COBOL

Training Material

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

COBOL Training

Table of Contents

1. OBJECTIVES 2. INTRODUCTION TO COBOL
2.1. LANGUAGE CONSTRUCTION 2.2. COBOL CHARACTER SET 2.3. COBOL WORDS 2.4. COBOL CODING FORM 2.5. DIVISIONS OF COBOL

5 6
6 7 7 7 8

3. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION
3.1. SYNTAX OF IDENTIFICATION DIVISION

9
9

4. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION
4.1. CONFIGURATION SECTION 4.1.1. SOURCE-COMPUTER 4.1.2. OBJECT COMPUTER 4.1.3. SPECIAL-NAMES 4.2. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION 4.2.1. FILE-CONTROL 4.2.2. I-O CONTROL

10
10 10 10 10 11 11 11

5. DATA DIVISION
5.1. LITERALS AND FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS 5.1.1. NUMERIC LITERAL 5.1.2. NON-NUMERIC LITERAL 5.1.3. LIST OF FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS 5.2. Data Description 5.2.1. LEVEL NUMBERS 5.2.2. Data Names 5.2.3. CLAUSE 5.2.4. CONDITION NAMES

13
14 14 15 15 15 15 16 18 23

6. PROCEDURE DIVISION
6.1. STATEMENTS IN PROCEDURE DIVISION 6.2. Data Movement 6.2.1. MOVE 6.3. ARITHMETIC VERBS 6.3.1. ADD 6.3.2. SUBTRACT 6.3.3. MULTIPLY 6.3.4. DIVIDE 6.3.5. ROUNDED OPTION 6.3.6. ON SIZE ERROR 6.3.7. COMPUTE 6.3.8. ARITHMETIC OPERATORS 6.4. Miscellaneous 6.4.1. ACCEPT

24
25 26 26 27 27 28 30 31 33 33 33 33 34 34

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

Page 2

date:16.05.2010

COBOL Training 6.4.2. DISPLAY 6.4.3. CONTINUE 6.4.4. STOP RUN 6.4.5. EXIT 6.4.6. INITIALIZE 6.5. CONDITIONAL AND UNCONDITIONAL TRANSFER 6.5.1. SIMPLE IF STATEMENT 6.5.2. NESTED IF 6.5.3. EVALUATE STATEMENT 6.5.4. GO TO STATEMENT 6.5.5. GO TO WITH DEPENDING 6.5.6. ALTER 6.6. PERFORM STATEMENTS 6.6.1. Basic Perform 6.6.2. PERFORM with TIMES phrase 6.6.3. PERFORM with UNTIL phrase 6.6.4. PERFORM with VARYING phrase 6.7. Conditional expressions 6.7.1. RELATIONAL CONDITION 6.7.2. SIGN CONDITION 6.7.3. CLASS CONDITION 6.7.4. CONDITION-NAME CONDITION 6.7.5. NEGATED SIMPLE CONDITION 6.7.6. COMPOUND CONDITION 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42

7. FILE HANDLING
7.1. Sequential Files 7.2. Indexed Files 7.3. Direct Access Files 7.4.STEPS INVOLVED IN FILE HANDLING 7.4.1. EXAMPLE 7.5. SELECT Statement 7.5.1. ORGANIZATION CLAUSE 7.5.2. ACCESS MODE CLAUSE 7.5.3. RECORD KEY PHRASE 7.5.4. ALTERNATE KEY PHRASE 7.6. FD entry 7.6.1. BLOCK CONTAINS / RECORD CONTAINS PHRASE 7.6.2. RECORDING MODE CLAUSE 7.7. INPUT / OUTPUT STATEMENTS 7.8. VSAM DATA SET 7.8.1. VSAM DATASETS AND ACCESS MODES 7.8.2. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ENTRIES FOR VSAM FILES 7.8.3. COBOL STATEMENTS USABLE WITH SEQUENTIAL FILES 7.8.4. COBOL STATEMENTS WITH INDEXED FILES (KSDS) AND RELATIVE (RRDS) 7.8.5. PROCEDURE DIVISION STATEMENTS TO UPDATE VSAM FILES 7.8.6. ERROR PROCESSING FOR VSAM 7.8.7. APPLICATIONS BEST SUITED TO VSAM DATASETS

43
43 43 43 43 44 46 47 47 48 48 48 49 50 50 54 55 55 56 56 59 60 60

8. SUBPROGRAMS
8.1. LINKAGE SECTION 8.1.1. STATIC / DYNAMIC CALLS 8.1.2. PASSING RETURN CODE INFORMATION

61
62 63 63

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

Page 3

date:16.05.2010

COBOL Training

9. STRING, UNSTRING AND INSPECT STATEMENTS
9.1. STRING STATEMENT 9.2. UNSTRING STATEMENT 9.3. INSPECT STATEMENT 9.4. DECLARATIVES

65
65 66 68 70

10. SORT AND MERGE STATEMENTS 11. INTRINSIC FUNCTIONS
11.1. Number Handling 11.2. Date / Time 11.3. Finance 11.4. Mathematics & Statistics

71 77
77 77 77 78

12. COMPILER OPTIONS 13. APPENDIX
13.1. ERROR CODES 13.2. EXERCISES 13.2.1. BASIC PROBLEM SOLVING 13.2.2. REPORT PREPARATION 13.2.3. ARRAY HANDLING 13.2.4. FILE HANDLING 13.3. JCL

79 81
81 82 82 83 83 83 84

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

Page 4

date:16.05.2010

mainframe230.  Submit jobs to Compile and Link-edit COBOL source codes. is that the students should be able to:  Understand the standard format of the COBOL program.COBOL Training 1. OBJECTIVES The main objective after the completion of this course.blogspot. www.2010 .  Write programs using modular design techniques.05.com Page 5 date:16.  Write COBOL programs which uses VSAM or Non VSAM files.

1. A Problem may be segmented into multiple sub-functionalities.this ANSI standard incorporated structured programming techniques COBOL . computer manufacturers Standard Versions of COBOL  1960s .  A procedure oriented language.  Clause consists of word and characters.2010 . Each sub-functionality is written as a Paragraph in Procedure Division and executed in a logical sequence as mentioned. business. standardized  1985 .first COBOL standard set by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  1974 .second ANSI standard to make COBOL more efficient.wide variations in COBOL compilers  1968 .mainframe230. LANGUAGE CONSTRUCTION  COBOL is like an English language.  Word is made up of one or more characters. It specifies an attribute for an entry  Statement is syntactically valid combination of words and clauses www.blogspot. A Procedure is a module having its own functionality.05. INTRODUCTION TO COBOL COBOL => COMMON BUSINESS ORIENTED LANGUAGE Cobol can be referred to as:  High-Level Programming language oriented towards business applications.  Character is the lowest component.Some Characteristics  COBOL is self-documenting  COBOL is simple  COBOL is non-proprietary (portable)  COBOL is Maintainable 2.com Page 6 date:16.COBOL Training 2.  Problem Oriented and Machine independent History of COBOL  Developed in 1959 as standard language to meet needs of business  Committee to develop language convened by Department of Defense  Included representatives from academia.

.>.2./..Z b +. 2.<. Column 7 * (asterisk) designates entire line as comment www. COBOL CHARACTER SET Set of 51 characters 0.mainframe230...9 A. file names and section names. COBOL CODING FORM Columns 1. paragraph names.05. COBOL WORDS User defined words  Words declared by programmer to coin identifiers.-. DIGITS LETTERS SPACE/BLANK CHARACTER SPECIAL SYMBOLS 2.(dash) to indicate continuation of nonnumeric literal  Columns 8-72 divided into two areas Area A ..6 7 8 . Reserved words  Words that are having specific meaning to the compiler.blogspot.= $. comment or starting of a new page COBOL program statements Remarks / (slash) forces page break when printing source listing .“.2010 .columns 8 to 11 Area B .COBOL Training  Sentence is a sequence of one or more statements terminated by period  Paragraph consists of one or more sentences  Section consists of one or more paragraphs  Division consists of one or more paragraphs or sections  Program is made up of divisions 2. section and paragraph-names must all begin in Area A and end with a period.(.).72 73-80  Sequence numbers identifying pages or lines of a program Continuation..*.com Page 7 date:16..columns 12 to 72 Division.3.4.

05.mainframe230. DIVISIONS OF COBOL Every COBOL program contains up to four separate divisions in the following order:     IDENTIFICATION DIVISION ENVIRONMENT DIVISION DATA DIVISION PROCEDURE DIVISION www.com Page 8 date:16.5.blogspot.2010 .COBOL Training 2.

mainframe230.COMMENT ENTRY.blogspot. DATE-WRITTEN. For example. Security here does not pertain to the operating system security. PROGRAM-ID. SYNTAX OF IDENTIFICATION DIVISION IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. SECURITY. INSTALLATION. 3.COMMENT ENTRY. it is 8 characters. Other paragraphs are optional but essential for documentation.2010 . in the case of IBM COBOL. Should begin in Area A. PROGRAM NAME.COMMENT ENTRY.COMMENT ENTRY. Provides documentation about program. DATE-COMPILED.05. www. AUTHOR. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION The Identification Division is:        Paragraph ‘PROGRAM-ID’ followed by a user-defined name is compulsory. First division of a Cobol program.COBOL Training 3.com Page 9 date:16.1. Identifies program name to operating system.COMMENT ENTRY. Length of PROGRAM-ID differs from compiler to compiler. but the information that is passed to the user of the program about the Security features of the program.

OBJECT COMPUTER   Used to specify the target system. EBCDIC code is followed in MVS. SPECIAL-NAMES       Specifies collating sequence. ‘ and ‘ .com Page 10 date:16. The “With Debugging Mode” option can be mentioned to enable the Compiler to include all the lines with ‘D’ in the 7th column as syntax (Otherwise it is taken as comment).2.05. Division is terminated by a period. etc. 4. PERCENTAGE-SIGN IS 38. special-names. 4. object-computer.1. www. 4.1. The paragraphs of configuration section are SOURCE-COMPUTER.2010 . Describes the computer used. and SPECIAL-NAMES. CONFIGURATION and INPUT-OUTPUT. By default. Substitutes character for currency sign. We can change it to ASCII.blogspot. or any other order if we define SPECIAL-NAMES. symbolic-names and classes defined by programmer.mainframe230. Should begin in Area A.1.1.3. OBJECT-COMPUTER. The program collating sequence can also be specified in this paragraph for SORTING and STRING COMPARISON. It can also include the debug Declaratives in PROCEDURE DIVISION. there should be only one period at the end. SOURCE-COMPUTER   Used to specify the name of the Source Computer compiling the COBOL program. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION       It is a machine dependent division. CONFIGURATION SECTION   Mentions the name of the source-computer. The Division itself is optional but for file handling it is essential. Contains two sections namely. 4.COBOL Training 4. ‘ are to be interchanged in the PIC clause. Maps IBM specified environment names to user defined mnemonic names. Regardless of the number of entries in this paragraph. We can also specify symbolic characters. Indicates that ‘ .1. such as. peripheral devices.

I-O CONTROL     Optional Paragraph. EDS001.2. Specifies when check points are to be taken.2. ALPHABET A01 IS "A" ALSO "a" "B" ALSO "b" ALPHABET A IS STANDARD-1 SYSIN IS PROGIN CURRENCY IS "@" DECIMAL-POINT IS COMMA.05. FILE-CONTROL SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO DD1 ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL ACCESS MODE SEQUENTIAL www.1. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION   Contains information regarding files to be used in the program. CONFIGURATION SECTION. Physical dataset is assigned in DD statement of JCL at execution time. Specifies the storage areas to be shared by different files.blogspot.COBOL Training 4. OBJECT-COMPUTER.    SELECT clause must appear first Other clauses may appear in any order Each clause must start in Area B 4. Consists of two paragraphs FILE-CONTROL and I-O CONTROL. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. A343. PROGRAM-ID. 4. The key word I-O control must begin in Area A. IBM-390 WITH DEBUGGING MODE. Example: IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.2. AUTHOR.com Page 11 date:16.2010 . SPECIAL-NAMES. Three formats for the FILE-CONTROL paragraph are:    Sequential file entries Indexed file entries Relative file entries Coding rules for FILE-CONTROL paragraph. SOURCE-COMPUTER.mainframe230. IBM-390 PROGRAM COLLATING SEQUENCE IS A01. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION.2. FILE-CONTROL Associates each file used in a COBOL program with an external ddname.

blogspot.com Page 12 date:16. www.2010 .05.COBOL Training FILE STATUS IS WS-FST.mainframe230.

05.  Describes input and output format of data in files.com Page 13 date:16.Used if labels stored in file www.2010 . DATA DIVISION Data division is used to define data needed to be accessed by the program.blogspot.mainframe230.COBOL Training 5. File Description clauses LABEL RECORDS clause . Describes data made available from another program. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION    LINKAGE SECTION  FILE SECTION File Description Entries   Each file described with an FD (File Descriptor) sentence One FD for each SELECT statement in ENVIRONMENT DIVISION Syntax: FD file-name RECORD IS LABEL RECORDS ARE STANDARD OMITTED RECORD CONTAINS integer-1 CHARACTERS BLOCK CONTAINS integer-2 RECORDS. Defines any constants and work areas.  The three sections of this division are: FILE SECTION  Describes Record Structure of Files Succeeds file section Used for intermediate storage Common practice to group related items together.

NUMERIC LITERAL  Must contain at least one digit www.Indicates size of each record (Optional but recommended since it provides check on record size) Defining a Record Each FD followed by record description entries for the file Record-name defined at the 01 level -Considered highest level of data Fields within a record defined at subordinate level with level numbers from 02 to 49    Example: 01 Employee-Rec-In.blogspot.2010 .05.com Page 14 date:16.COBOL Training BLOCKS CONTAINS clause . 05 Name-In … 05 Annual-Salary-In … 05 Job-Description-In … WORKING-STORAGE SECTION      Follows FILE SECTION Starts in Area A. MOVE SPACES TO WS-REC. ends with period All items must be defined at 01 level or in entries subordinate to 01 level entry Rules for user-defined data-names apply Elementary items: • • Must include PICTURE clause May be assigned initial value with VALUE clause 5.  Literals are classified in to NUMERIC and NON-NUMERIC literals.3 / ‘MANAGER’.Indicates blocking factor for disk files Both labels and blocking usually handled by operating systems so clauses will be omitted RECORD CONTAINS clause . 5. Figurative constants are used in the program as such for better readability as. Literals are storable in a memory Location having a user defined name called Data Name or Identifier or Variable or Field Figurative Constant is a COBOL RESERVED WORD representing frequently used constants like ZEROS / SPACES.mainframe230.1.1.1. LITERALS AND FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS     Literal is a constant representing a number or Non number (Alpha numeric) like 45.

if used must be the left-most character Not more than one decimal point Decimal may not be the right most character Maximum of 18 digits.05. The level-number specifies the hierarchy of data within a record. 77. 05 TOTAL-MARK PIC 9(3) VALUE 100.3. 5.  www.Sign. A level-number begins a data description entry. 5.1.com Page 15 date:16. a renamed or redefined item.mainframe230. or 88.2010 . Here 100 is a numeric constant assigned in identifier TOTAL-MARK. or from one of the special level-numbers. or a condition-name entry. 66. A record structure is a structure of all the fields of a record.1.COBOL Training     + or .2. NON-NUMERIC LITERAL     May consist of any character in the character set Must be enclosed in quotes A numeric literal in quotes is non-numeric Maximum length of 120 chars 05 COMPANY-NAME PIC X(3) VALUE ‘EDS’. Here ‘EDS’ is an alphanumeric constant assigned in identifier COMPANY-NAME. and identifies special-purpose data entries.blogspot. LEVEL NUMBERS    A Record is a Collection of all the fields pertaining to an Item/person/Transaction. It may be available in the FILE SECTION/ WORKING-STORAGE SECTION/ LINKAGE SECTION. LIST OF FIGURATIVE CONSTANTS ZERO / ZEROES / ZEROS QUOTE / QUOTES SPACE / SPACES ONE OR MORE ZEROS ONE OR MORE “ ONE OR MORE SPACE X’FF’ FOR EBCDIC LOW-VALUE / LOW-VALUES LOWEST VALUE IN COLLATING SEQUENCE ALL literal ONE or MORE OCCURENCES OF literal HIGH-VALUE / HIGH-VALUES HIGHEST VALUE IN COLLATING SEQUENCE 5.2. DATA DESCRIPTION The general format of the data description is  Level-number data-name / FILLER clauses 5.2. A level-number has a value taken from the set of integers between 1 and 49.1.

.2.. DATA NAMES       Identifier name/ Data name should not exceed 30 Characters. PIC A.. 77 Identifies independent elementary data item. 05 DN─2. 5. PIC A. 02-49 These level numbers specify group and elementary items within a record. It must begin in Area A. ..com Page 16 date:16. 0001AB.01 entry may be either a group item or an elementary item. 05 DN─4.05.1. A(30).. 01 SWITCHES. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 999-EMPLOYEE-RECORD Data name must be unique within a Record www. 88 Identifies any condition name that is associated with a particular value of conditional variable Level Number 01 can appear as a Group Level Number as well as Elementary data item level number. DN─6 RENAMES DN─1 THROUGH DN─3. VALUE "Y"..2010 ..   A level .number specifies the record itself. Only special Character allowed is – ( Hyphen) but should not be at the Beginning or End Examples of data names EMPLOYEE-NAME .. │<───────────────RECORD─I───────────────>│ ┌──────┬──────────┬───────────┬──────────┐ │ DN─1 │ DN─2 │ DN─3 │ DN─4 │ └──────┴──────────┴───────────┴──────────┘ │<───────────DN─6────────────>│ 66 RECORD─I.2. SPECIAL LEVEL NUMBERS 66 Identifies items that contain the RENAMES clause. 03 FIRST-NAME 03 INITIAL-1 03 INITIAL-2 03 INITIAL-3 5. XX. PIC PIC XXXX. COMPANY. 05 DN─1. It can appear only as an elementary Data Item Level Number..mainframe230. Example 01 77 01 TOTAL WS-FLAG PIC PIC 9(5). . 05 DN─3. PIC A.   01 EMPLOYEE-REC. 02 EMP-NO 02 EMP-NAME. . There should be at least one Alphabet anywhere in the name.blogspot.1. They may begin in Area A or B Group Level Data Names Will not have Picture Clause.COBOL Training 01 This level .2. 02 LOADDATA-EOF-SWITCH 88 LOADDATA-EOF PIC X(1) VALUE "N".

blogspot. Amount$Out 3.05. 98-6 8.com Page 17 date:16.mainframe230. My-Section 5.Date-Of-Birth 2. Section 4. it has to be qualified as Identifier-name of Record Name. -First-Name 6. Last--Name 7.COBOL Training  If ‘Name’ is duplicated across Records. • DISPLAY BALANCE OF STOCK-RECORD  Here balance is an identifier declared in Stock-record.2010 . Time out www. Identify the valid data-names 1.

VALUE SPACES. sign(signed/unsigned). FILLER Whenever there is no need for specific reference to fields in a record structure. edited numeric). CLAUSE A Clause specifies certain characteristics of the data item being described.2. PICTURE CLAUSE Describes the class (numeric. VALUE SPACES. X(10) VALUE SPACES. www. alphabetic. X(10) VALUE SPACES.1.2010 .2. X(10) 9(6). TYPE Numeric CHARACTER STRING 9 V S P Alphabetic A B Alpha Numeric Examples VAR1 PIC A(04) VAR2 PIC 9(4) (Defines 4 alphabetic characters.com Page 18 date:16.1. 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 FILLER NAME FILLER BASIC FILLER DA FILLER GROSS PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC X(10) X(30) .) (Defines 4 Numeric digits) X REMARK Used for arithmetic operations Assumed Decimal Point Data item is Signed Position of Assumed decimal point when the point lies outside the data item Data Item contains only a Letter Or Space Blank insertion character Data item contains any allowable character from the COBOL character set. This Data name is used wherever there is fixed information like SPACES Or Headings Are stored. decimal point location and size characteristics of a data item. 5.2. Example 01 Detail-record. alphanumeric.05. Specified for every elementary item Format of Picture Clause.3.mainframe230.2.blogspot. 9(04) . we name it as FILLER or F. 5.COBOL Training 5. 9(05) . The detail of each Clause is explained below.3.

2.3 EDIT TYPES .05.05 b$342.2010 .3.419.ZZ $$$$9.3. EDIT TYPES . EDITED PICTURE CLAUSES Used to display Numeric and other data in the human readable form.50 EDITED VALUE b3840 * * 052 $**985 -b4652 -382 +382 0382b2.1. EDIT TYPES .00 00b00b46 04560 000/032/54 www.ALPHABETIC Used To Insert Blank within Alphabetic Characters. ) BLANK( ‘B‘ ) ZERO( 0 ) SLASH( / ) BLANK WHEN ZERO (Inserts blanks when data value is zero) 5.com Page 19 date:16.56 is easier to read instead of 7741958.2.2.COBOL Training 5.3. Example: 10 VAR1 PIC A(2)BBBA(3).ALPHANUMERIC BLANK.mainframe230. Displaying the number as 77.456 bbbb.2.1.NUMERIC DATA Z * $ + CR DB ZERO SUPPRESSION ASTERISK CURRENCY SIGN MINUS SIGN PLUS SIGN CREDIT DEBIT SIGN PERIOD( .1. /* displays xy abc */ MOVE “xyabc” TO VAR1 DISPLAY VAR1 5. ) COMMA( . 5.1.Z99 ZZZZ. ZERO and SLASH INSERTION PIC OF THE FIELD ZZZV99 * * 999 $ * *999 -ZZZV99 +999 +999 9999+ ZZ.4.1.99 99B99B99 09990 999/999/99 NUMERIC VALUE 38^4 00052 985 -46^52 -382 382 -382 2456 5 342 46 456 3254 BLANK WHEN ZERO ZZZ.blogspot.3.2.99 BLANK WHEN ZERO 25 bb2.

2. VALUE ALL ‘ . The number of bytes required is equal to the size of the item. +. DISPLAY USAGE. Non-Numeric(in Quotes) or Figurative Constant Not for items whose size is variable Value of item should not exceed picture size Consistent with class of PIC clause Examples 01 WS-REC.2. DB Are Mutually Exclusive $.2010 .2. VALUE ZERO.com Page 20 date:16.3. -. EDIT COMBINATION +.1. * Are Mutually Exclusive.**) V and . 5. Z. Are Mutually Exclusive 5.‘.1. COMPANY ‘. VALUE CLAUSE Assigns initial value to a data item VALUE IS literal Literal can be Numeric. Each character of the data is represented in one byte .COBOL Training 999. 05 WS-NAME 05 FILLER 01 01 WS-NUM1 WS-CHAR2 PIC X(30) PIC X(20) PIC 9(5) PIC X(5) VALUE ‘ABC VALUE ZERO. $ can appear at first place and * as Floating($****.5.2. USAGE CLAUSE Specifies how a data item is represented internally.3.3.3.   DISPLAY COMPUTATIONAL SYNTAX USAGE IS [DISPLAY ] [COMPUTATIONAL] [COMP-1] [COMP-2] [COMP-3] 5.blogspot. -. CR.99 BLANK WHEN ZERO 0 bbbbbb 5. DISPLAY is the default usage 5.3.3.2.mainframe230. COMPUTATIONAL(COMP) USAGE   Maintained in binary Only integral numbers www.2.3.2.3.05.

05.mainframe230.COBOL Training   Depending on the size of the data item.   Same as COMP 1 except that data is represented internally in two words Increases the precision of the data Internal Representation In Packed Decimal Form Each digit and sign occupy 1/2 a byte The Hexadecimal number C or F denotes a positive sign The Hexadecimal number D denotes a negative sign Maximum precision is 18 COMP-3 USAGE.     One word in floating point form The number is represented in hexadecimal The picture clause cannot be specified Suitable for arithmetic operations WS-NUM USAGE COMP-1.2010 . it can be stored either in half word or full word Should be numeric only NUMBER OF digits IN PIC 1 TO 4 5 TO 9 10 TO 18 LENGTH OF ITEM IN BYTES 2 4 8 01 WS .3. Internally stored as 00010010 1 10 2 A is stored as 00000000 (Extra Byte) 5.blogspot.4.2. COMP-2 USAGE.3 10 A PIC 0011 3 PIC 0001 S9(3) USAGE COMP-3 1111 F S9(04) USAGE COMP-3 VALUE 123. COMP-1 USAGE . 0010 0011 1111 VALUE 123. SIGN CLAUSE   [SIGN IS] [LEADING] [SEPARATE CHAR ] [TRAILING] Specifies the position and mode of representation of sign www.      EXAMPLE FOR USAGE COMP .NUM PIC S9(004) USAGE COMP.com Page 21 date:16.

5.6.no > <Data-item-1> REDEFINES <Data-item-2>. Y(1) = 8 bytes) Hence. 05 NAME-ADD.blogspot.com Page 22 date:16. X(1) = 5 bytes. or within the FILESECTION if a part of a record is to be remapped. Example: FD 01 CARDIN. REDEFINES CLAUSE This clause allows the same area of memory to be referenced by more than one data-name with different formats and sizes.05. 10 NAME PIC 10 ADD-LN-1 PIC 05 NAME-DD REDEFINES X(20).COBOL Training     Only for numeric elementary items Picture string should contain ‘S’ Usage should be DISPLAY Default is TRAILING without separate character EXAMPLE PIC S9(3) S9(3) VALUE -243 -243 SIGN LEADING TRAILING REPRESENTATION K 4 3 2 4 L 5.3. D-TYPE-1 05 CARD-CODE PIC 9. OCCURS 10 TIMES PIC X(20). 10 WS-REC 15 15 X Y OCCURS 10 PIC PIC TIMES. We use OCCURS clause to allocate physically contiguous memory locations to store the table values and access them with subscripts.3. 5. www. Example 01 01 WS-TABLE. X(8). NAME-ADD.mainframe230. OCCURS CLAUSE There may be a need to keep a table of values in the memory for calculations. SYNTAX AND RULES < Lvl.Explicit Use OF REDEFINES REDEFINES must be used for re-mapping record areas outside the FILE-SECTION. 10 such group items (WS-REC) are allocated memory space contiguously.3.6.2.1. WS .2. 5. 10 WS-NAME WS-TABLE.e.2. X(5).REC (1) = 13 BYTES (i. Redefines clause must immediately follow <data-item-1> Level nos of <data-item-1> and <data-item-2> must be identical and not 66 or 88.2010 . X(40).

The question of justification comes only when you move a smaller data item to a larger data item.com Page 23 date:16.05.COBOL Training 10 ADD-LN-2 PIC X(60).7. PIC XX. 5.2. Example would be a PIC X(5) field to a PIC X(20) 5.2010 . W-CHAR-123 THRU W-CHAR-56. 01 WS-CHAR PIC Default is left justified X(05) JUSTIFIED RIGHT.3. 5. 01 W-RESPONSE 05 W-CHAR-123 05 W-CHAR-4 05 W-CHAR-56 ADD-RESPONSE VIEW-RESPONSES DELETE-RESPONSE PIC XXX. W-CHAR-123 THRU W-CHAR-4. O THRU 20 21 THRU 99 88 C-PERSON-MINOR 88 C-PERSON-ADULT 01 W-PERSON-AGE www. RENAMES RENAMES RENAMES 66 66 66 W-CHAR-123.1 > and <data-item-2> Value clauses are allowed only in condition names in a redefined data-item.3.8.2. At 01 level.6. OCCURS and REDEFINES cannot be combined.blogspot. PIC X. CONDITION NAMES   Allow users to assign acceptable values for data names Are used as an abbreviation for condition checking PIC VALUE VALUE 9(02).2. RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF REDEFINES Redefinition ceases whenever a level number is less than or equal to that of <data-item-1> or <data-item2> Multiple redefinition’s of the same area is possible provided there are no new storage areas defined in between < data-item . 5.4.3.2. JUSTIFIED CLAUSE Overrides standard positioning rules for a receiving stem of the alphabetic or alphanumeric categories.2. RENAMES Regrouping of elementary data items in a Record. Justified clause does not alter initial settings as determined by the value clause Justified clause must not be specified with level 66(RENAMES) and level 88(condition-names) clauses.mainframe230. <data-name-2> may not have an OCCURS clause.

FILE SECTION. Example: MOVE .COBOL Training 6.05. Example: SUBTRACT Tax FROM GrossPay GIVING NetPay www. PROCEDURE DIVISION    Last division in a COBOL program Contains statements which specify the operations to be performed Contains the following structure Division: A division is a block of code.21 TO VatRate MOVE 1235. A statement consists of a COBOL verb and an operand or operands.mainframe230. Paragraphs: A paragraph is a block of code made up of one or more sentences. usually containing one or more sections.2010 .blogspot. Sentences and statements: A sentence consists of one or more statements and is terminated by a period.76 TO ProductCost COMPUTE VatAmount = ProductCost * VatRate. PROGRAM-ID. Section: A section is a block of code usually containing one or more paragraphs. that starts where the division name is encountered and ends with the beginning of the next division or with the end of the program text. Example: SelectUnpaidBills SECTION. Example: PrintFinalTotals. A paragraph begins with the paragraph name and ends with the next paragraph or section name or the end of the program text. A section begins with the section name and ends where the next section name is encountered or where the program text ends.com Page 24 date:16.

.ON SIZE ERROR. END-SUBTRACT. ADD.COBOL Training PROCEDURE DIVISION GUIDELINES:        Paragraph names and section names should start in Area A Statements and sentences should start in Area B Section names and paragraph names are user-defined Section names must be unique and must be different from paragraph names Section names should be followed by a space and the word SECTION with a period at the end Paragraph names must be unique within a section If paragraph name is duplicated across sections. that causes the compiler to take a specific action during compilation. END-EVALUATE.. it has to be qualified as paragraph-name { of / in } section name 6.05. an IMPLICIT SCOPE TERMINATOR is a separator period that terminates the scope of all previous statements not yet terminated. Example with ADD ADD 1 TO TWODIGITYEAR ON SIZE ERROR PERFORM CENTURYWINDOWOVERFLOW END-ADD Implicit Scope Terminator At the end of any sentence.1. END-CALL.mainframe230. Example : Use..com Page 25 date:16.blogspot.. ADD. STATEMENTS IN PROCEDURE DIVISION Procedure division statements can be broadly classified as   Imperative Statements Statement which directs the program to take a specific action during execution Examples MOVE. EVALUATE . GOTO..2010 . IF .ON SIZE ERROR.NOT ON SIZE ERROR COMPUTE. www. This includes statements which contain conditional expression (like IF statement) and imperative statements (like ADD) Examples END-ADD. Copy Explicit Scope Terminator An EXPLICIT SCOPE TERMINATOR terminates the scope of conditional statements. EXIT. COMPUTE... and that the subsequent action of the object program is dependent on this truth value. END-DELETE. ADD.   Examples: Conditional Statements A conditional statement specifies that the truth value of a condition is to be determined. beginning with a compiler directing verb. END-MULTIPLY .NOT ON SIZE ERROR Compiler Directives A Compiler-Directing Statement is a statement. END-IF. END-COMPUTE.. END-READ.

truncation can take place at either ends or at both ends.2.2. alphanumeric or alphanumeric edited.4. DATA MOVEMENT 6.1.mainframe230.2.3. receiving area is filled from left to right.blogspot. 6.2. NUMERIC DATA TRANSFER RULES       When sending field is numeric or numeric-edited. one or more receiving fields. which is known as ‘ zero fill ‘.com Page 26 date:16.2.. If the receiving field is larger than the sending field. GROUP MOVES When at Least One Of The Fields is a Group item.1. MOVE {IDENTIFIER-1/LITERAL-1} TO IDENTIFIER-2[.. the unused positions will be filled with spaces.05. If the significant integral positions are likely to be lost. The dominant factor in the numeric data transfer is the alignment of decimal points of the two fields.1.2. If the receiving field is not large enough to hold the data received. which is called as ‘ space fill ‘ A defined as PIC 9999 B defined as PIC ZZZ9 MOVE 15 TO A. If the decimal point is not explicitly indicated. ALPHANUMERIC DATA TRANSFER     When both the sending and receiving fields are alphabetic. Value of the sending field remains unaltered after the statement execution. the Data Movement is called as Alphanumeric. the unused positions will be filled with zeros. 6. the decimal point is assumed to be at the right of the rightmost digit. In the case of alphanumeric data transfer. DATA MOVEMENT RULES   Only one sending field. a warning to that effect is issued by the compiler. the Data Movement is called Numeric.COBOL Training 6.1. truncation occurs from the right and the compiler gives a warning to that effect If the receiving field is larger than the field.2010 .2. 6.1. When the receiving field is smaller. MOVE To move data into a place in memory.IDENTIFIER-3].1. it is called A Group Move www. Format. MOVE A TO B Examples: After execution A will contain 0015 and B will contain bb15. 6.

in the left-toright order in which identifier-2 is specified. 05 FILLER PIC X(5).mainframe230. 01 PRINT-REC.2010 . XXXX. 05 05 05 REC-2 05 05 05 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC PIC 9999. 05 EMP-NO PIC 9(5). XXXX. 05 EMP-BASIC PIC 9(5)V99. This process is repeated for each successive occurrence of identifier-2. 05 FILLER PIC X(5). this statement can be used to substitute for a set of move statements MOVE CORRESPONDING IDENTIFIER-1 TO IDENTIFIER-2.3. 9999.99. 05 FILLER PIC X(5). ADD This verb is used to find the sum of two or more numbers and to store the resultant sum <──────────────────┐ <───────────────────────────┐ >>──ADD────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──TO────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴─────> └─literal-1────┘ └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-ADD─┘ All identifiers or literals preceding the key word TO are added together.1. 01 MOVE REC-1 TO REC-2 6.3. MOVE CORRESPONDING When the names of the corresponding data item of two groups are the same.5.1. ARITHMETIC VERBS 6. 6. PIC 9(5) 05 EMP-NAME PIC X(30). 05 EMP-NAME PIC X(30). 05 EMP-NO. AA.COBOL Training Example: 01 REC-1. 05 EMP-SAL PIC 9(6). AA.blogspot. www.com Page 27 date:16.2.05. Source and destination groups can include data names that are not common Only the fields having identical names in the two records will take part in the data movements The remaining data items in the destination group will remain unchanged Example: 01 PAY-REC. MOVE CORRESPONDING PAY-REC TO PRINT-REC. and this sum is added to and stored in identifier-2.

05. SUBTRACT <──────────────────┐ www.2.COBOL Training <──────────────────┐ >>──ADD────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──┬────┬──┬─identifier-2─┬──────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─TO─┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-ADD─┘ The values of the operands preceding the word GIVING are added together. ADD CORR OLD-REC TO NEW-REC. the value of the last named operand does not take part in the summation and only the result is stored there. In the group add.mainframe230. 6. >>──ADD──┬─CORRESPONDING─┬──identifier-1──TO──identifier-2───────────> └─CORR──────────┘ >──┬─────────┬──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────> └─ROUNDED─┘ └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-ADD─┘ Elementary data items within identifier-1 are added to and stored in the corresponding elementary items within identifier-2.2010 . only if they have the Same data name and same qualifiers Corresponding items can have different locations within the group and the field sizes Can also be different.com Page 28 date:16.      In the case of TO option. Example: ADD A TO B ADD A B GIVING C. numeric elementary items in the group referred to by first identifier are added to and stored in the corresponding elementary items of the second group. Whereas in the case of GIVING option. the previous value of the last named operand takes part in the summation and then this value is replaced by the result. Data items in identifier-1 and identifier-2 take part in the summation. and the sum is stored as the new value of each data item referenced by identifier-3.3.blogspot.

<──────────────────┐ >>──SUBTRACT────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──FROM──┬─identifier-2─┬───────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-SUBTRACT─┘ All identifiers or literals preceding the key word FROM are added together and this sum is subtracted from identifier-2 or literal-2.COBOL Training >>──SUBTRACT────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──FROM─────────────────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-SUBTRACT─┘ All identifiers or literals preceding the key word FROM are added together and this sum is subtracted from and stored immediately in identifier-2. in the left-to-right order in which identifier-2 is specified.blogspot. This process is repeated for each successive occurrence of identifier-2.mainframe230. The result of the subtraction is stored as the new value of each data item referenced by identifier-3.05.2010 .com Page 29 date:16. >>──SUBTRACT──┬─CORRESPONDING─┬──identifier-1──FROM──────────────────> └─CORR──────────┘ >──identifier-2──┬─────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< www.

>>──MULTIPLY──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬─────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-MULTIPLY─┘ The value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is multiplied by the value of identifier-2 or literal-2.mainframe230. the multiplication takes place in the left-to-right order in which identifier-2 is specified.3. The product is then stored in the data item(s) referenced by identifier-3. and the results are stored in.blogspot. MULTIPLY <───────────────────────────┐ >>──MULTIPLY──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴────> └─literal-1────┘ └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-MULTIPLY─┘ The value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is multiplied by the value of identifier-2.2010 . the product is then placed in identifier-2. Example: SUBTRACT A FROM B. SUBTRACT A B FROM C. Example: www. SUBTRACT 10 FROM A.3.com Page 30 date:16. 6. For each successive occurrence of identifier-2. the corresponding elementary data items within identifier-2.05.COBOL Training └─END-SUBTRACT─┘ Elementary data items within identifier-1 are subtracted from. SUBTRACT A B FROM C D.

blogspot. BY B.2010 . 6.4.3. >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬───────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> www. the division takes place in the left-to-right order in which identifier-2 is specified. BY B C D. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided into the value of identifier-2.com Page 31 date:16. BY B GIVING C. The value of the quotient is stored in each data item referenced by identifier-3. DIVIDE <───────────────────────────┐ >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──INTO────identifier-2──┬─────────┬─┴────> └─literal-1────┘ └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 1. and the quotient is then stored in identifier-2. For each successive occurrence of identifier-2. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided into the value of identifier-2 or literal-2.mainframe230. >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──INTO──┬─identifier-2─┬─────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ <───────────────────────────┐ >──GIVING────identifier-3──┬─────────┬─┴─────────────────────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 2.5 BY B.COBOL Training MULTIPLY A MULTIPLY A MULTIPLY A MULTIPLY 0.05.

the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided by identifier-2 or literal-2. B GIVING C.com Page 32 date:16.blogspot. The value of the quotient is stored in each data item referenced by identifier-3. The value of the quotient is stored in identifier-3. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided into identifier-2 or literal-2. The value of the quotient is stored in identifier-3.mainframe230.05. the value of identifier-1 or literal-1 is divided by the value of identifier-2 or literal-2. www. and the value of the remainder is stored in identifier-4. >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──INTO──┬─identifier-2─┬─────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ >──GIVING──identifier-3──┬─────────┬──REMAINDER──identifier-4────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 4. Example: DIVIDE DIVIDE DIVIDE 5 A A INTO INTO BY A .2010 .COBOL Training └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 3. B GIVING C D. and the value of the remainder is stored in identifier-4. >>──DIVIDE──┬─identifier-1─┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬───────────────────> └─literal-1────┘ └─literal-2────┘ >──GIVING──identifier-3──┬─────────┬──REMAINDER──identifier-4────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DIVIDE─┘ In Format 5..

3. ARITHMETIC OPERATORS Arithmetic expression is formed with numeric operands. ROUNDED OPTION This can be used with any arithmetic verb. 6. the result exceeds the largest value that can be accommodated in the result field.6. the processing is not terminated and the next statement will be taken up for further execution. When this phrase is used. the error is called a “size error”. subtract. ADD A B GIVING C ROUNDED.3. 6. ON SIZE ERROR If after an arithmetic operation.com Page 33 date:16. When a size error occurs. Arithmetic expression always assumes a numeric value.3.5. Can be used with any arithmetic verb When a size error occurs.COBOL Training DIVIDE A BY B GIVING C REMAINDER D. multiply. Arithmetic operators permitted in COBOL are: www.8.2010 . It will round the number to the picture clause. numeric LITERALS and numeric operators.05. divide.. This phrase cannot be specified for the identifier that receives the remainder in a divide operation. COMPUTE <───────────────────────────┐ >>──COMPUTE────identifier-1──┬─────────┬─┴──┬─=───────┬──────────────> └─ROUNDED─┘ └─ EQUAL ─┘ >──arithmetic-expression─────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────> └─┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──SIZE ERROR──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬─────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-COMPUTE─┘ This verb is very powerful and is used as a substitute for any of the other arithmetic verbs like add. the contents of the resultant field after the operation is unpredictable.mainframe230. Example: ADD A TO B ON SIZE ERROR GO TO ERROR-PARA. the statement becomes a conditional statement.3. 6.7.blogspot. The imperative statements can be delimited by END-ADD 6.

DAY. CONTINUE The CONTINUE statement allows you to specify a no operation statement.Tuesday.4. 6. 3 .THE-RESULT identifier-2 .2 [upon mnemonic-name] 6. MULTIPLICATION.05.blogspot. ACCEPT Accept statement can transfer data from an input/output device.mainframe230. The day option returns five digit [9(5)] current date in YYDDD format. DAY-OF-WEEK. SUBTRACTION.Monday.Wednesday and so on.4.1.. The time option returns eight digit [9(8)] time in HHMMSSTT format The day-of-week option returns a single digit [9(1)] value as follows: 1 . the data is read from the operator’s terminal. www. Mnemonic name option is implementation dependent and has to be defined in SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph.4. The date option returns six digit [9(6)] current date in YYMMDD format.4. DISPLAY Display statement is used to display data on the terminal. At the time of execution.3.2010 . Format DISPLAY {identifier-1 literal-1} Example DISPLAY “RESULT IS :“. or TIME Format: ACCEPT IDENTIFIER [ FROM mnemonic name DATE DAY TIME DAY-OF-WEEK}] When ‘FROM’ is omitted. program is suspended until the operator enters the data. literal . or system information contained in the specified conceptual data items DATE. 2 . MISCELLANEOUS 6.COBOL Training ** / * + => => => => => EXPONENTIATION. ADDITION.2. ACCEPT THIS-DATE FROM DATE.com Page 34 date:16. 6. DIVISION.

CONDITIONAL AND UNCONDITIONAL TRANSFER 6.5.4. SIMPLE IF STATEMENT IF condition [THEN] statement-1 ELSE statement-2 END-IF.REC. 01 WS .COBOL Training CONTINUE indicates that no executable instruction is present.5. 05 A PIC 9(4).23.4.05.com Page 35 date:16. 05 B PIC A(4). 6.mainframe230. STOP RUN This verb is used to terminate the execution of the program. 05 C PIC X(4).5.2010 . no action takes place 6. This statement indicates a no operation and when executed.blogspot. www. 6.1. DATAITEM PIC BEFORE AFTER EXECUTION EXECUTION A 9(4) 1000 0000 B A(4) LIFE bbbb C X(4) A2BC bbbb INITIALIZE B REPLACING NUMERIC DATA BY 105 REPLACING ALPHANUMERIC DATA BY “ LOVE “ REPLACING NUMERIC-EDITED DATA BY 1500. 6.4. <──────────────┐ >>──INITIALIZE────identifier-1─┴─────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────>< │ <─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ └─REPLACING────┬─ALPHABETIC──────────┬──┬──────┬──BY──┬─identifier-2─┬─┴─┘ ├─ALPHANUMERIC────────┤ └─DATA─┘ └─literal-1────┘ ├─NUMERIC─────────────┤ ├─ALPHANUMERIC-EDITED─┤ └─NUMERIC-EDITED──────┘ Example: INITIALIZE WS .REC.4.6. EXIT The EXIT statement provides a common end point for a series of paragraphs. INITIALIZE This statement is used to initialize value of either an elementary or group item.

] [END-EVALUATE] A list of subjects and several lists of objects are associated with an Evaluate.. after the connective END-IF. Statement-1 and Statement-2 represents one or more COBOL statements.. EVALUATE STATEMENT Used for decisions and can be used when many branches are there Can be used as a substitute for nested if“s EVALUATE SUBJECT-1 [ALSO SUBJECT-2].com Page 36 date:16.5. the statements represented in the ELSE part will be executed After execution of this statement control will be implicitly transferred to the next sentence following the IF statement.2010 .} [WHEN OTHER {IMPERATIVE-STATEMENT-2}. A list of subjects is specified between the word EVALUATE and the first appearance of WHEN Subject can be an Identifier / Literal /Expression or key words True / False Each WHEN specifies a list of objects Number of subjects and number of objects should tally Subjects and their corresponding objects should be comparable WHEN phrases are taken up for a “ match “ in the order they appear. i. WHEN OTHER phrase is selected only if none of the previous WHEN phrases are selected. NESTED IF Inclusion of one or more IF statements within its scope is called as Nesting. Period (.COBOL Training The condition can be any one of the conditions mentioned before..e. 6. the statements represented in the THEN part will be executed..5.2..mainframe230.. Indent nested ‘if‘ s properly to improve readability and maintainability.05. {WHEN OBJECT-1 [ALSO OBJECT-2}.) is placed only at the end of the IF structure. 6. The most inclusive IF statement must have terminating period. www. Imperative statements corresponding to the matching WHEN will be executed. If the condition is found to be FALSE. IF condition-1 [THEN] IF condition-2 [THEN ] statement-1 ELSE statement-2 END-IF END-IF.blogspot. Statement-1 represents one or more COBOL statements If the condition is found to be true. Example: IF ELSE ADD AMOUNT TO TOTAL-2 END-IF.3. AMOUNT > 5000 THEN ADD AMOUNT TO TOTAL-1 NEXT SENTENCE will be used to make either the THEN or ELSE part dummy.

4. keywords Example1: EVALUATE TRUE WHEN MONTH = 4 MOVE 30 WHEN MONTH = 2 MOVE 28 WHEN OTHER MOVE 31 END-EVALUATE.5.5. n . www. GO TO STATEMENT >>──GO──┬────┬──procedure-name-1────────────────────────────────────>< └─TO─┘ It is an unconditional transferring control to the specified paragraph . non-numeric values.2010 . integral. . If the value of the identifier is anything other than the specified range of 1. .com Page 37 date:16. 2 . There is no any comparison being made by the system before branching off . GO TO PROCEDURE-NAME-1 [ .2 .DAYS TO NO . Example GO TO DISPLAY-PARA. GO TO WITH DEPENDING This verb is used to conditionally transfer the control to elsewhere in the program. OR 6 OR 9 OR 11 TO NO . Note: It is advised to avoid GO TO Statements as the structured programming technique does not support unconditional transfer statements.mainframe230.05.DAYS TO NO . PROCEDURE-NAME-N DEPENDING ON identifier The statement transfers control to one of the procedures named in the statement depending on the value of the identifier The identifier specified in the statement must be a numeric. the said go to is ineffective and the control is transferred to the next statement. . Depending on whether the value of the identifier is 1.blogspot. Range of Example: EVALUATE PRODUCT-TYPE ALSO CUSTOMER-TYPE WHEN 1 ALSO ANY MOVE 0 TO COMMISSION WHEN 2 ALSO 1 THRU 5 MOVE 10 TO COMMISSION WHEN OTHER MOVE 20 TO COMMISSION END-EVALUATE.. Non-numeric value. PROCEDURE-NAME-2 ]..OF . . procedure-name-n respectively. procedure-name-2. . 6.COBOL Training Objects can be Numeric value . elementary item. 6.OF .DAYS Range of Numeric values. n.5.OF . Conditional Values. the control is transferred to procedurename-1.

6. procedure-name-2 Must name a Procedure Division section or paragraph. for example. Before the ALTER statement is executed. which contains statements to be executed Upon execution of this statement the control is transferred to the beginning of the paragraph and executes all the statements in that paragraph till the last statement. Subsequent executions of the modified GO TO statement(s) transfer control to procedure-name-2. the EVALUATE statement provides the same function as the ALTER statement and helps to ensure that your program will be well-structured. the GO TO statement transfers control to the paragraph specified in procedure-name-2. The ALTER statement acts as a program switch.com Page 38 date:16. >>──ALTER────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ >────procedure-name-1──TO──┬────────────┬──procedure-name-2─┴───────>< └─PROCEED TO─┘ The ALTER statement modifies the GO TO statement in the paragraph named by procedurename-1. ISSUE-PARA. After executing the said range. under a paragraph. procedure-name-1 Must name a Procedure Division paragraph that contains only one sentence: a GO TO statement without the DEPENDING ON phrase. PERFORM STATEMENTS A PERFORM statement is used to execute a group of consecutive statements specified elsewhere in the program. The ALTER statement encourages the use of unstructured programming practices. one sequence of execution during initialization and another sequence during the bulk of file processing.05. 6. allowing.1. when control reaches the paragraph specified in procedure-name-1.6.2010 . ADJUSTMENT-PARA DEPENDING ON TRANSACTION-TYPE.6.5. the control is implicitly. however.COBOL Training Example:GO TO RECEIPT-PARA. After execution of the ALTER statement.6.blogspot.mainframe230. the GO TO statement transfers control to the paragraph specified in the GO TO statement. BASIC PERFORM PERFORM PARA-name-1. the next time control reaches the paragraph specified in procedure-name-1. ALTER The ALTER statement changes the transfer point specified in a GO TO statement. 6. Para-name-1 specifies the range. transferred to the next line after the PERFORM statement Example: www.

This statement executes a series of instructions in para-name-1 repeatedly till the condition becomes TRUE. Example: PERFORM READ-RTN 10 TIMES. This statement executes all the stmts. PERFORM 000-CALC-PARA UNTIL I>10 000-CALC-PARA.mainframe230.COBOL Training 100-MAIN-PARA.05. of times.6.2. those are also executed After executing the said range. This statement executes all the statements beginning in the para-name-1 till the last statement in the para-name-2 If there are any other paragraphs placed in between these two paragraphs. The condition should be made true. transferred to the next line after the PERFORM statement Example: PERFORM BEGIN-PARA THRU END-PARA. PERFORM WITH TIMES PHRASE PERFORM para-name-1 [THRU para-name-2] {identifier-1/ integer} TIMES. www. Initially the condition is expected to be false. Here 000-CALC-PARA is performed 10 TIMES. This is a looping statement that executes the specified range of statements a fixed no. If the condition is true initially. 6.3. within the paragraph being performed.2010 . the control is implicitly. in READ-RTN 10 times without testing any condition. PERFORM para-name-1 thru para-name-2. 6. the range is not executed at all Example: MOVE 1 TO I. -ADD 1 TO I.com Page 39 date:16. PERFORM 1000-ACCEPT-PARA.6.blogspot. PERFORM 2000-COMPUTE-PARA. PERFORM WITH UNTIL PHRASE PERFORM para-name-1 [THRU para-name-2] UNTIL condition.

7. │ │ │ └──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘ This is also a looping statement which executes imperative statement for all possible values of identifier-1 and identifier-3 until Condition-1 and Condition-2 are TRUE.3 1.2 3. J ) END-PERFORM.COBOL Training 6.4 6.mainframe230.1 3. Example: PERFORM VARYING I FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL I > 3 AFTER J FROM 1 BY 1 UNTIL J > 4 Display SALE ( I .4 3.com Page 40 date:16. CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS In COBOL there are various types of conditions as follows: RELATIONAL CONDITION SIGN CONDITION CLASS CONDITION CONDITION .3 2.05. PERFORM WITH VARYING PHRASE ┌─── Format 4 ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ │ >>──PERFORM────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> │ │ │ │ >──┬─procedure-name-1──┬───────────────────────────────┬──┤ phrase 1 ├──┬──────────────┬─┬────>< │ │ │ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-2─┘ └─┤ phrase 2 ├─┘ │ │ │ │ └─THRU────┘ │ │ │ │ (1) │ │ │ └─┤ phrase 1 ├──imperative-statement-1─────END-PERFORM────────────────────────────────┘ │ │ │ │ phrase 1: │ │ ├──┬────────────────────────────┬──VARYING──┬─identifier-2─┬──FROM──┬─identifier-3─┬──BY───────> │ │ └─┬──────┬──TEST──┬─BEFORE─┬─┘ └─index-name-1─┘ ├─index-name-2─┤ │ │ └─WITH─┘ └─AFTER──┘ └─literal-1────┘ │ │ │ │ >──┬─identifier-4─┬──UNTIL──condition-1────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤ │ │ └─literal-2────┘ │ │ │ │ phrase 2: │ │ <───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ ├────AFTER──┬─identifier-5─┬──FROM──┬─identifier-6─┬──┤ phrase 3 ├─┴───────────────────────────┤ │ │ └─index-name-3─┘ ├─index-name-4─┤ │ │ └─literal-3────┘ │ │ │ │ phrase 3: │ │ ├──BY──┬─identifier-7─┬──UNTIL──condition-2────────────────────────────────────────────────────┤ │ │ └─literal-4────┘ │ │ │ │ Note: │ │ (1) Imperative-statement-1 is optional as an IBM extension.4.1 1.2010 .3 3.NAME CONDITION NEGATED SIMPLE CONDITION COMPOUND CONDITION www.2 1.4 2.2 2. The above example will take I and j vales as 1.1 2.6.blogspot.

The Possible SIGN conditions are POSITIVE / NEGATIVE / ZERO. alphabetic-upper. 6.7. CONDITION-NAME CONDITION A condition-name condition tests a conditional variable to determine whether its value is equal to any value(s) associated with the condition-name. Comparisons can be simplified.blogspot.3. VALUE IS 0.7.COBOL Training 6.NUMERIC DATA FOR A “ GO TO ERROR-PARA END-IF. SIGN CONDITION The sign condition determines whether or not the algebraic value of a numeric operand is greater than. www. Example: 01 WS-MARITAL-STATUS 88 SINGLE PIC 9. arithmetic expression. A non-numeric literal can be enclosed in parentheses within a relation condition. 6.2. less than. RELATIONAL CONDITION A relation condition compares two operands. The relational operators are < <= > >= NOT GREATER THAN / LESSER THAN / EQUAL TO IF A > B DISPLAY “ A IS GREATER THAN B “ ELSE DISPLAY “ A IS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO B “ END-IF. 6.7. either of which can be an identifier.05.7.2010 . Condition names are not memory locations but names assigned to data ranges . The possible CLASS Conditions are ALPHABETIC / NUMERIC / ALPHANUMERIC Example: IF A IS NUMERIC ADD 1 TO A ELSE DISPLAY “ NON . numeric. or contains only the characters in the set of characters specified by the CLASS clause as defined in the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph of the Environment Division. or index-name. or equal to zero.1. literal.mainframe230. Alphabetic-lower. CLASS CONDITION The class condition determines whether the content of a data item is alphabetic.4. Example: IF CURR-STOCK-ISS-QTY IS NEGATIVE DISPLAY “ ISSUE CANNOT BE MADE” GO TO NO-STOCK-PARA END-IF.com Page 41 date:16.

6.05.7. www. IF SINGLE ADD 1 TO SINGLE-COUNT. The possible Compound Conditions are AND Example: IF AGE IS LESS THAN 18 AND MARRIED DISPLAY “EARLY MARRIAGE “ END-IF.blogspot. Example: IF NOT MARRIED DISPLAY “ELIGIBLE FOR RS 1000 ONLY “ END-IF.com Page 42 date:16. 6.COBOL Training 88 MARRIED VALUE IS 1.mainframe230.5. 6. NEGATED SIMPLE CONDITION A simple condition is negated through the use of the logical operator NOT. COMPOUND CONDITION Two or more conditions can be logically connected to form a compound condition. OR NOT .2010 .7.

DDNAME assigned for the dataset and its primary and alternate key.3. INDEXED FILES Indexed File Organization is to do random Processing or sequential processing.STEPS INVOLVED IN FILE HANDLING To handle a file the following operations are to done. SEQUENTIAL FILES If a file organization is Sequential then  Records can be accessed in the order in which they appear in the file  Records can be appended at the end of the file but cannot be inserted.blogspot. Each record has a unique address and is identified by a relative record number (8 digits numeric character).com Page 43 date:16.4.05. In this Organization  Record can be accessed in any order by key called Primary Key. Step 1.  There can be more than one key called Alternate Keys to access records  Records can be inserted added. A record is a collection of relevant fields pertaining to an item/case/ account/transaction . 7.2010 . The organization of the file . FILE HANDLING A data file is a collection of relevant records of an application. File is organized in storage media in one of the following ways    SEQUENTIAL INDEXED RELATIVE 7. deleted and updated.COBOL Training 7.1. www. This is specified using SELECT statement of File-Control para. DIRECT ACCESS FILES This record is best suited if there are records which can be accessed on record number basis rather than based on a field of the record. if any. have to be specified in the File-Control para of Environment Division. 7.  All files handled in a program should be assigned a logical name chosen by the programmer as per the syntax similar to Cobol identifier.  Records cannot be deleted  Records can be updated 7.2.mainframe230.

FILE SECTION. WRITE Record -name. 05 CUST-DTLS PIC X(70).Also specify as how many records are grouped as a BLOCK for Input Output Operation. Read File -name.mainframe230. 7.  Describe the File with detail like record name . writing. 01 WS-FST1 PIC X(2).blogspot.  All files described as explained above should be first opened to do read/write operations. 05 CUST-DEPT PIC X(5). 000-MAIN-PARA. Step3. PROCEDURE DIVISION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. If we have to read a file READ statement is used in procedure Division. Step4. appending.record structure in the File Section of DATA DIVISION . 05 CUST-NO PIC X(5). PROGRAM-ID. Files can be opened for reading. DATA DIVISION.COBOL Training Step2. 100-WRITE-PARA. FILE-CONTROL.  SYNTAX : If we have to write in to a file WRITE command is used in procedure Division.  After read / write operations are over the file must be closed to disconnect the file from the Cobol program.com Page 44 date:16. EXAMPLE IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.1. Open statement is used to connect dataset to the Cobol program. SYNTAX : Step5. These statements are coded in procedure division. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. SYNTAX : CLOSE File-name. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. ACCEPT CUST-NO ACCEPT CUST-DEPT DD1 www. 01 CUSTOMER-RECORD.2010 . SELECT CUSTOMER-FILE ASSIGN TO ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED ACCESS MODE IS SEQUENTIAL RECORD KEY IS CUST-NO FILE STATUS IS WS-FST1.05.4. The record attached to the concerned file alone can be used to write into the file. FD CUSTOMER-FILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD IS CUSTOMER-RECORD. OPEN OUTPUT CUSTOMER-FILE PERFORM 100-WRITE-PARA PERFORM 200-CLOSE-PARA. F1.

blogspot.com Page 45 date:16.mainframe230.2010 . www.COBOL Training ACCEPT CUST-DTLS WRITE CUSTOMER-RECORD DISPLAY 'WRITE FILE STATUS:-' WS-FST1. CLOSE CUSTOMER-FILE DISPLAY 'CLOSE FILE STATUS:-' WS-FST1 STOP RUN. 200-CLOSE-PARA.05.

05.5.blogspot.com Page 46 date:16. SELECT STATEMENT Sequential files: >>──SELECT──┬──────────┬──file-name-1──ASSIGN───┬────┬────assignment-name-1────────> └─OPTIONAL─┘ └─TO─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────────> └─┬──────────────────────┬──SEQUENTIAL─┘ └─ORGANIZATION──┬────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────> └─ACCESS──┬──────┬──┬────┬──SEQUENTIAL─┘ └─MODE─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────>< └─┬──────┬──STATUS──┬────┬──data-name-1──────────────────┘ └─FILE─┘ └─IS─┘ Indexed File >>──SELECT──┬──────────┬──file-name-1──ASSIGN───┬────┬────assignment-name-1─────────────> └─OPTIONAL─┘ └─TO─┘ >──┬──────────────────────┬──INDEXED──────────────────────────> └─ORGANIZATION──┬────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────> └─ACCESS──┬──────┬──┬────┬──┬─SEQUENTIAL─┬─┘ └─MODE─┘ └─IS─┘ ├─RANDOM─────┤ └─DYNAMIC────┘ >──RECORD──┬─────┬──┬────┬──data-name-2──┬─────────────────────────────────────┬────────> └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ └─ PASSWORD ──┬──────┬── data-name-6 ─┘ └─ IS ─┘ <─────────────────┐ >────┬─────────────┬─┴──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────>< └─┤ entry 1 ├─┘ └─┬──────┬──STATUS──┬────┬──data-name-1──────────────────┘ └─FILE─┘ └─IS─┘ entry 1: (3) ├──ALTERNATE RECORD─────┬─────┬──┬────┬──data-name-3──┬──────────────────────┬───────────> └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ └─┬──────┬──DUPLICATES─┘ └─WITH─┘ www.mainframe230.2010 .COBOL Training 7.

COBOL Training

Relative files
>>──SELECT──┬──────────┬──file-name-1──ASSIGN───┬────┬────assignment-name-1─────────────> └─OPTIONAL─┘ └─TO─┘ >───┬──────────────────────┬──RELATIVE─────────────────────────> └─ORGANIZATION──┬────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ >─┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─> └─ACCESS─┬──────┬─┬────┬─┬─SEQUENTIAL──┬───────────────────────────────────────┬─┬─┘ └─MODE─┘ └─IS─┘ │ └─RELATIVE──┬─────┬─┬────┬──data-name-4─┘ │ │ └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ │ └─┬─RANDOM──┬──RELATIVE──┬─────┬─┬────┬──data-name-4────┘ └─DYNAMIC─┘ └─KEY─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────>< └─┬──────┬──STATUS──┬────┬──data-name-1─────────────────┘ └─FILE─┘ └─IS─┘

Assignment Name ties the select statement to the DDNAME in the JCL QSAM file >>────┬─────┬──name──────────────────────────────────────>< └─S- ─┘ VSAM Sequential File >>────AS- ──name─────────────────────────────────────────>< VSAM Indexed or Relative File >>────name───────────────────────────────────────────────><

7.5.1. ORGANIZATION CLAUSE
This clause should appear in Environment division. We can choose File Organization SEQUENTIAL -This Option is to handle a PS data set or VSAM ESDS . Once the file is organized as Sequential records can be placed as first come first served basis. INDEXED - This Option is to handle a VSAM KSDS . There should be a key field to choose this operating mode. This is called primary key and is to be unique like ROLLNO, EMPLYEENO. RELATIVE - This Option is to handle a VSAM RRDS . Record Numbers are identifying the records to access.

7.5.2. ACCESS MODE CLAUSE
This clause should appear in the access mode statement of Environment division. Files can be accessed in different modes based on the type of Organization.

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

Page 47

date:16.05.2010

COBOL Training We can choose access mode depending on the order in which we like it to be accessed. Sequential Access Mode will facilitate to access any file records in sequential order. Random Access Mode will facilitate to access a particular record of an Indexed File / Relative File by supplying the Record key before read / write operation. Dynamic Access Mode will facilitate to access a particular record or in sequential order from an Indexed File / Relative File We give below all possible access modes on organization. Seq. access Organization Sequential Relative Indexed Order of write Ascending rel rec. no Ascending key value Invalid Value of rel key Value of rel key Invalid Seq. or random Seq. or random Random access Dynamic access

7.5.3. RECORD KEY PHRASE
This Phrase is to be defined in the Environment Division and essential when the file is an Indexed File. This key is to be Unique and is to be a part of the Indexed record.

7.5.4. ALTERNATE KEY PHRASE
This Phrase is to be defined in the Environment Division when we want to access record in the order of some other Key apart from primary key. This key need not be unique but to be a part of the record.

7.6. FD ENTRY
Syntax Sequential Files
>>──FD──file-name-1─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────> └─BLOCK──┬──────────┬──┬───────────────┬──integer-2──┬─CHARACTERS─┬─┘ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─integer-1──TO─┘ └─RECORDS────┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───> └─RECORD──┬─┬──────────┬──integer-3──┬────────────┬────────────────┬─┘ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ ├─┬──────────┬──integer-4──TO──integer-5──┬────────────┬─┤ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ └─┤ clause 1 ├──┬────────────────────────────────┬───────┘ └─DEPENDING──┬────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────> └─LABEL───RECORD──┬────┬─────┬─STANDARD──────────────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ └─OMITTED───────────────┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────────────────> │ <─────────────┐ │ └─DATA──┬─RECORD──┬────┬───┬────data-name-4─┴─┘ │ └─IS─┘ │ └─RECORDS──┬─────┬─┘

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

Page 48

date:16.05.2010

COBOL Training
└─ARE─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────> └─ RECORDING ──┬────────┬──┬──────┬── mode ─┘ └─ MODE ─┘ └─ IS ─┘ clause 1: ├──┬────┬──VARYING──┬────┬──┬──────┬──┬─────────────────────┬────────────────> └─IS─┘ └─IN─┘ └─SIZE─┘ └─┬──────┬──integer-6─┘ └─FROM─┘ >──┬───────────────┬──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────── └─TO──integer-7─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘

Indexed and Relative files
>>──FD──file-name-1─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────> └─BLOCK──┬──────────┬──┬───────────────┬──integer-2──┬─CHARACTERS─┬─┘ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─integer-1──TO─┘ └─RECORDS────┘ >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───> └─RECORD──┬─┬──────────┬──integer-3──┬────────────┬────────────────┬─┘ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ ├─┬──────────┬──integer-4──TO──integer-5──┬────────────┬─┤ │ └─CONTAINS─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘ │ └─┤ clause 1 ├──┬────────────────────────────────┬───────┘ └─DEPENDING──┬────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────────────> └─LABEL──┬─RECORD──┬────┬───┬──┬─STANDARD─┬─┘ │ └─IS─┘ │ └─OMITTED──┘ └─RECORDS──┬─────┬─┘ └─ARE─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────┬──.──────────────────────>< │ <─────────────┐ │ └─DATA──┬─RECORD──┬────┬───┬────data-name-4─┴─┘ │ └─IS─┘ │ └─RECORDS──┬─────┬─┘ └─ARE─┘ clause 1: ├──┬────┬──VARYING──┬────┬──┬──────┬──┬─────────────────────┬───────────────> └─IS─┘ └─IN─┘ └─SIZE─┘ └─┬──────┬──integer-6─┘ └─FROM─┘ >──┬───────────────┬──┬────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────┤ └─TO──integer-7─┘ └─CHARACTERS─┘

7.6.1. BLOCK CONTAINS / RECORD CONTAINS PHRASE
We can specify the length of the file record in this Clause in terms of Characters this is to be specified in Data Division. We can specify the number of characters / records contains in a Block.

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

Page 49

date:16.05.2010

COBOL Training

7.6.2. RECORDING MODE CLAUSE
This Phrase is to be defined in the File section Data division. When the file is with Fixed length record is chosen as F. This key represents s only the record Number. RECORDING MODE [F] [V].

F => Fixed which Indicates that every record of same length Example:
FD file-name BLOCK CONTAINS 500 CHARACTERS. RECORD CONTAINS 50 CHARACTERS. DATA-RECORD IS EMP-RECORD. EMP-RECORD 01 EMPNO PIC X(6). 02 EMP-NAME PIC X(30). 02 BASIC PIC 9(5). 02 HRA PIC 9(5). 02 DA PIC 9(4).

The above record is of length 50 characters. V => Variable which Indicates that record length may vary from I1 to I2. Example:
FD BLOCK CONTAINS 320 THRU 640 CHARACTERS. RECORD CONTAINS 32 THRU 64 CHARACTERS. DATA RECORD IS MARK-RECORD. 01 MARK-RECORD 02 P1 PIC 99. 02 MARKS OCCURS 10 THRU 20 Depending P1 03 SCORE PIC 999.

The above record length is based on P1.

7.7. INPUT / OUTPUT STATEMENTS
Open statement can be used for opening the file with different mode. OPEN OUTPUT file-name connects data set to your COBOL program to write records when the file is even with out a single record.. OPEN INPUT file-name connects data set to your COBOL program to records from the first . OPEN EXTEND file-name connects data set to your COBOL program for writing new records in an existing non empty file. OPEN I-O file-name connects data set to your COBOL program for processing to do read/write /Rewrite.

www.mainframe230.blogspot.com

Page 50

date:16.05.2010

it positions the current record pointer.05.com Page 51 date:16. START .mainframe230. When this command is used in an Indexed file key must be newer one always.blogspot. READ Sequential Retreival >>──READ──file-name-1──┬───────────────┬──┬────────┬─────────────────> └─NEXT──────────┘ └─RECORD─┘ >──┬────────────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────────> www.Establish the current location in the cluster for a READ NEXT statement >>──START──file-name-1───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬────> └─KEY──┬────┬──┬─EQUAL──┬────┬────────────────────────────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─IS─┘ │ └─TO─┘ │ ├─=────────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─ LESS ──┬────────┬───────────────────────┤ │ └─ THAN ─┘ │ ├─ < ──────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─GREATER──┬──────┬────────────────────────┤ │ └─THAN─┘ │ ├─>────────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─NOT LESS──┬──────┬───────────────────────┤ │ └─THAN─┘ │ ├─NOT <────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─ NOT GREATER ──┬────────┬────────────────┤ │ └─ THAN ─┘ │ ├─ NOT > ──────────────────────────────────┤ ├─ LESS ──┬────────┬── OR EQUAL ──┬──────┬─┤ │ └─ THAN ─┘ └─ TO ─┘ │ ├─ <= ─────────────────────────────────────┤ ├─GREATER──┬──────┬──OR EQUAL──┬────┬──────┤ │ └─THAN─┘ └─TO─┘ │ └─>=───────────────────────────────────────┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────> └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬───────────┬───────────────>< └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─END-START─┘ └─KEY─┘ START does not retrieve a record.2010 .COBOL Training WRITE >>──WRITE──record-name-1──┬────────────────────┬────────────────> │ │ └─FROM──identifier-1─┘ ├──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────┤ └─ INVALID ──┬───────┬── imperative-statement-1 ─┘ └─ KEY ─┘ ├──┬────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬───────────┤ └─ NOT INVALID ──┬───────┬── imperative-statement-2 ─┘ └─ KEY ─┘ Add records to a file or load a file .

the key field must have a value before read.2010 .COBOL Training └─INTO──identifier-1─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────┬───────────────────────────> └─┬────┬──END──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─AT─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬──────────┬───────>< └─NOT──┬────┬──END──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─END-READ─┘ └─AT─┘ Random Retreival >>──READ──file-name-1──┬────────┬──┬────────────────────┬────────────> └─RECORD─┘ └─INTO──identifier-1─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────> └─KEY──┬────┬──data-name-1─┘ └─IS─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-3─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬──────────┬───>< └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-4─┘ └─END-READ─┘ └─KEY─┘ The READ statement is used to read a record from a file. If it is used to read a sequential file it will read the next record always. DELETE >>──DELETE──file-name-1──┬────────┬──────────────────────────────────> └─RECORD─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> www. Files must be opened in I-O mode.mainframe230.blogspot. If it used to read from an Indexed/Relative file it would read the corresponding key record. If we have read sequentially from an Indexed file READ NEXT RECORD will retrieve records from a file in sequence REWRITE >>──REWRITE──record-name-1──┬────────────────────┬───────────────────> └─FROM──identifier-1─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────> └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬─────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-REWRITE─┘ Used for Updating records.05.com Page 52 date:16.

File must be opened in I-O mode.mainframe230.05.COBOL Training └─INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────> └─NOT INVALID──┬─────┬──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-DELETE─┘ Remove records from indexed and relative files only.blogspot. CLOSE Disconnect the VSAM data set from your program >>──CLOSE────file-name-1────────>< www.com Page 53 date:16. Not permitted for ESDS and PS files.2010 .

retrieve and delete datasets. changing their lengths in place For variable . COMPARISON ON VSAM DATASETS Entry . or more May not have alternate indexes A record relative record number cannot change A record’s RBA cannot change A record RBA can change Space at the end of the data Distributed free space is used for fixed length RRDS empty slots in the set is used for adding records for inserting record and data set are used for adding records. VSAM supports 5 dataset organizations.05.mainframe230. store.8. index which is treated like a key more May have one alternate indexes.length RRDS.blogspot.Record Records are in order in which Records are in collating Records are in relative record number they are written sequence by key field order Access is sequential May have one alternate indexes or Access is by key through an Access is by relative record number.sequenced Relative .      Key-Sequenced Data Set (KSDS) Entry-Sequenced Data Set (ESDS) Fixed-Length Relative Record Data Set (RRDS) Variable-Length RRDS (VRRDS) Linear Data Set (LDS) The Primary difference of the above types is the way in which their records are stored and retrieved.com Page 54 date:16. distributed free space is used for adding records and changing their lengths in place A record cannot be deleted but Space given up by a deleted or Space given up by a deleted record can you can reuse its space for a shortened record is be reused record of the same length automatically reclaimed within a control interval Can have spanned records Can be reused as a work file unless it has an alternate index associated with key ranges or exceeds 123 extents per volume can have spanned records can be reused unless it has an associated with exceeds 123 volume Can be reused as a work file as a work file can be reused as work file alternate index key ranges or extents per www.sequenced Key .COBOL Training 7. VSAM DATA SET VSAM – Virtual Storage Access Method VSAM is high performance access method used to organize.2010 . catalog.

for VSAM relative files (RRDS).1. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ENTRIES FOR VSAM FILES Example :VSAM Sequential File SELECT S-FILE ASSIGN TO AS-INFILE ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL FILE STATUS KEY IS FSTAT-CODE VSTAT-CODE Note the prefix of AS.for VSAM indexed files (KSDS) . Access Fixed Length Yes Yes Yes Variable Length Yes Yes NO 7.blogspot.VSAM Relative File SELECT R-FILE ASSIGN TO INFILE ORGANIZATION IS RELATIVE ACCESS IS RANDOM RELATIVE KEY IS RFILE-RELATIVE-KEY FILE STATUS KEY IS FSTAT-CODE VSTAT-CODE www.2.for VSAM sequential files (ESDS) ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED ORGANIZATION IS RELATIVE . VSAM DATASETS AND ACCESS MODES File Organization VSAM sequential (ESDS) VSAM indexed (KSDS) VSAM Relative (RRDS) Seq.8. Access No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Dyna.05.2010 .COBOL Training 7. 7. Access Yes Yes Yes Ran.8. ORGANIZATION CLAUSE ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL .8.for a VSAM ESDS file Example :VSAM Indexed File SELECT I-FILE ASSIGN TO INFILE ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED ACCESS IS DYNAMIC RECORD KEY IS IFILE-RECORD-KEY ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS IFILE-ALTREC-KEY FILE STATUS KEY IS FSTAT-CODE VSTAT-CODE Example:.mainframe230.1.1.com Page 55 date:16.

COBOL STATEMENTS USABLE WITH SEQUENTIAL FILES Access Mode Sequential COBOL / 370 Statement OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE X X X X X X X OPEN INPUT X OPEN OUTPUT X X OPEN I-O X OPEN EXTEND X X 7.mainframe230.8.3.4.05.com Page 56 date:16.blogspot.COBOL Training 7.8.2010 . COBOL STATEMENTS WITH INDEXED FILES (KSDS) AND RELATIVE (RRDS) www.

mainframe230.com Page 57 date:16.05.COBOL Training Access Mode Sequential COBOL/370St atement OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE OPEN INPUT X OPEN OUTPUT X X OPEN I-O X OPEN EXTEND X X x X x X X x X X X X Random OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE X X X X X X X X X X X X Dynamic OPEN WRITE START READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE X X X X X X X X X X X X X X www.blogspot.2010 .

com Page 58 date:16.2010 .05.blogspot.mainframe230.COBOL Training www.

05.O READ NEXT WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE www.blogspot.2010 .mainframe230.com Page 59 date:16.O READ NEXT Not Applicable WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE RRDS ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL OPEN EXTEND WRITE CLOSE OPEN I-O READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS RANDOM OPEN I-O READ WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Sequential processing OPEN I-O READ NEXT WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Random processing OPEN I . PROCEDURE DIVISION STATEMENTS TO UPDATE VSAM FILES ESDS ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL OPEN EXTEND WRITE CLOSE OPEN I-O READ REWRITE CLOSE ACCESS IS RANDOM KSDS ACCESS IS SEQUENTIAL OPEN EXTEND WRITE CLOSE OPEN I-O READ REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS RANDOM OPEN I-O READ Not Applicable WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Sequential processing ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Sequential processing OPEN I-O READ NEXT Not Applicable WRITE REWRITE DELETE CLOSE ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Random processing ACCESS IS DYNAMIC Random processing OPEN I .COBOL Training 7.5.8.

8. 7.05. The EXCEPTION / ERROR declarative statement can be used to trap the errors in any I/O handling.COBOL Training 7.7. Example : BANK ACCOUNT TRANSACTIONS.2. The FILE STATUS clause (file status key and VSAM return code) can be used in ENVIRONMENT DIVISION to trap standard errors in all FILE Handling The INVALID KEY phrase can be used to trap the errors while COBOL reads a record at random.2010 . Applications that require that each record have a key field. Applications that use High Level Languages which do not support RBA (Relative Byte Address) Applications that require ALTERNATE KEY to access any record . KSDS Applications that require that each record have a key field and require both direct and sequential access.8. RRDS Applications that require only Direct Access. APPLICATIONS BEST SUITED TO VSAM DATASETS 7. Applications that have one to one correspondence between records.6. 7.7.of .1. ESDS Applications that require sequential access only.phrase (AT END) available.7.3.com Page 60 date:16. www.7.mainframe230.file .8.blogspot. Example : Payroll Processing.8. 7. ERROR PROCESSING FOR VSAM The end .8. While file is read sequentially AT END CLAUSE is to be used to know whether a record is read.

2010 . SUBPROGRAMS      Compiled.blogspot.COBOL Training 8.com Page 61 date:16.mainframe230. stored in library to be called when needed. No specific source code statements or options identify a COBOL program to be a main program or a subprogram.05. Edit routines Error control checks Standard calculations Summary. The program that calls another program is referred to as the Calling program and the program it calls is referred to as the Called program (subprogram). Called program may itself call yet another program. the program can either transfer control back to the calling program or end the run unit. total printing Typical subprograms include:     Advantages of Subprograms      Avoids duplication of effort Improves programmer productivity Provides greater flexibility Changes to called program can be made without modifying calling program Results in greater standardization Calling and Called Programs www. When the called program is completed. debugged.

blogspot.2010 .. Control returns to calling program 5. Subprogram Sub2 called and executed in its entirety 4. www... .mainframe230.com Page 62 date:16. CALL XYZ USING A B STOP RUN. PROCEDURE DIVISION . IDENTIFICATION DIVISION PROGRAM-ID.. Control returns to calling program 3.05. You can use GOBACK instead of EXIT PROGRAM. Subprogram Sub1 called and executed in its entirety 2. LINKAGE SECTION Describes data made available from another program Storage for data items within the program is not reserved because the data area exists elsewhere. EXIT PROGRAM.1.. ABC.88 items Example: IDENTIFICATION DIVISION PROGRAM-ID.COBOL Training 1. 8. Value clause may not be specified for items other than level . XYZ LINKAGE SECTION 01 PARAM1 PIC X(05) 01 PARAM2 PIC 9(5) PROCEDURE DIVISION USING PARAM1 PARAM2 ...

8.COBOL Training 8.1. www. If you want to pass both item and its length to a subprogram. . BY CONTENT identifier.05.blogspot.SALES PIC 9(5). .1. PROCEDURE DIVISION USING L-PARAM 8.1. PASSING RETURN CODE INFORMATION You can use the RETURN-CODE special register to pass and receive return codes between programs. specify a combination of BY REFERENCE and BY CONTENT Example:CALL ‘ ERRPROC’ USING BY REFERENCE A BY CONTENT LENGTH OF A Common Data Items in Subprogram Linkage Calling Program Description WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. Note that the compiler option DYNAM can change a static call to a dynamic call. In the called program a reference to PART-ID is the valid reference to them Called Program Description LINKAGE SECTION.mainframe230.2010 . When a COBOL / 370 program returns to its caller. 01 L-PARAM. 10 SALES PIC 9(5). BY CONTENT LENGTH OF Identifier. 01 PARAM-LIST. . specify CALL . . specify : CALL . PROCEDURE DIVISION CALL CALLED–PROG USING PARAM.1. the contents of the RETURN-CODE special register contains the return code of the called program.LIST In the calling program the code for parts (PARTCODE) and the number (PARTNO) are referred to separately In the called program. DYNAMIC CALL A dynamic call loads the subprograms at run time. STATIC / DYNAMIC CALLS To transfer control from one COBOL program to another COBOL program you can use one of these methods: STATIC CALL The Compiler treats the CALL Literal statement (Where literal is the name of a subprogram) as a static call when the NODYNAM compiler option is in effect.2.com Page 63 date:16. If you want to pass a literal value to a called program.1. If you want to pass an identifier’s value only to a called program. 05 PARTCODE PIC A. 10 PART-ID PIC X(5).1. CALL BY REFERENCE OR BY CONTENT. 05 PARTNO PIC X(4). the code for parts and the part number are combined into one data item (PART-ID ). 05 U .

com Page 64 date:16.05.2010 .COBOL Training When control is returned to a COBOL program from a call.blogspot.CODE special register. the contents of register 15 are stored into the calling program ‘s RETURN . When control is returned from a COBOL program to the operating system.mainframe230. www. the special register contents are returned as a user return code.

UNSTRING AND INSPECT STATEMENTS 9.05. STRING.1. www.blogspot. identifier 2 is the delimiting field and Identifiers 3 is the receiving field DELIMITED BY phrase is used to delimit the pieces of data to be extracted from each input identifier and transferred SIZE sends the complete sending area.2010 .COBOL Training 9. STRING STATEMENT String statement strings together the partial or complete contents of two or more DATA ITEMS or LITERALS into one single data item. FORMAT : >>──STRING───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <──────────────────┐ │ >──────┬─identifier-1─┬─┴──DELIMITED──┬────┬──┬─identifier-2─┬─┴─────> └─literal-1────┘ └─BY─┘ ├─literal-2────┤ └─SIZE─────────┘ >──INTO──identifier-3──┬─────────────────────────────────┬───────────> └─┬──────┬──POINTER──identifier-4─┘ └─WITH─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────> └─┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────> └─NOT──┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────>< └─END-STRING─┘ Identifiers should be with USAGE clause DISPLAY should not be with picture clause LITERALS should be non numeric literals / figurative constant except ALL (considers a character non numeric for figurative constant) THRU (all) should not be with P picture Identifiers 1 are sending fields. It will return the length of the received data plus 1. INTO represents the receiving field POINTER represents pointer field which represents the last character position in the receiving field.com Page 65 date:16.mainframe230. It should be an integer data item with enough picture clause to hold the count It should be initialized to 1.

01 ID2 PIC X(5) VALUE "E. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. END-PARA.05. PROGRAM-ID. 01 ID1 PIC X(5) VALUE "AB.com Page 66 date:16.FGH". 01 ID4 PIC X(5) VALUE "MN#OP".blogspot.2010 . PROCEDURE DIVISION. 01 ID5 PIC X(100).CD".COBOL Training OVERFLOW executed when pointer is < 1 or > the picture length of the receiving field IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. www. UNSTRING STATEMENT >>──UNSTRING──identifier-1─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────> └─DELIMITED──┬────┬──┬─────┬──┬─identifier-2─┬──┬───────────────────────────────────┬─┘ └─BY─┘ └─ALL─┘ └─literal-1────┘ │ <───────────────────────────────┐ │ └───OR──┬─────┬──┬─identifier-3─┬─┴─┘ └─ALL─┘ └─literal-2────┘ >──INTO────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ >────identifier-4──┬─────────────────────────────────┬──┬─────────────────────────────┬─┴──────> └─DELIMITER──┬────┬──identifier-5─┘ └─COUNT──┬────┬──identifier-6─┘ └─IN─┘ └─IN─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────┬──┬────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────> └─┬──────┬──POINTER──identifier-7─┘ └─TALLYING──┬────┬──identifier-8─┘ └─WITH─┘ └─IN─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────┬────────────────────────────────────────────────> └─┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-1─┘ └─ON─┘ >──┬───────────────────────────────────────────────┬──┬──────────────┬────────────────────────>< └─NOT──┬────┬──OVERFLOW──imperative-statement-2─┘ └─END-UNSTRING─┘ └─ON─┘ Unstring statement causes contiguous data in a Sending Field to be separated and placed into multiple receiving fields. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.2." "/" ID3 "/" ID4 DELIMITED BY "#" INTO ID5 WITH POINTER STR-COUNT DISPLAY ID5 DISPLAY STR-COUNT.mainframe230. Output is AB/E/IJK/MN 012 9. STRING ID1 "/" ID2 DELIMITED BY ". 01 ID3 PIC X(5) VALUE "IJK#L". 01 STR-COUNT PIC 999 VALUE 1. STRPGM. PROCESS-PARA. DATA DIVISION. STOP RUN. PERFORM PROCESS-PARA PERFORM END-PARA.

DATA DIVISION. SIZE sends the complete sending area. "IJK#L". 01 ID1 PIC X(9) VALUE 01 ID1-D PIC X VALUE 01 ID1-C PIC 9 VALUE 01 ID2 PIC X(9) VALUE 01 ID2-D PIC X VALUE 01 ID2-C PIC 9 VALUE 01 ID3 PIC X(9) VALUE 01 ID3-D PIC X VALUE 01 ID3-C PIC 9 VALUE SPACES. STRPGM.mainframe230. It should be initialized to 1 It will return the length of the received data plus 1. 0. ". IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. 3)Each instance of identifier 4 holds a piece 4)For each instance of identifier 4 you can have a identifier 5 that is set with the delimiter. INTO represents the receiving field POINTER contains a value that indicates a relative position in the sending field. OVER FLOW executed when pointer is < 1 or > the picture length of the receiving field TALLYING in this count field is increased by the number of data receiving fields acted upon execution. All data receiving fields have been acted upon and the sending still contain the unexamined character.com Page 67 date:16. www. "#". Restrictions Identifiers should be with USAGE clause DISPLAY should not be with P picture LITERALS should be non numeric literals/figurative constant except ALL (considers a character non numeric for figurative constant) Identifier1 must be an alphanumeric item May not be reference modified. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. 5)For each instance of identifier 4 you can have a identifier 6 that is set with the count of bytes in identifier 4 except the delimiter.". DELIMITED BY phrase is used to limit the data to be transferred . WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. SPACES.COBOL Training How to interpret the above diagram:1)Identifier 1 is the sending field 2)Pieces of the identifier 1 delimited by either identifier 2 or 3 are extracted and sent to the receiving fields which are identifier 4 .2010 . Represents the sending field. 6)The pointer identifier 7 is set to the number of bytes examined in the sending field plus 1 7)Identifier 8 is set to the number of receiving data areas that were acted upon.blogspot. "@". 0. PROGRAM-ID. 0.05.

PERFORM PROCESS-PARA PERFORM END-PARA.3. PROCEDURE DIVISION USING JCL-PARM. STOP RUN. 01 ID-P PIC 999 VALUE 1. END-PARA.COBOL Training 01 ID4 PIC X(9) VALUE SPACES. www.". PROCESS-PARA.blogspot. 01 ID-T PIC 999 VALUE 0.mainframe230. DISPLAY "FLOW-EXIT-PARA EXECUTED". 01 DE-ID PIC X VALUE ". FLOW-EXIT-PARA.ID1-C:-2 ID2-D:-. UNSTRING PARM-D DELIMITED BY DE-ID OR ALL "*" INTO ID1 DELIMITER IN ID1-D COUNT IN ID1-C ID2 DELIMITER IN ID2-D COUNT IN ID2-C ID3 DELIMITER IN ID3-D COUNT IN ID3-C ID4 COUNT IN ID4-C WITH POINTER ID-P TALLYING IN ID-T ON OVERFLOW PERFORM FLOW-EXIT-PARA END-UNSTRING DISPLAY "ID1:-" ID1 "ID1-D:-" ID1-D "ID1-C:-" ID1-C DISPLAY "ID2:-" ID2 "ID2-D:-" ID2-D "ID2-C:-" ID2-C DISPLAY "ID3:-" ID3 "ID3-D:-" ID3-D "ID3-C:-" ID3-C DISPLAY "ID4:-" ID4 "ID4-C:-" ID4-C DISPLAY "ID-P:-" ID-P DISPLAY "ID-T:-" ID-T. 01 JCL-PARM.05. INSPECT STATEMENT This statement specifies that characters or group of characters in a data item are to be counted or (tallied) or replaced or both.ID2-C:-5 ID3-D:-*ID3-C:-4 ID4-C:-5 9. 02 PARM-D PIC X(100).2010 . 01 ID4-C PIC 9 VALUE 0.com Page 68 date:16. LINKAGE SECTION. 02 PARM-L PIC S9(4) COMP. OUTPUT ID1:-AB ID2:-EFGHI ID3:-PQRS ID4:-GH ID-P:-101 ID-T:-004 ID1-D:-.

DATA ITEM1 BB56BB will yield 4 .mainframe230.com Page 69 date:16.2010 . INSPECT ITEM-1 TALLYING C2 FOR ALL CHARACTERS. It will convert all occurrences of specific characters in a data item to user supplied replacement characters. FORMAT 2: >>--INSPECT--identifier-1--REPLACING------------------------------------------------> <-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ <------------------+ ¦ >------CHARACTERS BY----identifier-5------------------------------------------------>< ¦ +-literal-3----+ +-¦ phrase 1 +-+ ¦ ¦ <----------------------------------------------------------+ ¦ ¦ <--------------+ ¦ ¦ +---ALL------------identifier-3----BY----identifier-5-----------------------+ +-LEADING-¦ +-literal-1----+ +-literal-3----+ +-¦ phrase 1 +-+ +-FIRST---+ phrase 1: +----BEFORE-------------------identifier-4-------------------------------------------¦ +-AFTER--+ +-INITIAL-+ +-literal-2----+ Example: INSPECT ITEM-4 REPLACING DATA ITEM1 10-07-97 OUTPUT 20/07/97 “-“ BY “/“.1 respectively. www.blogspot.COBOL Training It will count the occurrences of a specific character (ALPHABETIC. INSPECT ITEM-1 TALLYING C3 FOR LEADING SPACES.2. FORMAT1: >>──INSPECT──identifier-1──TALLYING─────────────────────────────────────────────────────> <───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ <──────────────────┐ │ │ >────identifier-2──FOR────┬─CHARACTERS────┬──────────────┬─┴───────────────────────┬─┴─┴>< │ └─┤ phrase 1 ├─┘ │ │ <───────────────────────────────────────┐ │ │ <──────────────────┐ │ │ └─┬─ALL─────┬────┬─identifier-3─┬───┬──────────────┬─┴─┴─┘ └─LEADING─┘ └─literal-1────┘ └─┤ phrase 1 ├─┘ phrase 1: ├──┬─BEFORE─┬──┬─────────┬──┬─identifier-4─┬─────────────────────────────────────────────┤ └─AFTER──┘ └─INITIAL─┘ └─literal-2────┘ Example: INSPECT ITEM-1 TALLYING C1 FOR ALL SPACES. NUMERIC OR SPECIAL CHARACTER) It will fill all portions of data item with specified characters such as spaces or zeroes.05.

STOP RUN. PARA-2. www. DECLARATIVES. END-PARA. DISPLAY "IN PARA-3".4.2010 . The rest of the paragraphs may be placed in User defined Section. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION.e. "TRACING paraname " will be displayed before the execution of each paragraph. OBJECT-COMPUTER. MAIN-PARA. END DECLARATIVES. IBM-390 WITH DEBUGGING MODE.blogspot. SOURCE-COMPUTER. IBM-390. DEBUG-DECLARATIVES SECTION. DISPLAY "IN PARA-2". PERFORM PARA-1 PERFORM PARA-2 PERFORM PARA-3 PERFORM END-PARA. i. MAIN SECTION. PROCEDURE DIVISION. DEBUG-NAME is a special register storing the name of the paragraph it is executing. The Debug Declarative-paragraph should immediately follow the "USE" instruction. PARA-1. CONFIGURATION SECTION.05.mainframe230.COBOL Training 9. DEBUG-DECLARATIVES-PARA. USE FOR DEBUGGING ALL PROCEDURES. DISPLAY "TRACING:-" DEBUG-NAME.com Page 70 date:16. It is the first Section To Be Defined in Procedure Division. PROGRAM-ID. PARA-3. DECLARATIVES It is used for tracing the paragraph or procedures executed by the program as per the Instruction given by the programmer. DATA DIVISION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. DECLRPGM. DISPLAY "IN PARA-1". We have to specify the Option " WITH DEBUGGING MODE" option in the SOURCE-COMPUTER The following rules should be followed. Make SURE you code PARM=”/DEBUG” in the EXEC JCL card before you run your program!. This declarative section of the program will be executed before the start of execution of each paragraph defined in the program. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.

The first key referred is taken as major key and the next referred is taken as the next significant key and so on Sorting in ascending order will be done from lowest key value to highest key value.blogspot. data-name-1 specifies a KEY data item on which the SORT statement will be based.COBOL Training 10. Sorting in descending order will be done from highest key value to lowest key value. You specify an INPUT PROCEDURE when you want to process input records before they are RELEASED to the sort feature for sorting. USING and INPUT-PROCEDURE are mutually exclusive. If you do specify INPUT PROCEDURE it is your responsibility to open input file(s) www.05.com Page 71 date:16. SORT AND MERGE STATEMENTS SORT statement accepts records from one or more files and arranges the records in the ascending /descending order and makes the sorted records available either through an OUTPUT PROCEDURE or in an output file. This statement can appear anywhere in the PROCEDURE DIVISION except in declarative section. Each data name must identify a data item in a record associated with file-name -1 There can be any number of data names in file-name–1 and each can be either sorted in ascending or descending order.2010 .mainframe230. If USING is specified it means that the sort feature will automatically open file name 2 (s) and read the records as input. Alphabet-name1 must be specified in the alphabet clause of SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph. FORMAT 1: <──────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <─────────────┐ │ >>──SORT──file-name-1────┬────┬──┬─ASCENDING──┬──┬─────┬────data-name-1─┴─┴─────────> └─ON─┘ └─DESCENDING─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬─────────────────────────────────────────┬──────────────────────────────────────> └─┬──────┬──DUPLICATES──┬────┬──┬───────┬─┘ └─WITH─┘ └─IN─┘ └─ORDER─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────> └─┬───────────┬──SEQUENCE──┬────┬──alphabet-name-1─┘ └─COLLATING─┘ └─IS─┘ <─────────────┐ >──┬─USING────file-name-2─┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬─> └─INPUT PROCEDURE──┬────┬──procedure-name-1──┬───────────────────────────────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-2─┘ └─THRU────┘ <─────────────┐ >──┬─GIVING────file-name-3─┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┬>< └─OUTPUT PROCEDURE──┬────┬──procedure-name-3──┬───────────────────────────────┬─┘ └─IS─┘ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-4─┘ └─THRU────┘           File-name -1 is the name given in the SD entry that describes the records to be sorted. Duplicates are specified to place the similar records in the order they are accessed.

SELECT INFILE ASSIGN TO INFILE. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION.com Page 72 date:16.     File-name-2 is the actual file to be sorted. END-PARA.blogspot.COBOL Training and read the input records. 05 SORT-KEY1 PIC X(5). FD OUTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 80 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS OUTFILE-RECORD. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. SD SORT-WORK-ONE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD SORT-RECORD. you must open the output file and write the sorted records when the OUTPUT PROCEDURE is driven. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. SORT1. Input-Procedure is specified to Select or Modify the Input Record before Sort. If you specify OUTPUT PROCEDURE. SELECT SORT-WORK-ONE ASSIGN TO SORTFILE. 01 INFILE-RECORD PIC X(80). 01 OUTFILE-RECORD PIC X(80). You must then RELEASE the records via RELEASE to the SORT feature. You must define file name 3 in the usual way. If you specify USING file name 3 then the file name 3 is automatically opened by the sort feature and used as the sort output file. The OUTPUT PROCEDURE is mutually exclusive with USING. Multiple files can specified. STOP RUN. MAIN-PARA. PROCEDURE DIVISION. PROGRAM-ID. Example 2 with INPUT and OUTPUT PROCEDURES Example with USING www. PERFORM MAIN-PARA DISPLAY "SORT RC " SORT-RETURN PERFORM END-PARA. DATA DIVISION. FILE SECTION. 05 SORT-KEY2 PIC X(5). FILE-CONTROL. You must define this file(s) in the standard way. You do this when the INPUT PROCEDURE is driven. 05 SORT-DATA PIC X(70).2010 . This Procedure can do any modifications in the record and copy Using RELEASE Statement. FD INFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS INFILE-RECORD.05.mainframe230. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. SORT SORT-WORK-ONE ON ASCENDING KEY SORT-KEY2 WITH DUPLICATES IN ORDER USING INFILE GIVING OUTFILE. 01 SORT-RECORD. SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO OUTFILE.

SOURCE-COMPUTER. 88 OUTFILEEND VALUE "Y". 05 SORT-KEY1 PIC X(5). SD SORTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD SORT-RECORD. IBM-390 WITH DEBUGGING MODE. 03 WS-FLAG PIC X(1) VALUE "0". PERFORM OPEN-PARA PERFORM MAIN-PARA DISPLAY "SORT RC " SORT-RETURN PERFORM CLOSE-PARA PERFORM END-PARA. FILE-CONTROL.05.blogspot. 05 SORT-KEY2 PIC X(5). SORT2. 03 WS-FLAG PIC X(1) VALUE "0". SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO OUTFILE FILE STATUS IS OUTFILE-STAT. FD INFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS INFILE-RECORD. SELECT INFILE ASSIGN TO INFILE FILE STATUS IS INFILE-STAT. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. 03 INFILE-STAT PIC X(2). ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. 01 INFILE-RECORD PIC X(80).COBOL Training IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. OPEN-PARA.mainframe230. PROCEDURE DIVISION. 01 SORT-RECORD. PROGRAM-ID. 05 SORT-DATA PIC X(70). 88 INFILEEOF VALUE "Y". 03 INFILE-EOF PIC X VALUE "N". SELECT SORTFILE ASSIGN TO SORTFILE. 03 OUTFILE-STAT PIC X(2). 03 WS-OUTFILE-BUFFER PIC X(80). CONFIGURATION SECTION. 01 OUTFILE-RECORD PIC X(80). OPEN INPUT INFILE OUTPUT OUTFILE IF INFILE-STAT NOT = "00" DISPLAY "INFILE DID NOT OPEN :" INFILE-STAT STOP RUN END-IF IF OUTFILE-STAT NOT = "00" www. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. FD OUTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 80 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS OUTFILE-RECORD. 03 OUTFILE-END PIC X VALUE "N". FILE SECTION. 01 WS-VARS. 03 WS-INFILE-BUFFER PIC X(80).com Page 73 date:16. DATA DIVISION.2010 .

05.com Page 74 date:16. STOP RUN.blogspot. SORT-INPROC. PERFORM READ-INFILE IF NOT INFILEEOF RELEASE SORT-RECORD FROM WS-INFILE-BUFFER. D DISPLAY "IN SORT-WRITE" PERFORM SORT-RETURN-PARA WRITE OUTFILE-RECORD FROM WS-OUTFILE-BUFFER.2010 . After your INPUT PROCEDURE returns. The sort feature will store input records you supply in sort work files until your INPUT PROCEDURE returns. SORT-READ. once for each output record. D DISPLAY "IN READ" READ INFILE INTO WS-INFILE-BUFFER AT END MOVE "Y" TO INFILE-EOF. D DISPLAY "IN SORT-RETURN" RETURN SORTFILE INTO WS-OUTFILE-BUFFER AT END MOVE "Y" TO OUTFILE-END. the OUTPUT PROCEDURE is driven many times. SORT-WRITE. READ-INFILE. PERFORM SORT-READ UNTIL INFILEEOF. As each output record (sorted) is ready your OUTPUT PROCEDURE is driven. SORT-OUTPROC. the sort feature will sort the stored input records. CLOSE INFILE CLOSE OUTFILE.mainframe230. MAIN-PARA. MERGE The MERGE statement is a PROCEDURE DIVISION statement which merges two or more input files on some common key. The merged records are then written to an output file or made available to an output procedure. When you have no more input you return from the INPUT PROCEDURE SORTINPROC. When it is thus driven you read input records one after the other and issue the RELEASE verb to make these records available to sort. SORT SORTFILE ON ASCENDING KEY SORT-KEY2 WITH DUPLICATES IN ORDER INPUT PROCEDURE SORT-INPROC OUTPUT PROCEDURE SORT-OUTPROC.COBOL Training DISPLAY "OUTFILE DID NOT OPEN :" OUTFILE-STAT STOP RUN END-IF. Notice that while the INPUT PROCEDURE is driven only once. END-PARA. SORT-RETURN-PARA. www. CLOSE-PARA. Notes: In the above program the sort feature drives the SORT-INPROC (INPUT PROCEDURE) only once. D DISPLAY "IN OUTPROC" PERFORM SORT-WRITE UNTIL OUTFILEEND.

05 MERGE-KEY1 PIC X(5). 05 MERGE-KEY2 PIC X(5). FD INFILE1 RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F Example www.05. SD MERGE-WORK-ONE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS DATA RECORD MERGE-RECORD.com Page 75 date:16. 01 MERGE-RECORD. Multiple files can specified. PROGRAM-ID. File-name-4 is the actual output merged file. SELECT OUTFILE ASSIGN TO OUTFILE. GIVING and POUTPUT-PROCEDURE are mutually exclusive Other rules remain same as that of SORT statement.mainframe230.COBOL Training <──────────────────────────────────────────────────┐ <─────────────┐ │ >>──MERGE──file-name-1────┬────┬──┬─ASCENDING──┬──┬─────┬────data-name-1─┴─┴──────> └─ON─┘ └─DESCENDING─┘ └─KEY─┘ >──┬──────────────────────────────────────────────────┬──USING──file-name-2───────> └─┬───────────┬──SEQUENCE──┬────┬──alphabet-name-1─┘ └─COLLATING─┘ <─────────────┐ >────file-name-3─┴────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────> >──┬─OUTPUT PROCEDURE──┬────┬──procedure-name1──┬───────────────────────────────┬─┬──>< │ │ │ <─────────────┐ └─IS─┘ └─┬─THROUGH─┬──procedure-name-2─┘ │ └─THRU────┘ │ │ └─IS─┘ └─GIVING────file-name-4─┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘      File-name -1 is the name given in the SD entry that describes the records to be merged. SELECT INFILE2 ASSIGN TO INFILE2. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. DATA DIVISION. FILE SECTION. MERGE1. INPUT-OUTPUT SECTION. File-name-2 and file-name-3 are files to be merged.blogspot.2010 . FILE-CONTROL. IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. SELECT INFILE1 ASSIGN TO INFILE1. SELECT MERGE-WORK-ONE ASSIGN TO MERGFILE. 05 MERGE-DATA PIC X(70).

01 FD www.2010 . 01 OUTFILE-RECORD PIC X(80).mainframe230. 01 INFILE2-RECORD PIC X(80). INFILE1-RECORD PIC X(80). PERFORM MAIN-PARA DISPLAY "MERGE RC " SORT-RETURN PERFORM END-PARA. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.blogspot. MERGE MERGE-WORK-ONE ON ASCENDING KEY MERGE-KEY1 USING INFILE1 INFILE2 GIVING OUTFILE. STOP RUN. END-PARA. MAIN-PARA. INFILE2 RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 80 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS INFILE2-RECORD.COBOL Training DATA RECORD IS INFILE1-RECORD.05. FD OUTFILE RECORD CONTAINS 80 CHARACTERS BLOCK 800 RECORDING MODE IS F DATA RECORD IS OUTFILE-RECORD. PROCEDURE DIVISION.com Page 76 date:16.

MAX Ex:MIN Ex:. 11.Returns the numeric value represented by the alphanumeric character string specified in the argument .Any optional Currency sign mentioned in argument 2 and decimal point are missed on conversion. INTRINSIC FUNCTIONS Frequently Used functions are Listed here for reference.com Page 77 date:16.blogspot.Converts a Date in the Gregorian Calendar from integer date form to standard date form yyyymmdd.2010 .4 Year in the Gregorian Calendar 5.Returns 21 Chars alphanumeric Value 1. FINANCE ANNUITY FUNCTION ANNUITY(Argument1.Returns the length of the Picture Clause FUNCTION LENGTH(NAME) Will return the Picture Clause value of NAME.05.671=31-12-9999 INTEGER-OF-DATE .Returns a Value that approximate the present value of a series of future periodend amounts specified by argument1 at a discount rate argument2 www.COBOL Training 11. DATE-OF-INTEGER .Returns the numeric value represented by the alphanumeric character string specified in the argument NUMVAL-C . 8 Day of the Month 9.Returns the content of the argument that contains the minimum value FUNCTION MIN (MARK) NUMVAL . 01-01-1601 =1 and 30.67.3. DATE / TIME CURRENT-DATE .1.Returns the content of the argument that contains the maximum value FUNCTION MAX(MARK) . Argument2) Argument1= Rate Of Interest Argument2 = No.Converts a Date in the Gregorian Calendar from integer date form to standard date form yyyyddd 01-01-1601 =1 and 30. NUMBER HANDLING LENGTH .14 HHMMSS and so on.Reverse of DAY-OF-INTEGER 11. 11. 6 month of the year 7.67.671=31-12-9999 DAY-OF-INTEGER ..mainframe230.2.of periods Formula is Argument1/(1-(1-Argument1)**Argument2 Or 1/argument2 if Argument1=0 PRESENT – VALUE .Reverse of DATE-OF-INTEGER INTEGER-OF-DAY .

2010 .4. MATHEMATICS & STATISTICS COS FACTORIAL INTEGER MEAN STANDARD .blogspot.COBOL Training 11.mainframe230.05.com Page 78 date:16.DEVIATION MEDIAN MIDRANGE RANDOMRANGE www.

This option allows you to define an alternate default currency symbol causes subprograms that are invoked through the CALL literal statement to be dynamically loaded Performance consideration : Using DYNAM = YES eases sub-programs maintenance since the application will not have to be relink-edited if the subprogram is changed. The option may be useful to programmers who use WRITE ADVANCING in their source files. COMPILER OPTIONS A compiler directing Statement is a statement beginning with a compile directing verb (CBL Process) that causes the compiler to take specific action during compilation.mainframe230.COBOL Training 12.ADVANCING. NOADV     LIB  SOURCE / NOSOURCE   COMPILE(n)  NOCOMPILE  NOC (W) NOC (E) NOC (S)   CURRENCY  DYNAM   www.blogspot. The first character of the record does not have to be explicitly reserved by the programmer Instructs the compiler not to adjust the record length for WRITE. It indicates that the source program contains COPY statements It Indicates the listing of source statements should be included in compiler generated o/p. ADV    Instructs the compiler to add one byte to the record length for the printer control character. When an error of the level specified or of a more severe level occurs. Default Value is Yes. Compiler options can be coded in the Program itself but the action is controlled in the JCL as follows.2010 .com Page 79 date:16. compilation stops and only syntax checking is done for the balance of the compilation Default COMPILE(S) Default symbol is the dollar sign ($).05. E is error : S is severe. However individual applications may experience some performance degradation due to a longer path length but overall system performance may be slightly improved. The application programmer must ensure that the record description allows for this additional byte. This listing also includes any statements embedded by COPY By default SOURCE = YES Indicates that you want full compilation including diagnostics and object code indicates that you want only a syntax check Specifies an error message level : W is warning . The compiler uses the first character of the specified record area to place the printer control character.

blogspot.05.com Page 80 date:16.mainframe230. MAP and TEST Options www.2010 .COBOL Training NODYNAM  Causes the text files of subprograms called with a CALL literal statement to be included with the calling program into a single module file. See also LIST.

05. www. 1 When At End Condition Fails 0 A sequential READ was attempted on an optional file that was not present or after end of file was reached.2010 . (This does not apply to VSAM sequential files.NO REWIND. 4 A sequential READ was attempted for a relative file and the relative record number is larger than the maximum number that can be stored in the relative key data item. ERROR CODES The File Status Code attached to a file will have Picture Clause of length 2 digits. 1 Returned When At End Condition Fails 2 Returned When Index Key Fails 3 Returned When Permanent Open Error Occurs. The first digit category are as follows : 0 Returned When Successful Open / Read / Write / Operation.COBOL Training 13. 4 An attempt was made to WRITE beyond the boundaries for a relative or indexed file. 0 Successful Completion 2 A duplicate key was detected. or FOR REMOVAL but the referenced file is not a tape file. the file is created.1. APPENDIX 13. 3 Permanent Open Error Occurs.) 7 An OPEN or CLOSE statement was executed with a phrase that implies a tape file (i. 4 The length of the record just read did not conform to the fixed file attributes for the file. 3 An attempt was made to access a record that does not exist or an optional file that was not present. 4 Returned When Logic Error in opening/closing/deleting etc 9 Implementator Defined 0 Successful Open / Read / Write / Operation. 2 This Error Will Occur When Index Key Fails 1 A sequence error exists for a sequentially accessed indexed file.mainframe230. REEL/UNIT. 7 An OPEN statement was attempted on a file that would not support the open mode specified in the OPEN statement. 2 An attempt was made to WRITE a record that would create a duplicate key. 5 An OPEN statement was attempted on a non-optional file that was not present. 8 An OPEN statement was attempted on a file previously closed with lock. 5 The referenced optional file was not present when the OPEN statement was executed.blogspot. file status 0 is returned. The second digit will denote the particular type of Error/Message under that category. 4 An attempt was made to WRITE beyond the boundaries of a sequential file.com Page 81 date:16. If the open mode is I-O or EXTEND. The first digit will denote the general category under which the return code falls.

COBOL Training 9 An OPEN statement was unsuccessful because of a conflict between the fixed file attributes and the attributes specified for the file in the program. 7 A READ was attempted for a file not open in the input or I-O mode. 3 The last I/O statement executed for the file prior to the execution of a REWRITE or DELETE statement was not a successfully executed READ statement. No file position indicator for sequential request.05. 1 An OPEN statement was attempted for a file in the open mode.2. 13.1. EXERCISES The following problems are only models. www. 2. Follow the Program Coding standard strictly. No DD statement specified for VSAM file. 2 A CLOSE was attempted for a file not in the open mode. or extend mode. output. 9 A DELETE or REWRITE was attempted on a file not open in the I-O mode.2010 . 4 Logic Error in opening/closing/deleting etc. 13. Invalid or incomplete VSAM file information. 99. showing the given details along with GROSS and NET. Write a program to ACCEPT your name and display the same the number of times you specify.mainframe230. 8 A WRITE was attempted on a file not open in the I-O. 99. 4 An attempt was made to REWRITE a record with an invalid length. VSAM resource not available. Logic error. 99999. 99.CCA PERCENTAGE OF HRA PERCENTAGE-OF-PF XXXXX. File integrity verified for VSAM file. VSAM password error. 9 Implemention Defined 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No further information. BASIC PROBLEM SOLVING 1. You can select similar problems and write programs. 6 A sequential READ was attempted but no valid next record had been established.blogspot.com Page 82 date:16. EMPLOYEE-NUMBER EMPLOYEE-NAME EMPLOYEE-BASIC PERCENTAGE -OF. ANY OTHER ALLOWANCE 9999. X(30). Write a program to ACCEPT the following details from the user and compute payslip. ANY OTHER DEDUCTION 9999.2.

Basic Condition :. 2.blogspot. ARRAY HANDLING 1.05. UNIT OF MEASUREMENT XXX. Write a program to create a KSDS for the Stock Master File ITEM NUMBER ITEM NAME BALANCE QUANTITY XXXXX. Write a program to input the temperature for a week and display the temperature on any day of the week. 3. Edit numeric data with comma for clarity. Expand the Table to two dimensional array to accept week as well as the temperature on any day of the week.2. Transaction entries may be saved in a PS Data Set. FILE HANDLING 1. Use necessary edited picture clauses. Write a COBOL Program to maintain the above Stock Master and do necessary update process on Issue/Receipt of the Item. 13.Write a program to display the class obtained by the student based on the marks obtained in three subjects as per the following rules. Find the day on which there was the highest temperature.2. 2. X(30). For the above programs give a proper report heading and column headings and print the report in the formatted form. Write a program to Input the data in a ESDS Dataset and display the Data. www. REPORT PREPARATION 1.mainframe230. 13.3. 3. 2.2. 99999.COBOL Training 3. Display the temperature detail on Input.2010 .com Page 83 date:16.4.2. Transfer the output of Problem 2 to a PS DATA SET.In no subject the boy should have got < 40 Condition For Class III Class : 40 or More but Less than 50 II Class : 50 or More but Less than 60 I Class : 60 or More but Less than 80 DISTINCTION : 80 or More 13. 4.

SYSIN DD * /* // ******** End of the Document ******** www.3.DISP=SHR // JCL for IGYWCLG //&SYSUIDZZ JOB CLASS=B.MSGCLASS=X.com Page 84 date:16.SYSLMOD DD DSN=&SYSUID.TIME=(00.MSGCLASS=X.SYSLMOD DD NAME AND EXECUTES THE /* MEMBER.2010 .COBOL Training 13.TIME=(00.05.DISP=SHR //LKED.TRG1.LINK EDITING & EXECUTING---------------//* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* CHECK JOBNAME AND USERID BEFORE SUBMITTING //* THIS JCL COMPILES AD/CYCLE COBOL/370 PROGRAM SPECIFIED BY //* COB.LOAD(MEMBER1). JCL for IGYWCL //&SYSUIDZZ JOB CLASS=B. //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//CMPCOB EXEC IGYWCL or IGYWCLG //COBOL.1).DISP=SHR //GO.TRG1.SYSIN DD DSN=&SYSUID.SYSLMOD DD NAME . // REGION=2M.45) //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* ------------COMPILING & LINK EDITING---------------------------//* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* CHECK JOBNAME AND USERID BEFORE SUBMITTING //* THIS JCL COMPILES AD/CYCLE COBOL/370 PROGRAM SPECIFIED BY //* COB.COBOL(VTOCLIST).MSGLEVEL=(1.1).MSGLEVEL=(1. JCL IGYWCL is a catalogued procedure to Compile and Linkedit any COBOL Program.SYSIN DD DSN=&SYSUID. //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//CMPCOB EXEC IGYWCLG //COBOL.NOTIFY=&SYSUID.COBOL(MEMBER1).mainframe230. IGYWCLG is a catalogued procedure to Compile.SYSLMOD DD DSN=&SYSUID.TRG1.DISP=SHR //LKED.blogspot.45) //* ---------------------------------------------------------------//* ------------COMPILING .SYSIN DD NAME AND PRODUCES LOAD MODULE IN THE DATA SET //* MEMBER SPECIFIED BY LKED.TRG1.SYSIN DD NAME AND PRODUCES LOAD MODULE IN THE DATA SET //* MEMBER SPECIFIED BY LKED. Linkedit and execute any COBOL Program. // REGION=2M.NOTIFY=&SYSUID.LOAD(VTOCLIST).