round down, as shown in the figure, such that it arches upward from the deck at side to the centerline. • The ship's bottom is not flat, but slopes upward toward the sides, the bottom is said to have deadrise, or rise of bottom, or rise of floor. • A flat plate keel, running along centerline, normally has no deadrise, and the half-width of such a keel is called the half-siding.
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measured to the molded baseline. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 26 . The design draft shown on a lines plan to the design waterline is a molded draft. are characteristics that depends on ship loading as well as ship geometry. • Draft (T) is the vertical measurement from the waterline at any point on the hull to the bottom of the ship. namely the draft and the freeboard.• Two of the dimensions shown in Figure.
• Freeboard is the vertical distance from the waterline to the deck at side. Since freeboard is an important measure of the safety of a ship. every ship is assigned a minimum acceptable freeboard at amidships. or the difference between the depth at side and the draft at any point along the ship. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 27 .
curve inward from their maximum breadth to the point at which they join the deck. Sections with flare are common at the bow of most ships. measured by the horizontal distance from maximum breadth to breadth at deck. outward as the deck is approached. shown in the same figure. the sides of some ship sections. is called flare. • The opposite kind of curvature.• As illustrated in of Figure (c). EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 28 . This characteristic is known as tumblehome.
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the ship form information documented in the lines plan must be expressed numerically and at full ship scale. . three coordinates of selected points on the molded hull must be specified: .Table of Offsets • In either case.Longitudinal distance front the FP.Height above the baseline plane. and AP .Half breadth. • To define the three-dimensional ship form numerically. from the centerline plane. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 30 . The numerical equivalent of a lines plan is a table of offsets.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 31 .• A typical table of offsets at stations is shown in Figure 2-4.
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Fundamental Hull Form Characteristics • All of the hydrostatic properties to be calculated are derived from the following fundamental characteristics of the immersed hull form at each given even keel waterline. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 33 .
Properties of the Waterplane • Four properties of each waterplane are required: • 1. The waterplane area is required to determine the change in mean draft when small weights are loaded or discharged. Area of the waterplane (AW. Units: feet2 or meter2 • A =∑δAi = ∑ yi δx EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 34 .).
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The CF is the centroid of the waterplane. discharging. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 36 .)Units of LCF: feet or meters from reference plane. The distance so determined is called the longitudinal center of flotation (LCF). Center of flotation (CF). also called the center of area or center of gravity of the waterplane.• 2. It is required for the calculation of changes in draft at bow and stern as a result of loading. The CF is located on centerline because of the symmetry of the waterplane. Its longitudinal position with respect to the midship section (or the FP or AP if preferred as reference planes) must be calculated. or shifting weights aboard ship.
Longitudinal moment of inertia (IL). Units: feet4 or meters4 EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 37 . It is required in the calculation initial transverse stability. It is the second moment of the waterplane about its centerline. • 4. This property of the waterplane is its second moment of area about a transverse axis passing through the center of flotation. Units: feet4 or meters4.• 3.Transverse moment of inertia (IT). It is required for the longitudinal stability and trim (difference between forward and aft drafts).
rudder. keel.. are then added to determine the total displacement at each draft. Volume of displacement (V). This is the immersed volume itself the volume of displacement because it is a measure of the volume of fluid displaced by the floating ship. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 38 . etc. The molded volume is calculated directly from the offsets of the molded form. Volumes of the shell and appendages like bilge.Properties of the Immersed Volume of the Hull • Three quantities ass with the immersed volume must be determined: • 1. Units of V: feet3 or meters3. Fundamental property of hull form because the weight and mass of the ship are equal respectively to the weight and mass of the water displaced.
so long as the reference axis is clearly stated. This is the distance of B from a specified transverse reference plane. Longitudinal center of buoyancy (LCB). Units: feet or meters. Units: feet or meters. • 3.• 2. KB is the height of the center of buoyancy above the baseline or keel. Vertical center of buoyancy (KB). Or LCB may be measured from FP or AP. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 39 . usually the midship section.
• The most commonly used coefficients of form are defined below: EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 40 . powering and seagoing performance at early point in the design of a new ship.Coefficient of form • The coefficients of form are also useful tools for making first estimates of a ship’s resistance.
CB = ▼/LBT The block coefficients of typical ships may vary from as low as 0.The coefficients most commonly used by naval architects are as follows. Block coefficient ( CB) The ratio of the volume of displacement to the volume of rectangular block having a length.45 for a high speed combatant ship like a destroyer or fast frigate to as full as 0. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 41 .85 or more for a very large crude oil tanker. beam and draft equal to that maximum section area.
• Block coefficient (CB) • Prismatic coefficient EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 42 .
Prismatic coefficient ( CP) It is defined as the ratio of the volume of displacement ▼ to the volume of a prism whose cross section is shaped like the immersed midship section. and whose length is the length of the ship. Typical values range from about 0. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 43 .85 for a large bulk carrier or tanker. fineended ship to 0.57 for a high-speed. CP = ▼/ L AM The coefficient that describes the fineness of the ends (bow and stern) of a hull without being influenced by its midship fineness .
so their mid-ship section coefficients areLTmore like 0.995. the section departing from a rectangle only by virtue of rounded bilges.Midship section coefficient (CM) The fullness of the midship portion of a hull is described by the midship section coefficient (Cm).95 to 0. EME 4343 KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 44 . but most large merchant ships have vertical flat sides and a flat bottom at amidships. which is the ratio of the immersed midship section area to the area of its circumscribing rectangle CM = AM BT Very fine hulls typical of destroyers might have a CM of 0.75 or less.
Midship section coefficient (CM) Waterplane coefficient (CWP) EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 45 .
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 46 .67 to 0. The ratio of the waterplane area at the designed or loaded waterline to the area of the circumscribing rectangle.Water plane area coefficient (CWP) Waterplane fullness or fineness may be quantified by defining the waterplane coefficient (CW or Cwp). CWP = AW / LWL B Typical values of Cw at the design waterline vary from 0.92.
Where. L = Length on the designed waterline T = Draft to the designed waterline B = Beam amidships at the designed waterline ▼ = Volume of displacement at draft T AM = Area of the midship section at draft T AX = Area of maximum section to the designed waterline AW = Area of the waterplane at draft T Δ = Displacement tonnage at draft T EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 47 .
Displacement of ship is a statement of its weight and tonnage is generally a measure of its volume or capacity. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 48 .The Measure of Ship Size • The ship size is usually characterized by displacement or tonnage.
• Lightweight – weight of hull and machinery and permanent fixtures (all fixed weights) • Displacement – the total weight.General terms that are used to measure size of a ship: • Deadweight (dwt) – the weight of cargo. water stores. deadweight plus lightweight. crew and effects (all variable loads). EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 49 . fuel. It is equal to the weight of water displaced by ship (Archimedes Principle). It is usually expressed in tons.
• Gross register tonnage (grt) – a measure of the total internal volume of the ship. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 50 . the superstructure and all enclosed spaces. It is used as the basis for such things as port and harbour. • Net register tonnage – essentially a function of the total volume of cargo spaces and the number of passengers. including the hull. light and cargo dues. a measure of earning capacity. pilotage and survey fees. It is used as the basis for such things as docking.
Ship Drawing Drawing is a communication language that uses graphics to present an object. construction process etc. Ship is one of the engineering products that require a lot of drawings to represent its unique shape. structures. components. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 51 . As in old saying “ A single picture saved thousand words” has made drawing as one of the most important entity and plays important roles in engineering fields. Therefore it is essential for those who involve in shipbuilding industry to understand the various types of ship drawing and know how to draw them. idea and design. function.
drawing that associates with ship buildings can be divided into following categories: a.Types of ship drawings In general. d. b. c. e. EME 4343 Lines Plan Drawing General Arrangement Drawing (GA) Shell Expansion Drawing (Scantling Drawing) Detail / Production Drawing 3-D Product Drawing LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 52 .
General Arrangement – Can be defined as the assignment of spaces for all the required functions and equipment. drawn to a suitable scale. The lines consist of orthographic projections of the intersections of the hull form with three mutually perpendicular sets of planes. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 53 . properly coordinated for location and access.Lines plan – The exterior form of ship’s hull is a curved surface defined by the lines plan drawing or simply “the lines”.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 54 . the fabrication and assembly process of the system. location of 25% from forward of perpendicular and location of 25% from aftward of perpendicular. Three locations of the structures are generally shown in the scantling drawing are midship. The structure’s dimensions and the plate thickness is determined to withstand the load that is going to apply to vessel during operation. Detail / Production drawing – Production drawing shows the details of the system onboard.Scantling drawing – Is meant for the construction of the structures and plating of ship during construction.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 55 . chemical and mechanical properties of the alloy. Depending on its particular use certain other substances are added to modify the physical.Types of Material Using On Ship Structure Steel in ships Steel is the most important shipbuilding material and includes alloys containing Ferum with a content carbon (Fe-C) up to 15 per cent in terms of weight.
specify a range of grades of acceptable structural steels with regulations pertaining to their applications onboard ship. • Classifications societies such as the American Bureau of Shipping.• In general. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 56 . the carbon content and the method of annealing affect the microstructure that in turn determines the strength and hardness of the metal.
• A single grade of steel cannot be used for all parts of the ship because certain parts of ship structures are more highly stressed than others. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 57 . highly stressed parts of the structure. so long as the added expense can be justified by the weight savings. • They also specify higher-strength steels because ship designers sometimes choose extra high strength steels for critical. and because notch sensitivity is strongly dependent on steel thickness.
of 24 percent elongation of a 2-inch tensile specimen.• Ordinary-strength steels • Six grades of ordinary – strength hull structural steels are specified by the ABS.000 psi (235 MPa). EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 58 . the requirements increasing in severity as the steel plate get thicker. • The various grade differ in their required level of notch toughness. and a minimum. All must have a yield strength of at least 34. an ultimate tensile strength between 58.000 and 71.000 psi (400 to 490 MPa).
000 psi (471 to 618 MPa).• Higher-strength steel • Two strength levels of higher-strength steels are specified. and the minimum elongation is 22 percent. respectively. with three “thickness grades” in each strength category.000 psi (314MPa) and 51.000 psi (353 MPa). Ultimate strength range from 68. The yield strength requirements are 45. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 59 . These steels are used when the premium cost of 25 to 50 percent over ordinarystrength steel and more difficult fabrications procedures can be justified.000 to 90.
• For service in liquid cargo tanks that may be used to carry a wide variety of liquids. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 60 . Alternatively. low temperatures steels have been developed that have satisfactory notch toughness to service temperatures as low as -67°F (-55°C).• Special steel • Other steel with special properties are sometimes needed for special applications in ship structures. For low service temperatures like those found in refrigerated ships and liquefied gas carriers. special corrosionresistant steel may be used. ordinary steel clad with corrosion resistant materials is also available.
especially ores carried in bulk.• Abrasion-resistant steels that resists wear caused by abrasive materials dropped into holds. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 61 . are sometimes used in ore carrier holds.
a test specimen is subjected to pure tensile loading increasing from zero to the load required to break the specimen.Mechanical Properties of Steel • The properties of ship steels that relate to its strength are called its mechanical properties. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 62 . A plot may be made of load against deformation. but the more common procedure is to plot stress (σ = P/A) against strain (ε = δ/L). Many of the mechanical properties of interests to ship structural designers are determined from a standard test known as the tensile test of the steel. • In the standard tensile test.
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• It can be seen from the figure that.• As shown in Figure 7-6. the relationship between stress and strain in a straight line. the most common steel used in hull construction. initially. the proportional limit. This proportionality. pertain up to point PL on the diagram. stress is directly proportional to strain. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 64 . the curve shown in the figure is for typical mild steel or ordinary-strength hull structural steel. known as Hooke’s Law. that is.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 65 . or slightly above it. steel has a very remarkable property―the deformation or strain caused by the stress is completely recoverable when the load (or stress) is removed. and the piece of material return to its original dimension.• At about the same stress as the proportional limit. and it is a most desirable quality of a structural material because a structure or machine part designed so that the elastic limit is never exceeded will never deform permanently. a point (EL in the figure) called the elastic limit is reached. • When loaded to any point below the elastic limit. This property is known as elasticity.
This phenomenon is called yield. and the stress at which it occurs is the yield stress or yield point. • Deformation beyond the elastic limit is called plastic deformation.• At a stress slightly higher than the elastic limit. a mild steel specimen begins to experience a rapid increase in strain without any increase in stress. marked YP on the figure. Deformations or strains associated with yielding are not recoverable. and the material is said to take a permanent set. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 66 .
the steel the steel will continue to deform plastically while the stress increases to its maximum value.• Upon further loading. • Reduction in stress that takes place after the ultimate stress is reached. marked U on the diagram. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 67 . marked R. up to the point of rupture. The ultimate stress of a material is a measure of its strength. called the ultimate stress.
• Aluminum alloys are used as the principal hull material in a variety small vessels. its high strength-to-weights ratio makes it attractive for some special shop structural applications.Aluminum in Ship Structures • Aluminum has not been used for the entire hull structure of large ships. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 68 . hydrofoil craft. especially highspeed craft such as planning boats. and surface effect craft.
so long as care is taken in fabrication of aluminum structures to prevent them from being in direct contact with dissimilar metals by the use of gaskets of special coatings.• Aluminum is also very corrosion resistant. The most prevalent use of aluminum in large ships has been in the superstructures. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 69 . where the weight reduction results in improved stability.
EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 70 . • These materials have the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio. and the ability to be fabricated into a virtually endless variety of types of laminates and shapes of hull.Composites • Composite laminates such as glass-reinforced plastics have become common place as a hull structural material for a great variety of small craft such as recreational sailing and power yacht. low maintenance cost.
so that they cannot meet the fire-resistance regulations applicable to ships. however. so that they deflect a great deal under load. a very modulus of elasticity (in the order of only 10 percent of that of steel). mitigate against their use as a hull material for large ships: the high initial cost of the material compared to steel. and the fact that they are combustible.• Their disadvantages. EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 71 .
Ship Design Concept EME 4343 LT KDR MOHD AZZERI TLDM 72 .
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