COBOL

Training Material

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COBOL Training

Table of Contents

1. OBJECTIVES 2. INTRODUCTION TO COBOL
2.1. LANGUAGE CONSTRUCTION 2.2. COBOL CHARACTER SET 2.3. COBOL WORDS 2.4. COBOL CODING FORM 2.5. DIVISIONS OF COBOL

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3. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION
3.1. SYNTAX OF IDENTIFICATION DIVISION

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4. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION
4.1. CONFIGURATION SECTION 4.1.1. SOURCE-COMPUTER 4.1.2. OBJECT COMPUTER 4.1.3. SPECIAL-NAMES 4.2. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION 4.2.1. FILE-CONTROL 4.2.2. I-O CONTROL

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5. DATA DIVISION
5.1. LITERALS AND FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS 5.1.1. NUMERIC LITERAL 5.1.2. NON-NUMERIC LITERAL 5.1.3. LIST OF FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS 5.2. Data Description 5.2.1. LEVEL NUMBERS 5.2.2. Data Names 5.2.3. CLAUSE 5.2.4. CONDITION NAMES

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6. PROCEDURE DIVISION
6.1. STATEMENTS IN PROCEDURE DIVISION 6.2. Data Movement 6.2.1. MOVE 6.3. ARITHMETIC VERBS 6.3.1. ADD 6.3.2. SUBTRACT 6.3.3. MULTIPLY 6.3.4. DIVIDE 6.3.5. ROUNDED OPTION 6.3.6. ON SIZE ERROR 6.3.7. COMPUTE 6.3.8. ARITHMETIC OPERATORS 6.4. Miscellaneous 6.4.1. ACCEPT

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COBOL Training 6.4.2. DISPLAY 6.4.3. CONTINUE 6.4.4. STOP RUN 6.4.5. EXIT 6.4.6. INITIALIZE 6.5. CONDITIONAL AND UNCONDITIONAL TRANSFER 6.5.1. SIMPLE IF STATEMENT 6.5.2. NESTED IF 6.5.3. EVALUATE STATEMENT 6.5.4. GO TO STATEMENT 6.5.5. GO TO WITH DEPENDING 6.5.6. ALTER 6.6. PERFORM STATEMENTS 6.6.1. Basic Perform 6.6.2. PERFORM with TIMES phrase 6.6.3. PERFORM with UNTIL phrase 6.6.4. PERFORM with VARYING phrase 6.7. Conditional expressions 6.7.1. RELATIONAL CONDITION 6.7.2. SIGN CONDITION 6.7.3. CLASS CONDITION 6.7.4. CONDITION-NAME CONDITION 6.7.5. NEGATED SIMPLE CONDITION 6.7.6. COMPOUND CONDITION 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42

7. FILE HANDLING
7.1. Sequential Files 7.2. Indexed Files 7.3. Direct Access Files 7.4.STEPS INVOLVED IN FILE HANDLING 7.4.1. EXAMPLE 7.5. SELECT Statement 7.5.1. ORGANIZATION CLAUSE 7.5.2. ACCESS MODE CLAUSE 7.5.3. RECORD KEY PHRASE 7.5.4. ALTERNATE KEY PHRASE 7.6. FD entry 7.6.1. BLOCK CONTAINS / RECORD CONTAINS PHRASE 7.6.2. RECORDING MODE CLAUSE 7.7. INPUT / OUTPUT STATEMENTS 7.8. VSAM DATA SET 7.8.1. VSAM DATASETS AND ACCESS MODES 7.8.2. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ENTRIES FOR VSAM FILES 7.8.3. COBOL STATEMENTS USABLE WITH SEQUENTIAL FILES 7.8.4. COBOL STATEMENTS WITH INDEXED FILES (KSDS) AND RELATIVE (RRDS) 7.8.5. PROCEDURE DIVISION STATEMENTS TO UPDATE VSAM FILES 7.8.6. ERROR PROCESSING FOR VSAM 7.8.7. APPLICATIONS BEST SUITED TO VSAM DATASETS

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8. SUBPROGRAMS
8.1. LINKAGE SECTION 8.1.1. STATIC / DYNAMIC CALLS 8.1.2. PASSING RETURN CODE INFORMATION

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COBOL Training

9. STRING, UNSTRING AND INSPECT STATEMENTS
9.1. STRING STATEMENT 9.2. UNSTRING STATEMENT 9.3. INSPECT STATEMENT 9.4. DECLARATIVES

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10. SORT AND MERGE STATEMENTS 11. INTRINSIC FUNCTIONS
11.1. Number Handling 11.2. Date / Time 11.3. Finance 11.4. Mathematics & Statistics

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12. COMPILER OPTIONS 13. APPENDIX
13.1. ERROR CODES 13.2. EXERCISES 13.2.1. BASIC PROBLEM SOLVING 13.2.2. REPORT PREPARATION 13.2.3. ARRAY HANDLING 13.2.4. FILE HANDLING 13.3. JCL

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mainframe230. www.  Write COBOL programs which uses VSAM or Non VSAM files.  Submit jobs to Compile and Link-edit COBOL source codes. is that the students should be able to:  Understand the standard format of the COBOL program.blogspot. OBJECTIVES The main objective after the completion of this course.COBOL Training 1.2010 .com Page 5 date:16.05.  Write programs using modular design techniques.

 Clause consists of word and characters.Some Characteristics  COBOL is self-documenting  COBOL is simple  COBOL is non-proprietary (portable)  COBOL is Maintainable 2.this ANSI standard incorporated structured programming techniques COBOL .  Character is the lowest component. computer manufacturers Standard Versions of COBOL  1960s . A Procedure is a module having its own functionality.05. It specifies an attribute for an entry  Statement is syntactically valid combination of words and clauses www.1. LANGUAGE CONSTRUCTION  COBOL is like an English language. business. Each sub-functionality is written as a Paragraph in Procedure Division and executed in a logical sequence as mentioned.COBOL Training 2.  Word is made up of one or more characters.wide variations in COBOL compilers  1968 .com Page 6 date:16. INTRODUCTION TO COBOL COBOL => COMMON BUSINESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE Cobol can be referred to as:  High-Level Programming language oriented towards business applications.  Problem Oriented and Machine independent History of COBOL  Developed in 1959 as standard language to meet needs of business  Committee to develop language convened by Department of Defense  Included representatives from academia.  A procedure oriented language.second ANSI standard to make COBOL more efficient.mainframe230.blogspot. A Problem may be segmented into multiple sub-functionalities. standardized  1985 .first COBOL standard set by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  1974 .2010 .

05.).. section and paragraph-names must all begin in Area A and end with a period.4./. 2.= $.2.blogspot.6 7 8 .3. Reserved words  Words that are having specific meaning to the compiler..“.columns 12 to 72 Division.mainframe230. Column 7 * (asterisk) designates entire line as comment www. DIGITS LETTERS SPACE/BLANK CHARACTER SPECIAL SYMBOLS 2.9 A. paragraph names.(.<. comment or starting of a new page COBOL program statements Remarks / (slash) forces page break when printing source listing . file names and section names.72 73-80  Sequence numbers identifying pages or lines of a program Continuation.com Page 7 date:16... COBOL CODING FORM Columns 1.2010 .Z b +.*.columns 8 to 11 Area B .COBOL Training  Sentence is a sequence of one or more statements terminated by period  Paragraph consists of one or more sentences  Section consists of one or more paragraphs  Division consists of one or more paragraphs or sections  Program is made up of divisions 2. COBOL WORDS User defined words  Words declared by programmer to coin identifiers. COBOL CHARACTER SET Set of 51 characters 0.-..(dash) to indicate continuation of nonnumeric literal  Columns 8-72 divided into two areas Area A ...>.

05.blogspot. DIVISIONS OF COBOL Every COBOL program contains up to four separate divisions in the following order:     IDENTIFICATION DIVISION ENVIRONMENT DIVISION DATA DIVISION PROCEDURE DIVISION www.com Page 8 date:16.5.COBOL Training 2.2010 .mainframe230.

Length of PROGRAM-ID differs from compiler to compiler.blogspot. PROGRAM NAME. but the information that is passed to the user of the program about the Security features of the program.COMMENT ENTRY.COMMENT ENTRY.1. Security here does not pertain to the operating system security. in the case of IBM COBOL.05. www. Provides documentation about program.COMMENT ENTRY. Identifies program name to operating system. 3. SECURITY.mainframe230. it is 8 characters. Other paragraphs are optional but essential for documentation. PROGRAM-ID. AUTHOR. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION The Identification Division is:        Paragraph ‘PROGRAM-ID’ followed by a user-defined name is compulsory. INSTALLATION.com Page 9 date:16. For example. Should begin in Area A. DATE-COMPILED. First division of a Cobol program.COBOL Training 3.COMMENT ENTRY. SYNTAX OF IDENTIFICATION DIVISION IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.2010 . DATE-WRITTEN.COMMENT ENTRY.

2010 . We can change it to ASCII.2. Indicates that ‘ . PERCENTAGE-SIGN IS 38. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION       It is a machine dependent division. SOURCE-COMPUTER   Used to specify the name of the Source Computer compiling the COBOL program.COBOL Training 4. OBJECT-COMPUTER. 4. and SPECIAL-NAMES. 4. 4. such as. peripheral devices. www. Regardless of the number of entries in this paragraph. Contains two sections namely. CONFIGURATION and INPUT-OUTPUT.blogspot. The program collating sequence can also be specified in this paragraph for SORTING and STRING COMPARISON. ‘ are to be interchanged in the PIC clause. there should be only one period at the end. etc. Division is terminated by a period. or any other order if we define SPECIAL-NAMES. EBCDIC code is followed in MVS. It can also include the debug Declaratives in PROCEDURE DIVISION. symbolic-names and classes defined by programmer. ‘ and ‘ . 4. The paragraphs of configuration section are SOURCE-COMPUTER.1. The “With Debugging Mode” option can be mentioned to enable the Compiler to include all the lines with ‘D’ in the 7th column as syntax (Otherwise it is taken as comment).05. Substitutes character for currency sign.1. CONFIGURATION SECTION   Mentions the name of the source-computer.com Page 10 date:16. The Division itself is optional but for file handling it is essential.1.1. SPECIAL-NAMES       Specifies collating sequence. Describes the computer used.3. Maps IBM specified environment names to user defined mnemonic names.1. We can also specify symbolic characters. object-computer. OBJECT COMPUTER   Used to specify the target system. By default.mainframe230. special-names. Should begin in Area A.

05. Example: IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. IBM-390 PROGRAM COLLATING SEQUENCE IS A01.2. AUTHOR.COBOL Training 4. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. Consists of two paragraphs FILE-CONTROL and I-O CONTROL.blogspot.2. Physical dataset is assigned in DD statement of JCL at execution time. The key word I-O control must begin in Area A.mainframe230. 4. A343. IBM-390 WITH DEBUGGING MODE. ALPHABET A01 IS "A" ALSO "a" "B" ALSO "b" ALPHABET A IS STANDARD-1 SYSIN IS PROGIN CURRENCY IS "@" DECIMAL-POINT IS COMMA.1.2. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION   Contains information regarding files to be used in the program. FILE-CONTROL Associates each file used in a COBOL program with an external ddname.2. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. SOURCE-COMPUTER. FILE-CONTROL SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO DD1 ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL ACCESS MODE SEQUENTIAL www. OBJECT-COMPUTER.com Page 11 date:16. I-O CONTROL     Optional Paragraph. Three formats for the FILE-CONTROL paragraph are:    Sequential file entries Indexed file entries Relative file entries Coding rules for FILE-CONTROL paragraph. SPECIAL-NAMES. Specifies when check points are to be taken. CONFIGURATION SECTION. EDS001.    SELECT clause must appear first Other clauses may appear in any order Each clause must start in Area B 4. Specifies the storage areas to be shared by different files.2010 . PROGRAM-ID.

COBOL Training FILE STATUS IS WS-FST.2010 . www.mainframe230.blogspot.com Page 12 date:16.05.

Defines any constants and work areas. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION    LINKAGE SECTION  FILE SECTION File Description Entries   Each file described with an FD (File Descriptor) sentence One FD for each SELECT statement in ENVIRONMENT DIVISION Syntax: FD file-name RECORD IS LABEL RECORDS ARE STANDARD OMITTED RECORD CONTAINS integer-1 CHARACTERS BLOCK CONTAINS integer-2 RECORDS.  Describes input and output format of data in files.com Page 13 date:16.  The three sections of this division are: FILE SECTION  Describes Record Structure of Files Succeeds file section Used for intermediate storage Common practice to group related items together.COBOL Training 5.mainframe230.Used if labels stored in file www. File Description clauses LABEL RECORDS clause . DATA DIVISION Data division is used to define data needed to be accessed by the program. Describes data made available from another program.2010 .05.blogspot.

05 Name-In … 05 Annual-Salary-In … 05 Job-Description-In … WORKING-STORAGE SECTION      Follows FILE SECTION Starts in Area A.Indicates size of each record (Optional but recommended since it provides check on record size) Defining a Record Each FD followed by record description entries for the file Record-name defined at the 01 level -Considered highest level of data Fields within a record defined at subordinate level with level numbers from 02 to 49    Example: 01 Employee-Rec-In.1.Indicates blocking factor for disk files Both labels and blocking usually handled by operating systems so clauses will be omitted RECORD CONTAINS clause .2010 .05.COBOL Training BLOCKS CONTAINS clause .  Literals are classified in to NUMERIC and NON-NUMERIC literals.1.blogspot.1. NUMERIC LITERAL  Must contain at least one digit www. LITERALS AND FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS     Literal is a constant representing a number or Non number (Alpha numeric) like 45. 5.3 / ‘MANAGER’. MOVE SPACES TO WS-REC. Literals are storable in a memory Location having a user defined name called Data Name or Identifier or Variable or Field Figurative Constant is a COBOL RESERVED WORD representing frequently used constants like ZEROS / SPACES. ends with period All items must be defined at 01 level or in entries subordinate to 01 level entry Rules for user-defined data-names apply Elementary items: • • Must include PICTURE clause May be assigned initial value with VALUE clause 5.com Page 14 date:16.mainframe230. Figurative constants are used in the program as such for better readability as.

05. if used must be the left-most character Not more than one decimal point Decimal may not be the right most character Maximum of 18 digits. Here ‘EDS’ is an alphanumeric constant assigned in identifier COMPANY-NAME. It may be available in the FILE SECTION/ WORKING-STORAGE SECTION/ LINKAGE SECTION. LEVEL NUMBERS    A Record is a Collection of all the fields pertaining to an Item/person/Transaction.1. The level-number specifies the hierarchy of data within a record. LIST OF FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS ZERO / ZEROES / ZEROS QUOTE / QUOTES SPACE / SPACES ONE OR MORE ZEROS ONE OR MORE “ ONE OR MORE SPACE X’FF’ FOR EBCDIC LOW-VALUE / LOW-VALUES LOWEST VALUE IN COLLATING SEQUENCE ALL literal ONE or MORE OCCURENCES OF literal HIGH-VALUE / HIGH-VALUES HIGHEST VALUE IN COLLATING SEQUENCE 5. and identifies special-purpose data entries.Sign. or from one of the special level-numbers.2010 . 77.1.2.1.blogspot.com Page 15 date:16.  www. A level-number begins a data description entry. 5. 5.mainframe230. A record structure is a structure of all the fields of a record. 05 TOTAL-MARK PIC 9(3) VALUE 100. NON-NUMERIC LITERAL     May consist of any character in the character set Must be enclosed in quotes A numeric literal in quotes is non-numeric Maximum length of 120 chars 05 COMPANY-NAME PIC X(3) VALUE ‘EDS’. DATA DESCRIPTION The general format of the data description is  Level-number data-name / FILLER clauses 5.COBOL Training     + or . or 88. Here 100 is a numeric constant assigned in identifier TOTAL-MARK. A level-number has a value taken from the set of integers between 1 and 49. or a condition-name entry. 66.3.2.2. a renamed or redefined item.

blogspot.1. 02 LOADDATA-EOF-SWITCH 88 LOADDATA-EOF PIC X(1) VALUE "N". PIC PIC XXXX. A(30). 05 DN─2.com Page 16 date:16.mainframe230.number specifies the record itself. DN─6 RENAMES DN─1 THROUGH DN─3. COMPANY. DATA NAMES       Identifier name/ Data name should not exceed 30 Characters. PIC A. 5. 0001AB. It can appear only as an elementary Data Item Level Number.05. Example 01 77 01 TOTAL WS-FLAG PIC PIC 9(5). Only special Character allowed is – ( Hyphen) but should not be at the Beginning or End Examples of data names EMPLOYEE-NAME . They may begin in Area A or B Group Level Data Names Will not have Picture Clause.1...   A level . 999-EMPLOYEE-RECORD Data name must be unique within a Record www.. PIC A. 01 SWITCHES.COBOL Training 01 This level . 05 DN─1.01 entry may be either a group item or an elementary item.2010 .2. SPECIAL LEVEL NUMBERS 66 Identifies items that contain the RENAMES clause. 03 FIRST-NAME 03 INITIAL-1 03 INITIAL-2 03 INITIAL-3 5. . │<───────────────RECORD─I───────────────>│ ┌──────┬──────────┬───────────┬──────────┐ │ DN─1 │ DN─2 │ DN─3 │ DN─4 │ └──────┴──────────┴───────────┴──────────┘ │<───────────DN─6────────────>│ 66 RECORD─I.   01 EMPLOYEE-REC. 05 DN─3... 05 DN─4. VALUE "Y". . There should be at least one Alphabet anywhere in the name. 88 Identifies any condition name that is associated with a particular value of conditional variable Level Number 01 can appear as a Group Level Number as well as Elementary data item level number. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 77 Identifies independent elementary data item. 02 EMP-NO 02 EMP-NAME. .2. 02-49 These level numbers specify group and elementary items within a record. . XX.. It must begin in Area A.2... PIC A.

Amount$Out 3. My-Section 5. Identify the valid data-names 1. Last--Name 7. it has to be qualified as Identifier-name of Record Name. 98-6 8. Time out www.com Page 17 date:16.Date-Of-Birth 2.05.COBOL Training  If ‘Name’ is duplicated across Records. -First-Name 6. Section 4.2010 . • DISPLAY BALANCE OF STOCK-RECORD  Here balance is an identifier declared in Stock-record.blogspot.mainframe230.

Specified for every elementary item Format of Picture Clause. 9(04) .2010 . X(10) VALUE SPACES.2.mainframe230. Example 01 Detail-record. The detail of each Clause is explained below.2. CLAUSE A Clause specifies certain characteristics of the data item being described. VALUE SPACES. decimal point location and size characteristics of a data item. 5.2. FILLER Whenever there is no need for specific reference to fields in a record structure.COBOL Training 5.3. X(10) 9(6).1. alphanumeric. This Data name is used wherever there is fixed information like SPACES Or Headings Are stored. alphabetic. TYPE Numeric CHARACTER STRING 9 V S P Alphabetic A B Alpha Numeric Examples VAR1 PIC A(04) VAR2 PIC 9(4) (Defines 4 alphabetic characters. 9(05) . 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 FILLER NAME FILLER BASIC FILLER DA FILLER GROSS PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC X(10) X(30) .3. PICTURE CLAUSE Describes the class (numeric.blogspot. edited numeric).com Page 18 date:16. X(10) VALUE SPACES.05. www. we name it as FILLER or F. VALUE SPACES.) (Defines 4 Numeric digits) X REMARK Used for arithmetic operations Assumed Decimal Point Data item is Signed Position of Assumed decimal point when the point lies outside the data item Data Item contains only a Letter Or Space Blank insertion character Data item contains any allowable character from the COBOL character set. 5. sign(signed/unsigned).1.2.

ALPHANUMERIC BLANK.56 is easier to read instead of 7741958.456 bbbb.419. ) COMMA( .4.Z99 ZZZZ.05 b$342.1.2010 .NUMERIC DATA Z * $ + CR DB ZERO SUPPRESSION ASTERISK CURRENCY SIGN MINUS SIGN PLUS SIGN CREDIT DEBIT SIGN PERIOD( .3.3. ) BLANK( ‘B‘ ) ZERO( 0 ) SLASH( / ) BLANK WHEN ZERO (Inserts blanks when data value is zero) 5.2.99 BLANK WHEN ZERO 25 bb2.ZZ $$$$9.2. EDIT TYPES .00 00b00b46 04560 000/032/54 www.50 EDITED VALUE b3840 * * 052 $**985 -b4652 -382 +382 0382b2.2.1.3.mainframe230.ALPHABETIC Used To Insert Blank within Alphabetic Characters.com Page 19 date:16.3.COBOL Training 5.2.99 99B99B99 09990 999/999/99 NUMERIC VALUE 38^4 00052 985 -46^52 -382 382 -382 2456 5 342 46 456 3254 BLANK WHEN ZERO ZZZ.3 EDIT TYPES . 5. ZERO and SLASH INSERTION PIC OF THE FIELD ZZZV99 * * 999 $ * *999 -ZZZV99 +999 +999 9999+ ZZ. EDITED PICTURE CLAUSES Used to display Numeric and other data in the human readable form.2.blogspot. Displaying the number as 77.1.05.1. /* displays xy abc */ MOVE “xyabc” TO VAR1 DISPLAY VAR1 5. Example: 10 VAR1 PIC A(2)BBBA(3). EDIT TYPES .1.

1. VALUE ALL ‘ . EDIT COMBINATION +.3.   DISPLAY COMPUTATIONAL SYNTAX USAGE IS [DISPLAY ] [COMPUTATIONAL] [COMP-1] [COMP-2] [COMP-3] 5. VALUE ZERO.3. CR. -.3.2010 . DISPLAY is the default usage 5.2. The number of bytes required is equal to the size of the item.3. Are Mutually Exclusive 5.COBOL Training 999.com Page 20 date:16.5.**) V and .2. Non-Numeric(in Quotes) or Figurative Constant Not for items whose size is variable Value of item should not exceed picture size Consistent with class of PIC clause Examples 01 WS-REC. -. 05 WS-NAME 05 FILLER 01 01 WS-NUM1 WS-CHAR2 PIC X(30) PIC X(20) PIC 9(5) PIC X(5) VALUE ‘ABC VALUE ZERO.3. COMPANY ‘.mainframe230.2. DB Are Mutually Exclusive $. Z.3. * Are Mutually Exclusive.2.1. DISPLAY USAGE.2. $ can appear at first place and * as Floating($****. USAGE CLAUSE Specifies how a data item is represented internally.2.05.2. 5.3.99 BLANK WHEN ZERO 0 bbbbbb 5.blogspot.3. VALUE CLAUSE Assigns initial value to a data item VALUE IS literal Literal can be Numeric. Each character of the data is represented in one byte . +. COMPUTATIONAL(COMP) USAGE   Maintained in binary Only integral numbers www.‘.

    One word in floating point form The number is represented in hexadecimal The picture clause cannot be specified Suitable for arithmetic operations WS-NUM USAGE COMP-1.2.3 10 A PIC 0011 3 PIC 0001 S9(3) USAGE COMP-3 1111 F S9(04) USAGE COMP-3 VALUE 123.05.NUM PIC S9(004) USAGE COMP. COMP-2 USAGE.4.blogspot.      EXAMPLE FOR USAGE COMP . Internally stored as 00010010 1 10 2 A is stored as 00000000 (Extra Byte) 5.3. it can be stored either in half word or full word Should be numeric only NUMBER OF digits IN PIC 1 TO 4 5 TO 9 10 TO 18 LENGTH OF ITEM IN BYTES 2 4 8 01 WS .2010 . COMP-1 USAGE .com Page 21 date:16.mainframe230. SIGN CLAUSE   [SIGN IS] [LEADING] [SEPARATE CHAR ] [TRAILING] Specifies the position and mode of representation of sign www.COBOL Training   Depending on the size of the data item. 0010 0011 1111 VALUE 123.   Same as COMP 1 except that data is represented internally in two words Increases the precision of the data Internal Representation In Packed Decimal Form Each digit and sign occupy 1/2 a byte The Hexadecimal number C or F denotes a positive sign The Hexadecimal number D denotes a negative sign Maximum precision is 18 COMP-3 USAGE.

OCCURS CLAUSE There may be a need to keep a table of values in the memory for calculations.2010 .Explicit Use OF REDEFINES REDEFINES must be used for re-mapping record areas outside the FILE-SECTION. Example 01 01 WS-TABLE. or within the FILESECTION if a part of a record is to be remapped.3. 5.3.REC (1) = 13 BYTES (i.e.6.05.2. We use OCCURS clause to allocate physically contiguous memory locations to store the table values and access them with subscripts. REDEFINES CLAUSE This clause allows the same area of memory to be referenced by more than one data-name with different formats and sizes. Redefines clause must immediately follow <data-item-1> Level nos of <data-item-1> and <data-item-2> must be identical and not 66 or 88. X(8). 10 WS-REC 15 15 X Y OCCURS 10 PIC PIC TIMES. 10 such group items (WS-REC) are allocated memory space contiguously.no > <Data-item-1> REDEFINES <Data-item-2>.3.mainframe230.2.5. X(40). 05 NAME-ADD. 5. OCCURS 10 TIMES PIC X(20).com Page 22 date:16. 10 WS-NAME WS-TABLE.6. X(1) = 5 bytes. SYNTAX AND RULES < Lvl. Y(1) = 8 bytes) Hence.blogspot. X(5). Example: FD 01 CARDIN.1. www. WS .COBOL Training     Only for numeric elementary items Picture string should contain ‘S’ Usage should be DISPLAY Default is TRAILING without separate character EXAMPLE PIC S9(3) S9(3) VALUE -243 -243 SIGN LEADING TRAILING REPRESENTATION K 4 3 2 4 L 5. 10 NAME PIC 10 ADD-LN-1 PIC 05 NAME-DD REDEFINES X(20).2. NAME-ADD. D-TYPE-1 05 CARD-CODE PIC 9.

Justified clause does not alter initial settings as determined by the value clause Justified clause must not be specified with level 66(RENAMES) and level 88(condition-names) clauses.05.3.1 > and <data-item-2> Value clauses are allowed only in condition names in a redefined data-item. RENAMES RENAMES RENAMES 66 66 66 W-CHAR-123. 01 WS-CHAR PIC Default is left justified X(05) JUSTIFIED RIGHT.7.2010 . 5.6.3. JUSTIFIED CLAUSE Overrides standard positioning rules for a receiving stem of the alphabetic or alphanumeric categories. O THRU 20 21 THRU 99 88 C-PERSON-MINOR 88 C-PERSON-ADULT 01 W-PERSON-AGE www. PIC XX. RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF REDEFINES Redefinition ceases whenever a level number is less than or equal to that of <data-item-1> or <data-item2> Multiple redefinition’s of the same area is possible provided there are no new storage areas defined in between < data-item .2. <data-name-2> may not have an OCCURS clause. OCCURS and REDEFINES cannot be combined. CONDITION NAMES   Allow users to assign acceptable values for data names Are used as an abbreviation for condition checking PIC VALUE VALUE 9(02). Example would be a PIC X(5) field to a PIC X(20) 5. W-CHAR-123 THRU W-CHAR-4.2. At 01 level.2. 01 W-RESPONSE 05 W-CHAR-123 05 W-CHAR-4 05 W-CHAR-56 ADD-RESPONSE VIEW-RESPONSES DELETE-RESPONSE PIC XXX.COBOL Training 10 ADD-LN-2 PIC X(60).2.mainframe230.2. W-CHAR-123 THRU W-CHAR-56. PIC X. 5. The question of justification comes only when you move a smaller data item to a larger data item. 5.blogspot.4.com Page 23 date:16.3. RENAMES Regrouping of elementary data items in a Record.8.

A section begins with the section name and ends where the next section name is encountered or where the program text ends. A statement consists of a COBOL verb and an operand or operands.com Page 24 date:16. Example: MOVE . Example: SelectUnpaidBills SECTION. Paragraphs: A paragraph is a block of code made up of one or more sentences.21 TO VatRate MOVE 1235.05. PROGRAM-ID. PROCEDURE DIVISION    Last division in a COBOL program Contains statements which specify the operations to be performed Contains the following structure Division: A division is a block of code. usually containing one or more sections. FILE SECTION. Section: A section is a block of code usually containing one or more paragraphs. Example: SUBTRACT Tax FROM GrossPay GIVING NetPay www.2010 .76 TO ProductCost COMPUTE VatAmount = ProductCost * VatRate.COBOL Training 6. that starts where the division name is encountered and ends with the beginning of the next division or with the end of the program text. Sentences and statements: A sentence consists of one or more statements and is terminated by a period.blogspot. Example: PrintFinalTotals. A paragraph begins with the paragraph name and ends with the next paragraph or section name or the end of the program text.mainframe230.

1.ON SIZE ERROR. ADD.com Page 25 date:16.. EXIT.ON SIZE ERROR.NOT ON SIZE ERROR COMPUTE. END-EVALUATE. ADD. ADD.. END-CALL. an IMPLICIT SCOPE TERMINATOR is a separator period that terminates the scope of all previous statements not yet terminated. END-SUBTRACT. Copy Explicit Scope Terminator An EXPLICIT SCOPE TERMINATOR terminates the scope of conditional statements.05.2010 . it has to be qualified as paragraph-name { of / in } section name 6.COBOL Training PROCEDURE DIVISION GUIDELINES:        Paragraph names and section names should start in Area A Statements and sentences should start in Area B Section names and paragraph names are user-defined Section names must be unique and must be different from paragraph names Section names should be followed by a space and the word SECTION with a period at the end Paragraph names must be unique within a section If paragraph name is duplicated across sections.. GOTO. and that the subsequent action of the object program is dependent on this truth value.. This includes statements which contain conditional expression (like IF statement) and imperative statements (like ADD) Examples END-ADD.blogspot. END-IF. END-DELETE. www... COMPUTE. STATEMENTS IN PROCEDURE DIVISION Procedure division statements can be broadly classified as   Imperative Statements Statement which directs the program to take a specific action during execution Examples MOVE. END-COMPUTE.mainframe230. that causes the compiler to take a specific action during compilation. beginning with a compiler directing verb. EVALUATE . Example with ADD ADD 1 TO TWODIGITYEAR ON SIZE ERROR PERFORM CENTURYWINDOWOVERFLOW END-ADD Implicit Scope Terminator At the end of any sentence. IF .   Examples: Conditional Statements A conditional statement specifies that the truth value of a condition is to be determined. Example : Use. END-READ.. END-MULTIPLY ..NOT ON SIZE ERROR Compiler Directives A Compiler-Directing Statement is a statement.

05.1. MOVE To move data into a place in memory.4.2.1.blogspot.2. Value of the sending field remains unaltered after the statement execution.com Page 26 date:16.1. DATA MOVEMENT 6. If the significant integral positions are likely to be lost. Format. 6. 6. If the receiving field is larger than the sending field.2. NUMERIC DATA TRANSFER RULES       When sending field is numeric or numeric-edited. it is called A Group Move www. If the receiving field is not large enough to hold the data received. the decimal point is assumed to be at the right of the rightmost digit.2. If the decimal point is not explicitly indicated.2. truncation occurs from the right and the compiler gives a warning to that effect If the receiving field is larger than the field.2010 . the unused positions will be filled with zeros.2. ALPHANUMERIC DATA TRANSFER     When both the sending and receiving fields are alphabetic. alphanumeric or alphanumeric edited. the Data Movement is called Numeric. 6.2. the unused positions will be filled with spaces.1. The dominant factor in the numeric data transfer is the alignment of decimal points of the two fields.3. the Data Movement is called as Alphanumeric. a warning to that effect is issued by the compiler.IDENTIFIER-3].. GROUP MOVES When at Least One Of The Fields is a Group item. DATA MOVEMENT RULES   Only one sending field. When the receiving field is smaller. one or more receiving fields.1. MOVE A TO B Examples: After execution A will contain 0015 and B will contain bb15.COBOL Training 6. 6.mainframe230. receiving area is filled from left to right.. which is called as ‘ space fill ‘ A defined as PIC 9999 B defined as PIC ZZZ9 MOVE 15 TO A. In the case of alphanumeric data transfer. which is known as ‘ zero fill ‘. MOVE {IDENTIFIER-1/LITERAL-1} TO IDENTIFIER-2[. truncation can take place at either ends or at both ends.1.

5. PIC 9(5) 05 EMP-NAME PIC X(30). 05 05 05 REC-2 05 05 05 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC 9999.COBOL Training Example: 01 REC-1. AA.99. 05 EMP-BASIC PIC 9(5)V99. 9999. MOVE CORRESPONDING When the names of the corresponding data item of two groups are the same. 6. 01 PRINT-REC.3. ADD This verb is used to find the sum of two or more numbers and to store the resultant sum <──────────────────┐ <───────────────────────────┐ >>──ADD────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──TO────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴─────> └─literal-1────┘ └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-ADD─┘ All identifiers or literals preceding the key word TO are added together. XXXX. AA. 05 EMP-NO PIC 9(5).mainframe230. 05 FILLER PIC X(5).com Page 27 date:16.2.1. This process is repeated for each successive occurrence of identifier-2. 01 MOVE REC-1 TO REC-2 6. ARITHMETIC VERBS 6. and this sum is added to and stored in identifier-2. MOVE CORRESPONDING PAY-REC TO PRINT-REC. XXXX. www.3. 05 EMP-SAL PIC 9(6).blogspot. 05 FILLER PIC X(5).05. 05 EMP-NAME PIC X(30). in the left-toright order in which identifier-2 is specified. 05 FILLER PIC X(5). this statement can be used to substitute for a set of move statements MOVE CORRESPONDING IDENTIFIER-1 TO IDENTIFIER-2. Source and destination groups can include data names that are not common Only the fields having identical names in the two records will take part in the data movements The remaining data items in the destination group will remain unchanged Example: 01 PAY-REC. 05 EMP-NO.1.2010 .

the value of the last named operand does not take part in the summation and only the result is stored there. Example: ADD A TO B ADD A B GIVING C.mainframe230. SUBTRACT <──────────────────┐ www. In the group add. ADD CORR OLD-REC TO NEW-REC. and the sum is stored as the new value of each data item referenced by identifier-3. numeric elementary items in the group referred to by first identifier are added to and stored in the corresponding elementary items of the second group. only if they have the Same data name and same qualifiers Corresponding items can have different locations within the group and the field sizes Can also be different.3. >>──ADD──┬─CORRESPONDING─┬──identifier-1──TO──identifier-2───────────> └─CORR──────────┘ >──┬─────────┬──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────> └─ROUNDED─┘ └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-ADD─┘ Elementary data items within identifier-1 are added to and stored in the corresponding elementary items within identifier-2.blogspot.COBOL Training <──────────────────┐ >>──ADD────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──┬────┬──┬─identifier-2─┬──────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─TO─┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-ADD─┘ The values of the operands preceding the word GIVING are added together. Whereas in the case of GIVING option.com Page 28 date:16.2. Data items in identifier-1 and identifier-2 take part in the summation.05. 6. the previous value of the last named operand takes part in the summation and then this value is replaced by the result.      In the case of TO option.2010 .

blogspot.com Page 29 date:16. The result of the subtraction is stored as the new value of each data item referenced by identifier-3.mainframe230.05. in the left-to-right order in which identifier-2 is specified.2010 . <──────────────────┐ >>──SUBTRACT────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──FROM──┬─identifier-2─┬───────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-SUBTRACT─┘ All identifiers or literals preceding the key word FROM are added together and this sum is subtracted from identifier-2 or literal-2. This process is repeated for each successive occurrence of identifier-2.COBOL Training >>──SUBTRACT────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──FROM─────────────────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-SUBTRACT─┘ All identifiers or literals preceding the key word FROM are added together and this sum is subtracted from and stored immediately in identifier-2. >>──SUBTRACT──┬─CORRESPONDING─┬──identifier-1──FROM──────────────────> └─CORR──────────┘ >──identifier-2──┬─────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< www.

SUBTRACT A B FROM C D.05. SUBTRACT A B FROM C. MULTIPLY <───────────────────────────┐ >>──MULTIPLY──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴────> └─literal-1────┘ └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-MULTIPLY─┘ The value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is multiplied by the value of identifier-2. >>──MULTIPLY──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬─────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-MULTIPLY─┘ The value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is multiplied by the value of identifier-2 or literal-2. The product is then stored in the data item(s) referenced by identifier-3.3.2010 .3. 6. and the results are stored in. For each successive occurrence of identifier-2. SUBTRACT 10 FROM A. Example: SUBTRACT A FROM B. the multiplication takes place in the left-to-right order in which identifier-2 is specified. the product is then placed in identifier-2.mainframe230.blogspot. the corresponding elementary data items within identifier-2. Example: www.COBOL Training └─END-SUBTRACT─┘ Elementary data items within identifier-1 are subtracted from.com Page 30 date:16.

2010 . and the quotient is then stored in identifier-2.COBOL Training MULTIPLY A MULTIPLY A MULTIPLY A MULTIPLY 0. BY B GIVING C.05. 6.3. BY B C D.blogspot.4. >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──INTO──┬─identifier-2─┬─────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 2. BY B. the division takes place in the left-to-right order in which identifier-2 is specified. The value of the quotient is stored in each data item referenced by identifier-3. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided into the value of identifier-2.5 BY B. DIVIDE <───────────────────────────┐ >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──INTO────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴────> └─literal-1────┘ └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 1.com Page 31 date:16. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided into the value of identifier-2 or literal-2. >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬───────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> www.mainframe230. For each successive occurrence of identifier-2.

>>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬───────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ >──GIVING──identifier-3──┬─────────┬──REMAINDER──identifier-4────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 5.blogspot.mainframe230. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided by the value of identifier-2 or literal-2. and the value of the remainder is stored in identifier-4.2010 . www. The value of the quotient is stored in identifier-3. and the value of the remainder is stored in identifier-4. B GIVING C. >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──INTO──┬─identifier-2─┬─────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ >──GIVING──identifier-3──┬─────────┬──REMAINDER──identifier-4────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 4. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided into identifier-2 or literal-2. B GIVING C D. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided by identifier-2 or literal-2.com Page 32 date:16.05. Example: DIVIDE DIVIDE DIVIDE 5 A A INTO INTO BY A . The value of the quotient is stored in identifier-3.. The value of the quotient is stored in each data item referenced by identifier-3.COBOL Training └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 3.

the contents of the resultant field after the operation is unpredictable. the result exceeds the largest value that can be accommodated in the result field. 6.3. the statement becomes a conditional statement.3. ARITHMETIC OPERATORS Arithmetic expression is formed with numeric operands.8.com Page 33 date:16.05. COMPUTE <───────────────────────────┐ >>──COMPUTE────identifier-1──┬─────────┬─┴──┬─=───────┬──────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ └─ EQUAL ─┘ >──arithmetic-expression─────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-COMPUTE─┘ This verb is very powerful and is used as a substitute for any of the other arithmetic verbs like add. Arithmetic expression always assumes a numeric value.5.mainframe230. When a size error occurs. Example: ADD A TO B ON SIZE ERROR GO TO ERROR-PARA. the processing is not terminated and the next statement will be taken up for further execution.COBOL Training DIVIDE A BY B GIVING C REMAINDER D.2010 . ON SIZE ERROR If after an arithmetic operation. numeric LITERALS and numeric operators. 6. ROUNDED OPTION This can be used with any arithmetic verb. the error is called a “size error”. Can be used with any arithmetic verb When a size error occurs. It will round the number to the picture clause.blogspot. The imperative statements can be delimited by END-ADD 6.6.3. Arithmetic operators permitted in COBOL are: www. ADD A B GIVING C ROUNDED. 6.7. multiply. When this phrase is used.. This phrase cannot be specified for the identifier that receives the remainder in a divide operation. divide. subtract.3.

DAY. The day option returns five digit [9(5)] current date in YYDDD format.mainframe230. or TIME Format: ACCEPT IDENTIFIER [ FROM mnemonic name DATE DAY TIME DAY-OF-WEEK}] When ‘FROM’ is omitted.THE-RESULT identifier-2 . 6. SUBTRACTION.com Page 34 date:16.4.2.Monday.2 [upon mnemonic-name] 6. DISPLAY Display statement is used to display data on the terminal. The time option returns eight digit [9(8)] time in HHMMSSTT format The day-of-week option returns a single digit [9(1)] value as follows: 1 . or system information contained in the specified conceptual data items DATE. ACCEPT THIS-DATE FROM DATE.4. DAY-OF-WEEK.1. the data is read from the operator’s terminal.05.blogspot. The date option returns six digit [9(6)] current date in YYMMDD format. At the time of execution. DIVISION.2010 ..Wednesday and so on. ACCEPT Accept statement can transfer data from an input/output device. ADDITION. Format DISPLAY {identifier-1 literal-1} Example DISPLAY “RESULT IS :“. 3 .4.3. www. Mnemonic name option is implementation dependent and has to be defined in SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph.4.COBOL Training ** / * + => => => => => EXPONENTIATION. CONTINUE The CONTINUE statement allows you to specify a no operation statement. MISCELLANEOUS 6. literal . 6. MULTIPLICATION. program is suspended until the operator enters the data.Tuesday. 2 .

5.4. SIMPLE IF STATEMENT IF condition [THEN] statement-1 ELSE statement-2 END-IF. 05 C PIC X(4).4.4. EXIT The EXIT statement provides a common end point for a series of paragraphs.1.5. 05 B PIC A(4).2010 .4.23. INITIALIZE This statement is used to initialize value of either an elementary or group item.com Page 35 date:16. DATAITEM PIC BEFORE AFTER EXECUTION EXECUTION A 9(4) 1000 0000 B A(4) LIFE bbbb C X(4) A2BC bbbb INITIALIZE B REPLACING NUMERIC DATA BY 105 REPLACING ALPHANUMERIC DATA BY “ LOVE “ REPLACING NUMERIC-EDITED DATA BY 1500. 6.5.REC.05. <──────────────┐ >>──INITIALIZE────identifier-1─┴─────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────>< │ <─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ └─REPLACING────┬─ALPHABETIC──────────┬──┬──────┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬─┴─┘ ├─ALPHANUMERIC────────┤ └─DATA─┘ └─literal-1────┘ ├─NUMERIC─────────────┤ ├─ALPHANUMERIC-EDITED─┤ └─NUMERIC-EDITED──────┘ Example: INITIALIZE WS . STOP RUN This verb is used to terminate the execution of the program.mainframe230. no action takes place 6. CONDITIONAL AND UNCONDITIONAL TRANSFER 6.6. 6. 01 WS . This statement indicates a no operation and when executed.REC. www. 6.blogspot.COBOL Training CONTINUE indicates that no executable instruction is present. 05 A PIC 9(4).

.mainframe230.5. Imperative statements corresponding to the matching WHEN will be executed.2010 .2. Period (. after the connective END-IF.com Page 36 date:16..5.3. the statements represented in the ELSE part will be executed After execution of this statement control will be implicitly transferred to the next sentence following the IF statement. www.e..) is placed only at the end of the IF structure. Statement-1 represents one or more COBOL statements If the condition is found to be true. EVALUATE STATEMENT Used for decisions and can be used when many branches are there Can be used as a substitute for nested if“s EVALUATE SUBJECT-1 [ALSO SUBJECT-2]. A list of subjects is specified between the word EVALUATE and the first appearance of WHEN Subject can be an Identifier / Literal /Expression or key words True / False Each WHEN specifies a list of objects Number of subjects and number of objects should tally Subjects and their corresponding objects should be comparable WHEN phrases are taken up for a “ match “ in the order they appear. the statements represented in the THEN part will be executed.COBOL Training The condition can be any one of the conditions mentioned before. 6.blogspot. The most inclusive IF statement must have terminating period. i... {WHEN OBJECT-1 [ALSO OBJECT-2}..} [WHEN OTHER {IMPERATIVE-STATEMENT-2}. AMOUNT > 5000 THEN ADD AMOUNT TO TOTAL-1 NEXT SENTENCE will be used to make either the THEN or ELSE part dummy. WHEN OTHER phrase is selected only if none of the previous WHEN phrases are selected. Statement-1 and Statement-2 represents one or more COBOL statements. 6. Example: IF ELSE ADD AMOUNT TO TOTAL-2 END-IF. NESTED IF Inclusion of one or more IF statements within its scope is called as Nesting.] [END-EVALUATE] A list of subjects and several lists of objects are associated with an Evaluate. If the condition is found to be FALSE. Indent nested ‘if‘ s properly to improve readability and maintainability. IF condition-1 [THEN] IF condition-2 [THEN ] statement-1 ELSE statement-2 END-IF END-IF.05.

com Page 37 date:16.OF .DAYS Range of Numeric values. Example GO TO DISPLAY-PARA. procedure-name-2. n. www. Conditional Values. n .COBOL Training Objects can be Numeric value . GO TO STATEMENT >>──GO──┬────┬──procedure-name-1────────────────────────────────────>< └─TO─┘ It is an unconditional transferring control to the specified paragraph . . . Non-numeric value.blogspot..2 .OF . PROCEDURE-NAME-2 ]. keywords Example1: EVALUATE TRUE WHEN MONTH = 4 MOVE 30 WHEN MONTH = 2 MOVE 28 WHEN OTHER MOVE 31 END-EVALUATE. the said go to is ineffective and the control is transferred to the next statement.. GO TO PROCEDURE-NAME-1 [ . OR 6 OR 9 OR 11 TO NO . Depending on whether the value of the identifier is 1. 2 .5.5.5. non-numeric values. 6. PROCEDURE-NAME-N DEPENDING ON identifier The statement transfers control to one of the procedures named in the statement depending on the value of the identifier The identifier specified in the statement must be a numeric. There is no any comparison being made by the system before branching off .DAYS TO NO .mainframe230.DAYS TO NO . If the value of the identifier is anything other than the specified range of 1. integral. Note: It is advised to avoid GO TO Statements as the structured programming technique does not support unconditional transfer statements.OF . GO TO WITH DEPENDING This verb is used to conditionally transfer the control to elsewhere in the program.05. the control is transferred to procedurename-1. . elementary item.2010 . procedure-name-n respectively. . 6.4. . Range of Example: EVALUATE PRODUCT-TYPE ALSO CUSTOMER-TYPE WHEN 1 ALSO ANY MOVE 0 TO COMMISSION WHEN 2 ALSO 1 THRU 5 MOVE 10 TO COMMISSION WHEN OTHER MOVE 20 TO COMMISSION END-EVALUATE.

6. The ALTER statement encourages the use of unstructured programming practices. the next time control reaches the paragraph specified in procedure-name-1. one sequence of execution during initialization and another sequence during the bulk of file processing. transferred to the next line after the PERFORM statement Example: www.6. ALTER The ALTER statement changes the transfer point specified in a GO TO statement. the GO TO statement transfers control to the paragraph specified in the GO TO statement. Before the ALTER statement is executed.2010 . procedure-name-1 Must name a Procedure Division paragraph that contains only one sentence: a GO TO statement without the DEPENDING ON phrase.1.mainframe230. After executing the said range. BASIC PERFORM PERFORM PARA-name-1. however. 6. allowing. ADJUSTMENT-PARA DEPENDING ON TRANSACTION-TYPE.COBOL Training Example:GO TO RECEIPT-PARA. After execution of the ALTER statement. the control is implicitly. the GO TO statement transfers control to the paragraph specified in procedure-name-2.blogspot. >>──ALTER────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ >────procedure-name-1──TO──┬────────────┬──procedure-name-2─┴───────>< └─PROCEED TO─┘ The ALTER statement modifies the GO TO statement in the paragraph named by procedurename-1. the EVALUATE statement provides the same function as the ALTER statement and helps to ensure that your program will be well-structured. when control reaches the paragraph specified in procedure-name-1.com Page 38 date:16.6. ISSUE-PARA. for example. Para-name-1 specifies the range. The ALTER statement acts as a program switch. which contains statements to be executed Upon execution of this statement the control is transferred to the beginning of the paragraph and executes all the statements in that paragraph till the last statement. procedure-name-2 Must name a Procedure Division section or paragraph. PERFORM STATEMENTS A PERFORM statement is used to execute a group of consecutive statements specified elsewhere in the program. Subsequent executions of the modified GO TO statement(s) transfer control to procedure-name-2. under a paragraph. 6.5.6.05.

Initially the condition is expected to be false. PERFORM 000-CALC-PARA UNTIL I>10 000-CALC-PARA. those are also executed After executing the said range.blogspot. This statement executes a series of instructions in para-name-1 repeatedly till the condition becomes TRUE. within the paragraph being performed.mainframe230. PERFORM 2000-COMPUTE-PARA.2.6. the range is not executed at all Example: MOVE 1 TO I. 6. -ADD 1 TO I. PERFORM WITH UNTIL PHRASE PERFORM para-name-1 [THRU para-name-2] UNTIL condition. This is a looping statement that executes the specified range of statements a fixed no. of times. If the condition is true initially. This statement executes all the statements beginning in the para-name-1 till the last statement in the para-name-2 If there are any other paragraphs placed in between these two paragraphs. www.3. This statement executes all the stmts. Example: PERFORM READ-RTN 10 TIMES. PERFORM para-name-1 thru para-name-2. transferred to the next line after the PERFORM statement Example: PERFORM BEGIN-PARA THRU END-PARA. 6. PERFORM WITH TIMES PHRASE PERFORM para-name-1 [THRU para-name-2] {identifier-1/ integer} TIMES. The condition should be made true. in READ-RTN 10 times without testing any condition. PERFORM 1000-ACCEPT-PARA.05.6. the control is implicitly.2010 .COBOL Training 100-MAIN-PARA. Here 000-CALC-PARA is performed 10 TIMES.com Page 39 date:16.

2 3. J ) END-PERFORM.6.2 2.4 2.4 3.4.3 1.7.1 1.2010 .2 1.3 3.1 3. The above example will take I and j vales as 1. │ │ │ └──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ This is also a looping statement which executes imperative statement for all possible values of identifier-1 and identifier-3 until Condition-1 and Condition-2 are TRUE. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS In COBOL there are various types of conditions as follows: RELATIONAL CONDITION SIGN CONDITION CLASS CONDITION CONDITION .NAME CONDITION NEGATED SIMPLE CONDITION COMPOUND CONDITION www.mainframe230.blogspot.4 6.1 2.COBOL Training 6.com Page 40 date:16. PERFORM WITH VARYING PHRASE ┌─── Format 4 ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ │ >>──PERFORM────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> │ │ │ │ >──┬─procedure-name-1──┬───────────────────────────────┬──┤ phrase 1 ├──┬──────────────┬─┬────>< │ │ │ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-2─┘ └─┤ phrase 2 ├─┘ │ │ │ │ └─THRU────┘ │ │ │ │ (1) │ │ │ └─┤ phrase 1 ├──imperative-statement-1─────END-PERFORM────────────────────────────────┘ │ │ │ │ phrase 1: │ │ ├──┬────────────────────────────┬──VARYING──┬─identifier-2─┬──FROM──┬─identifier-3─┬──BY───────> │ │ └─┬──────┬──TEST──┬─BEFORE─┬─┘ └─index-name-1─┘ ├─index-name-2─┤ │ │ └─WITH─┘ └─AFTER──┘ └─literal-1────┘ │ │ │ │ >──┬─identifier-4─┬──UNTIL──condition-1────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤ │ │ └─literal-2────┘ │ │ │ │ phrase 2: │ │ <───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ ├────AFTER──┬─identifier-5─┬──FROM──┬─identifier-6─┬──┤ phrase 3 ├─┴───────────────────────────┤ │ │ └─index-name-3─┘ ├─index-name-4─┤ │ │ └─literal-3────┘ │ │ │ │ phrase 3: │ │ ├──BY──┬─identifier-7─┬──UNTIL──condition-2────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤ │ │ └─literal-4────┘ │ │ │ │ Note: │ │ (1) Imperative-statement-1 is optional as an IBM extension.05. Example: PERFORM VARYING I FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL I > 3 AFTER J FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL J > 4 Display SALE ( I .3 2.

COBOL Training 6.2.blogspot. VALUE IS 0. CLASS CONDITION The class condition determines whether the content of a data item is alphabetic. or equal to zero. 6.2010 . 6. arithmetic expression.7.1. The possible CLASS Conditions are ALPHABETIC / NUMERIC / ALPHANUMERIC Example: IF A IS NUMERIC ADD 1 TO A ELSE DISPLAY “ NON . The Possible SIGN conditions are POSITIVE / NEGATIVE / ZERO. A non-numeric literal can be enclosed in parentheses within a relation condition.4. less than. SIGN CONDITION The sign condition determines whether or not the algebraic value of a numeric operand is greater than. CONDITION-NAME CONDITION A condition-name condition tests a conditional variable to determine whether its value is equal to any value(s) associated with the condition-name. Comparisons can be simplified. Example: IF CURR-STOCK-ISS-QTY IS NEGATIVE DISPLAY “ ISSUE CANNOT BE MADE” GO TO NO-STOCK-PARA END-IF. RELATIONAL CONDITION A relation condition compares two operands. alphabetic-upper.mainframe230.7. or contains only the characters in the set of characters specified by the CLASS clause as defined in the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph of the Environment Division. www. 6.NUMERIC DATA FOR A “ GO TO ERROR-PARA END-IF.05. Condition names are not memory locations but names assigned to data ranges . either of which can be an identifier. numeric. The relational operators are < <= > >= NOT GREATER THAN / LESSER THAN / EQUAL TO IF A > B DISPLAY “ A IS GREATER THAN B “ ELSE DISPLAY “ A IS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO B “ END-IF.com Page 41 date:16. or index-name. literal.7.3. Alphabetic-lower. Example: 01 WS-MARITAL-STATUS 88 SINGLE PIC 9.7.

COMPOUND CONDITION Two or more conditions can be logically connected to form a compound condition.7.6. Example: IF NOT MARRIED DISPLAY “ELIGIBLE FOR RS 1000 ONLY “ END-IF. 6.5. The possible Compound Conditions are AND Example: IF AGE IS LESS THAN 18 AND MARRIED DISPLAY “EARLY MARRIAGE “ END-IF.blogspot.2010 .7. IF SINGLE ADD 1 TO SINGLE-COUNT.com Page 42 date:16.05.COBOL Training 88 MARRIED VALUE IS 1. NEGATED SIMPLE CONDITION A simple condition is negated through the use of the logical operator NOT. www. OR NOT .mainframe230. 6.

2010 . if any. INDEXED FILES Indexed File Organization is to do random Processing or sequential processing.com Page 43 date:16.STEPS INVOLVED IN FILE HANDLING To handle a file the following operations are to done. A record is a collection of relevant fields pertaining to an item/case/ account/transaction .mainframe230. Step 1. The organization of the file . 7.05. www.1.  There can be more than one key called Alternate Keys to access records  Records can be inserted added.3. 7. This is specified using SELECT statement of File-Control para. File is organized in storage media in one of the following ways    SEQUENTIAL INDEXED RELATIVE 7.DDNAME assigned for the dataset and its primary and alternate key.blogspot.4.  Records cannot be deleted  Records can be updated 7.  All files handled in a program should be assigned a logical name chosen by the programmer as per the syntax similar to Cobol identifier. deleted and updated. FILE HANDLING A data file is a collection of relevant records of an application.COBOL Training 7. SEQUENTIAL FILES If a file organization is Sequential then  Records can be accessed in the order in which they appear in the file  Records can be appended at the end of the file but cannot be inserted.2. Each record has a unique address and is identified by a relative record number (8 digits numeric character). have to be specified in the File-Control para of Environment Division. DIRECT ACCESS FILES This record is best suited if there are records which can be accessed on record number basis rather than based on a field of the record. In this Organization  Record can be accessed in any order by key called Primary Key.

SYNTAX : Step5. FD CUSTOMER-FILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD IS CUSTOMER-RECORD. Read File -name. writing. Open statement is used to connect dataset to the Cobol program.  SYNTAX : If we have to write in to a file WRITE command is used in procedure Division. SYNTAX : CLOSE File-name. Step3. PROCEDURE DIVISION. 01 CUSTOMER-RECORD. PROGRAM-ID. F1.blogspot. DATA DIVISION.  All files described as explained above should be first opened to do read/write operations. EXAMPLE IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.1. If we have to read a file READ statement is used in procedure Division.  Describe the File with detail like record name . WRITE Record -name. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION.2010 .mainframe230. 05 CUST-NO PIC X(5). FILE-CONTROL.record structure in the File Section of DATA DIVISION . 01 WS-FST1 PIC X(2).  After read / write operations are over the file must be closed to disconnect the file from the Cobol program. Step4. 100-WRITE-PARA. 05 CUST-DTLS PIC X(70). The record attached to the concerned file alone can be used to write into the file.05.COBOL Training Step2.Also specify as how many records are grouped as a BLOCK for Input Output Operation.4.com Page 44 date:16. SELECT CUSTOMER-FILE ASSIGN TO ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED ACCESS MODE IS SEQUENTIAL RECORD KEY IS CUST-NO FILE STATUS IS WS-FST1. FILE SECTION. 000-MAIN-PARA. ACCEPT CUST-NO ACCEPT CUST-DEPT DD1 www. OPEN OUTPUT CUSTOMER-FILE PERFORM 100-WRITE-PARA PERFORM 200-CLOSE-PARA. These statements are coded in procedure division. 05 CUST-DEPT PIC X(5). WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 7. Files can be opened for reading. appending. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.

com Page 45 date:16. www.COBOL Training ACCEPT CUST-DTLS WRITE CUSTOMER-RECORD DISPLAY 'WRITE FILE STATUS:-' WS-FST1. CLOSE CUSTOMER-FILE DISPLAY 'CLOSE FILE STATUS:-' WS-FST1 STOP RUN.mainframe230. 200-CLOSE-PARA.blogspot.2010 .05.

COBOL Training 7.05.2010 .com Page 46 date:16.blogspot.mainframe230. SELECT STATEMENT Sequential files: >>──SELECT──┬──────────┬──file-name-1──ASSIGN───┬────┬────assignment-name-1────────> └─OPTIONAL─┘ └─TO─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────────> └─┬──────────────────────┬──SEQUENTIAL─┘ └─ORGANIZATION──┬────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────> └─ACCESS──┬──────┬──┬────┬──SEQUENTIAL─┘ └─MODE─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────>< └─┬──────┬──STATUS──┬────┬──data-name-1──────────────────┘ └─FILE─┘ └─IS─┘ Indexed File >>──SELECT──┬──────────┬──file-name-1──ASSIGN───┬────┬────assignment-name-1─────────────> └─OPTIONAL─┘ └─TO─┘ >──┬──────────────────────┬──INDEXED──────────────────────────> └─ORGANIZATION──┬────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────> └─ACCESS──┬──────┬──┬────┬──┬─SEQUENTIAL─┬─┘ └─MODE─┘ └─IS─┘ ├─RANDOM─────┤ └─DYNAMIC────┘ >──RECORD──┬─────┬──┬────┬──data-name-2──┬─────────────────────────────────────┬────────> └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ └─ PASSWORD ──┬──────┬── data-name-6 ─┘ └─ IS ─┘ <─────────────────┐ >────┬─────────────┬─┴──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────>< └─┤ entry 1 ├─┘ └─┬──────┬──STATUS──┬────┬──data-name-1──────────────────┘ └─FILE─┘ └─IS─┘ entry 1: (3) ├──ALTERNATE RECORD─────┬─────┬──┬────┬──data-name-3──┬──────────────────────┬───────────> └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ └─┬──────┬──DUPLICATES─┘ └─WITH─┘ www.5.

COBOL Training

Relative files
>>──SELECT──┬──────────┬──file-name-1──ASSIGN───┬────┬────assignment-name-1─────────────> └─OPTIONAL─┘ └─TO─┘ >───┬──────────────────────┬──RELATIVE─────────────────────────> └─ORGANIZATION──┬────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ >─┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─> └─ACCESS─┬──────┬─┬────┬─┬─SEQUENTIAL──┬───────────────────────────────────────┬─┬─┘ └─MODE─┘ └─IS─┘ │ └─RELATIVE──┬─────┬─┬────┬──data-name-4─┘ │ │ └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ │ └─┬─RANDOM──┬──RELATIVE──┬─────┬─┬────┬──data-name-4────┘ └─DYNAMIC─┘ └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────>< └─┬──────┬──STATUS──┬────┬──data-name-1─────────────────┘ └─FILE─┘ └─IS─┘

Assignment Name ties the select statement to the DDNAME in the JCL QSAM file >>────┬─────┬──name──────────────────────────────────────>< └─S- ─┘ VSAM Sequential File >>────AS- ──name─────────────────────────────────────────>< VSAM Indexed or Relative File >>────name───────────────────────────────────────────────><

7.5.1. ORGANIZATION CLAUSE
This clause should appear in Environment division. We can choose File Organization SEQUENTIAL -This Option is to handle a PS data set or VSAM ESDS . Once the file is organized as Sequential records can be placed as first come first served basis. INDEXED - This Option is to handle a VSAM KSDS . There should be a key field to choose this operating mode. This is called primary key and is to be unique like ROLLNO, EMPLYEENO. RELATIVE - This Option is to handle a VSAM RRDS . Record Numbers are identifying the records to access.

7.5.2. ACCESS MODE CLAUSE
This clause should appear in the access mode statement of Environment division. Files can be accessed in different modes based on the type of Organization.

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COBOL Training We can choose access mode depending on the order in which we like it to be accessed. Sequential Access Mode will facilitate to access any file records in sequential order. Random Access Mode will facilitate to access a particular record of an Indexed File / Relative File by supplying the Record key before read / write operation. Dynamic Access Mode will facilitate to access a particular record or in sequential order from an Indexed File / Relative File We give below all possible access modes on organization. Seq. access Organization Sequential Relative Indexed Order of write Ascending rel rec. no Ascending key value Invalid Value of rel key Value of rel key Invalid Seq. or random Seq. or random Random access Dynamic access

7.5.3. RECORD KEY PHRASE
This Phrase is to be defined in the Environment Division and essential when the file is an Indexed File. This key is to be Unique and is to be a part of the Indexed record.

7.5.4. ALTERNATE KEY PHRASE
This Phrase is to be defined in the Environment Division when we want to access record in the order of some other Key apart from primary key. This key need not be unique but to be a part of the record.

7.6. FD ENTRY
Syntax Sequential Files
>>──FD──file-name-1─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────> └─BLOCK──┬──────────┬──┬───────────────┬──integer-2──┬─CHARACTERS─┬─┘ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─integer-1──TO─┘ └─RECORDS────┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───> └─RECORD──┬─┬──────────┬──integer-3──┬────────────┬────────────────┬─┘ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ ├─┬──────────┬──integer-4──TO──integer-5──┬────────────┬─┤ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ └─┤ clause 1 ├──┬────────────────────────────────┬───────┘ └─DEPENDING──┬────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────> └─LABEL───RECORD──┬────┬─────┬─STANDARD──────────────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ └─OMITTED───────────────┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────────────────> │ <─────────────┐ │ └─DATA──┬─RECORD──┬────┬───┬────data-name-4─┴─┘ │ └─IS─┘ │ └─RECORDS──┬─────┬─┘

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└─ARE─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────> └─ RECORDING ──┬────────┬──┬──────┬── mode ─┘ └─ MODE ─┘ └─ IS ─┘ clause 1: ├──┬────┬──VARYING──┬────┬──┬──────┬──┬─────────────────────┬────────────────> └─IS─┘ └─IN─┘ └─SIZE─┘ └─┬──────┬──integer-6─┘ └─FROM─┘ >──┬───────────────┬──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────── └─TO──integer-7─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘

Indexed and Relative files
>>──FD──file-name-1─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────> └─BLOCK──┬──────────┬──┬───────────────┬──integer-2──┬─CHARACTERS─┬─┘ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─integer-1──TO─┘ └─RECORDS────┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───> └─RECORD──┬─┬──────────┬──integer-3──┬────────────┬────────────────┬─┘ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ ├─┬──────────┬──integer-4──TO──integer-5──┬────────────┬─┤ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ └─┤ clause 1 ├──┬────────────────────────────────┬───────┘ └─DEPENDING──┬────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────────────> └─LABEL──┬─RECORD──┬────┬───┬──┬─STANDARD─┬─┘ │ └─IS─┘ │ └─OMITTED──┘ └─RECORDS──┬─────┬─┘ └─ARE─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────┬──.──────────────────────>< │ <─────────────┐ │ └─DATA──┬─RECORD──┬────┬───┬────data-name-4─┴─┘ │ └─IS─┘ │ └─RECORDS──┬─────┬─┘ └─ARE─┘ clause 1: ├──┬────┬──VARYING──┬────┬──┬──────┬──┬─────────────────────┬───────────────> └─IS─┘ └─IN─┘ └─SIZE─┘ └─┬──────┬──integer-6─┘ └─FROM─┘ >──┬───────────────┬──┬────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────┤ └─TO──integer-7─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘

7.6.1. BLOCK CONTAINS / RECORD CONTAINS PHRASE
We can specify the length of the file record in this Clause in terms of Characters this is to be specified in Data Division. We can specify the number of characters / records contains in a Block.

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7.6.2. RECORDING MODE CLAUSE
This Phrase is to be defined in the File section Data division. When the file is with Fixed length record is chosen as F. This key represents s only the record Number. RECORDING MODE [F] [V].

F => Fixed which Indicates that every record of same length Example:
FD file-name BLOCK CONTAINS 500 CHARACTERS. RECORD CONTAINS 50 CHARACTERS. DATA-RECORD IS EMP-RECORD. EMP-RECORD 01 EMPNO PIC X(6). 02 EMP-NAME PIC X(30). 02 BASIC PIC 9(5). 02 HRA PIC 9(5). 02 DA PIC 9(4).

The above record is of length 50 characters. V => Variable which Indicates that record length may vary from I1 to I2. Example:
FD BLOCK CONTAINS 320 THRU 640 CHARACTERS. RECORD CONTAINS 32 THRU 64 CHARACTERS. DATA RECORD IS MARK-RECORD. 01 MARK-RECORD 02 P1 PIC 99. 02 MARKS OCCURS 10 THRU 20 Depending P1 03 SCORE PIC 999.

The above record length is based on P1.

7.7. INPUT / OUTPUT STATEMENTS
Open statement can be used for opening the file with different mode. OPEN OUTPUT file-name connects data set to your COBOL program to write records when the file is even with out a single record.. OPEN INPUT file-name connects data set to your COBOL program to records from the first . OPEN EXTEND file-name connects data set to your COBOL program for writing new records in an existing non empty file. OPEN I-O file-name connects data set to your COBOL program for processing to do read/write /Rewrite.

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COBOL Training WRITE >>──WRITE──record-name-1──┬────────────────────┬────────────────> │ │ └─FROM──identifier-1─┘ ├──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────┤ └─ INVALID ──┬───────┬── imperative-statement-1 ─┘ └─ KEY ─┘ ├──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────┤ └─ NOT INVALID ──┬───────┬── imperative-statement-2 ─┘ └─ KEY ─┘ Add records to a file or load a file .Establish the current location in the cluster for a READ NEXT statement >>──START──file-name-1───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────> └─KEY──┬────┬──┬─EQUAL──┬────┬────────────────────────────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─IS─┘ │ └─TO─┘ │ ├─=────────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─ LESS ──┬────────┬───────────────────────┤ │ └─ THAN ─┘ │ ├─ < ──────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─GREATER──┬──────┬────────────────────────┤ │ └─THAN─┘ │ ├─>────────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─NOT LESS──┬──────┬───────────────────────┤ │ └─THAN─┘ │ ├─NOT <────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─ NOT GREATER ──┬────────┬────────────────┤ │ └─ THAN ─┘ │ ├─ NOT > ──────────────────────────────────┤ ├─ LESS ──┬────────┬── OR EQUAL ──┬──────┬─┤ │ └─ THAN ─┘ └─ TO ─┘ │ ├─ <= ─────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─GREATER──┬──────┬──OR EQUAL──┬────┬──────┤ │ └─THAN─┘ └─TO─┘ │ └─>=───────────────────────────────────────┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────> └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬───────────┬───────────────>< └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─END-START─┘ └─KEY─┘ START does not retrieve a record.05.2010 . START .com Page 51 date:16. it positions the current record pointer.mainframe230.blogspot. When this command is used in an Indexed file key must be newer one always. READ Sequential Retreival >>──READ──file-name-1──┬───────────────┬──┬────────┬─────────────────> └─NEXT──────────┘ └─RECORD─┘ >──┬────────────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────────> www.

COBOL Training └─INTO──identifier-1─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────────────────> └─┬────┬──END──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─AT─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬──────────┬───────>< └─NOT──┬────┬──END──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─END-READ─┘ └─AT─┘ Random Retreival >>──READ──file-name-1──┬────────┬──┬────────────────────┬────────────> └─RECORD─┘ └─INTO──identifier-1─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────> └─KEY──┬────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-3─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬──────────┬───>< └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-4─┘ └─END-READ─┘ └─KEY─┘ The READ statement is used to read a record from a file. If it used to read from an Indexed/Relative file it would read the corresponding key record.mainframe230. If we have read sequentially from an Indexed file READ NEXT RECORD will retrieve records from a file in sequence REWRITE >>──REWRITE──record-name-1──┬────────────────────┬───────────────────> └─FROM──identifier-1─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────> └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬─────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-REWRITE─┘ Used for Updating records. DELETE >>──DELETE──file-name-1──┬────────┬──────────────────────────────────> └─RECORD─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> www. the key field must have a value before read.2010 . If it is used to read a sequential file it will read the next record always.com Page 52 date:16.05. Files must be opened in I-O mode.blogspot.

CLOSE Disconnect the VSAM data set from your program >>──CLOSE────file-name-1────────>< www.blogspot.05. Not permitted for ESDS and PS files.COBOL Training └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────> └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DELETE─┘ Remove records from indexed and relative files only. File must be opened in I-O mode.mainframe230.com Page 53 date:16.2010 .

mainframe230. distributed free space is used for adding records and changing their lengths in place A record cannot be deleted but Space given up by a deleted or Space given up by a deleted record can you can reuse its space for a shortened record is be reused record of the same length automatically reclaimed within a control interval Can have spanned records Can be reused as a work file unless it has an alternate index associated with key ranges or exceeds 123 extents per volume can have spanned records can be reused unless it has an associated with exceeds 123 volume Can be reused as a work file as a work file can be reused as work file alternate index key ranges or extents per www.Record Records are in order in which Records are in collating Records are in relative record number they are written sequence by key field order Access is sequential May have one alternate indexes or Access is by key through an Access is by relative record number. catalog. COMPARISON ON VSAM DATASETS Entry . retrieve and delete datasets.      Key-Sequenced Data Set (KSDS) Entry-Sequenced Data Set (ESDS) Fixed-Length Relative Record Data Set (RRDS) Variable-Length RRDS (VRRDS) Linear Data Set (LDS) The Primary difference of the above types is the way in which their records are stored and retrieved.sequenced Relative .8. or more May not have alternate indexes A record relative record number cannot change A record’s RBA cannot change A record RBA can change Space at the end of the data Distributed free space is used for fixed length RRDS empty slots in the set is used for adding records for inserting record and data set are used for adding records. VSAM DATA SET VSAM – Virtual Storage Access Method VSAM is high performance access method used to organize. VSAM supports 5 dataset organizations.blogspot.com Page 54 date:16.2010 .length RRDS. index which is treated like a key more May have one alternate indexes.05.sequenced Key . store.COBOL Training 7. changing their lengths in place For variable .

2010 .blogspot. VSAM DATASETS AND ACCESS MODES File Organization VSAM sequential (ESDS) VSAM indexed (KSDS) VSAM Relative (RRDS) Seq.mainframe230.com Page 55 date:16.for a VSAM ESDS file Example :VSAM Indexed File SELECT I-FILE ASSIGN TO INFILE ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED ACCESS IS DYNAMIC RECORD KEY IS IFILE-RECORD-KEY ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS IFILE-ALTREC-KEY FILE STATUS KEY IS FSTAT-CODE VSTAT-CODE Example:. Access No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Dyna.8. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ENTRIES FOR VSAM FILES Example :VSAM Sequential File SELECT S-FILE ASSIGN TO AS-INFILE ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL FILE STATUS KEY IS FSTAT-CODE VSTAT-CODE Note the prefix of AS.1. ORGANIZATION CLAUSE ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL . Access Fixed Length Yes Yes Yes Variable Length Yes Yes NO 7.VSAM Relative File SELECT R-FILE ASSIGN TO INFILE ORGANIZATION IS RELATIVE ACCESS IS RANDOM RELATIVE KEY IS RFILE-RELATIVE-KEY FILE STATUS KEY IS FSTAT-CODE VSTAT-CODE www.for VSAM indexed files (KSDS) .8.1. Access Yes Yes Yes Ran.for VSAM relative files (RRDS).05.2.for VSAM sequential files (ESDS) ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED ORGANIZATION IS RELATIVE .COBOL Training 7.1.8. 7.

8.8.4.3. COBOL STATEMENTS WITH INDEXED FILES (KSDS) AND RELATIVE (RRDS) www.blogspot.mainframe230.COBOL Training 7. COBOL STATEMENTS USABLE WITH SEQUENTIAL FILES Access Mode Sequential COBOL / 370 Statement OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE X X X X X X X OPEN INPUT X OPEN OUTPUT X X OPEN I-O X OPEN EXTEND X X 7.2010 .05.com Page 56 date:16.

05.com Page 57 date:16.2010 .mainframe230.COBOL Training Access Mode Sequential COBOL/370St atement OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE OPEN INPUT X OPEN OUTPUT X X OPEN I-O X OPEN EXTEND X X x X x X X x X X X X Random OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE X X X X X X X X X X X X Dynamic OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE X X X X X X X X X X X X X X www.blogspot.

mainframe230.COBOL Training www.2010 .05.com Page 58 date:16.blogspot.

blogspot.com Page 59 date:16.COBOL Training 7.O READ NEXT Not Applicable WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE RRDS ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL OPEN EXTEND WRITE CLOSE OPEN I-O READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS RANDOM OPEN I-O READ WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Sequential processing OPEN I-O READ NEXT WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Random processing OPEN I .8.5.mainframe230.05.2010 . PROCEDURE DIVISION STATEMENTS TO UPDATE VSAM FILES ESDS ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL OPEN EXTEND WRITE CLOSE OPEN I-O READ REWRITE CLOSE ACCESS IS RANDOM KSDS ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL OPEN EXTEND WRITE CLOSE OPEN I-O READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS RANDOM OPEN I-O READ Not Applicable WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Sequential processing ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Sequential processing OPEN I-O READ NEXT Not Applicable WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Random processing ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Random processing OPEN I .O READ NEXT WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE www.

7. The EXCEPTION / ERROR declarative statement can be used to trap the errors in any I/O handling. KSDS Applications that require that each record have a key field and require both direct and sequential access.mainframe230.3.7.COBOL Training 7.1.8. Applications that require that each record have a key field. The FILE STATUS clause (file status key and VSAM return code) can be used in ENVIRONMENT DIVISION to trap standard errors in all FILE Handling The INVALID KEY phrase can be used to trap the errors while COBOL reads a record at random. 7.6. ERROR PROCESSING FOR VSAM The end . www. Applications that use High Level Languages which do not support RBA (Relative Byte Address) Applications that require ALTERNATE KEY to access any record . ESDS Applications that require sequential access only.phrase (AT END) available.8.7.8.7.of .2. RRDS Applications that require only Direct Access.8.file . 7. While file is read sequentially AT END CLAUSE is to be used to know whether a record is read.8.7.com Page 60 date:16.blogspot. Applications that have one to one correspondence between records. Example : BANK ACCOUNT TRANSACTIONS.05. APPLICATIONS BEST SUITED TO VSAM DATASETS 7. Example : Payroll Processing.2010 .

com Page 61 date:16.2010 . the program can either transfer control back to the calling program or end the run unit.05. No specific source code statements or options identify a COBOL program to be a main program or a subprogram.mainframe230. debugged. The program that calls another program is referred to as the Calling program and the program it calls is referred to as the Called program (subprogram).blogspot. Edit routines Error control checks Standard calculations Summary. SUBPROGRAMS      Compiled.COBOL Training 8. Called program may itself call yet another program. total printing Typical subprograms include:     Advantages of Subprograms      Avoids duplication of effort Improves programmer productivity Provides greater flexibility Changes to called program can be made without modifying calling program Results in greater standardization Calling and Called Programs www. When the called program is completed. stored in library to be called when needed.

Value clause may not be specified for items other than level . Control returns to calling program 3.. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION PROGRAM-ID. ABC..COBOL Training 1.mainframe230.2010 . www.05.blogspot.88 items Example: IDENTIFICATION DIVISION PROGRAM-ID. Control returns to calling program 5. Subprogram Sub1 called and executed in its entirety 2. EXIT PROGRAM.1.. CALL XYZ USING A B STOP RUN. .. PROCEDURE DIVISION .... LINKAGE SECTION Describes data made available from another program Storage for data items within the program is not reserved because the data area exists elsewhere. You can use GOBACK instead of EXIT PROGRAM. 8. Subprogram Sub2 called and executed in its entirety 4.com Page 62 date:16. XYZ LINKAGE SECTION 01 PARAM1 PIC X(05) 01 PARAM2 PIC 9(5) PROCEDURE DIVISION USING PARAM1 PARAM2 .

Note that the compiler option DYNAM can change a static call to a dynamic call. PROCEDURE DIVISION USING L-PARAM 8. In the called program a reference to PART-ID is the valid reference to them Called Program Description LINKAGE SECTION. 10 PART-ID PIC X(5).SALES PIC 9(5).2. 05 PARTNO PIC X(4). specify : CALL . 01 PARAM-LIST.blogspot.2010 .1. . 05 U . If you want to pass a literal value to a called program. DYNAMIC CALL A dynamic call loads the subprograms at run time. the contents of the RETURN-CODE special register contains the return code of the called program. 01 L-PARAM.1.05.1. When a COBOL / 370 program returns to its caller. If you want to pass an identifier’s value only to a called program. BY CONTENT identifier.mainframe230. .1. PROCEDURE DIVISION CALL CALLED–PROG USING PARAM. PASSING RETURN CODE INFORMATION You can use the RETURN-CODE special register to pass and receive return codes between programs. . specify a combination of BY REFERENCE and BY CONTENT Example:CALL ‘ ERRPROC’ USING BY REFERENCE A BY CONTENT LENGTH OF A Common Data Items in Subprogram Linkage Calling Program Description WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.LIST In the calling program the code for parts (PARTCODE) and the number (PARTNO) are referred to separately In the called program. 10 SALES PIC 9(5). If you want to pass both item and its length to a subprogram. BY CONTENT LENGTH OF Identifier. www. STATIC / DYNAMIC CALLS To transfer control from one COBOL program to another COBOL program you can use one of these methods: STATIC CALL The Compiler treats the CALL Literal statement (Where literal is the name of a subprogram) as a static call when the NODYNAM compiler option is in effect. specify CALL .com Page 63 date:16.COBOL Training 8. 05 PARTCODE PIC A.1. CALL BY REFERENCE OR BY CONTENT. 8. . the code for parts and the part number are combined into one data item (PART-ID ).1.

com Page 64 date:16. the contents of register 15 are stored into the calling program ‘s RETURN .CODE special register. When control is returned from a COBOL program to the operating system.mainframe230. the special register contents are returned as a user return code.2010 . www.blogspot.COBOL Training When control is returned to a COBOL program from a call.05.

INTO represents the receiving field POINTER represents pointer field which represents the last character position in the receiving field.COBOL Training 9. STRING STATEMENT String statement strings together the partial or complete contents of two or more DATA ITEMS or LITERALS into one single data item.05. It should be an integer data item with enough picture clause to hold the count It should be initialized to 1. It will return the length of the received data plus 1.mainframe230.2010 .com Page 65 date:16. FORMAT : >>──STRING───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <──────────────────┐ │ >──────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──DELIMITED──┬────┬──┬─identifier-2─┬─┴─────> └─literal-1────┘ └─BY─┘ ├─literal-2────┤ └─SIZE─────────┘ >──INTO──identifier-3──┬─────────────────────────────────┬───────────> └─┬──────┬──POINTER──identifier-4─┘ └─WITH─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> └─┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-STRING─┘ Identifiers should be with USAGE clause DISPLAY should not be with picture clause LITERALS should be non numeric literals / figurative constant except ALL (considers a character non numeric for figurative constant) THRU (all) should not be with P picture Identifiers 1 are sending fields. STRING.blogspot. UNSTRING AND INSPECT STATEMENTS 9.1. www. identifier 2 is the delimiting field and Identifiers 3 is the receiving field DELIMITED BY phrase is used to delimit the pieces of data to be extracted from each input identifier and transferred SIZE sends the complete sending area.

STRPGM. STOP RUN. 01 ID4 PIC X(5) VALUE "MN#OP".blogspot. 01 ID1 PIC X(5) VALUE "AB. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. DATA DIVISION. www.COBOL Training OVERFLOW executed when pointer is < 1 or > the picture length of the receiving field IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. 01 ID2 PIC X(5) VALUE "E.com Page 66 date:16. PROCEDURE DIVISION.CD". 01 ID5 PIC X(100). 01 STR-COUNT PIC 999 VALUE 1." "/" ID3 "/" ID4 DELIMITED BY "#" INTO ID5 WITH POINTER STR-COUNT DISPLAY ID5 DISPLAY STR-COUNT.FGH". 01 ID3 PIC X(5) VALUE "IJK#L". UNSTRING STATEMENT >>──UNSTRING──identifier-1─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────> └─DELIMITED──┬────┬──┬─────┬──┬─identifier-2─┬──┬───────────────────────────────────┬─┘ └─BY─┘ └─ALL─┘ └─literal-1────┘ │ <───────────────────────────────┐ │ └───OR──┬─────┬──┬─identifier-3─┬─┴─┘ └─ALL─┘ └─literal-2────┘ >──INTO────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ >────identifier-4──┬─────────────────────────────────┬──┬─────────────────────────────┬─┴──────> └─DELIMITER──┬────┬──identifier-5─┘ └─COUNT──┬────┬──identifier-6─┘ └─IN─┘ └─IN─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────┬──┬────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────> └─┬──────┬──POINTER──identifier-7─┘ └─TALLYING──┬────┬──identifier-8─┘ └─WITH─┘ └─IN─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────────────> └─┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬──────────────┬────────────────────────>< └─NOT──┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─END-UNSTRING─┘ └─ON─┘ Unstring statement causes contiguous data in a Sending Field to be separated and placed into multiple receiving fields. PROCESS-PARA. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. END-PARA. STRING ID1 "/" ID2 DELIMITED BY ".05.mainframe230.2010 . PROGRAM-ID.2. PERFORM PROCESS-PARA PERFORM END-PARA. Output is AB/E/IJK/MN 012 9.

INTO represents the receiving field POINTER contains a value that indicates a relative position in the sending field. "@". "#". 01 ID1 PIC X(9) VALUE 01 ID1-D PIC X VALUE 01 ID1-C PIC 9 VALUE 01 ID2 PIC X(9) VALUE 01 ID2-D PIC X VALUE 01 ID2-C PIC 9 VALUE 01 ID3 PIC X(9) VALUE 01 ID3-D PIC X VALUE 01 ID3-C PIC 9 VALUE SPACES. DATA DIVISION. DELIMITED BY phrase is used to limit the data to be transferred . IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.com Page 67 date:16.mainframe230. SPACES.blogspot.". Represents the sending field.2010 . All data receiving fields have been acted upon and the sending still contain the unexamined character. 0. 0. 6)The pointer identifier 7 is set to the number of bytes examined in the sending field plus 1 7)Identifier 8 is set to the number of receiving data areas that were acted upon. PROGRAM-ID.05. SIZE sends the complete sending area. "IJK#L". 5)For each instance of identifier 4 you can have a identifier 6 that is set with the count of bytes in identifier 4 except the delimiter. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. www. ". It should be initialized to 1 It will return the length of the received data plus 1.COBOL Training How to interpret the above diagram:1)Identifier 1 is the sending field 2)Pieces of the identifier 1 delimited by either identifier 2 or 3 are extracted and sent to the receiving fields which are identifier 4 . 0. 3)Each instance of identifier 4 holds a piece 4)For each instance of identifier 4 you can have a identifier 5 that is set with the delimiter. STRPGM. OVER FLOW executed when pointer is < 1 or > the picture length of the receiving field TALLYING in this count field is increased by the number of data receiving fields acted upon execution. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. Restrictions Identifiers should be with USAGE clause DISPLAY should not be with P picture LITERALS should be non numeric literals/figurative constant except ALL (considers a character non numeric for figurative constant) Identifier1 must be an alphanumeric item May not be reference modified.

01 JCL-PARM.com Page 68 date:16.ID2-C:-5 ID3-D:-*ID3-C:-4 ID4-C:-5 9.2010 .05. STOP RUN. PERFORM PROCESS-PARA PERFORM END-PARA. INSPECT STATEMENT This statement specifies that characters or group of characters in a data item are to be counted or (tallied) or replaced or both.mainframe230. 01 ID4-C PIC 9 VALUE 0. www. LINKAGE SECTION. UNSTRING PARM-D DELIMITED BY DE-ID OR ALL "*" INTO ID1 DELIMITER IN ID1-D COUNT IN ID1-C ID2 DELIMITER IN ID2-D COUNT IN ID2-C ID3 DELIMITER IN ID3-D COUNT IN ID3-C ID4 COUNT IN ID4-C WITH POINTER ID-P TALLYING IN ID-T ON OVERFLOW PERFORM FLOW-EXIT-PARA END-UNSTRING DISPLAY "ID1:-" ID1 "ID1-D:-" ID1-D "ID1-C:-" ID1-C DISPLAY "ID2:-" ID2 "ID2-D:-" ID2-D "ID2-C:-" ID2-C DISPLAY "ID3:-" ID3 "ID3-D:-" ID3-D "ID3-C:-" ID3-C DISPLAY "ID4:-" ID4 "ID4-C:-" ID4-C DISPLAY "ID-P:-" ID-P DISPLAY "ID-T:-" ID-T.COBOL Training 01 ID4 PIC X(9) VALUE SPACES. DISPLAY "FLOW-EXIT-PARA EXECUTED". FLOW-EXIT-PARA.ID1-C:-2 ID2-D:-. 01 ID-T PIC 999 VALUE 0.3.blogspot. PROCESS-PARA.". OUTPUT ID1:-AB ID2:-EFGHI ID3:-PQRS ID4:-GH ID-P:-101 ID-T:-004 ID1-D:-. 02 PARM-L PIC S9(4) COMP. 02 PARM-D PIC X(100). 01 DE-ID PIC X VALUE ". 01 ID-P PIC 999 VALUE 1. END-PARA. PROCEDURE DIVISION USING JCL-PARM.

INSPECT ITEM-1 TALLYING C2 FOR ALL CHARACTERS. FORMAT 2: >>--INSPECT--identifier-1--REPLACING------------------------------------------------> <-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ <------------------+ ¦ >------CHARACTERS BY----identifier-5------------------------------------------------>< ¦ +-literal-3----+ +-¦ phrase 1 +-+ ¦ ¦ <----------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ ¦ <--------------+ ¦ ¦ +---ALL------------identifier-3----BY----identifier-5-----------------------+ +-LEADING-¦ +-literal-1----+ +-literal-3----+ +-¦ phrase 1 +-+ +-FIRST---+ phrase 1: +----BEFORE-------------------identifier-4-------------------------------------------¦ +-AFTER--+ +-INITIAL-+ +-literal-2----+ Example: INSPECT ITEM-4 REPLACING DATA ITEM1 10-07-97 OUTPUT 20/07/97 “-“ BY “/“. FORMAT1: >>──INSPECT──identifier-1──TALLYING─────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ <──────────────────┐ │ │ >────identifier-2──FOR────┬─CHARACTERS────┬──────────────┬─┴───────────────────────┬─┴─┴>< │ └─┤ phrase 1 ├─┘ │ │ <───────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ <──────────────────┐ │ │ └─┬─ALL─────┬────┬─identifier-3─┬───┬──────────────┬─┴─┴─┘ └─LEADING─┘ └─literal-1────┘ └─┤ phrase 1 ├─┘ phrase 1: ├──┬─BEFORE─┬──┬─────────┬──┬─identifier-4─┬─────────────────────────────────────────────┤ └─AFTER──┘ └─INITIAL─┘ └─literal-2────┘ Example: INSPECT ITEM-1 TALLYING C1 FOR ALL SPACES.COBOL Training It will count the occurrences of a specific character (ALPHABETIC.2010 . INSPECT ITEM-1 TALLYING C3 FOR LEADING SPACES.mainframe230. It will convert all occurrences of specific characters in a data item to user supplied replacement characters.blogspot. www. DATA ITEM1 BB56BB will yield 4 .05.com Page 69 date:16.2. NUMERIC OR SPECIAL CHARACTER) It will fill all portions of data item with specified characters such as spaces or zeroes.1 respectively.

IBM-390 WITH DEBUGGING MODE. This declarative section of the program will be executed before the start of execution of each paragraph defined in the program. END DECLARATIVES. We have to specify the Option " WITH DEBUGGING MODE" option in the SOURCE-COMPUTER The following rules should be followed. MAIN SECTION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. DEBUG-DECLARATIVES-PARA. PROGRAM-ID. PARA-3. DECLARATIVES.4. The Debug Declarative-paragraph should immediately follow the "USE" instruction. DEBUG-DECLARATIVES SECTION.com Page 70 date:16. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.COBOL Training 9. DECLRPGM. STOP RUN. DECLARATIVES It is used for tracing the paragraph or procedures executed by the program as per the Instruction given by the programmer. IBM-390. It is the first Section To Be Defined in Procedure Division. DISPLAY "IN PARA-2".mainframe230. Make SURE you code PARM=”/DEBUG” in the EXEC JCL card before you run your program!. DATA DIVISION. PROCEDURE DIVISION. PERFORM PARA-1 PERFORM PARA-2 PERFORM PARA-3 PERFORM END-PARA. DEBUG-NAME is a special register storing the name of the paragraph it is executing. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. PARA-1.2010 . i. The rest of the paragraphs may be placed in User defined Section.e.blogspot. END-PARA. "TRACING paraname " will be displayed before the execution of each paragraph. OBJECT-COMPUTER. CONFIGURATION SECTION. MAIN-PARA. PARA-2. www. DISPLAY "TRACING:-" DEBUG-NAME. DISPLAY "IN PARA-1". DISPLAY "IN PARA-3".05. USE FOR DEBUGGING ALL PROCEDURES. SOURCE-COMPUTER.

blogspot. FORMAT 1: <──────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <─────────────┐ │ >>──SORT──file-name-1────┬────┬──┬─ASCENDING──┬──┬─────┬────data-name-1─┴─┴─────────> └─ON─┘ └─DESCENDING─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────> └─┬──────┬──DUPLICATES──┬────┬──┬───────┬─┘ └─WITH─┘ └─IN─┘ └─ORDER─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────> └─┬───────────┬──SEQUENCE──┬────┬──alphabet-name-1─┘ └─COLLATING─┘ └─IS─┘ <─────────────┐ >──┬─USING────file-name-2─┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─> └─INPUT PROCEDURE──┬────┬──procedure-name-1──┬───────────────────────────────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-2─┘ └─THRU────┘ <─────────────┐ >──┬─GIVING────file-name-3─┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬>< └─OUTPUT PROCEDURE──┬────┬──procedure-name-3──┬───────────────────────────────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-4─┘ └─THRU────┘           File-name -1 is the name given in the SD entry that describes the records to be sorted. If you do specify INPUT PROCEDURE it is your responsibility to open input file(s) www.COBOL Training 10. Duplicates are specified to place the similar records in the order they are accessed.mainframe230. The first key referred is taken as major key and the next referred is taken as the next significant key and so on Sorting in ascending order will be done from lowest key value to highest key value. Alphabet-name1 must be specified in the alphabet clause of SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph.com Page 71 date:16. If USING is specified it means that the sort feature will automatically open file name 2 (s) and read the records as input. This statement can appear anywhere in the PROCEDURE DIVISION except in declarative section. data-name-1 specifies a KEY data item on which the SORT statement will be based.2010 . You specify an INPUT PROCEDURE when you want to process input records before they are RELEASED to the sort feature for sorting.05. Each data name must identify a data item in a record associated with file-name -1 There can be any number of data names in file-name–1 and each can be either sorted in ascending or descending order. SORT AND MERGE STATEMENTS SORT statement accepts records from one or more files and arranges the records in the ascending /descending order and makes the sorted records available either through an OUTPUT PROCEDURE or in an output file. USING and INPUT-PROCEDURE are mutually exclusive. Sorting in descending order will be done from highest key value to lowest key value.

Multiple files can specified. STOP RUN. SD SORT-WORK-ONE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD SORT-RECORD.COBOL Training and read the input records. 01 INFILE-RECORD PIC X(80).com Page 72 date:16.05. FILE-CONTROL. You do this when the INPUT PROCEDURE is driven. 05 SORT-KEY1 PIC X(5). SORT SORT-WORK-ONE ON ASCENDING KEY SORT-KEY2 WITH DUPLICATES IN ORDER USING INFILE GIVING OUTFILE.     File-name-2 is the actual file to be sorted. 05 SORT-DATA PIC X(70). 01 OUTFILE-RECORD PIC X(80). FD OUTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 80 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS OUTFILE-RECORD. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. FILE SECTION. If you specify USING file name 3 then the file name 3 is automatically opened by the sort feature and used as the sort output file. SELECT SORT-WORK-ONE ASSIGN TO SORTFILE. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. You must define this file(s) in the standard way. 05 SORT-KEY2 PIC X(5). You must then RELEASE the records via RELEASE to the SORT feature.blogspot. Example 2 with INPUT and OUTPUT PROCEDURES Example with USING www. DATA DIVISION. SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO OUTFILE. END-PARA. you must open the output file and write the sorted records when the OUTPUT PROCEDURE is driven. PERFORM MAIN-PARA DISPLAY "SORT RC " SORT-RETURN PERFORM END-PARA. PROGRAM-ID. If you specify OUTPUT PROCEDURE.mainframe230. This Procedure can do any modifications in the record and copy Using RELEASE Statement. MAIN-PARA. You must define file name 3 in the usual way. SELECT INFILE ASSIGN TO INFILE. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. The OUTPUT PROCEDURE is mutually exclusive with USING. PROCEDURE DIVISION. 01 SORT-RECORD. SORT1. FD INFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS INFILE-RECORD.2010 . Input-Procedure is specified to Select or Modify the Input Record before Sort.

01 WS-VARS. PROGRAM-ID. OPEN INPUT INFILE OUTPUT OUTFILE IF INFILE-STAT NOT = "00" DISPLAY "INFILE DID NOT OPEN :" INFILE-STAT STOP RUN END-IF IF OUTFILE-STAT NOT = "00" www. CONFIGURATION SECTION. SELECT SORTFILE ASSIGN TO SORTFILE. FD INFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS INFILE-RECORD. FILE-CONTROL. SELECT INFILE ASSIGN TO INFILE FILE STATUS IS INFILE-STAT. 05 SORT-KEY1 PIC X(5). INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. FILE SECTION. DATA DIVISION. 03 INFILE-EOF PIC X VALUE "N".COBOL Training IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. SD SORTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD SORT-RECORD. 88 OUTFILEEND VALUE "Y". 03 OUTFILE-STAT PIC X(2). 03 WS-INFILE-BUFFER PIC X(80). 03 INFILE-STAT PIC X(2). 05 SORT-DATA PIC X(70). SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO OUTFILE FILE STATUS IS OUTFILE-STAT. 01 OUTFILE-RECORD PIC X(80). SORT2. 03 OUTFILE-END PIC X VALUE "N".com Page 73 date:16. PROCEDURE DIVISION. SOURCE-COMPUTER. 01 SORT-RECORD.blogspot. 03 WS-FLAG PIC X(1) VALUE "0". FD OUTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 80 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS OUTFILE-RECORD. 88 INFILEEOF VALUE "Y".mainframe230. 03 WS-FLAG PIC X(1) VALUE "0". WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 03 WS-OUTFILE-BUFFER PIC X(80). ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. 05 SORT-KEY2 PIC X(5). IBM-390 WITH DEBUGGING MODE.2010 . PERFORM OPEN-PARA PERFORM MAIN-PARA DISPLAY "SORT RC " SORT-RETURN PERFORM CLOSE-PARA PERFORM END-PARA. OPEN-PARA.05. 01 INFILE-RECORD PIC X(80).

The sort feature will store input records you supply in sort work files until your INPUT PROCEDURE returns. SORT-INPROC. PERFORM SORT-READ UNTIL INFILEEOF. D DISPLAY "IN SORT-WRITE" PERFORM SORT-RETURN-PARA WRITE OUTFILE-RECORD FROM WS-OUTFILE-BUFFER.2010 . MERGE The MERGE statement is a PROCEDURE DIVISION statement which merges two or more input files on some common key. SORT-OUTPROC. STOP RUN. After your INPUT PROCEDURE returns. www. CLOSE INFILE CLOSE OUTFILE. As each output record (sorted) is ready your OUTPUT PROCEDURE is driven. SORT-RETURN-PARA. D DISPLAY "IN SORT-RETURN" RETURN SORTFILE INTO WS-OUTFILE-BUFFER AT END MOVE "Y" TO OUTFILE-END. D DISPLAY "IN OUTPROC" PERFORM SORT-WRITE UNTIL OUTFILEEND. SORT-WRITE. When you have no more input you return from the INPUT PROCEDURE SORTINPROC. When it is thus driven you read input records one after the other and issue the RELEASE verb to make these records available to sort. Notice that while the INPUT PROCEDURE is driven only once.COBOL Training DISPLAY "OUTFILE DID NOT OPEN :" OUTFILE-STAT STOP RUN END-IF. The merged records are then written to an output file or made available to an output procedure.com Page 74 date:16. END-PARA. once for each output record. MAIN-PARA. the sort feature will sort the stored input records.blogspot. SORT SORTFILE ON ASCENDING KEY SORT-KEY2 WITH DUPLICATES IN ORDER INPUT PROCEDURE SORT-INPROC OUTPUT PROCEDURE SORT-OUTPROC. READ-INFILE.05. the OUTPUT PROCEDURE is driven many times. CLOSE-PARA. Notes: In the above program the sort feature drives the SORT-INPROC (INPUT PROCEDURE) only once. PERFORM READ-INFILE IF NOT INFILEEOF RELEASE SORT-RECORD FROM WS-INFILE-BUFFER. SORT-READ.mainframe230. D DISPLAY "IN READ" READ INFILE INTO WS-INFILE-BUFFER AT END MOVE "Y" TO INFILE-EOF.

FILE-CONTROL. File-name-4 is the actual output merged file.com Page 75 date:16.blogspot. Multiple files can specified. 05 MERGE-KEY1 PIC X(5).COBOL Training <──────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <─────────────┐ │ >>──MERGE──file-name-1────┬────┬──┬─ASCENDING──┬──┬─────┬────data-name-1─┴─┴──────> └─ON─┘ └─DESCENDING─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────┬──USING──file-name-2───────> └─┬───────────┬──SEQUENCE──┬────┬──alphabet-name-1─┘ └─COLLATING─┘ <─────────────┐ >────file-name-3─┴────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬─OUTPUT PROCEDURE──┬────┬──procedure-name1──┬───────────────────────────────┬─┬──>< │ │ │ <─────────────┐ └─IS─┘ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-2─┘ │ └─THRU────┘ │ │ └─IS─┘ └─GIVING────file-name-4─┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘      File-name -1 is the name given in the SD entry that describes the records to be merged. SELECT INFILE2 ASSIGN TO INFILE2. SELECT MERGE-WORK-ONE ASSIGN TO MERGFILE.mainframe230. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.05. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. MERGE1. File-name-2 and file-name-3 are files to be merged. GIVING and POUTPUT-PROCEDURE are mutually exclusive Other rules remain same as that of SORT statement. PROGRAM-ID. SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO OUTFILE. 01 MERGE-RECORD. FILE SECTION. 05 MERGE-DATA PIC X(70). FD INFILE1 RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F Example www. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. SELECT INFILE1 ASSIGN TO INFILE1.2010 . DATA DIVISION. 05 MERGE-KEY2 PIC X(5). SD MERGE-WORK-ONE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD MERGE-RECORD.

FD OUTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS OUTFILE-RECORD. 01 OUTFILE-RECORD PIC X(80). MAIN-PARA. PROCEDURE DIVISION. STOP RUN.05.2010 . INFILE1-RECORD PIC X(80). PERFORM MAIN-PARA DISPLAY "MERGE RC " SORT-RETURN PERFORM END-PARA. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.COBOL Training DATA RECORD IS INFILE1-RECORD. INFILE2 RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 80 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS INFILE2-RECORD. 01 INFILE2-RECORD PIC X(80). 01 FD www.com Page 76 date:16. MERGE MERGE-WORK-ONE ON ASCENDING KEY MERGE-KEY1 USING INFILE1 INFILE2 GIVING OUTFILE.blogspot. END-PARA.mainframe230.

Any optional Currency sign mentioned in argument 2 and decimal point are missed on conversion. 6 month of the year 7. 01-01-1601 =1 and 30.Reverse of DAY-OF-INTEGER 11.Converts a Date in the Gregorian Calendar from integer date form to standard date form yyyyddd 01-01-1601 =1 and 30. NUMBER HANDLING LENGTH .4 Year in the Gregorian Calendar 5.of periods Formula is Argument1/(1-(1-Argument1)**Argument2 Or 1/argument2 if Argument1=0 PRESENT – VALUE .05.Returns a Value that approximate the present value of a series of future periodend amounts specified by argument1 at a discount rate argument2 www.14 HHMMSS and so on. DATE / TIME CURRENT-DATE .Reverse of DATE-OF-INTEGER INTEGER-OF-DAY .mainframe230.com Page 77 date:16.3.Returns the numeric value represented by the alphanumeric character string specified in the argument NUMVAL-C .COBOL Training 11.671=31-12-9999 DAY-OF-INTEGER . 8 Day of the Month 9.Returns the content of the argument that contains the maximum value FUNCTION MAX(MARK) . 11.1.67. Argument2) Argument1= Rate Of Interest Argument2 = No.671=31-12-9999 INTEGER-OF-DATE .Converts a Date in the Gregorian Calendar from integer date form to standard date form yyyymmdd. FINANCE ANNUITY FUNCTION ANNUITY(Argument1.blogspot.Returns the content of the argument that contains the minimum value FUNCTION MIN (MARK) NUMVAL .67. INTRINSIC FUNCTIONS Frequently Used functions are Listed here for reference..Returns 21 Chars alphanumeric Value 1. DATE-OF-INTEGER . 11.2. MAX Ex:MIN Ex:.Returns the numeric value represented by the alphanumeric character string specified in the argument .2010 .Returns the length of the Picture Clause FUNCTION LENGTH(NAME) Will return the Picture Clause value of NAME.

COBOL Training 11.blogspot.05.com Page 78 date:16.4.DEVIATION MEDIAN MIDRANGE RANDOMRANGE www.mainframe230. MATHEMATICS & STATISTICS COS FACTORIAL INTEGER MEAN STANDARD .2010 .

compilation stops and only syntax checking is done for the balance of the compilation Default COMPILE(S) Default symbol is the dollar sign ($).05. Default Value is Yes. E is error : S is severe. This option allows you to define an alternate default currency symbol causes subprograms that are invoked through the CALL literal statement to be dynamically loaded Performance consideration : Using DYNAM = YES eases sub-programs maintenance since the application will not have to be relink-edited if the subprogram is changed. Compiler options can be coded in the Program itself but the action is controlled in the JCL as follows. The compiler uses the first character of the specified record area to place the printer control character.2010 . When an error of the level specified or of a more severe level occurs. NOADV     LIB  SOURCE / NOSOURCE   COMPILE(n)  NOCOMPILE  NOC (W) NOC (E) NOC (S)   CURRENCY  DYNAM   www. COMPILER OPTIONS A compiler directing Statement is a statement beginning with a compile directing verb (CBL Process) that causes the compiler to take specific action during compilation. However individual applications may experience some performance degradation due to a longer path length but overall system performance may be slightly improved.com Page 79 date:16.ADVANCING. The first character of the record does not have to be explicitly reserved by the programmer Instructs the compiler not to adjust the record length for WRITE. ADV    Instructs the compiler to add one byte to the record length for the printer control character. The option may be useful to programmers who use WRITE ADVANCING in their source files.mainframe230.blogspot. This listing also includes any statements embedded by COPY By default SOURCE = YES Indicates that you want full compilation including diagnostics and object code indicates that you want only a syntax check Specifies an error message level : W is warning .COBOL Training 12. The application programmer must ensure that the record description allows for this additional byte. It indicates that the source program contains COPY statements It Indicates the listing of source statements should be included in compiler generated o/p.

COBOL Training NODYNAM  Causes the text files of subprograms called with a CALL literal statement to be included with the calling program into a single module file.2010 .05.mainframe230. MAP and TEST Options www.com Page 80 date:16. See also LIST.blogspot.

2 This Error Will Occur When Index Key Fails 1 A sequence error exists for a sequentially accessed indexed file.05. 8 An OPEN statement was attempted on a file previously closed with lock. 1 When At End Condition Fails 0 A sequential READ was attempted on an optional file that was not present or after end of file was reached. 2 An attempt was made to WRITE a record that would create a duplicate key. 3 An attempt was made to access a record that does not exist or an optional file that was not present. (This does not apply to VSAM sequential files. 4 Returned When Logic Error in opening/closing/deleting etc 9 Implementator Defined 0 Successful Open / Read / Write / Operation.mainframe230. 7 An OPEN statement was attempted on a file that would not support the open mode specified in the OPEN statement. The first digit will denote the general category under which the return code falls. REEL/UNIT. 4 A sequential READ was attempted for a relative file and the relative record number is larger than the maximum number that can be stored in the relative key data item. The second digit will denote the particular type of Error/Message under that category.com Page 81 date:16. 0 Successful Completion 2 A duplicate key was detected. If the open mode is I-O or EXTEND.COBOL Training 13. 4 An attempt was made to WRITE beyond the boundaries for a relative or indexed file. 1 Returned When At End Condition Fails 2 Returned When Index Key Fails 3 Returned When Permanent Open Error Occurs. 4 The length of the record just read did not conform to the fixed file attributes for the file.) 7 An OPEN or CLOSE statement was executed with a phrase that implies a tape file (i. 5 An OPEN statement was attempted on a non-optional file that was not present.blogspot.NO REWIND. The first digit category are as follows : 0 Returned When Successful Open / Read / Write / Operation. 4 An attempt was made to WRITE beyond the boundaries of a sequential file. ERROR CODES The File Status Code attached to a file will have Picture Clause of length 2 digits. www. file status 0 is returned. 3 Permanent Open Error Occurs.1. 5 The referenced optional file was not present when the OPEN statement was executed.2010 . APPENDIX 13. the file is created. or FOR REMOVAL but the referenced file is not a tape file.

4 Logic Error in opening/closing/deleting etc. Invalid or incomplete VSAM file information.blogspot. 9 Implemention Defined 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No further information. 2. 9 A DELETE or REWRITE was attempted on a file not open in the I-O mode. 4 An attempt was made to REWRITE a record with an invalid length.com Page 82 date:16. 1 An OPEN statement was attempted for a file in the open mode.2. ANY OTHER ALLOWANCE 9999. Write a program to ACCEPT the following details from the user and compute payslip.05. 13. No file position indicator for sequential request. File integrity verified for VSAM file. ANY OTHER DEDUCTION 9999. showing the given details along with GROSS and NET. 8 A WRITE was attempted on a file not open in the I-O. VSAM resource not available. Write a program to ACCEPT your name and display the same the number of times you specify. 7 A READ was attempted for a file not open in the input or I-O mode. No DD statement specified for VSAM file. VSAM password error.2. 99999. 99. BASIC PROBLEM SOLVING 1.mainframe230.COBOL Training 9 An OPEN statement was unsuccessful because of a conflict between the fixed file attributes and the attributes specified for the file in the program. Follow the Program Coding standard strictly. Logic error. 13. X(30). EMPLOYEE-NUMBER EMPLOYEE-NAME EMPLOYEE-BASIC PERCENTAGE -OF. or extend mode. www. EXERCISES The following problems are only models. You can select similar problems and write programs. 99. output.2010 . 3 The last I/O statement executed for the file prior to the execution of a REWRITE or DELETE statement was not a successfully executed READ statement.CCA PERCENTAGE OF HRA PERCENTAGE-OF-PF XXXXX. 6 A sequential READ was attempted but no valid next record had been established.1. 99. 2 A CLOSE was attempted for a file not in the open mode.

X(30). 4.blogspot. REPORT PREPARATION 1. 2.Write a program to display the class obtained by the student based on the marks obtained in three subjects as per the following rules. Transaction entries may be saved in a PS Data Set.In no subject the boy should have got < 40 Condition For Class III Class : 40 or More but Less than 50 II Class : 50 or More but Less than 60 I Class : 60 or More but Less than 80 DISTINCTION : 80 or More 13. Edit numeric data with comma for clarity. Basic Condition :. 13.COBOL Training 3. FILE HANDLING 1. Write a COBOL Program to maintain the above Stock Master and do necessary update process on Issue/Receipt of the Item. ARRAY HANDLING 1. Display the temperature detail on Input. Transfer the output of Problem 2 to a PS DATA SET. 2. For the above programs give a proper report heading and column headings and print the report in the formatted form. www.2. Use necessary edited picture clauses.3.mainframe230. 3. Write a program to input the temperature for a week and display the temperature on any day of the week. UNIT OF MEASUREMENT XXX. 13. Write a program to create a KSDS for the Stock Master File ITEM NUMBER ITEM NAME BALANCE QUANTITY XXXXX. Expand the Table to two dimensional array to accept week as well as the temperature on any day of the week.com Page 83 date:16.2. Find the day on which there was the highest temperature. 3. 99999. Write a program to Input the data in a ESDS Dataset and display the Data. 2.2.4.05.2.2010 .

MSGLEVEL=(1.LINK EDITING & EXECUTING---------------//* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* CHECK JOBNAME AND USERID BEFORE SUBMITTING //* THIS JCL COMPILES AD/CYCLE COBOL/370 PROGRAM SPECIFIED BY //* COB. JCL for IGYWCL //&SYSUIDZZ JOB CLASS=B. IGYWCLG is a catalogued procedure to Compile. //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//CMPCOB EXEC IGYWCLG //COBOL.DISP=SHR //LKED.SYSLMOD DD NAME AND EXECUTES THE /* MEMBER.TRG1.SYSLMOD DD NAME .MSGCLASS=X.SYSIN DD DSN=&SYSUID.SYSIN DD * /* // ******** End of the Document ******** www.SYSIN DD NAME AND PRODUCES LOAD MODULE IN THE DATA SET //* MEMBER SPECIFIED BY LKED.2010 .1).MSGLEVEL=(1.SYSLMOD DD DSN=&SYSUID.LOAD(MEMBER1). // REGION=2M.DISP=SHR //GO.1).COBOL Training 13.SYSIN DD DSN=&SYSUID. // REGION=2M. JCL IGYWCL is a catalogued procedure to Compile and Linkedit any COBOL Program.mainframe230.3.com Page 84 date:16. Linkedit and execute any COBOL Program.TIME=(00. //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//CMPCOB EXEC IGYWCL or IGYWCLG //COBOL.COBOL(VTOCLIST).TRG1.DISP=SHR //LKED.COBOL(MEMBER1).SYSLMOD DD DSN=&SYSUID.blogspot.05.NOTIFY=&SYSUID.SYSIN DD NAME AND PRODUCES LOAD MODULE IN THE DATA SET //* MEMBER SPECIFIED BY LKED.LOAD(VTOCLIST).TRG1.TIME=(00.TRG1.45) //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* ------------COMPILING & LINK EDITING---------------------------//* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* CHECK JOBNAME AND USERID BEFORE SUBMITTING //* THIS JCL COMPILES AD/CYCLE COBOL/370 PROGRAM SPECIFIED BY //* COB.45) //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* ------------COMPILING .NOTIFY=&SYSUID.MSGCLASS=X.DISP=SHR // JCL for IGYWCLG //&SYSUIDZZ JOB CLASS=B.

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