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THE OPERATIONS MANUAL (OM) INTRODUCTION
Each operator is autonomous and is required by the Authority to regulate the duties of the employees engaged in the operation. The duties of personnel are specified in the OM, but it also contains in detail operational policies, instructions, procedures, and other information in order that operations personnel can perform their duties to a satisfactory standard.
The OM must conform to the standards laid down in Annex 6 or JAR OPS (for a JAA Operator). The material contained should be original (i.e. produced by the Operator) but where included material is extracted from or copied from other documents or sources, a statement of the fact must also be included. The Operator remains responsible for the accuracy of any included material in the OM, regardless of the source of the material. The OM for a JAA Operator is to be produced in four parts:
Security 11 .Handling of Incidents and Occurrences 12 .Operational Control and Supervision 3 .Type related Part C .Route and Aerodrome Instructions and Information Part D .Quality System 4 .Training Part A contains the following: 0.Administration and Control of the OM 1 .General/Basic Part B – Aero plane Operating Matters .Crew Health Precautions 7 .Part A .Organization and Responsibilities 2 .Qualification Requirement 6 .Flight Time Limitation 8 .Dangerous Goods and Weapons 10.Operating Procedures 9 .Rules of the Air .Crew Composition 5 .
Limitations 2 .General Information and Units of Measurement 1 .Survival and Emergency Equipment including Oxygen 11 .Minimum Equipment List (MEL) 10.Flight Planning 6 .Part B contains the following: 0.Emergency Evacuation Procedure 12 – Aero plane Systems .Configuration Déviation List (COL) 9 .Abnormal and Emergency Procedures 4 .Normal Procedures 3 .Loading 8 .Mass and Balance 7 .Performance 5 .
Part C contains details of the routes flown by scheduled operations and details of the aerodromes used including take-off.Training Syllabi and Checking Programmers . en route and destination alternative aerodromes. Part D includes the following: 1 .Procedures 4 . It also contains as much information concerning the services and facilities available along the route and details of agents and organizations contracted or affiliated for use in a diversion situation.Training Syllabi and Checking 3 .General 2 .Documentation and Storage .
taxi aircraft on the ground. the person at the controls must be: Authorized by the Operator (or agent) Fully competent to taxi the aero plane Qualified to use the aircraft radio Have received instruction from a qualified person regarding: 1. The operational standards for safe movement of aircraft on the ground . if approved by the Operator. Whilst it is always desirable to have a pilot at the controls. markings and lights 4. Ground engineers may. The aerodrome layout 2.ATC signals and instructions including RTF phraseology and procedures 5. this may not always be possible. Traffic routes 3.PROCEDURES TAXIING OF AIRCRAFT Occasions occur when aircraft must be moved on the ground. In this situation. Aerodrome signs.
MASTER MEL (MMEL) The manufacturer of the aero plane produces the MMEL with the intention of assisting the Operator in producing the MEL. . have redundancy or are desirable rather than essential with regard to the basic flying capability of the Aero plane. The MMEL is applicable to the specific type of aero plane. The MMEL is not for use as an MEL by an Operator. The purpose of the MEL (compiled by the Operator) is to enable the Commander (who is the sole authority for determining if a flight can commence) to determine whether a flight may commence or continue in the event of an equipment or system failure. Aircraft are complex machines and many of the aircraft systems are duplicated.MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL) Part B of the OM contains the MEL.
Specific documentation (retained for three months) is to be prepared and properly certified confirming that: The aero plane is airworthy The necessary equipment (instruments and systems) is installed and adequate for the flight A maintenance release has been issued for the aero plane The mass of the aero plane and the centre of gravity (C of G) location are such that the flight can be conducted safely taking into account the flight conditions expected Any load carried is properly distributed and safely secured The aircraft operating limits have been checked and can be complied with The operational flight plan procedure has been complied with .FLIGHT PREPARATION DOCUMENTATION Before commencing any flight. the Commander must be satisfied that the aero plane is fit and the flight is properly planned (the Rules of the Air require the proper planning of each flight).
which is submitted purely for ATC clearance of the flight. Do not confuse the OFP with the ATS FPL.OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLANNING For all scheduled and non-scheduled operations. The Dispatch department normally prepares the OFP and may be presented to the crew as a briefing folder containing the necessary information. . detailed operational flight plans (OFP) are drawn up specific to the individual flight to be undertaken.
Flight identification (schedule number or RTF Call sign) 4. etc. Names of the flight crewmembers (pilots and flight engineer (if required)) and their duties and assignments 5. Type of operation (ETOPS. 6. en route as required) 14. VFR. 9. Safe altitudes and minimum levels 11. ferry flight. Relevant meteorological information . Fuel calculations (including 'how gozit') 12. etc. Initial ATS clearance when issued. Place of departure and time of departure (actual off blocks time. times. and required tracks. The aero plane registration. Route and route segments with waypoints. Alternate aerodromes for destination (and take-off. type and variant 2. 10. Date of the flight 3. etc.) 8. Planned cruising speed and times between waypoints. distances. In-flight re-planning calculations 16.1. Place of arrival and planned arrival time 7. Fuel on board when starting engines 13. take off time). and subsequent re-clearance 15.
and the location of the safety brief card.PASSENGER BRIEFINGS Given to all passengers is a briefing before take-off covering the safety and emergency procedures followed. the oxygen equipment and the location and use of the life preservers. emergency exits. . floor lighting and markings. The briefing is to contain instructions concerning smoking. The traditional briefing is given by the cabin crew but modern technology is permitting its replacement with an audio-video tape presentation. seat positions for take-off and landing. The briefing includes a demonstration of the use of the seat belts. stowage of hand baggage. use of portable electronic devices.
and in the cabin where the supplying of oxygen is occuring. while the aero plane is on the ground (unless specifically permitted by the OM). in cargo compartments. Where registering or certifying States do permit smoking. and in an emergency or whenever the Commander considers it necessary. SMOKING ON BOARD AEROPLANES Many states now have strict regulations prohibiting smoking tobacco products in public places. . the Commander of the aircraft must ensure that smoking is not allowed whenever he/she deems necessary for safety.PASSENGER SEAT BELTS Passengers must be seated and seat belts fastened for take-off and landing when turbulence is encountered . and leased aero planes operated by an Operator whose AOC is issued by the State. The prohibition extends to airport buildings and aero planes registered in that State. outside designated smoking areas.
aero planes are pressurized to a much lower altitude where the normal mixture of gasses and the atmospheric pressure is life supporting. For this reason. are able to able to direct an immediate evacuation by the most expeditious and practical means.g. A pressurization system. OXYGEN SUPPLY Modern aero planes fly at altitudes where the partial pressure of oxygen is insufficient to support life. This procedure may not apply when fuel other than kerosene is used (e . Avgas).REFUELLING WITH PASSENGERS ON BOARD An aircraft may be refueled with passengers on board providing qualified personnel attend the aircraft. designed for this purpose. makes this possible. and maintain two-way communications via the aircraft intercom system between the refueling crew and the attending personnel. .
The Operator must ensure that a flight in a pressurized aero plane does not commence without a sufficient supply of stored oxygen for all the crew and passengers for the period when (for whatever reason) the cabin atmospheric pressure is below 700 h Pa (m b) (above approximately 10 000 ft AMSL). .In the event of a pressurization failure (for whatever reason) supplemental oxygen must be supplied to crew and passengers until the aero plane reaches an altitude where the composition of the gasses in the atmosphere is life-supporting. If conducting the flight at altitudes above 25 000 ft (376 h Pa) or at altitudes below 25 000 ft and the aircraft cannot descend to 13 000 ft (625 h Pa) in 4 minutes. there must be at least 10 minutes of oxygen supplied for the occupants of the passenger compartment.
Crewmembers must use breathing oxygen continuously whenever circumstances requiring the use of oxygen exist. the flight must not commence unless the Operator ensures that the flight carries sufficient stored oxygen for all crewmembers and 10% of the passengers for any period exceeding 30 minutes when the cabin pressure is between 700 h Pa (10 000 ft) and 625 h Pa (13 000 ft). and all the crew and passengers for any period when the cabin pressure is below 625 h Pa (13 000 ft).For flights in non-pressurized (or partially pressurized) aircraft where the cabin altitude may exceed 10 000 ft (700 h Pa). the Operator must fit the flight deck with quick don oxygen masks. For flights above 25 000 ft. .
with the introduction of cruise relief crews and the sharing of the responsibility of the role of PIC. The crewmembers must hold the appropriate licence and complete the necessary CRM training for appointment of flight crew. . the office of Pilot-in-Command (PIC) was synonymous with Commander. The minimum crew for IFR operations at night is two pilots. COMMANDER/PILOT IN COMMAND Until recently. the title Commander is more formal and many of the responsibilities once assumed by the PIC are now the sole concern of the Commander. especially on long-haul operations. However. The Operator may include other flight crewmembers in the required crew providing the OM details the duties of those flight crewmembers.AEROPLANE FLIGHT CREW GENERAL The Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) for an aero plane or the Aero plane Flight Manual (AFM) specifies the required flight crew.
. the pilot requires knowledge of the operation. CAA requires an appointee as Commander to have completed a command course and have passed an operator proficiency check whilst acting as Commander. the routes flown. CAA requires that the route knowledge qualification has a validity of 12 months.To qualify for appointment as Commander and PIC. Additionally. and the aerodromes intended for use. To act as PIC a pilot must complete at least three take-offs and landings in an aero plane of the same type within the preceding 90 days.
In this context. ICAO requires the PIC to be responsible for the operation and safety of the aero plane and for the safety of all persons on board during flight time. At the end of the flight the PIC is responsible for notifying the Operator of any aircraft defects (known or suspected). CAA states that the duties of the flight crew are to be detailed in the OM. The PIC must also notify the nearest appropriate authority by the quickest means of any accident involving the aero plane resulting in serious injury or death of any person or substantial damage to the aero plane or property. The PIC is also to complete the journey log book or the general declaration (if required by the State of Destination). PIC is synonymous with Commander.DUTIES Annex 6 specifies the duties of the PIC. . The PIC must also ensure that all checklists are completed.
the Rules of the Air or local procedures/regulations are violated when taking the necessary action .If the aircraft is subject to unlawful interference. the Commander is to make a report to the authority of the State over which the violation occurred. to submit a report without delay to the appropriate local authority. Submit the report without delay (within 10 days) and send a copy to the Authority of the State of the Operator. on landing. In the event that for safety reasons or in an emergency. . the Commander is.
CO-PILOT The status of co-pilot is conferred by the Operator. Where this is met. For appointment as co-pilot. or otherwise demonstrate competence to act as co-pilot. The pilot must also have the same route qualifications as the Commander. a pilot must hold a valid ATPL(A) and be type rated on the aircraft type flown. a pilot must serve as PIC or co-pilot at the controls of an aero plane of the same type in the preceding 90 days. the minimum requirement is that a pilot must hold a valid CPL / IR and be type rated. without the requirement to demonstrate competence at take-off and landing. To relieve the co-pilot. The recent experience (90 day rule) is not necessary for a cruise relief co-pilot. . the relief co-pilot may operate as co-pilot only in the cruise and not below FL200. CRUISE RELIEF CREW To relieve the Commander.
the flight crew must include a licensed system panel operator (flight engineer). the requirement for a flight engineer may be dispensed with.FLIGHT ENGINEER (SYSTEM PANEL OPERATOR) When incorporating a flight engineer's station in the design of the aero plane. . a licensed flight navigator is included in the flight crew. If another flight crewmember can perform the duty (without interfering with that flight crewmember's duty). FLIGHT NAVIGATOR If the State of the Operator considers it necessary for the safe navigation of the aero plane.
PILOT PROFICIENCY CHECKS The Operator must check the pilots as proficient in piloting technique. and the ability to comply with IFR (if conducting the operation under IFR). handling of emergency situations. providing there is a minimum period of four months between checks. The period of validity of a line check is 12 months. . the new period of validity extends for 12 months from the expiry date of the previous period of validity. LINE CHECKS JAR OPS requires the Operator to ensure that each flight crewmember demonstrate competence on normal line operations as per the OM. There are two conflicting requirements in this respect: Annex 6: Requires two proficiency checks within a period of 12 months. When line-checked within the final three months of a period of validity.
DUTY STATIONS The OM for JAR OPS. dispense the use of the shoulder harness. . All detailed operating flight crewmembers (excluding cruise relief crew) should be at their stations on the flight deck for take-off and landing. and Annex 6 for ICAO specify when flight crewmembers should be at their duty stations. Whilst in the cruise en route. All operating flight crewmembers must be strapped into their seats using the appropriate harness. If the use of a shoulder harness interferes with the performance of duty. or for comfort needs.EMERGENCY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT TRAINING AND CHECKING JAR OPS requires the operator to ensure that each flight crewmember undergoes training and checking on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried in the aero plane. The same rules for validity as line checks apply. detailed flight crewmembers (including cruise relief crew when required) are to remain at their duty stations except when absence is required in the discharge of their duty.
The FOO signs and files (submit) the ATS FPL Passing information to the Commander/PIC whilst in flight concerning flight safety Initiating the procedures detailed in the OM concerning emergencies and diversion to an undeclared alternate aerodrome. The FOO/FDO has a means of communication (sat com /fax or HF RTF) with the flight crew when they are airborne. . The FOO/FDO is responsible for ground supervision of the flight. Any action taken by the Fop s O/FDO is not to conflict with actions/procedures established by ATC. The FOO/FDO is the link between the flight crew and the operator. Alternative means of communication is available for phone patch (via ARINC for example). or the communications service. the meteorological service.FLIGHT OPERATIONS OFFICER /FLIGHT DISPATCHER (FOPSO/FDO) Annex 6 specifies the duties of the Flight Operations Officer/ Flight Dispatcher. Duties specified in Annex 6 include: Assisting the Commander/PIC with in-flight preparation and the provision of information Assisting the Commander/PIC in preparing the OFP and the ATS FPL. This network is commonly called the company frequency.
the Commander/PIC is responsible for obtaining the necessary ATC clearance. or alternate aerodromes for a flight that is already airborne.IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONS If for any reason the Operator wishes to change the route. retain the journey logs for 3 months to provide a record of the operation. whist others include the log as part of the flight information and briefing package prepared by the Fops O/FDO before the flight.ordinated by the ATS authorities involved before passing instructions to the flight crew. . Complete the log in ink or indelible pencil (which cannot be erased or altered). JOURNEY LOG The Commander is responsible for completing the journey log. the requested change is to be co . destination. Many Operators provide a pre-formatted form for the journey log. a complete record of the flight. If for any reason the coordination is not possible. Whilst only applicable to the current flight.
The ICAO recommendation for the journey log content is: Aero plane nationality and registration Date Names of the crew and duty assignment Point and time of departure Point and time of arrival Flight duration Type of flight (scheduled or non scheduled) Incidents and observations (if any) Signature of the Commander .
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