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Aviation Carbon Footprint

Global Scheduled International Passenger Flights - 2012

This report provides a detailed breakdown of CO2 emissions from global scheduled international passenger aircraft operations in 2012. The carbon footprint of the operations is disaggregated at the regional, country and airport level. The footprint is also examined from the perspective of the airlines. In addition, the document provides a breakdown of the carbon costs and revenues associated with scheduled international passenger operations.

Dave Southgate April 2013
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FOREWORD
In October 2012 I published a document examining the carbon footprint of Australian aircraft operations – The Carbon Footprint of Aircraft Operations in Australia – 2011. This report on the global footprint of scheduled international passenger operations builds on that earlier work. I have tried as far as possible to retain the style and feel of the original document by adopting the same data analysis approaches and by using similar visualisations to present the information. Due to data constraints, the footprinting in this report relates only to global scheduled international passenger operations. It is estimated that this captures about 80% of the total carbon footprint for international aircraft operations. The carbon footprint of international aviation is currently an issue of key importance due to the anticipated discussions on climate change at the upcoming meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Assembly in September 2013. The document does not suggest policy options for managing international aviation’s carbon footprint but rather is intended as a data resource to assist deliberations on options for addressing the issue. The carbon footprint information is presented in a number of different graphical formats. I hope this will generate debate on ways in which ongoing footprint reports for international aviation can be presented. Clearly any climate change management regime for international aviation will need to include a comprehensive and transparent measurement, reporting and verification system. The information in the document has been generated from a publicly available dataset of global international scheduled passenger services in 2012. The data analysis and report generation has been carried out using readily available software applications.

Dave Southgate Canberra April 2013

©dgsouthgate 2013 Any material in this document may be freely reproduced and distributed without acknowledgement.

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CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1

CONTEXT
Page 5

INTRODUCTION
Page 8

CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 3
Page 3 Page 13

GLOBAL NETWORK

REGIONS

Page 3 Page 24

CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 5

COUNTRIES
Page 36

AIRPORTS
Page 46

CHAPTER 6

CHAPTER 7

AIRLINES
Page 57

MONEY
Page 66

CHAPTER 8

COMPUTATION & VALIDATION
Page 71

FOOTPRINT PROFILES
Page 88

Author
Page 184

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The Carbon Context
The concentration of carbon dioxide in the world’s atmosphere is continuing to rise. The figure to the right shows the growth of global background CO2 levels measured by the United States National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)1. It can be seen that over the period 1959-2010 the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has grown at a rate of about 1-2 ppm per year.
Atmospheric CO2
400.00 390.00 380.00

370.00

CO2 (ppm)

360.00 350.00 340.00 330.00 320.00 310.00

300.00

The figure to the left, also generated by NOAA, illustrates that the rate of growth in atmospheric CO2 is increasing2. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued a summary report for policy makers in 20073 which reported observed effects of climate changes such as:
The average atmospheric water vapour content has increased since at least the 1980s over land and ocean as well as in the upper troposphere. The increase is broadly consistent with the extra water vapour that warmer air can hold. Observations since 1961 show that the average temperature of the global ocean has increased to depths of at least 3000 m and that the ocean has been absorbing more than 80% of the heat added to the climate system. Such warming causes seawater to expand, contributing to sea level rise. Mountain glaciers and snow cover have declined on average in both hemispheres. Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have contributed to sea level rise (ice caps do not include contributions from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets).

Since the start of the 20th century, the Earth's surface has warmed by about 0.74°C. The warming trends are illustrated in the figure to the right. Globally, the decade of 2001 to 2010 was the world's warmest decade on record, warmer than the 1990s which in turn was warmer than the 1980s—1998, 2005 and 2010 are the warmest years on record4.

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NOAA CO2 observations: ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/co2/trends/co2_annmean_mlo.txt NOAA analysis of CO2 trends: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/ 3 IPCC 2007: Summary report for policymakers: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-spm.pdf 4 Australian Government Dept of Climate Change: http://www.climatechange.gov.au/climate-change/understandingclimate-change/recent-trends-global-warming.aspx

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The Context
The International Transport Forum (ITF) has reported that in 2008 transport generated 23% of the world’s total carbon footprint derived from fuel combustion (Figure C.1). Emissions from international aviation, which made up about 7% of the transport footprint, constituted about 1.5% of the global footprint.5 Other Sectors 11%

Road 73%

Manufacturing 20%

Transport 23%

International Aviation 7%
Domestic Aviation 4%

Energy 46%

International Shipping 9% Domestic Shipping 2% Rail 2%

Figure 1: Domestic aviation contribution to Australia’s carbon Total CO2 = 29,381 Mt footprint in 2010 Figure C.1: Sectoral composition of the global carbon footprint from fuel combustion 2008

While the aviation contribution to the transport sector’s carbon footprint is around 10%, and significantly less than road transport, the ITF report shows that the carbon footprint of international aviation is growing at a greater rate than that of the other transport modes (Figure C.2).
% Change in CO2 Footprint 1990-2008

Figure C.2: Change in global CO2 footprint by mode 1990-2008

100.0

80.0
60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0 -20.0

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Transport Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2010. The International Transport Forum: World data sheet - p8. http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/Pub/pdf/10GHGCountry.pdf

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The ITF report also shows that in 2008 the fuel uplifted for global international aviation was the source of 455 Mt of CO2 – this had grown from a figure of around 250 million tonnes in 1990 (Figure C.3).

500 450

400
350

CO2 (Mt)

300 250 200

150
100 50 0 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 International Aviation Domestic Aviation

Figure C.3: Trends in Global Aviation CO2 footprint 1990-2008 During the period 1990-2008 the carbon footprint of international aviation grew at around 3.2% per annum while domestic aviation’s footprint growth was significantly less at about 0.3% per annum.

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PART I

DISCUSSION & ANALYSIS

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Introduction
This report is based on the author’s earlier work, released in October 2012, The Carbon Footprint of Aircraft Operations in Australia – 2011.6 As far as possible, this book uses the previous work as a template. The same great circle carbon footprinting approach has been used in both documents to present a picture of the carbon footprint of a network of aircraft operations – this book examines the global footprint of scheduled international passenger movements in 2012. In some instances the same graphics have been used in both books and elements of the original text have had minimal modification where a particular message applies equally to both reports. The broad style of presentation has been retained and the footprint examination from the perspective of the airport and the airline has also been retained. Like its predecessor, this document is designed as a data resource for researchers, aviation professionals, decision makers and members of the public. As such it is directed at describing the carbon footprint of international aviation and is not aimed at discussing or promoting particular policy options for managing that footprint. The earlier work was also directed at testing the application and robustness of great circle carbon footprinting techniques to the carbon footprinting of an aviation network. That exercise generated results that gave good agreement with the available validation points at the aggregated level and indicated that great circle techniques can be used to generate a good indicative carbon footprint picture. These ‘footprint pictures’ can be used, for example, as the basis for the broad consideration of options in a policy debate or in overview environmental reporting. At the time of writing there is an on-going debate about the management of carbon associated with international aviation. The European Union has put on hold the application of its Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) to international flights to/from Europe pending the outcome of discussions within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The triennial ICAO Assembly is due to be held in September 2013 and it is anticipated that efforts will be made to reach agreement at the Assembly on the application of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to managing the CO2 emissions of international aviation. Clearly, if this debate is to be informed it will be necessary for the participants to have access to carbon footprinting information which allows them to understand the potential impacts of the options under consideration.

1.1

Measurement, Reporting and Verification

The ultimate success of any climate change management regime depends on transparent and comprehensible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of CO2 emissions. The ultimate aim of the management regime is to constrain growth in CO2. Even if a carbon management regime is successfully controlling carbon it will be unlikely to achieve support from either the decision makers or the public if the CO2 gains cannot be rigorously determined and transparently reported. If international agreement is reached on managing the carbon footprint of international aviation, it is clear that the establishment of a robust MRV regime will need to be a fundamental part of the decision. At the very least it should be consistent with the MRV requirements set up under the

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The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://www.scribd.com/doc/110857161/The-Carbon-Footprint-of-Aircraft-Operations-in-Australia-2011

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UNFCCC for domestic aviation. Ideally it should be an advance on that regime since at present the UNFCCC essentially solely reports aggregated data for aviation with no detail on the constituent parts of the sector. However, given the plethora of operational data that exists for aviation there would appear to be no technical impediment to providing disaggregated carbon footprint reports for the sector. Disaggregated reporting would allow more robust assessment of the effectiveness of the climate change policy response and would also enable more informed debate of future options. In preparing this report the author found it very difficult to find solid data to use for validation purposes. There are significant holes in the data that is available to the public on international aviation operations and hence this report only reports on one (albeit by far the largest) area of international aviation’s carbon footprint – scheduled passenger operations. This ‘data gap’ is discussed in Section 8.4. A prime driver behind the production of this report has been the author’s longstanding interest in public access to data and in transparency in environmental decision making. If there is to be an effective response to climate change, decision makers need to be provided with information they can understand and trust. If there is to be public support for those decisions, members of the public need to be in a position which enables them to understand why decisions have been made and to easily track whether the outcomes of decisions are achieving proclaimed goals. In order to fit in with transparency principles, the work in this report has been based on publicly available data and on the use of inexpensive non-expert data analysis and reporting software (see Chapter 8).

1.2

Footprint Constrained to International Aviation

Under formal climate change management regimes domestic and international aviation are treated as separate entities:

 

under the UNFCCC the CO2 emissions of domestic aviation are managed and reported by the governments of individual countries as a component of their ageed country CO2 targets the rules and arrangements governing international aviation are decided on through international agreement under the auspices of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the management of the climate change impacts of international aviation is being negotiated through ICAO.

This report has been restricted to the examination of international aircraft operations for a number of reasons, not least to keep the task to a manageable size. While at the global level domestic aviation comprises a lesser part (about 40%) of the total carbon footprint of aircraft operations, it is more complex as it involves many more flights, airports and airlines. For example, Australia effectively has 10 international airports but around 130 airports which handle domestic scheduled passenger traffic. The carbon footprint of international aviation is also a topic of special interest since climate change will be one of the main discussion items at the forthcoming ICAO Assembly. Ideally this report would capture all of international aviation but, as mentioned in the previous section, there are significant data gaps which make this impractical at the present time (see Section 8.4). The analysis in Chapter 8 indicates that the footprint of scheduled international passenger operations is about 80% of the total carbon footprint of international aircraft operations.

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1.3

Methodology

In essence the carbon footprint information in this report has been derived by computing and aggregating the carbon footprints of individual flights contained in a database of global scheduled international passenger aircraft operations carried out in 2012. The flight by flight carbon footprints have been computed using a great circle computation tool –TNIP Carbon Counter- developed by the Australian Government Department of Infrastructure and Transport.7 The algorithms in this software tool are based on those contained in the ICAO Carbon Calculator.8 The reader is encouraged to examine Chapter 8 to learn about the methodology adopted to compute the CO2 data in this report and to compare this data against the published validation points. Input Data All the CO2 computations in this report are based on a publicly available database of 2012 global scheduled international passenger services. This database was sourced from Innovata, a provider of data for global aviation.9 This dataset is discussed further in Chapter 8. Scope The carbon footprint computations relate only to the CO2 generated by scheduled international passenger services in the year 2012. The footprinting does not extend to ground based non-aircraft activities such as the operation of ground service equipment or energy use associated with the operation of airport terminals. The carbon computations for any given entity (eg country, airport, etc) are confined solely to departing aircraft to avoid double counting of carbon. This methodology, which effectively computes notional global aviation fuel uplifted for scheduled international passenger services, is consistent with the UNFCCC carbon reporting regime.10 Under the UNFCCC regime the carbon generated by an international operation is counted under the inventory of the country from which the flight departed. The UNFCCC carbon accounting regime is based on computing the weight of six greenhouse gases.11 When reporting total greenhouse gases, the six gases are converted to CO2 equivalent (CO2-e). However, the accepted practice within ICAO when carbon footprinting aviation is to generally only compute and report CO2 emissions since the quantity of the other five UNFCCC greenhouse gases produced by aviation is small compared to the quantity of CO2.12 The literature commonly raises the question of whether, or how, to include the non-CO2 impacts of aviation in carbon footprint reporting. These impacts are taken into account by the incorporation of a multiplier, usually referred to as the ‘Radiative Forcing Index (RFI)’, into carbon computations. At the present time there is no agreement on how the RFI should be applied and accordingly the accepted ICAO practice is to use ‘RFI=1’ when carbon footprinting.13 This is the approach adopted in this document. Should the reader wish to incorporate a different RFI value into the results in this

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TNIP Carbon Counter: http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/aviation/environmental/transparent_noise/tnip_CC.aspx ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx 9 Innovata: http://www.innovata-llc.com/ 10 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, p1.6. http://www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/guidelin/ch1ref1.pdf 11 UNFCCC Fact Sheet: http://unfccc.int/files/press/backgrounders/application/pdf/press_factsh_mitigation.pdf 12 See Table 3.1 in reference 3. 13 ICAO Carbon Calculator. FAQ No 1: http://www.icao.int/environmentalprotection/CarbonOffset/Pages/FAQCarbonCalculator.aspx

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report, this can be done simply by multiplying any of the reported CO2 values by the RFI value. Interesting discussion on the RFI can be found in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere.14 Limitations It is important that the reader is aware of the limitations of, and the likely confidence that can be placed on, the carbon footprint values reported in this document. This topic is discussed in some detail in Chapter 8. At the top level the broad limitations which are likely to influence the robustness of the reported CO2 values include:  The reported carbon data is based on computation. Ideally the figures would be based on actual fuel use data for every individual flight in 2012 but this information is owned by the airlines and is commercial in confidence. The carbon results are derived from a great circle computation methodology which provides average CO2 information. The dataset used to compute the carbon footprint is a scheduled passenger movements dataset and does not contain information on unscheduled or dedicated freight movements. Information expressed in ‘per passenger’ metrics (CO2/PAX and litres of jet fuel/100 RPK) relies on assumptions relating to both load factors and seat configurations and has greater uncertainty than the results solely reporting CO2.

  

1.4

Report Structure

This document provides an example of the type of picture that can be presented of an aircraft operations network carbon footprint through the use of ‘simple’ great circle techniques. It is divided into two Parts. Part I is the main body of the report and contains the discussions and the prime data analysis. Part II essentially contains carbon footprint datasheets for the network components (eg region, country, etc) introduced in Part I. In Part I of the report the underlying dataset is filtered to generate subsets which capture the CO2 emissions of the key entities (‘entity’ being region, country, airport or airline) – the ‘top 10’. Depending on the level of disaggregation and the component type, this involves in practice providing footprint information for the top 3 to the top 30 entities. The broad aim is to identify the contributors of at least 50% of the global carbon footprint in Part I. Footprint information on some of the remaining entities is shown in Part II. The report is structured in a way that progressively examines the carbon footprint of global scheduled international passenger flights in 2012 by initially breaking down the global footprint into layers and then by separately examining the footprint from the perspective of the airports and the airlines. Chapter 2 gives a disaggregated overview of the carbon footprint at the global level. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the global footprint by going down two layers. The initial level of disaggregation in Chapter 3 divides the footprint into ICAO Regional components and examines both inter and intra region footprints. The footprint is further subdivided into country components in Chapter 4. The next two chapters examine the footprint from the perspective of the airports (Chapter 5) and the airlines (Chapter 6).

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Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/sres/aviation/index.php?idp=64

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In keeping with the current discussions within ICAO, Chapter 7 reports the carbon information in the early chapters in terms of monetary values. Chapter 8 is particularly important as it describes the computational approach used to generate the information in Chapters 2 to 7 and assesses the robustness of the computations by comparison with publicly available validation points. Part II of the report – entitled ‘footprint profiles’ – is a data resource which provides about 100 pages of carbon footprint information for the key entities.

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The Global Network
2.1 Introduction
The computational method used in this report indicates that 360 million tonnes of CO2 were emitted by scheduled international passenger aircraft operations in 2012. As suggested earlier, the reader is encouraged to peruse Chapter 8 to gain an understanding of the reliability that can be placed on this number and on the other figures in the coming chapters. All carbon computations are based on aircraft departures in order to avoid double counting. The broad thrust of this document is to provide illumination on the carbon footprint by disaggregating the top level figure into its components and sub-components. At the first level of disaggregation, the picture of the global carbon footprint of international passenger aircraft operations is shown by dividing the footprint into regional areas based on the seven ICAO regions. The ICAO regions broadly represent area demarcations which are commonly used when global data is broken down to the regional level. Figure 2.1 shows the breakdown of the global CO2 footprint into the seven ICAO regions (see Section 3.1). It can be seen that that aircraft departures in three of the regions dominate the global carbon footprint (constituting about 85% of the footprint). This is discussed further in Chapter 3.

Total CO2 = 360.9 Mt

East & South South America Africa Middle East

W & Central Africa

Europe

N & Central America + Carribean

ICAO Region Europe Asia/Pacific N & Central America + Caribbean Middle East South America East & South Africa W & Central Africa Total

CO2 (kt) 128,052 105,596 68,049 30,566 16,402 8,795 3,396 360,857

% 36 29 19 8 5 2 1 100

Asia/Pacific

Figure 2.1: Components of the global network CO2 footprint – ICAO Regions

Fuel (carbon) efficiency is an indicator of particular interest when carbon footprinting aviation. However, largely due to data availability constraints this is an issue which essentially falls outside the scope of this report. It is briefly discussed in Section 2.5. A commonly quoted means of reducing the aviation carbon footprint, and indeed the overall transport footprint, is to introduce policies designed to force a modal shift from ‘inefficient’ aviation 13

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to other modes of transport. This is commonly raised in the context of substituting either rail, bus or car for ‘short haul’ aviation. This topic is briefly discussed in Section 2.6.

2.2

Overview of Country Contributions
Country
United States United Kingdom Germany United Arab Emirates Japan China France Spain Hong Kong Singapore Australia Canada South Korea Thailand Netherlands Italy India Brazil Russia Turkey Malaysia Switzerland Taiwan Mexico Qatar Saudi Arabia South Africa Indonesia Philippines Portugal Other countries

Figure 2.2 shows the hierarchy of the CO2 footprint of scheduled international passenger aircraft operations for the top 30 countries. The CO2 is based on the notional quantity of jet fuel uplifted in each country. It can be seen that departures from these countries constituted about 80% of the global CO2 footprint in 2012. The footprint for the United States, the top country, is approximately twice the size of that of the United Kingdom. It is interesting to note that over 25% of the global footprint arises from departures from the top three countries. The top 10 countries constitute 50% of the footprint Australia, followed closely by Brazil and South Africa, generates the greatest weight of CO2 per passenger. This reflects the relative geographic isolation of the population centres in these countries.

CO2 (kt)
49,949 24,811 18,757 14,547 13,960 13,872 13,821 10,648 10,363 9,816 9,497 8,366 8,292 8,209 7,539 7,488 7,182 5,932 5,736 5,026 4,494 4,397 4,292 3,950 3,881 3,857 3,616 3,065 2,633 2,496 70,364

CO2/PAX (kg) Cumulative %
494 298 259 377 427 342 286 224 368 381 626 355 334 366 320 193 360 606 263 235 282 202 236 281 329 257 568 269 326 229 213 14 21 26 30 34 38 41 44 47 50 53 55 57 60 62 64 66 67 69 70 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 100

Total

360,857

300

Figure 2.2: Global CO2 footprint by country

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A picture of the global distribution of the footprint by number of countries is shown in Figure 2.3. This indicates that in 2012 the top 50 countries constituted about 90% of the footprint and that the top 100 countries made up in excess of 95% of the footprint.

Cumulative Distribution of CO2 Footprint between Countries
100

Cumulative % of CO2 Footprint

90 80

70
60 50 40 30 20 10 1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181

Number of Countries

Figure 2.3: Cumulative distribution of country contributions to the global footprint

The Carbon Footprint Profile A standard indicator template has been used throughout this report as a way to capture and report some key elements of the global CO2 footprint for each of the components of the global footprint (eg country, airport, airline). Figure 2.4 is the first example of this template. Throughout the report this template is referred to as a ‘carbon footprint profile’ – these profiles facilitate rapid comparisons between the contributions made to the global footprint by the footprint constituent elements. In most places in the report the template contains seven elements which are largely self-explanatory (these vary slightly depending on the footprint component being examined). Figure 2.4 is an overview profile of the global network and the elements contain information that is discussed in other places in the report:  ICAO Origin Region - this shows the distribution of the CO2 footprint between departures from the seven ICAO regions – it replicates the information in Figure 2.1. In many of the profiles this element is ICAO Destination Region which shows the CO2 split between destinations for departures from the location (eg country, airport), or by the entity (eg airline), shown at the head of the chart. The areas shown in the pie diagrams include both inter and intra region operations (ie it includes flights which have both the origin and destination in the same region). Country – is an extract of the country footprint hierarchy shown in Figure 2.2. Footprint by Aircraft Type – this graphic breaks the footprint down by aircraft type; the aircraft types have been categorised by aircraft family (eg A320, B737) to aid clarity. Origin Airports – this table gives a footprint hierarchy for the notional fuel uplifted at the top 15 airports in the component being examined (eg country). In many of the profiles an

  

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element headed Destination Airports is used to show a CO2 footprint hierarchy (top 15) based on the notional fuel uplifted by aircraft operating from the component (eg country, airport) to the destination airports.    Airlines – this shows a CO2 hierarchy for the footprint disaggregated by airline (top 15) for departures operating from the component under examination (eg country, airport). City-pair Hierarchy – this breaks the component footprint into a hierarchy of routes (top 15). CO2 v Distance – this breaks the component footprint down by distance ranges and shows the relationship between the number of movements and the CO2 footprint for each of the discrete distance ranges. This is discussed in Section 2.6.

Each element provides an independent view of the footprint. The total carbon in each element equals the total footprint for the component being examined (eg country, airport, airline). It is important to note that the scales on the Footprint by Aircraft Type and CO2 v Distance elements are generated automatically to present the best view of the data being shown. This means that the scales can vary widely from profile to profile and care must be taken when cross comparing between profiles.

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Global Network
ICAO Origin Regions
Europe Asia/Pacific 19% 29% 8% 5% 36% 2% 1% N & Cen America Middle East South America E & South Africa

Total Footprint = 360,857 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
49,949 24,811 18,757 14,547 13,960 13,872 13,821 10,648 10,363 9,816 9,497 8,366 8,292 8,209 7,539 138,410

Country
United States United Kingdom Germany United Arab Emirates Japan China France Spain Hong Kong Singapore Australia Canada South Korea Thailand Netherlands Other Countries

Footprint by Aircraft Type
0 B777 A330 A320 B737 B747 A340 B767 A380 B757 E190 Other Types

Origin Airports
London (Heathrow) Dubai Hong Kong Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Singapore Tokyo (Narita) New York (JFK) Seoul Bangkok Amsterdam Los Angeles Beijing Shanghai Sydney Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
16,394 10,976 10,363 10,193 10,132 9,816 8,905 8,201 7,919 7,583 7,300 7,007 5,074 4,965 4,817 231,213

20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Total

360,857

Total

360,857

Airlines
Emirates Airline British Airways Lufthansa United Airlines Delta Air Lines Air France Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific American Airlines KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Korean Air Qatar Airways Ryanair Thai Airways International Air Canada Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
17,333 15,808 15,344 14,828 12,743 12,389 10,498 10,135 10,030 9,079 7,982 7,330 6,803 6,311 6,179 198,063

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Heathrow)-Singapore Singapore-London (Heathrow) New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong Hong Kong-London (Heathrow) Sydney-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Sydney Los Angeles-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Los Angeles London (Heathrow)-Dubai Dubai-London (Heathrow) Los Angeles-Seoul Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
1,015 1,015 1,000 1,000 843 843 707 705 664 664 628 626 542 542 541 349,524
CO2 (kt) 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 2,500,000
2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

360,857

Total

360,857

Figure 2.4: Carbon footprint profile – global network for scheduled international passenger aircraft movements 2012 17

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2.3

The carbon footprint by route
Route
London (Heathrow)-Singapore London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong Los Angeles-Sydney London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Dubai Los Angeles-Seoul Singapore-Sydney San Francisco-Hong Kong Los Angeles-Taipei Frankfurt-Singapore London (Heathrow)-Johannesburg London (Heathrow)-San Francisco Honolulu-Tokyo (Narita) Hong Kong-Singapore Taipei-Hong Kong London (Heathrow)-Chicago Hong Kong-Sydney Chicago-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Miami New York (JFK)-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Bangkok London (Heathrow)-Newark Paris (CDG)-Tokyo (Narita) Singapore-Melbourne New York (JFK)-Paris (CDG) San Francisco-Seoul New York (JFK)-Seoul London (Heathrow)-Washington London (Heathrow)-Mumbai Other Routes

Figure 2.5 shows the 31 most CO2 intensive scheduled international passenger aircraft routes for 2012. To assist with interpretation the hierarchy has been colour coded into groups – the colours in Figure 2.5 correspond to the colours in the route visualisations shown in Figures 2.6 & 2.7. It can be seen that London Heathrow is associated with five of the top ten routes. Heathrow is the only European airport in the top 10. In other ICAO regions the footprint is more dispersed between airports. It can be seen that generally there are not major differences in the CO2 footprint between the routes and that for the most part the footprint is well dispersed across routes - the 31 routes in Figure 2.5 make up less than 10% of the global footprint. The geographic spread of the routes can be appreciated by reference to Figures 2.6 & 2.7. These figures have been split, for reasons of clarity, into views from essentially opposite sides of the globe.

CO2 (kt)
2,030 2,000 1,686 1,412 1,328 1,254 1,084 1,082 1,059 1,048 1,006 1,004 967 951 928 902 901 884 837 828 821 816 804 780 771 751 745 736 734 720 709 329,281

CO2/PAX
1,149 556 1,034 1,336 902 939 543 1,046 629 1,262 1,243 1,092 929 940 566 275 129 607 703 1,106 743 1,191 932 527 1,038 613 564 1,016 1,200 587 796 285

The reported quantity of CO2 per passenger is largely driven by the distance between Total 360,857 300 the cities involved (given the relatively Figure 2.5: Global CO2 hierarchy by route narrow spread in aircraft types (see Section 2.4)). The route between Los Angeles and Sydney generates the highest CO2/PAX figure. It can be seen that some of the major routes have relatively small CO2/PAX values (in particular Taipei-Hong Kong). An alphabetical listing of the top 1,000 international city-pairs, showing simple carbon footprint information, is contained in Profile F5 in Part II. Note – this section refers to CO2 footprints for ‘routes’: in this context CO2 computations for ‘routes’ capture all traffic between the two airports/cities cited (ie traffic both ways). Commonly throughout the report CO2 computations are based on ‘city-pair’ (ie one way) footprints.

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Figure 2.6: Global CO2 Footprint route Hierarchy – Atlantic View This figure is a graphical representation of the information in Figure 2.5. Routes across the Pacific are shown in Figure 2.7. The thickness of the lines is proportional to the quantity of CO2. The figure clearly illustrates the dominant position of London (Heathrow) as the focus of the most carbon intensive routes. 19

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Figure 2.7: Global CO2 Footprint route Hierarchy – Pacific View This figure is a graphical representation of the information in Figure 2.5. The thickness of the lines is proportional to the quantity of CO2. The figure illustrates that Los Angeles is the focus of the most carbon intensive routes across the Pacific. Testing

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2.4

Aircraft Types

Figure 2.8 shows a breakdown of the global scheduled international passenger movements carbon footprint by aircraft type. The table shows the top 10 aircraft types, by carbon footprint, that were used for scheduled international passenger aircraft operations in 2012. The aircraft types have been grouped into broad ‘families’ to aid clarity – most of these ‘families’ include a number of versions and variants.
Aircraft Type B777 A330 A320 B737 B747 A340 B767 A380 B757 E190 Other Types Total CO2 (kt) 84,107 56,206 52,959 42,552 39,461 25,382 25,149 10,662 6,835 2,714 14,828 360,857 % of CO2 Cumulative % 23.3 23.3 15.6 38.9 14.7 53.6 11.8 65.4 10.9 76.3 7.0 83.3 7.0 90.3 3.0 93.2 1.9 95.1 0.8 95.9 4.1 100.0 100.0
1

CHART TITLE

B767 A340 B747 B737 A320 A330 B777

Figure 2.8: CO2 hierarchy by aircraft type It is interesting to note the very concentrated nature of the footprint when examined by aircraft type – 5 aircraft types generated 80% of the global carbon footprint; 10 aircraft types generated 95% of the footprint. Twin engine aircraft dominated the footprint – constituting about 80% of the footprint. The B777 and A330 families for wide bodied aircraft and the A320 and B737 for the narrow bodied aircraft. Four engine aircraft provided about 20% of the footprint.

2.5

Efficiency

One of the key goals for managing the carbon footprint of aviation is to improve its efficiency to the greatest extent possible. The ICAO goal for climate change management which was agreed at the 2010 ICAO Assembly is to achieve a 2% improvement in fuel efficiency per year until 2050. It was accepted that this goal will be tracked using the metric ‘litres of fuel / RTK (Revenue Tonne Kilometre)’. Globally the fuel efficiency of aviation has improved at a rate of around 2% per year for the past two decades while at the same time the carbon footprint has grown at a rate of about 3% per year. The ICAO Environmental Report 2010 provides a good overview of trends in aviation CO2 emissions.15 The reliability of efficiency computations is inherently uncertain since, in the absence of detailed information, assumptions have to be made about both load factors and seat configurations across aircraft types of many different airlines operating in a range of countries. In the case of the RTK metric, knowledge of the weight of freight carried is also required.

15

ICAO Environmental Report 2010, Chapter 1. http://www.icao.int/environmentalprotection/Documents/Publications/ENV_Report_2010.pdf

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Given the overview nature of this document, and the significant uncertainties in computing aviation efficiencies without specific detailed information, this report does not delve into the question of efficiency. Nevertheless, it is straightforward to compute a figure for the efficiency of the global network from the database that underpins this report. The database indicates that the weight of fuel used in 2012 for global scheduled international passenger operations was 1.14 x 1011 kg; and the total RPK (Revenue Passenger Kilometres) was 3.48 x 1012. Assuming a global load factor of 78%16 gives: Efficiency across the global network = 4.1 litres of fuel/100RPK This value compares well with published airline efficiency data. For example, Emirates reported an efficiency of 4.12 litres of fuel/100PK for 2010/11.17

2.6

CO2 Contribution by Trip Length

As pointed out earlier, the standard carbon footprint profile used throughout this report contains an element examining the relationship between the quantum of CO2 emissions, the number of aircraft operations and the distance travelled. The global network CO2 v distance element in Figure 2.4 shows the somewhat complex relationship between the three factors. It can be seen that the most common distance travelled on scheduled international passenger operations in 2012 was in the range 500 - 1,000 km. However, it can also be seen that the contribution to the carbon footprint from aircraft operations in this distance range was relatively small. This is illustrated more clearly in Figure 2.9.
100

80

Cumulative %

60 CO2 CO2 40 20 0 Movements Movements

Distance (km)

Figure 2.9: Cumulative comparison CO2 v Distance This figure reveals that about 60% of the scheduled international passenger aircraft operations in 2012 travelled less than 1,500 km and these flights made up about 20% of the global carbon footprint. By way of contrast about 50% of the total footprint is generated by around 10% of the flights (flights travelling more than 5,000 km) – these flights carried about 20% of the total number of international passengers in 2012. The Figure is consistent with the statement made by the Air

16
17

IATA, 2012 Annual Review, p12: http://www.iata.org/about/Documents/annual-review-2012.pdf Reference 22, p49.

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Transport Action Group (ATAG) that “Around 80% of aviation CO2 emissions are emitted from flights of over 1,500 kilometres.”18 [Note the scale on the distance axis is not linear.] It is interesting to contrast this relationship with the CO2 v distance relationship for motor cars. Figure 2.10, extracted from a report by the UK Department for Transport19, shows that almost 80% of UK car trips are for very short journeys – less than 16 km. These journeys comprise about 40% of the motor car carbon footprint.

Figure 2.10: Cumulative comparison CO2 v Distance for motor cars – UK It can be seen throughout this report, by reference to the carbon footprint profiles, that with aviation there are high numbers of international movements in the short haul range but these make only a minor contribution to the overall footprint. This is more pronounced when domestic aviation is included. For example, in Australia about 30% of the scheduled aircraft movements travel less than 500 km – these operations contribute about 3% of the country’s aviation carbon footprint.20

18 19

ATAG, Facts and Figures: http://www.atag.org/facts-and-figures.html UK Dept for Transport, Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future, 2009: http://www.officialdocuments.gov.uk/document/cm76/7682/7682.pdf 20 The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012, p23: http://www.scribd.com/doc/110857161/The-Carbon-Footprint-of-Aircraft-Operations-in-Australia-2011

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The ICAO Regions
3.1 Introduction
When examining global data it is common practice to break it down into regional subsets. As this report relates to international aviation, the data has been broken down at the first level of disaggregation into datasets for each of the ICAO regions. There are currently nine formal ICAO regions which are coordinated from seven regional offices.21 For the purposes of this report the ICAO regions have been split into the seven consolidated regions which equate to the areas covered by the regional offices. The boundaries of these regions are shown in Figure 3.1 (which was sourced from ICAO22). The black dots on the figure show the location of the regional offices. Abbreviated names are used throughout the report to identify these regions.

Figure 3.1: Boundaries of the consolidated ICAO regions Breaking down the global data into regional subsets assists with the understanding and analysis of the global carbon footprint. In addition, during the lengthy ongoing debates on the establishment of a regime to manage the carbon footprint of international aviation, the concept of setting up regional schemes as an initial step is commonly raised. Therefore breaking down the global carbon footprint in this way may assist in the understanding of the potential for establishing carbon management schemes at the regional level. The carbon footprint of intra region operations is discussed in Section 3.3.

21 22

ICAO, Present Regional Structure: http://www.icao.int/Pages/ro-structure.aspx ICAO regions map: http://www2.icao.int/en/ism/iStars/PublishingImages/Map-icao-regions-small.jpg

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3.2

Carbon Footprint by Region

Overview It was shown in Figure 2.1 that aircraft operations arising from three of the ICAO regions dominate the global carbon footprint – Europe, Asia/Pacific and N & Central America + Caribbean. The operations from these regions constitute around 85% of the global footprint. As indicated earlier, the aim in Part I of the report is to focus discussion on the key, ‘top-10’, CO2 generators. Accordingly in this chapter the detailed information relates to the three just mentioned key regions – carbon footprint information for the other four ICAO regions is shown in Profile F1 in Part II. The information is shown using the carbon footprint profile concept introduced in Figure 2.4. As an initial step, Figure 3.2 shows an overview of the carbon footprint for each of the ICAO regions broken down by country. For reasons of clarity each of the regional pies is made up of the top 10 countries (+ an ‘Other countries’ category). It can be seen that for five of the regions there is one dominant country – the other two regions, Asia/Pacific and Europe, have a much more even split across countries. For the Asia/Pacific, Europe and W and Central Africa regions the ‘Other countries’ category is prominent (15% or greater) while for the N & Central America + Caribbean and the Middle East regions the ‘Other countries’ category makes up 3% of the pie. Carbon footprint profiles are provided on the following pages for the top 3 ICAO regions – Europe, Asia/Pacific and N & Central America + Caribbean. Europe The Europe ICAO region carbon footprint profile shows that:

the proportion of the Europe footprint that is intra region is somewhat less than that in the Asia/Pacific region but greater than that for the N & Central America and the Caribbean region (see Section 3.3) narrow bodied aircraft occupy the two top positions on the aircraft type hierarchy – this presumably reflects the fact that, due to the political boundaries, many international flights in Europe would be domestic flights in the larger countries in the other regions three airports are prominent as origin airports – London (Heathrow) occupies a particularly dominant position (aircraft departures from Heathrow generate about 13% of the region’s CO2 footprint) six of the top 15 destination airports are in Europe (ie associated with intra regional flights) low cost carriers occupy two of the top six positions on the airlines list London Heathrow dominates the city pair hierarchy; there are no intra Europe flights in the top 15 city pairs on the CO2 v Distance chart the numbers of movements have a very prominent peak in the 500-1,000km range and there is a marked amount of CO2 in the range up to 2,500km; the highest CO2 load is generated by flights in the 5,000 km to 11,000 km range with about 45% of the footprint being generated by flights travelling greater than 5,000 km.

   

The intra Europe CO2 footprint is discussed in Section 3.3.

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Other countries 21%
Mexico Dominican Costa Rica Republic 6% 1% 2% Cuba 1% Canada Jamaica 12% 1% Barbados 1%

Europe
United Kingdom 19%
Germany 15% France 11% Spain 8%
Jordan 2% Oman Bahrain 3% 3% Kuwait 3% Egypt 8%

Portugal 2% Switzerland 3% Turkey 4% Russia 5%
Italy 6% Netherlands 6%

United States 73%

El Salvador 0% Guadeloupe 0%
Other countries 3%

Lebanon Other countries 2% 3% Iran 2%

N & Central America + Caribbean
Gabon 3%

W and Central Africa
Other countries 15% Cape Verde 3% Benin 3% Mali 4%

United Arab Emirates 48%

Saudi Arabia 13%
Nigeria 30%

Qatar 13%

Middle East
Other countries 15%

Asia/Pacific
Taiwan 4% Malaysia 4%
India 7% Thailand 8% Hong Kong 10% Japan 13% China 13%

Netherlands Other countries Antilles 4% Uruguay Ecuador 3% 1% 3% Venezuela 5% Panama 8% Colombia 8% Brazil 36%

Cote d'Ivoire 5% Cameroon

Ghana 13%
Senegal 10%

6%

Congo 8%

Uganda 2% Tanzania 3% Angola

Madagascar 2% Zambia 2%

Other countries 8%

5%

Chile 8% Peru Argentina 15% 9%
Ethiopia 11%

Reunion 6% Mauritius 7%

South Africa 41%

South Korea 8% Australia 9%

Singapore 9%

South America

Kenya 13%

E & South Africa

Figure 3.2: Top 10 country carbon footprint breakdown within each ICAO region For each ICAO region the figure shows how the regional carbon footprint is shared between the top 10 countries. The magnitude of the regional footprints is shown in Figure 2.1. The carbon footprint relates to CO2 associated with aircraft departures from the specified countries. 26

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Europe
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America

Total Footprint = 128,052 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
10,000 20,000 30,000 A320 B737 B777 A330 B747 A340 B767 A380 B757 E190 Other Types

Origin Airports
40,000
London (Heathrow) Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Amsterdam Madrid Moscow Istanbul Roma Munich Zurich London (Gatwick) Brussels Tel Aviv Milano Paris (Orly) Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
16,394 10,193 10,132 7,300 4,788 4,512 4,146 3,422 3,400 3,120 2,865 2,094 1,945 1,944 1,805 49,994

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) Dubai Singapore Bangkok Moscow Hong Kong London (Heathrow) Newark Tokyo (Narita) Istanbul Paris (CDG) Frankfurt Beijing Amsterdam Los Angeles Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
4,109 3,291 2,740 2,563 2,447 2,218 2,086 2,065 2,008 1,934 1,928 1,865 1,861 1,697 1,672 93,571

20%

16%

7% 5% 3% 1%

Asia/Pacific Middle East

48%

South America
E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

128,052

Total

128,052
Mvts

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Heathrow)-Singapore London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles London (Heathrow)-Dubai Frankfurt-Singapore London (Heathrow)-Johannesburg London (Heathrow)-San Francisco London (Heathrow)-Chicago London (Heathrow)-Miami London (Heathrow)-Bangkok London (Heathrow)-Newark Paris (CDG)-Tokyo (Narita) Paris (CDG)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Washington Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
1,015 1,000 843 664 542 502 483 476 442 411 402 390 386 373 360 119,765
CO2 (kt)

Lufthansa 9,803 British Airways 9,052 Air France 7,307 Ryanair 6,802 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 5,186 Easyjet 4,602 Turkish Airlines 4,300 Swiss European Air Lines 2,701 Iberia Airlines 2,679 Delta Air Lines 2,649 Air Berlin 2,607 United Airlines 2,599 Emirates Airline 2,553 Aeroflot Russian Airlines 2,362 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS)2,125 Other Airlines 60,726

CO2 v Distance

25,000
20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) Movements Movements

Total

128,052

Total

128,052

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Asia/Pacific The Asia/Pacific carbon footprint profile shows that:
   

more than half of the Asia/Pacific CO2 footprint is generated by flights within the region (see Section 3.3) in contrast to Europe, wide bodied aircraft occupy the top three positions on the aircraft type hierarchy compared to Europe there is a greater spread in the origin airport CO2 footprint between airports – there is no dominant airport in Asia/Pacific equivalent to Heathrow intra region flights occupy the top two positions on the destination airport hierarchy; nine of the top 15 destination airports are in the Asia/Pacific region (ie associated with intra region operations) the airlines hierarchy is, in a similar manner to Europe, dominated by operators from the region; Delta, Emirates and United, are the only operators in the list not based in Asia/Pacific (these airlines occupy a similar position in the hierarchy for Europe) – the footprint for these three airlines is somewhat greater in the Asia/Pacific region than in Europe the top five positions on the city pair hierarchy involve either London (Heathrow) or Los Angeles; there are three intra region routes in the city pair hierarchy the CO2 v Distance chart shows a somewhat different profile to Europe; like Europe there is a peak in numbers of movements in the 500-1,000km range but these operations generate a relatively small proportion of the region’s carbon footprint; also similar to Europe there is a drop off in the number of movements from 5,000km upward but the footprint is dominated by flights travelling further than 3,000 km (about 70% of the region’s carbon footprint is generated by aircraft travelling more than 3,000 km).

 

The intra Asia/Pacific CO2 footprint is discussed in Section 3.3. N & Central America + Caribbean The N & Central America + Caribbean carbon footprint profile figure shows that:       the proportion of intra region operations is low compared to the other two regions (see Section 3.3) wide bodied aircraft occupy the top four positions on the aircraft type hierarchy; the B777 is particularly significant New York (JFK) and Los Angeles dominate as origin airports for the region’s carbon footprint Toronto is the only destination airport in the region that appears in the destination airport hierarchy (ie associated with intra region operations) in contrast to the other regions, six of the operators in the airline hierarchy are not based in the region the New York (JFK) to London (Heathrow) city pair is the clear leader in the city pair hierarchy; in common with Europe there are no intra region city pairs in the top 15

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the CO2 v Distance chart shows a very strong influence of long haul flights in the compostion of the carbon footprint; flights travelling > 5,000km make up the bulk of the footprint (about 75% of the footprint)

The intra N & Central America + Caribbean region CO2 footprint is discussed in Section 3.3.

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Asia/Pacific
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe

Total Footprint = 106,093 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
10,000 20,000 30,000 B777 A330 B747 A320 B737 A340 B767 A380 A300 B757 Other Types

Origin Airports
40,000
Hong Kong Singapore Tokyo (Narita) Seoul Bangkok Beijing Shanghai Sydney Kuala Lumpur Taipei Delhi Manila Melbourne Mumbai Osaka Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
10,363 9,816 8,905 7,919 7,583 5,074 4,965 4,817 4,237 4,090 2,503 2,330 2,175 2,083 2,050 27,184

Destination Airports
Singapore Hong Kong London (Heathrow) Los Angeles Dubai Bangkok Seoul Frankfurt Tokyo (Narita) Kuala Lumpur Sydney Taipei Paris (CDG) San Francisco Shanghai Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
6,368 5,362 4,608 4,486 4,070 3,979 3,798 3,157 3,078 2,864 2,780 2,768 2,743 2,381 1,992 51,657

19% 17% 10% 53% 1% 0%

N & Cen America Middle East E & South Africa South America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

106,093

Total

106,093
Mvts

Airlines
Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific Korean Air Thai Airways International Emirates Airline Qantas United Airlines Malaysia Airlines Japan Airlines China Airlines Air China Asiana Airlines All Nippon Airways Delta Air Lines China Eastern Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
7,871 7,327 5,632 4,960 3,888 3,656 3,269 3,121 2,872 2,835 2,731 2,712 2,590 2,547 2,187 47,893

City-Pair Hierarchy
Singapore-London (Heathrow) Hong Kong-London (Heathrow) Sydney-Los Angeles Tokyo (Narita)-Los Angeles Seoul-Los Angeles Sydney-Singapore Singapore-Sydney Hong Kong-San Francisco Taipei-Los Angeles Singapore-Frankfurt Tokyo (Narita)-Honolulu Singapore-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Singapore Taipei-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Taipei Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
1,015 843 707 626 541 530 529 524 503 502 464 451 451 450 450 97,507
CO2 (kt)

CO2 v Distance

20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) Movements Movements

Total

106,093

Total

106,093

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N & Cen America
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

67,564 kt CO2
Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Narita) Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Seoul Hong Kong Amsterdam Beijing Madrid Sao Paulo Shanghai Dubai Toronto London (Gatwick) Sydney Other Airports

Footprint by Aircraft Type
5,000 10,000 15,000 B777 B747 B767 A330 B737 A320 A340 B757 A380 ERJ Other Types

Origin Airports
20,000
New York (JFK) Los Angeles San Francisco Toronto Chicago Newark Miami Washington Atlanta Vancouver Houston Mexico City Dallas-Fort Worth Honolulu Montreal Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
8,201 7,007 3,912 3,698 3,647 3,462 3,452 2,635 2,522 2,155 2,035 1,893 1,667 1,539 1,261 18,476

CO2 (kt)
6,342 3,656 3,243 2,791 2,418 2,212 2,049 1,378 1,356 1,325 1,235 1,230 1,211 1,137 1,128 34,854

25%

24% 8% 39% 3% 1% 0%

N & Cen America South America

Middle East
E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

67,564

Total

67,564
Mvts

Airlines
United Airlines Delta Air Lines American Airlines Air Canada British Airways Lufthansa US Airways Air France Korean Air Cathay Pacific Virgin Atlantic Airways WestJet JetBlue Airways Continental Airlines KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
8,127 6,687 6,317 4,043 3,578 2,315 1,974 1,843 1,571 1,494 1,396 1,169 1,163 1,098 1,096 23,693

City-Pair Hierarchy
New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow) Los Angeles-Sydney Los Angeles-London (Heathrow) Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) Los Angeles-Seoul San Francisco-Hong Kong Los Angeles-Taipei San Francisco-London (Heathrow) Honolulu-Tokyo (Narita) Chicago-London (Heathrow) Chicago-Tokyo (Narita) Miami-London (Heathrow) New York (JFK)-Tokyo (Narita) Newark-London (Heathrow) New York (JFK)-Paris (CDG) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
1,000 705 664 628 541 524 503 476 464 442 414 410 408 390 372 59,622
CO2 (kt)

CO2 v Distance

18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

300,000
250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) Movements Movements

Total

67,564

Total

67,564

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3.3

Intra Region Footprint

As indicated in Section 3.1 examination of the global footprint at the regional level is important as it may assist in understanding the potential for, or the impacts of, introducing carbon management regimes at this level. Figure 3.3 breaks down the regional carbon footprint information shown in Figure 2.1 into intra and inter regional parts. An intra region flight is one where an aircraft flies between two countries which are located within the same ICAO region. It can be seen that there are significant differences between the regions. In the Europe and Asia/Pacific regions about 50% of the regional footprint is generated by intra region operations while for the other regions the intra region proportion is around 20-25%. About 80% of the global intra region footprint is associated with the Europe and Asia/Pacific regions.
ICAO Origin Region Europe Asia/Pacific N & Central America + Caribbean Middle East South America East & South Africa W & Central Africa Total Inter region CO2 (kt) 66,408 49,614 51,152 23,585 11,936 7,067 2,773 212,535 Intra region CO2 (kt) 61,645 56,479 16,412 6,982 4,454 1,728 624 148,323 Total CO2 (kt) 128,052 106,093 67,564 30,566 16,390 8,795 3,396 360,857 % Intra region 48 53 24 23 27 20 18 41

Figure 3.3: Carbon footprint breakdown into inter and intra region components Figure 3.4 provides a further insight into the intra region footprint. This shows the very different make-up of the footprint between, in particular, the Europe and Asia/Pacific regions. The Europe footprint results from a high number of flights with relatively small footprints compared to the Asia/Pacific where the CO2/flight is approx. three times that of Europe. This is consistent with the distinct differences in geopolitical make-up between the two regions (many international flights in Europe, a continent comprising a number of relatively small countries, are broadly equivalent to domestic flights in the large countries in the other regions).
Intra region Europe Asia/Pacific N & Central America + Caribbean Middle East South America East & South Africa W & Central Africa Total CO2 (kt) 61,645 56,479 16,412 6,982 4,454 1,728 624 148,323 Movements 4,464,432 1,458,956 1,083,555 394,607 233,099 139,792 55,338 7,829,779 CO2 (t)/mvt 13.8 38.7 15.1 17.7 19.1 12.4 11.3 18.9

Figure 3.4: Intra region footprint – average carbon intensity of flights To provide further understanding of the intra region carbon footprint, Figures 3.5, 3.6 and 3.7 show the carbon footprint by route for the three top ICAO regions. It is important to note the differences in scale between the three diagrams. The carbon intensity of the Asia/Pacific routes is significantly higher than that for the other two regions.

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Figure 3.5: The carbon footprint of the major intra Europe routes This chart gives an overview of the carbon intensity hierarchy for intra Europe international routes. There are eight routes in the top category (green); 29 routes in next category (red) and 176 in the blue category. There were 6,732 routes with a carbon footprint of less than 50 kt in 2012 which are not shown on the map. Collectively the routes shown on the map comprise about 25% of the carbon footprint for international intra region operations in the Europe region. Labelling of place and airport names has been omitted in an attempt to improve clarity.

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Figure 3.6: The carbon footprint of the major intra Asia/Pacific routes This chart gives an overview of the carbon intensity hierarchy for intra Asia/Pacific international routes. There is one route in the top category (purple); 5 routes in next category (yellow) and 66 in the red category. There were 1,120 routes with a carbon footprint of less than 200 kt in 2012 which are not shown on the map. Collectively the routes shown on the map comprise about 50% of the carbon footprint for international intra region operations in the Asia/Pacific region.

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Figure 3.7: The carbon footprint of the major intra N and Central America + Caribbean routes This chart gives an overview of the carbon intensity hierarchy for international routes within the N and Central America and the Caribbean region. There are seven routes in the top category (red); 9 routes in the next category (green) and 61 in the blue category. There were 993 routes with a carbon footprint of less than 50 kt in 2012 which are not shown on the map. Collectively the routes shown on the map comprise about 45% of the carbon footprint for international intra region operations in the N and Central America and the Caribbean region. 35

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The Countries
4.1 Introduction
Examining the footprint by country is the next logical level of disaggregation of the global carbon footprint. In addition to providing transparency in the footprinting, disaggregation at the country level is important since the deliberations currently taking place within ICAO on the management of international aviation’s climate change impacts are focussed on determining liabilities and actions for individual countries. The question of carbon footprinting at the country level has been a vexed question within the ICAO negotiations and a lot of effort has been spent on finding an acceptable way to apportion carbon between countries. At the time of writing this issue remains unresolved, nevertheless as indicated in Section 1.3, the carbon accounting in this report applies the methodology set up under the UNFCCC for defining international aviation operations and for allocating carbon. In essence in this report the CO2 is allocated between countries by computing the CO2 emitted by aircraft on flights between any two countries and allocating the CO2 to the country from which the aircraft departed (notional fuel uplifted). Figure 4.1 is a thematic map showing the distribution between countries of the global footprint for scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. It was shown in Figure 2.3 that the top 50 CO2 emitting countries make up around 90% of the carbon footprint for global international scheduled passenger services. This report contains a separate CO2 footprint profile for each of these countries. In order to avoid information overload this chapter contains, and discusses, the profiles for the top 5 countries. The profiles for the remaining 45 countries are contained in Profile F2 in Part II.

4.2

Carbon Footprint Profile - Top 5 Countries

This section briefly discusses the carbon footprint profiles contained in this section for the top five emitting countries (ie those countries which have the greatest notional fuel uplift for international scheduled passenger departures from their territories). United States The United States carbon footprint profile shows:     only a small proportion of the US international operations are within its ICAO region; the footprint is dominated by operations to the Europe and Asia/Pacific regions the B777 is the dominant aircraft type; the B747 also has a significant presence – these two types make up around 45% of the footprint there are two clear leading departure airports - New York (JFK) and Los Angeles; the top 15 origin airports make up about 90% of the footprint two destination airports predominate - London (Heathrow) in Europe and Tokyo (Narita) in the Asia/Pacific region; the top 15 destination airports make up about 55% of the footprint; the top 3 airlines (US carriers) make up about 35% of the footprint 36

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Figure 4.1: Country carbon footprints – scheduled international passenger flights 2012 This figure is a thematic map giving a visualisation of the data displayed in Figure 2.2. The colour relates to the quantum of the country footprint – the values are shown in the legend. There are nine countries in the first category (> 10,000 kt of CO2); 11 countries in the second category; 14 countries in the third category and 38 countries in the fourth category. The remaining countries, with CO2 emissions of less than 500 kt, are in the last category. 37

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United States
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe Asia/Pacific 30% 16% 8% 4% 40% 1% 1% N & Cen America 0 5,000 10,000 B777 B747 B767 A330 B737 A340 B757 A320 A380 ERJ Other Types

Total Footprint =

49,949 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
8,201 7,007 3,912 3,647 3,462 3,452 2,635 2,522 2,035 1,667 1,539 1,124 1,007 987 941 5,810

Footprint by Aircraft Type
15,000

Origin Airports
20,000
New York (JFK) Los Angeles San Francisco Chicago Newark Miami Washington Atlanta Houston Dallas-Fort Worth Honolulu Detroit Boston Philadelphia Seattle Other Airports

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Narita) Frankfurt Seoul Paris (CDG) Hong Kong Amsterdam Dubai Sao Paulo Beijing Sydney Shanghai Taipei Toronto Munich Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
5,492 3,530 2,516 2,296 2,002 1,621 1,570 1,165 1,132 1,111 1,009 943 943 840 716 23,064

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America
Middle East

Total

49,949

Total

49,949

Airlines
United Airlines Delta Air Lines American Airlines British Airways Lufthansa US Airways Korean Air Air France Virgin Atlantic Airways Cathay Pacific Emirates Airline Continental Airlines JetBlue Airways Qantas Air Canada Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
7,347 6,137 5,231 2,829 2,009 1,568 1,501 1,145 1,122 1,069 944 924 863 830 752 15,679

City-Pair Hierarchy
New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow) Los Angeles-Sydney Los Angeles-London (Heathrow) Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) Los Angeles-Seoul San Francisco-Hong Kong Los Angeles-Taipei San Francisco-London (Heathrow) Honolulu-Tokyo (Narita) Chicago-London (Heathrow) Chicago-Tokyo (Narita) Miami-London (Heathrow) New York (JFK)-Tokyo (Narita) Newark-London (Heathrow) New York (JFK)-Paris (CDG) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
1,000 705 664 628 541 524 503 476 464 442 414 410 408 390 372 42,007
CO2 (kt) 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 120,000
100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

49,949

Total

49,949

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New York (JFK)-Heathrow is the dominant route; the city-pair hierarchy is interesting for its spread of departure airports compared to the other four countries in the top 5 (the top routes from the other countries originate in just one or two airports); the top 15 routes make up less than 10% of the footprint the CO2 v Distance profile indicates that almost all the CO2 is generated by operations travelling further than 5,000 km; the two distinct peaks in the number of movements curve in the 500-1,000 and 1,500-2,000 km ranges make little contribution to the footprint.

United Kingdom The United Kingdom carbon footprint profile shows:  in terms of the major regions there is a strong bias toward N and Central America + Caribbean compared to Asia/Pacific; there is somewhat less focus on intra Europe flights compared to Frankfurt the B777 occupies a similar dominant position as in the US for aircraft types; the B747 has a relatively greater presence in the UK; narrow bodied aircraft make up about 25% of the footprint London (Heathrow) is overwhelmingly the lead origin airport for the UK generating about 70% of the footprint; the top three airports make up over 85% of the footprint there are three dominant destination airports with similar footprints followed by a good spread of other destination airports across the world; the top 15 destination airports make up about 35% of the footprint the top 4 airlines make up about 50% of the footprint; these airlines are UK carriers – two of these are low cost carriers all of the top 15 UK routes originate from Heathrow; all of these routes are to destinations outside Europe the CO2 v Distance profile reveals a greater footprint contribution by short haul flights than in the US; there is a distinct peak in the carbon footprint in the 5,000-7,000 km range.

 

  

Germany The Germany carbon footprint profile shows:   a greater focus on Europe than the UK; there is a reasonable balance between N America and the Asia/Pacific regions this is the only country of the top 5 where narrow bodied aircraft are the top aircraft type; there is a significant B747 presence and a notable lack of dependence on the B777 compared to the other four countries in the top 5 Frankfurt is the clear leader as an origin airport; the top four origin airports make up about 90% of the footprint the top 5 destination airports are in the Asia/Paific or Middle East regions; two of the top 15 destination airports are in Europe


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CONTENTS: Context Introduction Globe Regions Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

United Kingdom
ICAO Destination Regions
N & Cen America 20% 30% 10% 5% 2% 32% 1% E & South Africa Europe Asia/Pacific 0 B777 B747 A320 B737 B767 A330 A340 A380 B757 E190 Other… 2,000 4,000

Total Footprint =

24,811 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
16,394 2,865 1,516 807 512 480 324 287 233 217 201 190 172 159 105 351

Footprint by Aircraft Type
6,000

Origin Airports
8,000
London (Heathrow) London (Gatwick) Manchester London (Stansted) Birmingham London (Luton) Glasgow Edinburgh Bristol Liverpool Derby Newcastle Leeds/Bradford London (City) Belfast Other Airports

Destination Airports
Dubai New York (JFK) Singapore Hong Kong Los Angeles Newark Johannesburg San Francisco Chicago Miami Bangkok Washington Toronto Mumbai Delhi Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,094 1,046 1,015 886 664 517 483 476 473 411 402 375 365 354 352 15,899

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East

Total

24,811

Total

24,811

Airlines
British Airways Virgin Atlantic Airways Easyjet Ryanair American Airlines Emirates Airline United Airlines Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific Air Canada Thomson Delta Air Lines Monarch Airlines Qantas Jet2.com Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
7,749 1,958 1,505 1,411 905 866 822 458 432 431 423 369 349 348 341 6,446

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Heathrow)-Singapore London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles London (Heathrow)-Dubai London (Heathrow)-Johannesburg London (Heathrow)-San Francisco London (Heathrow)-Chicago London (Heathrow)-Miami London (Heathrow)-Bangkok London (Heathrow)-Newark London (Heathrow)-Washington London (Heathrow)-Mumbai London (Heathrow)-Delhi London (Heathrow)-Tokyo (Narita) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
1,015 1,000 843 664 542 483 476 442 411 402 390 360 354 352 347 16,732
CO2 (kt) 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 200,000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

24,811

Total

24,811

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CONTENTS: Context Introduction Globe Regions Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

Germany
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America 8% 4% 38% 2% 1% South America Asia/Pacific 0 A320 B747 A340 B737 A330 B777 A380 B767 B757 E190 Other… 1,000 2,000

Total Footprint =

18,757 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
10,193 3,400 1,481 1,180 581 444 342 235 148 132 131 83 82 72 51 203

Footprint by Aircraft Type
3,000

Origin Airports
4,000
Frankfurt Munich Dusseldorf Berlin Hamburg Stuttgart Cologne-Bonn Hannover Hahn Nuremburg Niederrhein Bremen Dortmund Leipzig Soellingen Other Airports

Destination Airports
Singapore Dubai Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok Beijing Chicago Palma de Mallorca Newark San Francisco New York (JFK) Washington Shanghai Istanbul Seoul Hong Kong Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
645 492 460 443 420 411 394 386 373 367 362 360 349 325 308 12,663

22% 25%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East

Total

18,757

Total

18,757

Airlines
Lufthansa Air Berlin Condor Flugdienst United Airlines Ryanair Singapore Airlines Emirates Airline Germanwings TUIfly Thai Airways International Air China Air Canada Easyjet Delta Air Lines All Nippon Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
7,605 1,492 772 759 451 416 405 326 313 311 308 296 261 259 254 4,528

City-Pair Hierarchy
Frankfurt-Singapore Frankfurt-Bangkok Frankfurt-Tokyo (Narita) Frankfurt-Shanghai Frankfurt-San Francisco Frankfurt-Seoul Frankfurt-Beijing Frankfurt-Washington Frankfurt-Chicago Frankfurt-New York (JFK) Frankfurt-Hong Kong Frankfurt-Sao Paulo Frankfurt-Johannesburg Frankfurt-Dubai Frankfurt-Toronto Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
502 306 298 289 282 270 257 256 255 248 235 218 186 176 169 14,809
CO2 (kt) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 300,000
250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

18,757

Total

18,757

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  

Lufthansa is very dominant; the top two airlines (both German carriers) make up about 50% of the footprint Frankfurt is the origin airport for all of the top 15 routes; the top 15 routes make up about 25% of the footprint there is a significant contribution to the footprint by shorter range flights – this shows a noticeable difference when compared to the other four airports in the top 5; there are prominent spikes in CO2 generation in the 500-1,000 km and the 7,000-9,000 km ranges.

United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates carbon footprint profile shows:  the largest segment of the footprint is focussed on the Asia/Pacific region with a somewhat smaller portion associated with operations to Europe; there is little contribution from flights to N America wide bodied aircraft occupy the top four positions in the aircraft type hierarchy; the B777 is very dominant (about 45% of the footprint); it is noteworthy that there is virtually no contribution to the footprint by the B747; the A380 makes a significant contribution (about 10% of the footprint) as an origin airport Dubai contributes about 75% of the UAE footprint; to all intents and purposes only two airports – Dubai and Abu Dhabi - are signficant (making up about 95% of the footprint) Heathrow is the major destination airport; most of the top 15 destinations have a similar sized footprint and have a wide geographic spread throughout the regions (11 of the top 15 destination airports have a footprint between 200 and 300 kt of CO2): the top 15 destination airports make up about 30% of the footprint together Emirates and Etihad comprise just over 70% of the footprint; there is a very even footprint spread between the other airlines (there are nine airlines with a footprint contribution of between 111 and 133 kt of CO2) the city pair hierarchy shows a similar broad sharing of the footprint to that revealed by the other elements of the profile; the top 15 routes comprise about 25% of the footprint the CO2 v Distance chart shows that very little CO2 is generated by flights travelling less than 3,000 km (there are similarities with the US and Japan); about 55% of the footprint derives from flights between 3,000 km and 7,000 km; there is a noticeable contribution from flights travelling more than 11,000 km.

 

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CONTENTS: Context Introduction Globe Regions Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

United Arab Emirates
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe Middle East 0 B777 A330 A380 A340 A320 B737 A300 B767 B747 B757 Other… 2,000 4,000

Total Footprint =

14,547 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
10,976 2,970 559 38 4

Footprint by Aircraft Type
6,000

Origin Airports
8,000
Dubai Abu Dhabi Sharjah Ras al Khaimah Al Ain

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Sydney Bangkok New York (JFK) Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Singapore Manchester Manila Beijing Johannesburg Kuala Lumpur Melbourne Hong Kong Jakarta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
731 489 363 348 298 279 276 263 253 231 231 229 222 220 218 9,896

30%

11% 10% 6% 2% 2%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

39%

N & Cen America
E & South Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

14,547

Total

14,547

Airlines
Emirates Airline Etihad Airways Air Arabia Flydubai British Airways Cathay Pacific Air India Air Berlin Lufthansa Delta Air Lines Singapore Airlines Air India Express United Airlines Royal Brunei Airlines Saudi Arabian Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
8,214 2,356 427 399 192 133 121 119 119 115 114 114 112 111 88 1,816

City-Pair Hierarchy
Dubai-London (Heathrow) Dubai-Sydney Dubai-New York (JFK) Dubai-Bangkok Dubai-Singapore Abu Dhabi-Sydney Dubai-Hong Kong Dubai-Los Angeles Abu Dhabi-London (Heathrow) Dubai-Paris (CDG) Dubai-Beijing Dubai-Johannesburg Dubai-Kuala Lumpur Dubai-Frankfurt Dubai-Perth Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
542 277 253 238 234 212 203 199 189 188 183 181 180 176 173 11,119
CO2 (kt) 6,000
5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

14,547

Total

14,547

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Japan The Japan carbon footprint profile shows:  flights to N America and to other countries within the Asia/Pacific region are the focus of the footprint; the proportion of the footprint associated with Europe is relatively small; in contrast to the other four countries, the footprint is made up from flights to only four of the seven ICAO regions in a similar manner to the other countries (except Germany) the B777 is the predominant aircraft type; about 85% of the footprint is generated by wide bodied aircraft the footprint is concentrated on three origin airports - about 90% of the footprint derives from these; flights from Narita make up about 65% of the footprint there are 5 Asia/Pacific airports in the top 10 destination airports; in common with Germany and the UAE there is not a great difference in the footprint across the top 15 destination airports; the top 15 destination airports make up about 60% of the footprint four airlines (2 Japan carriers and 2 US carriers) dominate the footprint (about 45% of the footprint) all but one of the city pairs originate from Narita; there is a good CO2 spread across the routes; the top 15 routes generate about 35% of the footprint the CO2 v Distance relationship shows the now familiar pattern of high movement numbers, but low carbon generation, in the short haul area; the major contribution to the footprint comes from operations in the 9,000 to 11,000 km range (about 30% of the footprint).

  

  

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CONTENTS: Context Introduction Globe Regions Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

Japan
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific 36% 20% 42% 2% Middle East N & Cen America Europe 0 B777 A330 B747 B767 A340 B737 A320 A380 B787 B757 Other… 2,000 4,000

Total Footprint =

13,960 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
8,905 2,050 1,575 787 300 138 43 26 18 16 15 15 12 9 7 42

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
6,000
Tokyo (Narita) Osaka Tokyo (Haneda) Nagoya Fukuoka Sapporo/Chitose Okinawa Hiroshima Sendai Shizuoka Okayama Niigata Komatsu Toyama Kagoshima Other Airports

Destination Airports
Honolulu Los Angeles Seoul Taipei Bangkok Singapore Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Hong Kong New York (JFK) San Francisco Shanghai Chicago London (Heathrow) Detroit Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
922 777 705 662 646 630 575 562 555 531 422 420 414 405 286 5,447

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

13,960

Total

13,960

Airlines
Japan Airlines All Nippon Airways Delta Air Lines United Airlines American Airlines Singapore Airlines Korean Air Lufthansa China Airlines Cathay Pacific Thai Airways International Air France KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Alitalia Asiana Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,995 1,844 1,663 1,071 468 457 434 396 396 389 351 291 234 224 224 3,521

City-Pair Hierarchy
Tokyo (Narita)-Los Angeles Tokyo (Narita)-Honolulu Tokyo (Narita)-Chicago Tokyo (Narita)-New York (JFK) Tokyo (Narita)-Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Narita)-Bangkok Tokyo (Narita)-London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Narita)-Singapore Tokyo (Narita)-Frankfurt Tokyo (Narita)-San Francisco Tokyo (Narita)-Taipei Tokyo (Narita)-Hong Kong Tokyo (Narita)-Washington Tokyo (Narita)-Dallas-Fort Worth Tokyo (Haneda)-Seoul Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
626 464 414 408 386 350 347 333 298 272 216 211 202 193 183 9,059
CO2 (kt) 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

13,960

Total

13,960

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CONTENTS: Context Introduction Globe Regions Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

The Airports
5.1 Introduction
This chapter provides a breakdown of the global international passenger flights carbon footprint for 2012 from the perspective of the airports. The information relates to aircraft operations and not to the carbon footprint of the airports themselves. That is, this chapter does not compute or report on carbon footprint associated with airport buildings, ground transport or non-aircraft emissions. It is difficult to find published carbon footprint reports for aircraft operations at airports. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA-TAC) in the United States carried out a comprehensive carbon footprinting exercise in 2006.23 Figure 22 summarises the key components of the SEA-TAC footprint – it can be seen that activities by the airport company itself make up a small proportion of the airport’s carbon footprint. The footprint is dominated by en route aircraft. While this figure portrays the carbon footprint breakdown at one particular airport, it is likely that this is generally representative of major airports with international traffic.

Aircraft >3000ft 90%

Airport 2%

Aircraft <3000ft 8%

Figure 5.1: Breakdown of carbon footprint at SEA-TAC

While it is difficult to find published carbon footprint reports for airports which capture aircraft operations, the Airports Council International (ACI) has developed an airport carbon accreditation scheme which incorporates detailed carbon footprinting for activities within an airport’s ‘operational boundary’.24 The ACI reported emissions for airports in Europe and Asia of around 4-5 kg CO2/PAX is broadly consistent with the value of the airport’s contribution to the aviation footprint of 2% shown in Figure 5.1 (cross-refer to Figure 5.2).25 It is important for airports to at least be aware of, and ideally report, carbon footprint information capturing the carbon footprint associated with departing aircraft. While the airport is correct in reporting only the emissions for which it is directly responsible when considered from the point of view of incurring carbon charges, say under an emissions trading scheme, omitting this information leaves a major gap in any sustainability reporting. Members of the community and researchers typically think of an airport’s carbon footprint as being associated with aircraft operations – there would be zero CO2 emissions from aircraft operations in the absence of airports – and they discuss and report airport climate change emissions on this basis. 26,27

23

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory 2006. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. http://www.airportattorneys.com/files/greenhousegas06.pdf 24 ACI, Airport Carbon Accreditation: http://www.airportcarbonaccreditation.org/about.html 25 ACI, Airport Carbon Accreditation, Annual Report 2011-12: http://www.acieurope.org/component/downloads/downloads/3266.html 26 Stop Stansted Expansion, CO emissions counter: http://www.stopstanstedexpansion.com/ 2 27 A McIntosh, C Downie, Aviation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the ACT , Australia Institute, 2008: http://www.tai.org.au/file.php?file=web_papers/WP109.pdf

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5.2

Airport Footprint Overview

Origin Airports
London (Heathrow) Dubai Hong Kong Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Singapore Tokyo (Narita) New York (JFK) Seoul Bangkok Amsterdam Los Angeles Beijing Shanghai Madrid Sydney Moscow Kuala Lumpur Istanbul Taipei San Francisco Doha Sao Paulo Toronto Chicago Newark Miami Munich Roma Zurich Johannesburg Abu Dhabi London (Gatwick) Washington Atlanta Delhi Buenos Aires Vancouver Melbourne Brussels Manila Mumbai Osaka Houston Milano Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
16,404 10,968 10,367 10,191 10,127 9,823 8,912 8,220 7,917 7,555 7,304 7,027 5,076 4,965 4,779 4,653 4,515 4,229 4,153 4,077 3,938 3,878 3,771 3,696 3,646 3,463 3,443 3,401 3,344 3,091 2,990 2,972 2,863 2,600 2,522 2,504 2,415 2,147 2,124 2,093 2,093 2,081 2,048 2,035 2,012 138,427

CO2/PAX (kg) Cumulative %
458 396 368 384 385 381 556 589 358 379 336 840 504 392 331 710 279 305 248 247 856 328 631 354 620 519 324 240 254 243 540 385 250 634 472 435 445 519 649 216 311 418 340 409 219 243 300 5 8 10 13 16 19 21 24 26 28 30 32 33 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 61 62 100 100

Figure 5.2 shows the ranking of the top 45 airports in the world by CO2 footprint of departing aircraft. In this report airports have generally been grouped where there is more than one international airport in a city. In the case of the very large cities with multiple airports (viz London, New York, Tokyo and Paris) the airports have been separately identified. Therefore, while the term ‘airport’ is used throughout this report it should more correctly be termed ‘city’ in many of the citations. This issue is discussed in Section 8.2. A map showing the carbon footprint associated with aircraft departing from specific airports on international flights is shown in Figure 5.3. The airports have been split into 4 categories based on the quantum of the footprint – this is shown in the legend on the map. The colour bands in Figure 5.2 correspond with the first three categories shown on the map. The CO2 footprint of London (Heathrow) is significantly larger than the other airports demonstrating its role as the key global hub for scheduled international passenger services. Heathrow would occupy 4th position in the country hierarchy if it were a country. To place the footprint of scheduled international passenger departures from Heathrow into further context, Heathrow would be the 15th highest CO2 emitting power plant in the United States if it were a US power station.28 It is interesting to note that there is only one airport from the United States (the country with the largest international passenger CO2 footprint) in the top 10 airports (New York (JFK)), and only 2 in the top 20. This demonstrates the geographically dispersed nature of international passenger airports in the US. The Table shows that the top 45 airports make up about 60% of the global CO2 footprint. San Francisco is the airport with the greatest CO2/PAX (Los Angeles has a similar CO2/PAX figure) – this reflects the focus of the US west coast airports on long haul international services into the Asia/Pacific region.

Total

360,857

Figure 5.2: Airport carbon footprint hierarchy

28

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Power Plants Rated Worldwide, Science News: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071114163448.htm

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Figure 5.3: Carbon footprint by airport This map shows the CO2 footprint associated with aircraft departures from the top 310 international airports (ranked by carbon footprint). The quantum of the carbon footprints is shown in the legend. There are five airports in the first category; 15 in the second; 25 in the third; 36 in the fourth; and 229 in the fifth category. There are a further 1,058 international airports in the dataset which have a carbon footprint of less than 100 (kt) – these are not shown in order to assist clarity. This figure has been extracted from the core dataset and airports are not grouped (see for example Moscow which is grouped throughout the rest of the report – the figure shows it has two significant airports). 48

CONTENTS: Context Introduction Globe Regions Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

5.3

Carbon Footprint Profile - Top 5 Airports

In a similar manner to the previous two chapters, this chapter briefly discusses the carbon footprint profiles of the top 5 airports. Profiles of the next 15 airports (the blue category) are contained in Profile F3 in Part II. The carbon footprint profiles for the airports introduce an element that shows the carbon footprint distribution between airlines on the top 15 routes. This is of interest because if options for introducing route by route carbon management measures are being explored it is important to understand how many entities will be involved on each route and the likely imposts on each of those bodies. London (Heathrow) Given the extremely dominant position that Heathrow occupies in the United Kingdom aviation structure, it is interesting to note some differences between the UK and Heathrow profiles (see Section 4.2). The London (Heathrow) carbon footprint profile shows:  in terms of the major regions there is a strong bias toward N and Central America + Caribbean compared to the Asia/Pacific region; there is somewhat less focus on intra Europe flights compared to Frankfurt and Paris the B777 and the B747 contribute about 60% of the footprint; there is a relatively small contribution from narrow bodied aircraft New York (JFK) and Singapore plus Hong Kong are significant hubs to the west and the east; outside these three airports there is a spread of destination airports which generate similar carbon footprints it is interesting to note that the top two airlines are the same as in the UK profile, however the two low cost carriers (Easyjet and Ryanair) which are prominent in the UK profile are not present in the Heathrow profile (ie they operate to/from other UK airports) compared to the UK CO2 v Distance profile the Heathrow profile indicates a lower priority on short haul movements – there is a noticeable drop in the carbon contribution from these operations the element in the bottom right shows the CO2 split between operators in the top city-pairs; all the routes have the footprint split between a number of airlines – the significant role played by British Airways can be seen across all routes.

 

Dubai The Dubai carbon footprint profile shows:

 

The main contribution to the carbon footprint is associated with the Asia/Pacific region; Europe makes a lesser contribution while N America is significantly less important the B777 is very dominant (about 55% of the footprint); in contrast to three of the other airports in the top 5, there is virtually no B747 presence; the A380 provides a significant contribution to the footprint Heathrow is the prominent destination airport; after this Dubai has a more diversified family of destination airports than the other airports in the top 5; the top 15 destination airports contribute about 30% of the footprint 49

CONTENTS: Context Introduction Globe Regions Countries Airports Airlines Money Validation Profiles Author

London (Heathrow)
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint = 16,394 kt CO2
Destination Airports
6,000
Singapore New York (JFK) Hong Kong Los Angeles Dubai Johannesburg San Francisco Chicago Miami Bangkok Newark Washington Mumbai Delhi Tokyo (Narita) Other Airports

B777 B747 A320 A340 B767 A330 A380 B757 B737 A300 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000 4,000

CO2 (kt)
1,015 1,000 843 664 542 483 476 442 411 402 390 360 354 352 347 8,314

Airlines
British Airways Virgin Atlantic Airways American Airlines United Airlines Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific Air Canada Qantas Delta Air Lines Emirates Airline Malaysia Airlines Qatar Airways Jet Airways South African Airways Thai Airways International Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
6,960 1,325 849 708 444 432 431 348 321 314 282 212 193 190 174 3,212

2% 6% 10% 39% 13%
E & South Africa

2%

Asia/Pacific Europe Middle East

28%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America W & Cen Africa

Total

16,394

Total

16,394

CO2 (kt) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
British Airways Virgin Atlantic Airways United Airlines

American Airlines
Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific Qantas

Chicago

Hong Kong

New York (JFK)

San Francisco

Bangkok

Washington

Mumbai

Dubai

Johannesburg

Miami

Singapore

Newark

Delhi

Tokyo (Narita)

Los Angeles

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

Emirates Airline Jet Airways

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Dubai
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint = 10,976 kt CO2

B777 A330 A380 A340 B737 A320 A300 B747 B767 B757 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000 4,000 6,000

Destination Airports
8,000
London (Heathrow) Sydney New York (JFK) Bangkok Singapore Hong Kong Los Angeles Paris (CDG) Beijing Johannesburg Kuala Lumpur Frankfurt Perth Manchester Jakarta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
542 277 253 238 234 203 199 188 183 181 180 176 173 172 157 7,620

Airlines
Emirates Airline Flydubai British Airways Delta Air Lines United Airlines Cathay Pacific Royal Brunei Airlines Singapore Airlines Saudi Arabian Airlines Lufthansa China Southern Airlines Air India Express Air India KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Garuda Indonesia Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
8,214 399 133 115 112 111 111 86 80 79 78 67 66 60 56 1,211

2% 8% 10%

2%

Europe N & Cen America

37% 11%

Middle East E & South Africa

30%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America W & Cen Africa

Total

10,976

Total

10,976

CO2 (kt) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Emirates Airline British Airways Cathay Pacific

Singapore Airlines
Air France Royal Brunei Airlines

Sydney

Paris (CDG)

Hong Kong

Frankfurt

Manchester

New York (JFK)

Bangkok

Singapore

London (Heathrow)

Johannesburg

Kuala Lumpur

Los Angeles

Jakarta

Beijing

Perth

Virgin Atlantic Airways Lufthansa Thai Airways International

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

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  

Emirates makes up about 75% of the footprint; the low cost carrier Flydubai makes a significant footprint contribution the CO2 v Distance element is effectively the same as in the UAE profile discussed in the previous chapter; very little CO2 is generated by flights travelling less than 3,000 km the route CO2 distribution element shows a very different picture to Heathrow; on six of the top 15 routes Emirates is the only contributor to the carbon footprint; almost all the routes show much less diversification in operators than Heathrow.

Hong Kong The Hong Kong carbon footprint profile shows:

 

more than half of the footprint is associated with flights inside the Asia/Pacific region; flights to Europe and N America make an almost equal contribution to the footprint wide bodied twin engined aircraft dominate the footprint with respect to aircraft types; there is a significant contribution from the B747 (about 20% of the footprint); narrow bodied aircraft do not have a major presence Heathrow heads the list of destination airports but its footprint is of similar magnitude to a number of other airports; seven of the top 15 destination airports are in the Asia/Pacific region Cathay is the dominant airline (contributes about 45% of the footprint); Dragonair has a significant presence; the rest of the footprint is made up by a number of airlines with similar CO2 contributions the CO2 v Distance element reveals there is a contribution to the footprint across all distance ranges with more significant contributions from short haul operations than the other airports; flights travelling > 9,000 km are prominent the route CO2 distribution element shows footprint contributions from a number of operators on most routes; Cathay’s prominence is evident; there is a distinct contrast to the Dubai profile element.

Frankfurt The Frankfurt carbon footprint profile shows:

the destination footprint is dominated by flights to the Asia/Pacific and N America regions which have about equal shares; the intra Europe footprint share is similar to Paris (CDG) and greater than Heathrow Frankfurt is different to the other airports in that four engine aircraft dominate the footprint – the B747 and the A340 are the top 2 aircraft types and together contribute 40% of the footprint six of the top seven destination airports are in the Asia/Pacific region; most of the destination airports in the hierarchy have a footprint of similar magnitude Lufthansa generates more than 50% of the airport’s footprint; United and Condor are also prominent; the other airlines in the top 15 have a footprint of a broadly similar magnitude and are associated with a wide spread of geographic locations 52

 

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Hong Kong
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint = 10,363 kt CO2

B777 A330 B747 A340 A320 B737 A380 B767 B757 D1C Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000

Destination Airports
4,000
London (Heathrow) San Francisco Singapore Taipei Sydney New York (JFK) Bangkok Vancouver Los Angeles Beijing Paris (CDG) Toronto Shanghai Seoul Chicago Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
843 524 451 450 419 348 323 305 297 292 290 290 285 280 280 4,688

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

3%

2%
Europe

21% 52% 22%

N & Cen America

Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa

Cathay Pacific 4,824 Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines 609 United Airlines 429 Singapore Airlines 288 Hong Kong Airlines 286 Qantas 270 British Airways 232 Air Canada 207 Lufthansa 190 China Airlines 174 Air New Zealand 160 Virgin Atlantic Airways 144 Thai Airways International 143 Air France 142 Emirates Airline 133 Other Airlines 2,133

Total

10,363

Total

10,363

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Cathay Pacific United Airlines Singapore Airlines

Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines British Airways
Air Canada

Sydney

Paris (CDG)

New York (JFK)

San Francisco

Bangkok

Vancouver

Singapore

London (Heathrow)

Los Angeles

Shanghai

Toronto

Chicago

Beijing

Taipei

Seoul

Qantas Virgin Atlantic Airways Air France

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

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Frankfurt
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint = 10,193 kt CO2

B747 A340 B777 A330 A320 A380 B767 B737 B757 B787 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000

Destination Airports
3,000
Singapore Bangkok Tokyo (Narita) Shanghai San Francisco Seoul Beijing Washington Chicago New York (JFK) Hong Kong Sao Paulo Johannesburg Dubai Toronto Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
502 306 298 289 282 270 257 256 255 248 235 218 186 176 169 6,245

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

4% 6% 8%

1%

Asia/Pacific Europe

32% 18%

Middle East South America

31%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

Lufthansa 5,284 United Airlines 549 Condor Flugdienst 484 Singapore Airlines 312 Air Canada 249 Air China 228 Thai Airways International 197 All Nippon Airways 167 US Airways 159 TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 135 Qantas 133 Emirates Airline 128 Delta Air Lines 127 Cathay Pacific 118 Asiana Airlines 109 Other Airlines 1,815

Total

10,193

Total

10,193

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Lufthansa United Airlines Singapore Airlines

Air China
Thai Airways International Qantas Emirates Airline

Chicago

Seoul

Beijing

Hong Kong

New York (JFK)

Bangkok

San Francisco

Washington

Shanghai

Johannesburg

Singapore

Sao Paulo

Dubai

Tokyo (Narita)

Toronto

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

Cathay Pacific Asiana Airlines

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the carbon footprint is primarily generated by flights travelling between 5,000 km and 11,000 km (about 70% of the footprint); in common with the other European airports there is little footprint contribution by flights travelling more than 11,000 km the route CO2 distribution is somewhat more concentrated than either Heathrow or Hong Kong with 3 or less operators on all routes; the Lufthansa prominence on the routes is evident.

Paris (CDG) The Paris (CDG) carbon footprint profile shows:

   

the Asia/Pacific and N America regions have more or less equal shares of the footprint; there is a significant contribution from the smaller regions the B777 is clearly the dominant aircraft type; there is a very much lower B747 contribution than at either Heathrow or Frankfurt there is a fairly even footprint spread across destination airports – the spread is across airports in the Asia/Pacific, N America and S America regions Air France dominates the footprint (about 55% of the footprint); there is a reasonable spread between all the other entries in the airline hierarchy; it is interesting to note that Easyjet, which is not in the hierarchy for Heathrow or Frankfurt, is the 5th top airline the CO2 v Distance element presents a similar picture to both Heathrow and Frankfurt with a low footprint contribution by short haul flights; in contrast to those two airports the biggest contribution is in the 9,000 km - 11,000 km range (the other two airports have the maximum footprint contribution in the 5,000 km – 7,000 km and the 7,000 km – 9,000 km ranges respectively) the route CO2 share element has a similar form to that of Frankfurt; the Air France prominence is evident.

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Paris (CDG)
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint = 10,132 kt CO2

B777 A320 A330 A340 B767 A380 B747 B737 B757 BAE… Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Destination Airports
5,000
Tokyo (Narita) New York (JFK) Hong Kong Shanghai Singapore Sao Paulo Los Angeles Montreal Seoul Rio de Janeiro Beijing Mexico City Dubai Bangkok Atlanta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
386 373 290 289 258 245 238 232 230 227 196 190 188 174 172 6,442

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

6% 5%
6% 28% 9% 19% 27%

Asia/Pacific Europe South America Middle East E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Air France 5,539 Delta Air Lines 329 American Airlines 213 Japan Airlines 181 Easyjet 165 Cathay Pacific 154 Singapore Airlines 145 United Airlines 142 Emirates Airline 137 TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 127 Vietnam Airlines 123 Thai Airways International 118 Air Austral 117 Korean Air 113 Air China 111 Other Airlines 2,417

Total

10,132

Total

10,132

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Air France Cathay Pacific Singapore Airlines

Emirates Airline
TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) Thai Airways International Korean Air

Montreal

Mexico City

Seoul

Hong Kong

Beijing

New York (JFK)

Dubai

Bangkok

Shanghai

Tokyo (Narita)

Rio de Janeiro

Singapore

Sao Paulo

Los Angeles

Atlanta

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

Air China China Eastern Airlines

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The Airlines
6.1 Introduction
This chapter examines the carbon footprint of the scheduled international passenger flights from the perspective of the airlines. Consistent with the earlier chapters the focus is on the top 5 airlines and the discussion revolves around the carbon footprint profiles. Profiles for the next 15 airlines in the hierarchy are shown in Profile F4 in Part II. Figure 6.1 gives the hierarchy for the top 30 airlines. Collectively these airlines comprise about 65% of the total footprint. The top 10 airlines make up about 35% of the footprint. The top airlines make significant contributions. Emirates, the top airline, would occupy the 4th position in the country hierarchy if it were a country. Several airlines are now publishing annual environmental/sustainability reports which provide very useful CO2/fuel information. The publication of this data is fundamental to the aviation industry’s building of its public climate change credentials. The data provides good validation points for independent scrutiny of the industry’s carbon footprint. Examples of these reports are discussed, and used for validation purposes, in Chapter 8. It is not the intention of this chapter to compare the relative climate change performance of competing airlines. The high level methodology adopted in this report would not allow robust comparisons even if this were a goal. This chapter is simply aimed at presenting a comprehensible picture of the composition of the airline footprints in order to raise awareness, aid understanding and to generate thinking on new approaches to managing aviation’s carbon footprint.
Airlines
Emirates Airline British Airways Lufthansa United Airlines Delta Air Lines Air France Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific American Airlines KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Korean Air Qatar Airways Ryanair Thai Airways International Air Canada Turkish Airlines Qantas Etihad Airways Easyjet Iberia Airlines Air China Virgin Atlantic Airways Swiss European Air Lines Japan Airlines Malaysia Airlines All Nippon Airways China Airlines Asiana Airlines Air Berlin Saudi Arabian Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
17,333 15,808 15,344 14,828 12,743 12,389 10,498 10,135 10,030 9,079 7,982 7,330 6,803 6,311 6,179 6,123 5,181 4,779 4,645 4,302 4,106 4,046 4,029 3,991 3,783 3,689 3,656 3,560 3,219 3,198 135,755

Total

360,857

% of Total CO2 4.8 4.4 4.3 4.1 3.5 3.4 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 37.6 100.0

Figure 6.1: Airport carbon footprint hierarchy

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6.2

Carbon Footprint Profile - Top 5 Airlines

In a similar manner to the previous chapter, this section uses indicators contained in carbon footprint profiles to provide an insight into the carbon footprints of the top five airlines by CO2 footprint size. Emirates Airline The Emirates carbon footprint profile shows:  the footprint associated with the Asia/Pacific region is somewhat bigger than that for Europe; the figure of 50% of the CO2 footprint with destination ‘Middle East’ indicates that Emirates has limited intra regional operations in the Middle East – the 50% figure primarily relates to Emirates flights returning to Dubai from other regions Emirates has a strong focus on the B777 aircraft (about 65% of the footprint); the A380 is also a significant contributor to the footprint the preeminent position of Dubai as an origin airport (about 45% of the footprint) indicates that Emirates is essentially based in one airport; the footprint of the other airports in the origin airport list is broadly of the same magnitude not surprisingly the CO2 v Distance element for Emirates is similar to that for Dubai (given the preeminent position of Emirates); the footprint has two prominent peaks – one in the 5,000 km - 7,000 km range (distance from Dubai to Europe, Singapore, Johannesburg, Shanghai) and another in the >11,000km range (Australia) for Emirates, and also British Airways which similarly dominates the movements at a single base airport, the values in the origin airport and in the city-pair hierarchy are very similar; in those instances where there is a simple return flight to/from Dubai the value is the same; in those cases where Emirates carries out an additional leg (eg Emirates flies Dubai-Sydney – Auckland – Sydney-Dubai) the numbers are different; all of the city-pairs in the hierarchy involve flights to/from Dubai.

 

British Airways The British Airways carbon footprint profile shows:

the prime focus is on flights to N America – the footprint to this region is more than twice the footprint of flights to Asia/Pacific; the 57% ‘Europe’ figure indicates some contribution to the footprint from intra Europe operations the B747 is the leading aircraft type (45% of the footprint); the B777 also makes a significant contribution (about 35% of the footprint); there is a relatively minor contribution from narrow bodied aircraft the airline has a very different CO2 v Distance profile compared to Emirates; the numbers of movements peak in the 500-1,000 km range; almost all the footprint lies in the 5,000 to 11,000 km range (about 80% of the footprint); there is relatively little contribution from flights travelling > 11,000 km

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Emirates Airline
ICAO Destination Region
Middle East

Total Footprint = 17,333 kt CO2
City-Pair Hierarchy
15,000

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 A380 A330 A340 5,000 10,000

CO2 (kt)
314 314 277 277 253 253 199 199 198 198 181 181 173 173 173 173 172 172 161 161 149 149 137 137 134 134 128 128 127 127 11,781

2% 6% 4% 1%
Asia/Pacific Europe

15% 50% 22%

N & Cen America E & South Africa South America W & Cen Africa

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other Types

Origin Airports
Dubai Sydney London (Heathrow) Singapore Bangkok Melbourne New York (JFK) Kuala Lumpur Los Angeles Brisbane Johannesburg Perth Manchester London (Gatwick) Paris (CDG) Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
8,214 398 314 299 292 262 253 230 199 191 181 173 172 149 137 5,870

CO2 (kt) 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

London (Heathrow)-Dubai Dubai-London (Heathrow) Dubai-Sydney Sydney-Dubai New York (JFK)-Dubai Dubai-New York (JFK) Los Angeles-Dubai Dubai-Los Angeles Dubai-Bangkok Bangkok-Dubai Dubai-Johannesburg Johannesburg-Dubai Dubai-Perth Perth-Dubai Dubai-Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur-Dubai Manchester-Dubai Dubai-Manchester Singapore-Dubai Dubai-Singapore Dubai-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Dubai Dubai-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Dubai Houston-Dubai Dubai-Houston Dubai-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Dubai Dubai-Shanghai Shanghai-Dubai Other Routes

Total

17,333

Total

17,333

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British Airways
ICAO Destination Region
2% 4% 10% 3% 1%
Europe N & Cen America Asia/Pacific E & South Africa

Total Footprint = 15,808 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B747 B777 A320 B767 B737 E190 E170 FRJ B757 A340 Other… 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Singapore Singapore-London (Heathrow) Los Angeles-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles Johannesburg-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Johannesburg London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong Hong Kong-London (Heathrow) Miami-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Miami San Francisco-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-San Francisco London (Heathrow)-Cape Town Cape Town-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Boston Boston-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Washington Washington-London (Heathrow) Houston-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Houston Delhi-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Delhi Mumbai-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Mumbai London (Heathrow)-Dubai Dubai-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Chicago Chicago-London (Heathrow) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
475 475 277 276 272 272 251 251 232 232 231 231 216 216 177 177 168 168 155 155 153 153 148 148 140 140 133 133 129 129 9,494

23%

57%

Middle East South America W & Cen Africa

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Origin Airports
London (Heathrow) London (Gatwick) New York (JFK) Singapore Johannesburg Los Angeles Hong Kong Miami San Francisco Cape Town Boston Washington Houston Delhi Bangkok Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
6,960 716 503 350 273 272 232 231 216 177 168 155 153 148 142 5,112

CO2 (kt) 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

15,808

Total

15,808

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the origin airports and the city-pair hierarchy elements demonstrate British Airways’ focus on Heathrow – all flights in the city pair hierarchy involve Heathrow; the cross comparison between the origin airport and city-pair hierarchy indicates that most, but not all, of the routes are flights directly to/from Heathrow.

Lufthansa The Lufthansa carbon footprint profile shows:  a destination mix which is significantly different to British Airways, the other European airline in the top 5; there is a significant footprint contribution from intra Europe traffic; the contribution from N America traffic is slightly more than for Asia/Pacific the airline has a big focus on four engined aircraft – these generate about 60% of the footprint; it is the only airline in the top 5 that has no contribution from the B777; narrow bodied aircraft make a significant contribution (almost 30%) Frankfurt and Munich are preeminent origin airports; there is a good spread of other origin airports in a number of ICAO regions which have carbon footprints of similar magnitude the CO2 v Departures element shows high movements numbers and a significant footprint contribution from short haul operations up to 2,000 km (just over 20% of the CO2 footprint) – this is distinctly different to the other top 5 airlines; the other area of contribution is from flights in the 5,000 km to 11,000 km range all of the routes in the city-pair hierarchy involve flights into or out of Frankfurt; the relationship between the origin airport and city-pair hierarchy shows much more diversity than that shown in both the Emirates and British Airways profiles.

 

United Airlines The United Airlines carbon footprint profile shows:    the Asia/Pacific region makes a slighty greater footprint contribution than Europe (the opposite situation to Delta); there is a noticeable level of contribution from intra region flights the B777 is the top CO2 contributor (about 40% of the footprint); the B747 also makes a significant contribution presence; narrow bodied aircraft contribute about 15% of the footprint Newark is the major contributor to the footprint; compared to the non US airlines United has a wide spread of important origin airports in its own country (5 origin airports in the US with a footprint of >900,000 kt); the CO2 v Distance element shows that almost all the footprint derives from flights longer than 5,000 km (80% in the > 5,000 km range) despite a large spike in movement numbers in the 1,000 km to 1,500 km range the airline does not have a dominant city-pair route; in the top 15 there is a diversity of routes involving the Europe and Asia/Pacific regions which have footprints of similar magnitude.

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Lufthansa
ICAO Destination Region
1% 3% 4% 12% 15% 64%
Europe

Total Footprint = 15,344 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
A340 B747 A320 A330 A380 B737 E190 CRJ Q400 F100 Other… 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Los Angeles-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Los Angeles Buenos Aires-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Buenos Aires Shanghai-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Shanghai Frankfurt-Singapore Singapore-Frankfurt New York (JFK)-Frankfurt Frankfurt-New York (JFK) Sao Paulo-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Sao Paulo Frankfurt-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Frankfurt Mexico City-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Mexico City Osaka-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Osaka Chicago-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Chicago Hong Kong-Frankfurt Frankfurt-San Francisco San Francisco-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Hong Kong Frankfurt-Johannesburg Johannesburg-Frankfurt Bangkok-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Bangkok Frankfurt-Houston Houston-Frankfurt Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
166 166 152 152 149 149 136 136 132 132 127 127 124 124 123 123 120 119 117 117 116 116 116 116 113 113 109 109 107 107 11,535

1%

N & Cen America Asia/Pacific South America Middle East E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Origin Airports
Frankfurt Munich Dusseldorf Los Angeles Shanghai Chicago Sao Paulo Tokyo (Narita) Singapore San Francisco Hong Kong Newark New York (JFK) Beijing Buenos Aires Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
5,284 1,821 329 234 220 215 209 199 195 194 190 182 180 154 152 5,589

CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000

50,000
-

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

15,344

Total

15,344

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United Airlines
ICAO Destination Region
2% 4% 0%
N & Cen America Asia/Pacific Europe South America Middle East W & Cen Africa

Total Footprint = 14,828 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 B747 B767 B737 B757 A320 ERJ CRJ E170 A330 Other… 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
San Francisco-Frankfurt Frankfurt-San Francisco Chicago-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Chicago Sydney-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Sydney San Francisco-Sydney Sydney-San Francisco Washington-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Washington Frankfurt-Washington Washington-Frankfurt Tokyo (Narita)-San Francisco San Francisco-Tokyo (Narita) San Francisco-Hong Kong Hong Kong-San Francisco London (Heathrow)-San Francisco San Francisco-London (Heathrow) Chicago-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Chicago Frankfurt-Chicago Chicago-Frankfurt Tel Aviv-Newark Newark-Tel Aviv Beijing-San Francisco San Francisco-Beijing London (Heathrow)-Chicago Chicago-London (Heathrow) Seoul-San Francisco San Francisco-Seoul Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
166 166 162 162 162 162 160 160 158 158 152 152 150 150 149 149 135 135 132 132 128 128 124 124 124 124 118 118 116 116 10,556

17% 21% 56%

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Origin Airports
Newark San Francisco Washington Chicago Tokyo (Narita) Houston London (Heathrow) Frankfurt Los Angeles Hong Kong Beijing Shanghai Sydney Sao Paulo Agana Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,722 1,299 1,255 1,165 943 923 708 549 458 429 396 392 322 223 193 3,853

CO2 (kt) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

14,828

Total

14,828

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Delta Air Lines The Delta Air Lines carbon footprint profile shows:   a slightly smaller proportion of its footprint in the N and Central America + Carribean region than United; it has a marginally larger presence in Europe than in the Asia/Pacific region; Delta is unusual in that the B767 is the dominant contributor to its carbon footprint (more than 35%); the contribution by the B777 is well under half that of the B767; narrow bodied aircraft make up a minor part of the footprint (about 9%) the origin airport hierarchy has a similar make up to that for United – four predominant airports then a number of geographically spread airports with similar magnitude footprints; Tokyo (Narita) is the highest non US origin airport for both airlines the CO2 v Distance element is similar to that for United with almost all the footprint generated by flights travelling more than 5,00km (more than 80%); Delta has significantly less CO2 in the >11,000 km range than United the airline does not have a clearly leading city-pair route; in the top 15 there Is a diversity of routes involving the Europe, Asia/Pacific, Middle East and South and East Africa regions which have footprints of broadly similar magnitude.

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Delta Air Lines
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint = 12,743 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B767 A330 B777 B747 B757 B737 A320 CRJ MD80 ERJ Other… 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Detroit-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Detroit Honolulu-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Honolulu New York (JFK)-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-New York (JFK) Detroit-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Detroit Minneapolis-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Minneapolis Atlanta-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Atlanta Johannesburg-Atlanta Atlanta-Johannesburg New York (JFK)-Tel Aviv Tel Aviv-New York (JFK) Detroit-Nagoya Nagoya-Detroit Atlanta-Dubai Dubai-Atlanta Sydney-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Sydney Detroit-Shanghai Shanghai-Detroit London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow) Atlanta-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Atlanta Tokyo (Narita)-Minneapolis Minneapolis-Tokyo (Narita) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
177 177 165 165 144 144 136 136 129 129 128 128 127 127 118 118 115 115 115 115 113 113 111 110 105 105 103 103 89 89 8,996

1% 4%

1%

1%
Europe Asia/Pacific

19% 53% 21%

South America W & Cen Africa E & South Africa Middle East

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Origin Airports
Atlanta New York (JFK) Tokyo (Narita) Detroit Amsterdam Minneapolis Paris (CDG) London (Heathrow) Honolulu Los Angeles Seattle Nagoya Sao Paulo Osaka Shanghai Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,983 1,229 1,198 1,007 743 402 329 321 305 291 262 199 150 130 129 4,064

CO2 (kt) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

12,743

Total

12,743

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Monetising Carbon
7.1 Introduction
To this point in the document the focus has been on computing and reporting the quantum of CO2 that is generated by aircraft engaged in scheduled international passenger operations. This chapter converts the earlier carbon footprint information into monetary terms. Much of the debate surrounding climate change and its management revolves around putting some form of monetary value on carbon. This debate has been particularly difficult in many countries and ‘market based measures’ (MBM) are currently the focus of the climate change debate within ICAO. The basic building block for examination of any potential MBM is knowledge of the quantum of CO2, and the equivalent monetary value, associated with the options being considered. For example, when considering the introduction of a partial MBM the policy developer will need to know, say, the carbon costs associated with particular regions or on one or a small number of routes. What will be the costs for the industry? What will be the costs for the travellers? An understanding of potential carbon revenues from the individual subsectors of aviation is likewise essential if decision makers are to be aware of the magnitude of funds that could be available for climate change expenditure. The issue of introducing market based measures is clearly complex and will be a matter of ongoing debate. In keeping with the thrust of this document, this chapter is not intended to present arguments either for or against the introduction of these measures but is rather aimed at providing information that will assist the debate. In broad terms this chapter has been structured in a way that takes selected figures from earlier in the document and simply converts CO2 values to $ values. A carbon price of $20/tonne has been used for the computations as this is a value that is commonly used when considering generic carbon price scenarios. It is recognised that this price significantly exceeds the carbon price in Europe (at time of writing less than $5/tonne) but it is less than the carbon price in Australia of $23/tonne which is currently being paid by domestic aviation operators. If desired the reader can readily factor an alternative carbon price into the computations by simple multiplication. The $ values shown in this chapter show the costs/revenues if some form of carbon charge were imposed on all the CO2 emitted by all aircraft captured under an MBM regime. This situation currently applies in Australia for all domestic aviation under the Australian Government’s carbon pricing regime. However, under other MBM regimes, either mooted or in place, measures such as grandfathered allocations or carbon neutral growth (based on a particular year) result in the carbon charge only being imposed on a portion of the total CO2 emissions. In order to present a balanced picture, carbon values are shown both in terms of total revenue/costs and per person costs. Quoting total carbon costs typically gives an impression of large financial imposts or revenues while reporting carbon costs on a per passenger basis often suggests relatively small impacts. While this chapter highlights particular aspects of the carbon footprint, any CO2 value in the report can of course be converted into $ terms through simple multiplication.

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7.2

Intra Regions

Figure 7.1 shows the monetary implications of introducing an MBM on a regional level at a carbon price of $20/tonne of CO2. The figure monetises the intra region carbon values in Figure 3.4 and also shows the values in the form of $/passenger. This indicates the likely costs and revenues if consideration were being given to introducing an MBM at the regional level. It can be seen that revenues in excess of one billion dollars per year would be generated if a regional scheme were set up in either Europe or the Asia/Pacific region. The costs per passenger would be somewhat higher in the Asia/Pacific region.

ICAO Region CO2 Value ($x10 ) Cost/PAX ($) Europe 1,233 2.75 Asia/Pacific 1,130 4.82 N & Central America + Caribbean 328 3.58 Middle East 140 2.64 South America 89 3.77 East & South Africa 35 2.72 W & Central Africa 12 2.09 Total 2,966 3.41
Figure 7.1: Monetised CO2 footprint for intra region operations

6

There is of course an intra region MBM (an emissions trading scheme) for aviation currently in place within countries of the European Union.

7.3

Countries

Country
United States United Kingdom Germany United Arab Emirates Japan China France Spain Hong Kong Singapore Australia Canada South Korea Thailand Netherlands Italy India Brazil Russia Turkey Malaysia Switzerland Taiwan Mexico Qatar Saudi Arabia South Africa Indonesia Philippines Portugal Other countries

Figure 7.2 takes Figure 2.2 and converts the CO2 values into monetary values. It shows the total monetary value of the CO2 generated by international departures from each of the top 30 countries. It also shows the carbon costs per passenger. It can be seen that if a carbon charge of $20/tonne had been in place for all global scheduled international passenger aircraft departures in 2012 approximately $7 billion would have been raised. On average this would have equated to a carbon charge of around $6 per passenger. Australia would have had the highest cost/passenger ($13) while Italy the lowest ($4) – these values are consistent with the contrasting geographical siting of these two countries.

CO2 Value 6 ($x10 )
999 496 375 291 279 277 276 213 207 196 190 167 166 164 151 150 144 119 115 101 90 88 86 79 78 77 72 61 53 50 1,407

CO2 Cost/PAX ($)
9.9 6.0 5.2 7.5 8.5 6.8 5.7 4.5 7.4 7.6 12.5 7.1 6.7 7.3 6.4 3.9 7.2 12.1 5.3 4.7 5.6 4.0 4.7 5.6 6.6 5.1 11.4 5.4 6.5 4.6 4.3

Total

7,217

6.0

Figure 7.2: Monetised CO2 footprint by country 67

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7.4

Airports
Origin Airports
London (Heathrow) Dubai Hong Kong Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Singapore Tokyo (Narita) New York (JFK) Seoul Bangkok Amsterdam Los Angeles Beijing Shanghai Madrid Sydney Moscow Kuala Lumpur Istanbul Taipei San Francisco Doha Sao Paulo Toronto Chicago Newark Miami Munich Roma Zurich Other Airports

One option that is not frequently canvassed is to introduce climate change action at the airport level. Figure 7.3, which monetises the carbon footprint associated with the top 30 airports from Figure 5.2, shows the revenue that would have been generated if a carbon charge of $20/tonne had been imposed by airports on departing international passengers in 2012. Consistent with Figure 7.2 the average cost per passenger would have been $6; the highest charges would have been of the order of $17/passenger for Los Angeles and San Francisco. Thirteen airports would have generated carbon revenues exceeding $100 million.

CO2 Value 6 ($ x 10 )
328 219 207 204 203 196 178 164 158 151 146 141 102 99 96 93 90 85 83 82 79 78 75 74 73 69 69 68 67 62 3,479

CO2 Cost/PAX ($)
9.2 7.9 7.4 7.7 7.7 7.6 11.1 11.8 7.2 7.6 6.7 16.8 10.1 7.8 6.6 14.2 5.6 6.1 5.0 4.9 17.1 6.6 12.6 7.1 12.4 10.4 6.5 4.8 5.1 4.9 4.8

Total

7,217

6.0

Figure 7.3: Monetised CO2 footprint by airport

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7.5

Routes
Route
London (Heathrow)-Singapore London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong Los Angeles-Sydney London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Dubai Los Angeles-Seoul Singapore-Sydney San Francisco-Hong Kong Los Angeles-Taipei Frankfurt-Singapore London (Heathrow)-Johannesburg London (Heathrow)-San Francisco Honolulu-Tokyo (Narita) Hong Kong-Singapore Taipei-Hong Kong London (Heathrow)-Chicago Hong Kong-Sydney Chicago-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Miami New York (JFK)-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Bangkok London (Heathrow)-Newark Paris (CDG)-Tokyo (Narita) Singapore-Melbourne New York (JFK)-Paris (CDG) San Francisco-Seoul New York (JFK)-Seoul London (Heathrow)-Washington London (Heathrow)-Mumbai Other Routes

Figure 7.4 converts Figure 2.5 into monetary terms. It can be seen that in 2012 in excess of $10 million dollars would have been raised for each of the major routes if route based MBMs had been in place. The greatest cost/passenger would have been $27.80 (Sydney-Los Angeles route) and the lowest $2.70 (Taipei – Hong Kong). An alphabetic listing of the footprints of the world’s top 1,000 routes is shown in ProfileF5 in Part II.

CO2 Value 6 ($x10 )
40.6 40.0 33.7 28.2 26.6 25.1 21.7 21.6 21.2 21.0 20.1 20.1 19.3 19.0 18.6 18.0 18.0 17.7 16.7 16.6 16.4 16.3 16.1 15.6 15.4 15.0 14.9 14.7 14.7 14.4 14.2 6,585.6

CO2 Cost/PAX ($)
23.0 11.1 20.7 26.7 18.0 18.8 10.9 20.9 12.6 25.2 24.9 21.8 18.6 18.8 11.3 5.5 2.6 12.1 14.1 22.1 14.9 23.8 18.6 10.5 20.8 12.3 11.3 20.3 24.0 11.7 15.9 5.7

Total

7,217.1

6.0

Figure 7.4: Monetised CO2 footprint by route

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7.6

Airlines
Airline
Emirates Airline British Airways Lufthansa United Airlines Delta Air Lines Air France Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific American Airlines KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Korean Air Qatar Airways Ryanair Thai Airways International Air Canada Turkish Airlines Qantas Etihad Airways Easyjet Iberia Airlines Air China Virgin Atlantic Airways Swiss European Air Lines Japan Airlines Malaysia Airlines All Nippon Airways China Airlines Asiana Airlines Air Berlin Saudi Arabian Airlines Other Airlines

Current MBMs which capture aviation do so through, in one way or another, imposing the liability on the airlines (eg Australia (carbon tax), Europe (ETS), New Zealand (ETS/fuel surcharge). Ultimately this carbon charge is passed on to the airlines’ customers. Figure 7.5 shows the revenue (or conversely the cost to the airlines) that would have resulted if an airline based MBM had been in place in 2012. The figure, which monetises Figure 6.1, also shows the average cost/passenger that would have been incurred by passengers of the separate airlines. Given the nature of the services provided, it is not surprising that, of airlines on the list, Qantas has the highest carbon cost/passenger and that Ryanair and Easyjet have the lowest. Seventeen airlines would have generated carbon revenues exceeding $100 million.

CO2 Value 6 ($x10 )
347 316 307 297 255 248 210 203 201 182 160 147 136 126 124 122 104 96 93 86 82 81 81 80 76 74 73 71 64 64 2,715

CO2 Cost/PAX ($)
9.8 8.2 5.5 10.1 9.6 7.2 10.6 9.4 7.0 7.7 8.4 7.4 2.6 8.6 7.5 5.3 15.4 8.8 3.0 7.0 8.9 13.0 4.8 8.1 8.3 9.1 6.3 5.7 3.9 6.6 4.7

Total

7,217

6.0

Figure 7.5: Monetised CO2 footprint by airline

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Computation and Validation
8.1 Background
This chapter gives an overview of the methodology and tools used to generate the information contained in this report. In particular, it is directed at providing an indication of the robustness of the computed CO2 values. One of the key aims of the author in preparing the book The Carbon Footprint of Aircraft Operations in Australia – 201129 in 2012 was to test a methodology for carrying out simplified approaches to computing and reporting the carbon footprint of aircraft operations. This earlier book contains a chapter which discusses validation of the carbon footprinting methodology used in that book. Given the positive outcome of that validation exercise, the carbon footprinting approach used in this current document is based on the same methodology – hence much of the wording in Section 8.2 is similar to the wording in the earlier book. The reader is encouraged to look at the validation work on the Australian footprint in the 2012 document (Chapter 6) in conjunction with the material contained in this chapter. All the information in this report has been generated using a standard home computer; publicly available data sets; and the application of free and/or reasonably priced commercially available non-expert software. The carbon footprinting of aviation is very much aided by the fact that there is a great deal of publicly available data about aircraft operations. However, when examining the carbon footprint at the global level there are many gaps in the data and care needs to be taken in interpreting the applicability of the CO2 data. In addition to testing the robustness of the CO2 computations this chapter attempts to identify and broadly quantify the extent of data gaps (see Section 8.4).

8.2

Computation and Reporting

Input Data
All the information in the report has been derived from an operations dataset for global scheduled international passenger aircraft operations for the year 2012. This dataset was purchased from Innovata, a US based company that specialises in ‘…the aggregation, management and distribution of…travel data’.30 The dataset file size is approximately 2.5MB and was provided as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet containing 73,448 rows and six columns – an extract from the file is shown in Figure 8.1.

29

The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://www.scribd.com/doc/110857161/The-Carbon-Footprint-of-Aircraft-Operations-in-Australia-2011 30 Innovata: http://www.innovata-llc.com/

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Origin AAE AAE AAE AAE AAE AAE AAE AAE AAL AAL AAL AAL AAL AAL AAL AAL AAL

Destination CDG LYS MRS MRS ORY ORY ORY TOJ AGP AGP AMS AYT BCN BER CHQ FAE LGW

Equipment SubEquipment Airline TotalFlts 32S 319 ZI 104 737 738 AH 116 32S 319 ZI 156 737 738 AH 181 32S 319 ZI 55 32S 320 ZI 8 737 738 AH 169 SWM SWM YO 25 737 73H DY! 53 737 73W QI 16 F70 F70 KL 939 737 73W QI 9 32S 320 VY 69 737 73H DY! 12 737 73W QI 9 ARJ AR8 RC 17 737 73H DY! 102

Figure 8.1: Extract from the Innovata operations dataset In order to compute carbon using a great circle methodology latitude/longitude information is required for each airport. This information was obtained from a dataset purchased from World Airport Database.31 Translations from IATA to ICAO airport codes were also carried out using this database.

Carbon Counting
The derivation of CO2 information from the Innovata aircraft operations dataset was carried out using TNIP Carbon Counter – a great circle carbon counting application developed by the Australian Government Department of Infrastructure and Transport.32 This software is available for free download from the Department’s website. TNIP Carbon Counter contains all the information that is required to compute the weight of CO2 generated by a flight between any city-pair. The program automatically computes the great circle distance between two airports based on an airport dataset which contains the geographic coordinates of the aerodrome reference points (ARPs) and applies this to fuel burn algorithms for different aircraft types to derive the amount of fuel used, and CO2 generated, for each flight. The fuel burn algorithms are the same as those contained in the ICAO Carbon Calculator.33 TNIP Carbon Counter also applies the great circle distance adjustment factors that are used in the ICAO Carbon Calculator – these add an increment to the great circle distance designed to reflect the actual distance flown. TNIP Carbon Counter can directly read in files with the format shown in Figure 8.1 and generate, amongst other things, an output table containing information on a wide range of user selected variables for each operation in the dataset (eg CO2, distance, origin/destination airport, operator, destination State/Country, passenger numbers, etc). The actual computation is not lengthy – the carbon counting computation/archiving for the global dataset for the year 2012 takes about twenty minutes. The TNIP Carbon Counter output was exported to Microsoft Excel to set up a number of master worksheets. An example of an extract from one of the master worksheets is shown in Figure 8.2.

31
32

World Airports database: http://www.world-airport-database.co TNIP Carbon Counter: http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/aviation/environmental/transparent_noise/tnip_CC.aspx 33 ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx

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[The figure has been included in this format for completeness – it is recognised that it is barely legible in a printed copy of the report but it can be readily magnified when the report is in its electronic form.]
Airline Code LA LA FJ FJ FJ XF XF RR FJ FJ FJ FJ FJ FJ NF SB FJ FJ FJ FJ FJ FJ FJ FJ Airline Name LAN Airlines LAN Airlines Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Vladivostok Air Vladivostok Air Royal Air Force Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Vanuatu Aircalin (Air Caledonie International) Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Air Pacific Origin Airport Punta Arenas Rio Gallegos Honolulu Los Angeles Los Angeles Khabarovsk Krasnoyarsk Georgetown Apia Apia Funafuti Atoll Funafuti Atoll Port Vila Port Vila Port Vila Noumea Auckland Auckland Auckland Auckland Auckland Auckland Honiara Tarawa Island Aircraft Type 320 320 73H 744 772 T20 T20 76W 73H 73W AT5 ATR AT5 ATR ATR 320 73H 73H 73W 73W 744 763 73H 73H City Pair (ICAO Code) City Pair (Apt Names) SCCI-EGYP Punta Arenas-Mount Pleasant SAWG-EGYP Rio Gallegos-Mount Pleasant PHNL-NFFN Honolulu-Nadi KLAX-NFFN Los Angeles-Nadi KLAX-NFFN Los Angeles-Nadi UHHH-VVNT Khabarovsk-Nha Trang UNKL-VVNT Krasnoyarsk-Nha Trang FHAW-EGYP Georgetown-Mount Pleasant NSFA-NFFN Apia-Nadi NSFA-NFFN Apia-Nadi NGFU-NFNA Funafuti Atoll-Suva NGFU-NFNA Funafuti Atoll-Suva NVVV-NFNA Port Vila-Suva NVVV-NFNA Port Vila-Suva NVVV-NFNA Port Vila-Suva NWWW-NFFN Noumea-Nadi NZAA-NFFN Auckland-Nadi NZAA-NFNA Auckland-Suva NZAA-NFFN Auckland-Nadi NZAA-NFNA Auckland-Suva NZAA-NFFN Auckland-Nadi NZAA-NFFN Auckland-Nadi AGGH-NFFN Honiara-Nadi NGTA-NFFN Tarawa Island-Nadi Origin Country Chile Argentina United States United States United States Russia Russia Saint Helena Samoa Samoa Tuvalu Tuvalu Vanuatu Vanuatu Vanuatu New Caledonia New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand Solomon Islands Kiribati Origin ICAO Region South America South America N & Cen America N & Cen America N & Cen America Europe Europe E & South Africa Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Asia/Pacific Destination Airport Mount Pleasant Mount Pleasant Nadi Nadi Nadi Nha Trang Nha Trang Mount Pleasant Nadi Nadi Suva Suva Suva Suva Suva Nadi Nadi Suva Nadi Suva Nadi Nadi Nadi Nadi Destination Country Dest ICAO Region Tot Movements Tot Fuel (kg) Tot Carbon (kg) Tot Carbon (kt) Tot Distance (km) Tot PAX (100% LF) Load Factor (%) Adjusted PAX Distance/trip (km) RPK Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) South America 39 151,244 477,476 0.5 33,153 5,772 78 4,502 850 Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) South America 12 43,722 138,029 0.1 8,979 1,776 78 1,385 748 Fiji Asia/Pacific 52 880,181 2,778,730 2.8 265,414 8,424 78 6,571 5,104 Fiji Asia/Pacific 219 21,964,868 69,343,086 69.3 1,946,012 91,104 78 71,061 8,886 Fiji Asia/Pacific 2 142,902 451,141 0.5 17,772 576 78 449 8,886 Vietnam Asia/Pacific 7 139,142 439,271 0.4 32,851 1,400 78 1,092 4,693 Vietnam Asia/Pacific 4 86,040 271,628 0.3 20,365 800 78 624 5,091 Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) South America 103 3,591,392 11,338,024 11.3 648,952 31,312 78 24,423 6,301 Fiji Asia/Pacific 126 626,210 1,976,945 2.0 152,379 20,412 78 15,921 1,209 Fiji Asia/Pacific 28 139,158 439,321 0.4 33,862 4,536 78 3,538 1,209 Fiji Asia/Pacific 75 84,683 267,344 0.3 79,450 3,750 78 2,925 1,059 Fiji Asia/Pacific 50 56,455 178,230 0.2 52,967 2,500 78 1,950 1,059 Fiji Asia/Pacific 4 4,596 14,511 0.0 4,334 200 78 156 1,084 Fiji Asia/Pacific 9 10,342 32,650 0.0 9,751 450 78 351 1,083 Fiji Asia/Pacific 26 29,877 94,321 0.1 28,169 1,300 78 1,014 1,083 Fiji Asia/Pacific 51 243,523 768,804 0.8 64,511 7,548 78 5,887 1,265 Fiji Asia/Pacific 268 2,105,705 6,647,713 6.6 577,736 43,416 78 33,864 2,156 Fiji Asia/Pacific 5 39,030 123,218 0.1 10,695 810 78 632 2,139 Fiji Asia/Pacific 100 785,711 2,480,490 2.5 215,573 16,200 78 12,636 2,156 Fiji Asia/Pacific 100 780,602 2,464,359 2.5 213,906 16,200 78 12,636 2,139 Fiji Asia/Pacific 118 3,085,815 9,741,916 9.7 254,376 49,088 78 38,289 2,156 Fiji Asia/Pacific 4 51,658 163,084 0.2 8,623 1,076 78 839 2,156 Fiji Asia/Pacific 2 15,317 48,355 0.0 4,182 324 78 253 2,091 Fiji Asia/Pacific 52 412,113 1,301,041 1.3 113,253 8,424 78 6,571 2,178 3,827,182 1,036,536 33,537,713 631,441,974 3,992,302 5,124,756 3,176,940 153,879,498 19,254,610 4,278,802 3,098,550 2,065,713 169,026 380,289 1,098,591 7,447,150 73,002,721 1,351,420 27,239,804 27,029,162 82,539,924 1,809,278 528,438 14,310,649 CO2/PAX (kg) 106 100 423 976 1,004 402 435 464 124 124 91 91 93 93 93 131 196 195 196 195 254 194 191 198 Distance Range (km) 500-1,000 500-1,000 5,000-7,000 7,000-9,000 7,000-9,000 3,000-5,000 5,000-7,000 5,000-7,000 1,000-1,500 1,000-1,500 1,000-1,500 1,000-1,500 1,000-1,500 1,000-1,500 1,000-1,500 1,000-1,500 2,000-2,500 2,000-2,500 2,000-2,500 2,000-2,500 2,000-2,500 2,000-2,500 2,000-2,500 2,000-2,500

Figure 8.2: Extract from an example master Excel worksheet

Data Interrogation
Almost all the data interrogation, the ‘slicing and dicing’, carried out to produce the tables/figures in the report was performed by applying Microsoft Excel pivot tables, and linked slicers, to the data in master worksheets like that shown in Figure 8.2.

Generation of Graphics
The graphics were predominantly produced using the standard chart functions contained in Microsoft Excel. The main quantity flow diagrams (eg Figure 2.6) were produced using a flow diagram software tool – e!Sankey.34 The figures containing geographic coordinate information (eg Figure 3.7) were produced using a GIS application – Maptitude.35

Important Notes
A number of assumptions and/or allocation decisions were made in the generation of the information:  When carbon counting, the default settings in TNIP Carbon Counter were used – for each operation in the Innovata dataset, for a given aircraft type, the CO2 generated was computed using the default fuel burn profile and aircraft type substitution. Metrics involving ‘per passenger’ computations were based on the TNIP default seat configurations. By default TNIP Carbon Counter uses a factor of 3.157 to convert weight of jet fuel to weight of CO2; the specific gravity of jet fuel is taken to be 0.8. A load factor of 78% was used for all flights in the database – this was the IATA published worlwide average load factor for international aviation for 2012.36 IATA uses dynamic codes for airline operators – that is, if an airline operator code is no longer used it is allocated to another operator. Airline companies frequently go out of business and/or are acquired by other airlines and new entrants emerge. The non unique nature of the codes meant that in several instances the airline name in the standard databases was no longer correct. While the names were ‘cleaned up’ as far as possible, particularly for the major operators, it is highly likely that the Appendices may contain incorrectly named minor airlines.

 

34 35

e sankey: www.e-sankey.com/ Maptitude: http://www.caliper.com/maptovu.htm 36 IATA, 2012 Annual Review, p12: http://www.iata.org/about/Documents/annual-review-2012.pdf

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The naming of airports also presented challenges. In many instances an airport is known by a local name (eg Heathrow) rather than the city (or cities) in which it is located. Generally, for ease of presentation, throughout the report the airports have been named with city, rather than local, airport names. This has the effect of grouping airports for those cities which have more than one international airport. Given the use of hierarchies to filter out smaller airports used in this document this grouping is useful as it can help cities with significant aviation traffic from ‘falling under the radar’ as the result of the splitting of significant traffic levels into small parts. The grouping of airports has been applied to all cities except London, New York, Paris and Tokyo where separate airports have been reported using IATA airport codes (placed in parentheses following the city name) or a local name in the case of Newark. In many cases the secondary international airports have small carbon footprints, but there are cities where the airports have been grouped and there is more than one significant airport (eg Moscow). There are issues about deciding whether an airport is, or is not associated, with a particular city and there are inconsistencies in the report in this area. There are grey areas in the classification of airports located in external territories. The Innovata database contains some external territories which are identified as being part of countries several thousand kilometres, and in a differenct ICAO region, from the location of the ‘mother country’. It also contains some external territories which are in close geographic proximity to their mother countries. As every operation in the Innovata database is defined as being international these very close neighbouring territories become treated as separate countries. For example, the dataset contains flights from the Australian mainland to Norfolk Island (a small Australian island territory off the coast of the Australian State of New South Wales). By default the database defines these flights as international operations but they are considered domestic flights by the Australian authorities. In order to be consistent no changes were made to the dataset to adjust for domestic/international flight classification. In some instances airports (eg Guam) were treated (for carbon footprinting purposes) as being in the ICAO region where they are geographically located. In general the CO2 associated with external territories is minimal and it is not considered that the adjustments made (or not made) induced any significant errors.

8.3

Validation

Overview
There are a number of published sources of information which can be used to assess the robustness of the CO2 computations contained in this report. At the aggregated level the International Energy Agency (IEA) publishes information on jet fuel sales by country and the UNFCCC reports aviation bunkers as a ‘memo item’ in the reports on the CO2 footprint of Annex 1 countries. A number of governments report energy use by the aviation sector as part of either aviation statistics, or energy/climate change, reporting regimes. Several major international airlines report fuel/CO2 data as part of their annual corporate or sustainability reporting. The ICAO carbon calculator, and other similar on-line tools provided by airlines, can be used to compute CO2 emissions on an individual flight basis. Unfortunately there are anomalies between what, on the face of it, are authoritative validation points and hence there remain uncertainties in aviation carbon footprinting. Ultimately the ‘real’ data on the carbon footprint of aircraft operations at a disaggregated level (ie the flight by flight fuel use data), is owned by the airlines and given its commercial sensitivity it is unlikely to be made available for public scrutiny. 74

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The validity of input into derived metrics such as CO2/PAX can be examined by using data on passenger numbers published by national transport statistics agencies. A key area of uncertainty is that generated by ‘data gaps’. Ideally it would be desirable to present a complete picture of the carbon footprint of all international aircraft operations but much important data is not available to members of the public (see Section 8.4). This report solely computes the carbon footprint of scheduled international passenger operations since data is only readily available for this sector of the total footprint. To present a complete global carbon footprint picture, data would need to be available on other key areas of international aviation, in particular on the airfreight and non-scheduled aviation sectors. Working with a database of scheduled, rather than actual, operations clearly will introduce errors. In practice scheduled services are cancelled; unscheduled services are introduced; new entrant airlines appear; existing airlines withdraw or are withdrawn. These are recognised weaknesses with the computational method adopted and may be an important source of error. This section uses the known validation points to draw a picture of the likely robustness of the scheduled international passenger CO2 computations contained in this report. Robustness of the Core Operations Dataset All the computations in this report rely on the accuracy and completeness of the operations database purchased from Innovata. At the top level it is important that the RPK values computed from the study database be consistent with independently reported activity levels. Converting this to passenger numbers and cross comparing with published data gives another level of validation. The Innovata dataset does not contain information on passenger numbers and this was derived by assigning values for both the number of seats in each different aircraft type and for the load factors. As indicated in Section 8.2, the TNIP Carbon Counter default values were used to assign the number of seats and a load factor of 78% was used for all operations in the dataset. Applying these values to the dataset gave, for scheduled international passenger operations in 2012, the following values: Total revenue passenger-kilometres = 3,483 x 109 Total passengers carried = 1.21 x 109

IATA has published a figure of 1.1 billion for global international passengers carried in 2011.37 Figure 8.3 shows ICAO’s published values of both passenger numbers and revenue

Figure 8.3: ICAO data on global aviation activity 2012

37

IATA, press release no 50; Dec 2012: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/pr/pages/2012-12-06-01.aspx

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passenger-kilometres for 2012. It can be seen that the values computed from the Innovata dataset are in very close agreement with the reported values (recognising that the IATA figure is for 2011).38 As a further check, cross comparing the Airports Council International (ACI) published number of passenger numbers at the top five airports39 (Chapter 5) with the number of passengers computed via TNIP Carbon Counter gives the values shown in Figure 8.4.
Airport London (Heathrow) Dubai Hong Kong Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Computed No of PAX 71,645,813 55,442,763 56,361,618 53,019,176 52,642,791 ACI No of PAX 65,005,539 56,011,254 55,306,963 51,007,349 56,211,730 % Difference 10.2 -1.0 1.9 3.9 -6.3

Figure 8.4: Comparison between computed and actual passenger numbers at key airports

The information in Figures 8.3 and 8.4 gives a good level of confidence in the overall completeness of the Innovata dataset and gives an indication of the robustness of the CO2/passenger data reported in this document.

Validation at the Global and Country Level
Published fuel and CO2 data at the global level is almost always directed at presenting a complete picture of energy use (ie it is aimed at capturing all the jet fuel used for aircraft operations). This data is commonly sub-divided into domestic and international; jet fuel used for military purposes is typically identified separately. The most commonly used dataset giving country by country information on global aviation fuel use is published by the International Energy Agency (IEA)40. The UNFCCC also publishes similar data for Annex 1 countries – this information is provided by treaty signatory members as a memo item in their annual reports41. Figure 8.5 provides a country by country comparison between the UNFCCC data and the great circle computed footprint values shown in this report (see Figure 2.2). The data in the table relates solely to UNFCCC Annex 1 countries – note this data is for the latest year available 2010.

38 39

ICAO, Traffic Statistics for Revenue Scheduled Services: http://www.icao.int/sustainability/Pages/FactsFigures-Data.aspx ACI, traffic data: http://www.aci.aero/Data-Centre/Monthly-Traffic-Data/International-Passenger-Rankings/12-months 40 IEA, Statistics and Balances: http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp 41 UNFCCC, Time series – Annex 1: http://unfccc.int/ghg_data/ghg_data_unfccc/time_series_annex_i/items/3814.php

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It can be seen from the figure that, as expected, the computed scheduled international passenger footprint values are, for most countries, lower than the reported total international aviation footprint. Putting aside uncertainties arising from the use of a great circle methodology, the differences are likely to be primarily due to unaccounted CO2 emissions associated with dedicated freight and non-scheduled operations (see discussion in Section 8.4). While across the whole dataset the level of ‘undercounting’ is about 25% when the UNFCCC CO2 emissions are adjusted to a figure for 2012 (275,169 kt), for some countries the difference is less than 10%. It may be surmised that in these countries the level of freight and/or charter traffic is lower than the average. For example, the previously published carbon footprint report for Australia, which gives a figure consistent with that in Figure 8.5, made specific reference to the relatively low level of charter aircraft activity in that country.42 Another area of potential error is misallocation between the domestic and international sectors – this would appear to be the case, for example, with the wide disparity in the two values for Turkey in Figure 8.5. The IEA data, which reports fuel use in many more countries (ie in both Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries) contains a number of apparently anomalous values. It does appear that some countries report fuel use/CO2 based on fuel uplifted while others report based on country of aircraft registration. In some countries fuel use is likely to be influenced by tankering. A good summary of both the IEA and UNFCCC datasets for 2008 can be found in a report published by the International Transport Forum.43 The report points out issues with interpreting the data and states that it

Country
United States United Kingdom Germany Japan France Spain Australia Netherlands Italy Canada Russia Switzerland Belgium Portugal Denmark Ireland New Zealand Greece Sweden Austria Finland Poland Norway Luxembourg Czech Republic Ukraine Hungary Bulgaria Romania Turkey Iceland Latvia Malta Croatia Belarus Lithuania Estonia Slovakia Slovenia Monaco

UNFCCC 2010 CO2 (kt)
73,327 31,834 24,792 16,434 16,356 13,182 10,335 10,205 9,513 9,058 7,860 4,297 4,234 2,633 2,448 2,339 2,326 2,113 2,093 2,072 1,676 1,586 1,314 1,297 1,040 905 684 506 497 435 381 362 321 247 232 147 115 105 74 3

Scheduled Passenger 2012 CO2 (kt)
49,949 24,811 18,757 13,960 13,821 10,648 9,497 7,539 7,488 8,366 5,736 4,397 2,479 2,496 1,905 1,584 2,200 1,392 1,548 1,849 1,413 1,127 1,276 125 771 876 489 292 657 5,026 339 317 243 251 135 178 108 60 62 5

% Difference
32 22 24 15 15 19 8 26 21 8 27 -2 41 5 22 32 5 34 26 11 16 29 3 90 26 3 29 42 -32 -1,056 11 12 24 -2 42 -21 6 43 15 -84

Total

259,374

204,171

21

Figure 8.5: CO2 footprint comparison – UNFCCC v values reported in Chapter 2

42

The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012, p76: http://www.scribd.com/doc/110857161/The-Carbon-Footprint-of-Aircraft-Operations-in-Australia-2011 43 ITF, Transport Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2010: http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/Pub/pdf/10GHGCountry.pdf

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“…includes emissions from international aviation and international maritime bunkers - there is no internationally agreed allocation mechanism for these and totals here are indicative of the scale of these emissions, not of their national "ownership"”. When examining country carbon footprints for aviation it is important to be aware of tankering. For some smaller countries, whose connections into the international network are through short haul international flights, the actual fuel uplifted (and therefore the IEA/UNFCCC fuel/CO2 reported) may be less than the actual fuel used due to airlines not uplifting fuel in the country concerned. Tankering takes place for a number of reasons such as a higher price for fuel in some specific countries (eg separate taxation regime), turnaround time constraints, lack of ground support, etc. This a factor which will tend to increase or decrease the computed CO2 value relative to fuel uplifted data depending on whether the country is, or is not, a favoured place for re-fuelling. ICAO provides figures on the size of the global carbon footprint for aviation in its 2010 Environmental Report.44 This report (p32) indicates that in 2006 the global international aviation sector consumed 116 Mt of fuel. This is equivalent to the generation of 366 Mt of CO2. If this is adjusted to a 2012 value assuming 3% growth in emissions per year, 366 becomes 437 Mt of CO2 for the global footprint of international aircraft operations in 2012. This therefore gives a difference of about 20% between the ICAO figure for the carbon footprint of total international operations and the figure computed in this report of 361 Mt CO2 for the carbon footprint of international scheduled passenger operations in 2012. Thus this comparison gives a similar difference to that given between the total and passenger footprints in the UNFCCC data in Figure 8.5. The group coordinating the industry response to climate change – the Air Transport Action Group (ATAG), states that “Worldwide, flights produced 676 million tonnes of CO2 in 2011”.45 If this is normalised to a 2012 figure by adding 3% growth this is equal to 696 Mt CO2. ATAG also indicates that international operations comprise 62% of the total aviation carbon footprint – therefore the ATAG figure gives a value of 696 x .62 = 431 Mt CO2. This figure is in close agreement with the ICAO figure. The IEA reports that the global consumption of jet kerosene in 2009 was 2,227,804 kt.46 This equates to 703 Mt of CO2 for the total carbon footprint of aviation in 2009. If the ATAG figure of 62% for the proportion of the total footprint that applies to international aviation is used to convert this into the international aviation carbon footprint this equals 436 Mt of CO2 (which equals 476 Mt of CO2 in 2012 if there was growth of 3%/year between 2009 and 2012). Hence the IEA figure for the size of the international operations carbon footprint in 2012 is about 10% higher than for the other two sources. India has produced a useful aviation carbon footprint report for activities within its jurisdiction.47 This report provides a figure of 3,623 kt of CO2 emitted by non-Indian registered aircraft departing to international destinations in 2011. It also indicates that Indian registered aircraft emitted 5,949 kt of CO2 for all operations to/from India. If it is assumed that about half of this figure is for Indian registered aircraft departing India then the total CO2 footprint for the country in 2011 = 2,975 + 3,623 = 6,598 kt CO2 (this converts to a 2012 figure of 6,994 kt CO2). This compares with a figure of 7,182 kt CO2 for India contained in Figure 2.2. While this shows a good level of agreement, when the comparison is broken down into the constituent Indian and non-Indian airlines the difference is

44

ICAO, Environmental Report 2010: http://www.icao.int/environmentalprotection/Documents/Publications/ENV_Report_2010.pdf 45 ATAG, Facts and Figures: http://www.atag.org/facts-and-figures.html 46 IEA, Oil in World 2009: http://www.iea.org/stats/oildata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=29 47 The Carbon Footprint of Indian Aviation 2011: http://dgca.nic.in/env/Carbon%20Footprint%20Report%202011.pdf

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about 15%. Examination of the master worksheet indicates a figure of 5,138 kt, rather than 5,949 kt, for CO2 emitted by Indian airlines departing on international passenger operations. Summary In broad terms the estimates for the carbon footprint of global international aviation in 2012 (all figures adjusted to 2012 using an annual growth figure of 3%) discussed in this section are: ICAO 437 Mt CO2 (approx. 20% greater than the computed vale of 361 Mt)

ATAG 431 Mt CO2 (approx. 20% greater than the computed value of 361 Mt) IEA 476 Mt CO2 (approx. 30% greater than the computed value of 361 Mt)

It is not possible to provide a UNFCCC global figure for the carbon footprint of international aviation as its published data only relates to Annex 1 countries. On average the year adjusted UNFCCC values for country CO2 are about 25% greater than the computed values reported in this document. These values need to be examined in the context of the data gaps discussed in Section 8.4 (primarily dedicated freight and non-scheduled aircraft movements – see Figure 8.9).

Validation at the Airline Level
Having identified the differences between total reported and computed fuel use at both the global and country level the question then becomes to what extent are the differences due to the data gaps (see Section 8.4) as opposed to errors in the computational methodology. Data published by the airlines (or reported by aviation authorities based on statutory energy/fuel use reports provided by airlines) would appear to provide the best way to test the robustness of the computational methodology. The ‘true’ data, that is the fuel use data on a flight by flight basis, is owned by the airlines and is generally treated as the gold standard for validation purposes. A number of sources are available for comparing the computed CO2 values with those reported by airlines. Figure 8.6 provides comparisons between the computed and reported values for the top 5 airlines (see Chapter 6). The numbers in the table need to be read in conjunction with the associated notes as none of the numbers is strictly comparable – all the sources have different bases for the reporting.

Airline

Calculated CO2 (kt) 2012
17,333 15,808 21,881 16,656 12,743 11,369

Reported CO2 (kt)

Year

Emirates Airline British Airways Lufthansa Group United Airlines Delta Air Lines Cathay Pacific

16,205 15,255 21,349 17,777 15,078 12,598

2010-11 2010-11 2011 2012 2012 2011

Figure 8.6: CO2 footprint comparison – computed v reported values for the top 5 airlines (+ Cathay Pacific) 79

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Notes 1) It is worth noting the year of the reported data. A figure of 3% annual growth in CO2 emissions is used throughout the report as a global average footprint growth figure – this may not be particularly accurate for individual companies and hence some care needs to be taken in trying to convert the values to a common base year. 2) The Emirates CO2 value has been derived from information in its 2010-11 Sustainability report.48 The value has been computed from the information on total passenger-kilometres (PK) flown and the published fuel efficeiency expressed as litres/100PK. 3) The values reported by British Airways include fuel used by dedicated freighters.49 4) Lufthansa breaks down the footprint into passenger and freight components but not into domestic and international.50 There was no apparent simple route to determining the domestic/international split; in the cited reference (p64) the company reports that 16% of its fuel is used on flights of less than 800km; the Innovata database shows that a substantial number of international flights carried out by Lufthansa Group aircraft have a range of less than 800 km therefore the domestic proportion of the Group’s footprint is likely to be significantly less than 16%. Lufthansa also reports that approximately 25% of the its carbon footprint is related to the carriage of freight – it is not clear whether this figure relates solely to the footprint of cargo carried in dedicated freighters or also covers freight carried in the belly of passenger aircraft. The carbon footprint figure is for the Lufthansa Group and also includes carbon contributions from Austrian Air, Germanwings and SWISS. 5) The United Airlines reported CO2 figure51 includes fuel used by dedicated freighters and non-scheduled operations. The CO2 figures, both calculated and reported, include contributions from Continental Airlines – United and Continental merged in early March 2012. 6) The Delta Airlines reported CO2 figure52 includes fuel used by dedicated freighters and non-scheduled operations. 7) The values for Cathay Pacific have been included as Cathay has published very useful transparent carbon footprint data which breaks down fuel use into passenger and freight. 53 Approximately 80% of the Cathay carbon footprint is related to passenger flights. The carbon footprint figure is for the Cathay Pacific Group and also includes carbon contributions from Dragonair.

48

Emirates Airline, Environmental Report 2010-2011: http://www.emirates.com/english/images/The%20Emirates%20Group%20Environment%20Report_tcm233-701728.pdf 49 British Airways, Corporate Responsibility Report 2010/2011: http://d2zax00nj39hb2.cloudfront.net/wpcontent/uploads/CR-Report-2010-11.pdf 50 Lufthansa Group, Balance, Issue 2012, p66: http://www.lufthansagroup.com/fileadmin/downloads/en/LH-sustainabilityreport-2012.pdf 51 United Airlines, Annual Fuel Costs and Consumption : http://www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp 52 Delta Airlines, Annual Fuel Costs and Consumption : http://www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp 53 Cathy Pacific, Sustainable Development Report 2011, Environmental Indicators Table: http://downloads.cathaypacific.com/cx/aboutus/sd/2011/pdf/CX_SDR11_Full.pdf

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Under the European Union ETS, airlines are required to report on their CO2 emissions on an annual basis – the total emissions for each airline are published by the European Commission.54 Figure 8.7 shows a comparison between the computed and reported CO2 emissions for 2012 for a number of example airlines.
Computed CO2 (kt) British Airways 1,989 Cathay Pacific 32 Emirates Airline 33 Easyjet 4,559 Ryanair 6,801 SWISS 576 Airline EU ETS % CO2 (kt) Difference 2,544 28 38 19 40 21 4,611 1 7,457 10 599 4

Figure 8.7: Comparison between computed and EU ETS reported CO2 footprints for airlines The reported EU ETS emissions cover both domestic and intra Europe international operations. The computed footprint only relates to flights in the Innovata database between the 30 countries covered by the EU ETS (ie intra Europe international operations). The footprint for British Airways and Easyjet can be adjusted to figures which solely relate to international flights by reference to a database published by the UK CAA (assuming these airlines only operate domestic services within the UK)55. This data set provides Available Seat Kilometre (ASK) information for both intra Europe international and UK domestic services – this can be used to derive a reasonably robust relationship between domestic and international carbon footprints for UK airlines. When these ratios are applied to the carbon footprints shown in the figure:   for British Airways the difference between the computed and actual carbon footprint drops to about 9% for Easyjet the difference drops to around -4%.

Overall there is broad agreement between the computed and reported carbon footprints when assessed at the airline level. All things being equal, it would be expected that the reported footprint would be larger than the computed footprint as a range of operations such as ad hoc charters, maintenance, training, repositioning, etc flights will not be caught by the “scheduled” definition. As indicated by the notes, there are issues with each of the comparisons but it would seem that the Emirates and Cathay Pacific comparisons are the most robust. There is no need for a domestic/international footprint split in the data for these two airlines as they do not carry out domestic operations (China is treated as an international destination for flights to/from Hong Kong in the Innovata database) and both companies have provided information which appears to give a relatively clean value for fuel used by scheduled international passenger (as opposed to freight) operations.

54

55

European Commission, Union Registry, Reports: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/registry/documentation_en.htm UK CAA, Aviation statistics: http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?catid=80

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Validation at the Route Level
Carbon footprinting comparisons can be made at the route level by reference to recognised city-pair carbon calculators. Figure 8.8 shows the comparison between the results of the output of the ICAO, Qantas and Cathay carbon calculators56, 57, 58 for the top 10 routes (see Figure 2.5). The values for the Qantas calculator shown in the figure have been arrived at by averaging the values for the outward and return legs of the city-pair (the Qantas calculator produces a different value for each leg). An important point in this comparison is that both the ICAO and Cathay calculators provide the user with the option to select a class of travel – the values in the figure report economy class data. On the other hand the computations in this report, and the Qantas calculator, apportion the total CO2 load equally across all passengers. This means that a lower footprint value would be expected to be reported by the ICAO and Cathay calculators when reporting the economy class footprint. The CO2 allocation to passengers is further reduced in the ICAO carbon calculator by the application of a freight factor which ascribes a proportion of the fuel burned on each flight to the belly freight carbon footprint.
ICAO Carbon Computed Calculator CO2/PAX CO2/PAX (kg) (kg)
(economy class)

Route

Qantas CO2/PAX (kg)

Cathay CO2/PAX (kg)
(economy class)

London (Heathrow)-Singapore London (Heathrow)-JFK London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong Sydney-Los Angeles London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Dubai Los Angeles-Seoul Sydney-Singapore San Francisco-Hong Kong

1,149 556 1,034 1,336 902 939 543 1,046 629 1,262

765 363 685 983 594 620 393 678 454 797

1,376 1,292 1,681 830

728 960

Figure 8.8: CO2 footprint comparison – computed v reported values for the top 10 routes (units CO2 kg)/PAX) Given the above it would appear that a comparison between the computed values and the Qantas carbon calculator offers the best comparison. This is possible on four of the top 10 routes – it can be seen that the great circle computed values are all within about 15% of the Qantas values. It should be noted that the Qantas calculator applies to the Qantas footprint on the selected routes while the computed values relates to the footprint of all the operators on the routes. In addition, it is important to bear in mind that the values in the table are expressed in terms of CO2/PAX; the accuracy of these computations depends on assumptions about both aircraft seat configurations and load factors. In this study generic values have been used across all countries and airlines for these two variables – clearly an unrefined approach which only provides an indirect indicator of the

56 57

Qantas carbon calculator: https://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/offset-my-flight/global/en ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx 58 Cathay Pacific calculator http://www.cathaypacific.com/cpa/en_AU/aboutus/carbonoffset

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robustness of the total footprint. Nevertheless, the numbers are broadly consistent and do not suggest any gross errors in the computations. Profile F5 in Part II contains CO2 footprint information for 1,000 international city-pair combinations. The reader can use this listing to make further comparisons between the computed CO2 values shown in this report and the output of published carbon calculators.

8.4

The Data Gaps

As discussed earlier in this chapter, if a transparent picture is to be presented of the carbon footprint of international aircraft operations it would be useful to understand the quantum of the contribution made by the identifiable individual components to the total footprint. Data on international scheduled passenger movements is widely available and the ease of access to data in this particular area results in it being the core component of most aviation statistical regimes (this is also driven by the fact these movements constitute the overwhelming majority of activity in the international aviation sector). There are other components, notably dedicated freight aircraft and non-scheduled passenger operations, which make significant contributions to the total footprint. However, robust data on these components is not readily accessible to members of the public – hence there are ‘data gaps’ which weaken our picture of the total carbon footprint for international aviation.

Operations by dedicated freighters
As indicated earlier, both Lufthansa and Cathay have published separate carbon footprint data for the freight part of their businesses. Unfortunately, it is not clear whether the published data relates solely to cargo carried in dedicated freighters or whether additional CO2 has been ascribed to the freight footprint (or removed from the ‘passenger footprint’) to take account of cargo carried in the bellies of passenger aircraft. Putting definitional issues aside, both of these companies indicate that about 20-25% of their carbon footprint derives from the carriage of freight. These two companies are major freight operators and the quantum of the freight components of these companies’ carbon footprints does not provide an across the sector footprint picture. Despite concerted efforts it was not possible to find many sources of information in this area. Putting aside differentiation between scheduled and non-scheduled freight operations, it appears that complete operations datasets are not available for scheduled freight operators. Some dedicated freight operators have significant carbon footprints. For example, based on US Government fuel use data, Federal Express (Fedex) had a jet fuel carbon footprint of about 4,400 kt CO2 and United Parcel Service (UPS) had a footprint of about 3,500 kt CO2 for international operations in 2011. 59 This would place both of these operators in the top 30 airlines shown in Figure 6.1. The same source indicates that the proportion of the total operations defined as ‘non-scheduled’ is less than 5% for both operators. The only credible study that the author was able to locate in this area was an examination of the carbon footprint of the airfreight industry carried out by Morrell in 2007 for the air cargo industry.60 Morrell split the cargo CO2 contribution into the freighter aircraft impact, and the impact of cargo carried on passenger flights. He indicates “…it can be seen that freighters represented only 6.4% of

59

US Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Airline Fuel Cost and Consumption: http://www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp Environmental Impact of Air Cargo, P Morrell, 2007: http://www.tiaca.org/images/TIACA/PDF/The%20Environmental%20Impact%20of%20Air%20Cargo.pdf p11
60The

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the total global consumption (and of course a similar CO2 emissions impact)” 61 The report does not distinguish between domestic and international freighter operations but does refer, in a number of places, to jet freighters being predominantly used on long-haul operations. In the absence of any other information it is assumed, as a crude approximation, that all of the freighter carbon footprint comes from international operations. [It can be seen from the CO2 v Distance profiles throughout this report that short-haul operations make a very small contribution to the carbon footprint of a sub-sector that involves long-haul operations.] If it is assumed that all freighter operations are international and make up 6.4% of the world’s carbon footprint, the freighter contribution will be about 10% of the total international aviation carbon footprint (since international aviation generates about 60% of the total global footprint for aviation).

Non-scheduled Operations
Ascertaining the footprint contribution made by charter, or non-scheduled, traffic presents similar challenges to computing airfreight footprint contributions. The data that is available indicates a very uneven picture. The United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) publishes comprehensive aviation statistical data.62 Information in the CAA database indicates that in 2011 about 20% of the international Available Seat Kilometres (ASK) provided by UK operators was carried out through non-scheduled services (ASK is directly related to the quantum of CO2 generated). In the United States data published by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics indicates that in 2012 about 15% of the fuel used in international aviation by US carriers could be ascribed to non-scheduled services.63 A 2007 ICAO report provides useful insights. The ICAO report ‘Outlook for Air Transport to the Year 2025’64states that ”…Non-scheduled air transport is primarily devoted to international passenger traffic, with freight traffic and domestic traffic being relatively small by comparison. The share of non-scheduled passenger traffic in the total international passenger traffic declined from about 15 per cent during the latter part of the 1990s to around 10 per cent in 2005….Non-scheduled traffic is very important on intra-European routes which account for the largest part of the world charter market in terms of passengers, followed by North Atlantic routes.” [In this context “passenger traffic” is being defined through passenger-km which is directly related to CO2 emissions] In the absence of other data the ICAO figure for 2005 cited above - 10% of total international passenger traffic - is taken as an indicative value for the carbon footprint contribution from non-scheduled traffic in 2012.

61 62

Footnote 51, p5 UK CAA, Aviation statistics: http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?catid=80 63 US Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Airline Fuel Cost and Consumption: http://www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp 64 ICAO, Outlook for Air Transport to the Year 2025, p10: http://www.icao.int/sustainability/Documents/C313_Outlook_En.pdf

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Business Aviation & Other Operations
There are many other sub-sectors of aviation; these include business aviation, military, training, commercial aerial work, private flying, etc. System wide carbon footprint information on these activities is difficult to find. In cases where this information is published it is generally not broken down into international and domestic components. While international operations in these sub-sectors do take place, the available information suggests that the international component is relatively minor and the vast majority of the activities should be categorised as ‘domestic’. Given this, for the purposes of this document the contribution of these sub-sectors to the carbon footprint of international aircraft operations is taken to be zero. Summary The discussion in this section broadly indicates that the carbon footprint of the dedicated freight and non-scheduled sub-sectors of international aviation both make a contribution of about 10% of the total. It must be stressed that these numbers have little verifiable basis and should be considered as first order approximations. Nevertheless, taking these assumptions into account gives a breakdown of the carbon footprint for international aircraft operations for 2012 with the constituents shown in Figure 8.9. Total CO2 = 440 Mt
Scheduled Passenger CO2 = 360 Mt Dedicated Freighters CO2 = 40 Mt

Non-scheduled flights CO2 = 40 Mt

Figure 8.9: Indicative breakdown of the carbon footprint for international flights 2012 It can be seen that the figure shows the total carbon footprint for international aviation in 2012 equalled 440 Mt of CO2. It was shown in the previous section that a value of 440 Mt of CO2 for the total international carbon footprint for 2012 is broadly consistent with footprint data published by both ICAO and ATAG and is about 10% lower than the figure published by the IEA. Therefore the breakdown shown in this figure provides comfort that, at least at the aggregated level, the computed values for the carbon footprint of scheduled international passenger operations published in this report are generally sound. If questions around the composition of the total footprint of international aviation are put to one side, it is estimated that computations relating solely to the scheduled passenger component of the footprint provide results that are within around 10% of the true answer. This estimate is primarily based on the published information on the Emirates and Cathay Pacific footprints where the freight component has been disaggregated from the passenger contribution (shown in Figure 8.6). In addition, the testing of the methodology in the previously mentioned carbon footprint study of 85

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aircraft operations in Australia produced answers which were within 5% of CO2 generation values published by Qantas and Virgin65. This level of error is also consistent with the foregoing discussion on the data gap and the total footprint estimates of ICAO, ATAG and the IEA. 8.5  Observations Validation of carbon footprinting of international aviation at the global level is difficult. There appears to be a dearth of consolidated reliable fuel/energy use data which covers the sector. The data that exists often conflicts, apparently due to differences in the bases of compilation that are not well explained. Data is readily available on activity levels within the international passenger movement sector - this has enabled the production of this report. However, while a number of bodies (primarily airlines and government) generate information which can be used to examine certain aspects of the aviation carbon footprint, unfortunately this is often reported in a way that is ambiguous. For example, it is often not clear whether: – CO2 data relates to movements to/from a country or whether it relates to operations by aircraft registered in a particular country operating elsewhere in the world data on the freight carbon footprint relates solely to fuel used in dedicated freighters or includes an allocation to capture the footprint of cargo in the belly of aircraft particular operations have been ascribed to domestic or international activities fuel used for military purposes has been included in carbon footprint computations non-scheduled operations have been captured in published data on passenger/freight fuel use.

– – – 

Great circle techniques appear to provide robust carbon footprint results. The very limited number of aircraft types in use in international aviation today (five aircraft families generate more than 75% of the global scheduled international passenger footprint) is undoubtedly an important factor in this outcome. It would appear that, provided the fuel use algorithms for the key aircraft types are robust, great circle based carbon footprinting will provide a reliable picture at the aggregated level. Ultimately if a carbon management regime is to be established for international aviation it is unlikely to receive public support if it is not transparent. A fundamental design requirement for any new regime is that members of the public, or at the least independent specialists, are able to verify the carbon outcomes using publicly available data.

65

The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012, p74: http://www.scribd.com/doc/110857161/The-Carbon-Footprint-of-Aircraft-Operations-in-Australia-2011

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PART II

FOOTPRINT PROFILES

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FOOTPRINT PROFILES
This Part of the document contains sets of carbon footprint profiles for the four areas covered in Chapters 3 to 6 – Regions, Countries, Airports, and Airlines. There is also a carbon footprint listing for the top 1,000 routes used by scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. Profile F1: Profile F2: Profile F3: Profile F4: Profile F5: ICAO Regions carbon footprint profiles. Country carbon footprint profiles. Airports carbon footprint profiles. Airlines carbon footprint profiles. Route carbon footprint information. Four sheets – descending CO2. Forty six sheets - descending CO2. Fifteen sheets - descending CO2. Fifteen sheets - descending CO2. Top 1,000 city-pairs - alphabetic.

This Part of the report is purely a data resource and is aimed at extending the information which has been presented in Part I. The broad intent is to capture, as far as possible, information on the vast majority of the carbon footprint for scheduled international passenger flights. The emphasis has been placed on presenting information at the country level since this is the level at which negotiations are carried out within the United Nations. The country footprint profiles contained in Profile F2 and in Part I capture about 90% of the global footprint. The carbon footprint profile concept is introduced in Section 2.2 and is used throughout the report. The profiles present a dashboard style picture of different aspects of the carbon footprint for the entity being examined (eg a specific country) using a number of different elements. Each element is independent and has a total footprint which equals the total footprint for the entity under consideration. Similarly, it is important to appreciate that each of the profiles presents a picture of the same data but from a different perspective. For example, the airport profiles are independent of the airline profiles; adding data between the two profile types will lead to double counting. The total footprint for any of the high level categories (eg airports, airlines) is equal to 360,857 Mt of CO2. The footprints contained in this Part of the report do not repeat the footprint profiles in Part I. The profiles for the top CO2 emitters are contained in Chapters 3 to 6. The level of disaggregation that is contained in the information in this Part inevitably leads to the generation of footprint components that are small. While these are likely to contain high relative errors (given the computation methodology) the absolute errors may not be significant. Due to the assumptions required, the ‘CO2/PAX’ values have a greater level of uncertainty than the ‘CO2’ values.

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Profile F1 ICAO Region Footprint Profiles
Profile F1 contains carbon footprint profiles for the lowest four ICAO regions categorised by the size of the carbon footprint. The profiles for the top three regions (dark orange colour in the figure), are contained in Chapter 3. The profiles are ordered by descending weight of CO2.

ICAO Region Europe Asia/Pacific N & Central America + Caribbean Middle East South America East & South Africa West & Central Africa Total

CO2 (kt) 128,052 105,608 68,049 30,566 16,390 8,795 3,396 360,857

Cumulative % 35 65 84 92 97 99 100

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Middle East
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe

Total Footprint =

30,566 kt CO2
Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Dubai Bangkok Cairo Frankfurt New York (JFK) Jakarta Paris (CDG) Jeddah Manila Kuala Lumpur Istanbul Sydney Mumbai Kuwait City Other Airports

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 A330 A320 B737 A340 A380 B747 A300 B767 E190 Other Types

Origin Airports
Dubai Doha Abu Dhabi Jeddah Cairo Riyadh Kuwait City Bahrain Muscat Amman Beirut Sharjah Tehran Dammam Khartoum Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
10,976 3,881 2,970 2,014 1,669 1,304 1,085 982 815 726 616 559 538 351 339 1,741

CO2 (kt)
1,581 1,141 814 800 792 688 672 654 615 604 597 565 489 482 462 19,612

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000

23% 28% 8% 4% 35% 1% 1%

Middle East N & Cen America

E & South Africa
W & Cen Africa South America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

30,566

Total

30,566
Mvts

Airlines
Emirates Airline Qatar Airways Etihad Airways Saudi Arabian Airlines EgyptAir Gulf Air Bahrain Oman Air Royal Jordanian Flydubai Air Arabia Kuwait Airways Lufthansa British Airways Middle East Airlines Turkish Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
8,705 3,847 2,570 1,963 1,487 855 653 634 620 582 513 451 423 362 354 6,548

City-Pair Hierarchy
Dubai-London (Heathrow) Jeddah-Jakarta Dubai-Sydney Dubai-New York (JFK) Dubai-Bangkok Dubai-Singapore Abu Dhabi-Sydney Doha-London (Heathrow) Dubai-Hong Kong Dubai-Los Angeles Abu Dhabi-London (Heathrow) Dubai-Paris (CDG) Dubai-Beijing Dubai-Johannesburg Dubai-Kuala Lumpur Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
542 331 277 253 238 234 212 212 203 199 189 188 183 181 180 26,945
CO2 (kt)

CO2 v Distance

8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) Movements Movements

Total

30,566

Total

30,566

90

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

South America
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America South America

Total Footprint =

16,390 kt CO2
Destination Airports
Madrid Miami Paris (CDG) New York (JFK) Amsterdam Buenos Aires Frankfurt Panama City Sao Paulo Lisboa Lima Santiago de Chile Mexico City London (Heathrow) Bogota Other Airports

B777 B767 A330 A340 B737 A320 B747 B757 E190 MD11 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000

Origin Airports
4,000
Sao Paulo Buenos Aires Rio de Janeiro Lima Santiago de Chile Panama City Bogota Caracas Guayaquil Curacao Montevideo Aruba Philipsburg Quito Brasilia Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
3,783 2,417 1,429 1,408 1,356 1,227 1,077 729 359 232 218 198 179 164 156 1,460

CO2 (kt)
1,684 1,577 923 756 737 677 627 559 558 534 534 507 450 419 374 5,474

33%

27% 2% 1% 1% 0%

Middle East

Asia/Pacific
E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

36%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

16,390

Total

16,390
Mvts

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
340 286 265 260 245 227 226 218 211 209 185 172 164 163 160 13,060
CO2 (kt)

LAN Airlines 1,801 Buenos Aires-Madrid Copa Airlines 1,506 Sao Paulo-Miami TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 1,446 Buenos Aires-Miami American Airlines 1,366 Sao Paulo-New York (JFK) Iberia Airlines 907 Sao Paulo-Paris (CDG) Air France 859 Rio de Janeiro-Paris (CDG) Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, 816 S.A. Lima-Madrid KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 653 Sao Paulo-Frankfurt Aerolineas Argentinas 639 Sao Paulo-London (Heathrow) TAP Portugal 588 Sao Paulo-Madrid Lufthansa 551 Santiago de Chile-Madrid United Airlines 523 Bogota-Madrid Delta Air Lines 480 Buenos Aires-Sao Paulo TACA Airlines 386 Sao Paulo-Buenos Aires Alitalia 308 Buenos Aires-Roma Other Airlines 3,562 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) Movements Movements

Total

16,390

Total

16,390

91

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

E & South Africa
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe E & South Africa

Total Footprint =

8,795 kt CO2
Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Dubai Paris (CDG) Amsterdam Johannesburg Frankfurt Paris (Orly) Hong Kong Nairobi Bangkok Sydney Lisboa Addis Ababa Mumbai Zurich Other Airports

B777 A340 B737 A330 B747 B767 A320 A380 B757 CRJ Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500 2,000

Origin Airports
2,500
Johannesburg Nairobi Addis Ababa Mauritius Cape Town St-Denis de la Reunion Luanda Dar es Salaam Entebbe/Kampala Antananarivo Windhoek Lusaka Mahe Mombasa Kigali Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
2,990 1,030 938 606 563 484 450 245 199 162 151 141 109 89 80 559

CO2 (kt)
1,076 814 561 430 396 396 300 226 210 170 166 156 150 145 132 3,469

15% 19% 13% 6% 42% 3% 2%

Middle East Asia/Pacific

W & Cen Africa
N & Cen America South America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

8,795

Total

8,795
Mvts

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
484 259 249 208 186 181 171 167 147 135 127 123 118 111 109 6,020
CO2 (kt)

South African Airways 1,364 Johannesburg-London (Heathrow) Ethiopian Airlines 997 Cape Town-London (Heathrow) Emirates Airline 699 St-Denis de la Reunion-Paris (Orly) Kenya Airways 684 Johannesburg-Hong Kong British Airways 660 Johannesburg-Frankfurt Air France 397 Johannesburg-Dubai KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 389 Mauritius-Paris (CDG) Air Mauritius 352 Nairobi-London (Heathrow) Air Austral 279 Johannesburg-Sydney TAAG Angola Airlines (Linhas Aéreas234 de Angola)Nairobi-Amsterdam Lufthansa 185 Johannesburg-Atlanta Corsairfly 178 Luanda-Lisboa Air Namibia 164 Cape Town-Dubai Virgin Atlantic Airways 157 Johannesburg-Paris (CDG) Qantas 147 Johannesburg-New York (JFK) Other Airlines 1,908 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) Movements Movements

Total

8,795

Total

8,795

92

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

W & Cen Africa
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe W & Cen Africa

Total Footprint =

3,396 kt CO2
Destination Airports
Paris (CDG) London (Heathrow) Dubai Addis Ababa Johannesburg Brussels Casablanca Frankfurt Nairobi Amsterdam New York (JFK) Atlanta Houston Washington Lisboa Other Airports

A330 B737 A340 B777 B767 A320 B757 B747 MD80 CRJ Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
200 400 600 800

Origin Airports
1,000
Lagos Accra Dakar Abuja Abidjan Douala Kinshasa Bamako Cotonou Libreville Ouagadougou Lome Pointe Noire Brazzaville Conakry Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
838 438 353 161 152 145 122 119 112 111 79 75 62 60 53 516

CO2 (kt)
528 292 197 191 168 163 145 110 102 97 85 85 82 71 67 1,013

18%

15% 10% 10%

E & South Africa Middle East N & Cen America South America

47% 0%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

3,396

Total

3,396
Mvts

Airlines
Air France Ethiopian Airlines Emirates Airline South African Airways Brussels Airlines Arik Air British Airways Royal Air Maroc Kenya Airways Delta Air Lines Lufthansa KLM Royal Dutch Airlines United Airlines Asky Airlines Kingfisher Red Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
529 219 211 204 183 162 155 152 139 138 128 93 78 74 72 859

City-Pair Hierarchy
Lagos-London (Heathrow) Lagos-Dubai Lagos-Houston Accra-London (Heathrow) Lagos-Atlanta Abuja-London (Heathrow) Lagos-Johannesburg Dakar-Johannesburg Douala-Paris (CDG) Dakar-Washington Accra-Dubai Dakar-Dubai Accra-Amsterdam Abidjan-Paris (CDG) Lagos-New York (JFK) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
144 100 82 74 68 59 57 56 53 53 52 45 45 44 43 2,422
CO2 (kt)

CO2 v Distance

1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

25,000
20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) Movements Movements

Total

3,396

Total

3,396

93

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Profile F2 Country Footprint Profiles
Profile F2 contains carbon footprint profiles for the 46 countries listed at the bottom of the figure to the right. The number of countries chosen is based on capturing 90% of the global carbon footprint for scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. The profiles for the top five countries (dark orange colour in the figure), are contained in Chapter 4. The Innovata database contains entries for 221 countries. A number of these are external territories of larger countries and are not normally identified as separate countries. The profiles in the following pages are ordered by descending weight of CO2.
Country United States United Kingdom Germany United Arab Emirates Japan China France Spain Hong Kong Singapore Australia Canada South Korea Thailand Netherlands Italy India Brazil Russia Turkey Malaysia Switzerland Taiwan Mexico Qatar Saudi Arabia South Africa Indonesia Philippines Portugal Argentina Belgium Egypt New Zealand Israel Denmark Austria Vietnam Ireland Sweden Finland Peru Greece Chile Morocco Pakistan Norway Colombia Dominican Republic Panama Poland Other Countries Total CO2 (kt) 49,949 24,811 18,757 14,547 13,960 13,872 13,821 10,648 10,363 9,816 9,497 8,366 8,292 8,209 7,539 7,488 7,182 5,932 5,736 5,026 4,494 4,397 4,292 3,950 3,881 3,857 3,616 3,065 2,633 2,496 2,480 2,479 2,310 2,200 1,952 1,905 1,849 1,707 1,584 1,548 1,413 1,410 1,392 1,375 1,327 1,282 1,276 1,275 1,231 1,227 1,127 36,017 360,857 Cumulative % 14 21 26 30 34 38 41 44 47 50 53 55 57 60 62 64 66 67 69 70 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 81 82 83 83 84 84 85 85 86 86 86 87 87 88 88 88 89 89 89 90 90 100

94

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

China
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe 29% 20% 6% 44% 1% N & Cen America 0 B777 A330 A320 B747 A340 B737 B767 A380 B757 MD80 Other… 1,000 2,000 3,000

Total Footprint =

13,872 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
5,074 4,965 1,647 227 226 193 124 118 107 106 106 98 97 82 76 626

Footprint by Aircraft Type
4,000

Origin Airports
5,000
Beijing Shanghai Guangzhou Hangzhou Chengdu Xiamen Kunming Qingdao Nanjing Zhenzhen Dalian Shenyang Chongqing Urumqi Tianjin Other Airports

Destination Airports
Hong Kong Singapore Paris (CDG) Frankfurt Los Angeles Seoul Amsterdam Taipei Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok Dubai Chicago London (Heathrow) San Francisco Kuala Lumpur Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
931 787 638 605 569 551 527 517 436 426 424 401 376 362 360 5,963

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East
E & South Africa

Total

13,872

Total

13,872

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
Beijing-Hong Kong Shanghai-Frankfurt Shanghai-Paris (CDG) Shanghai-Hong Kong Shanghai-Los Angeles Beijing-Frankfurt Beijing-Singapore Shanghai-Singapore Beijing-San Francisco Shanghai-Chicago Beijing-Paris (CDG) Beijing-Chicago Shanghai-London (Heathrow) Shanghai-Amsterdam Beijing-Dubai Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
292 289 289 285 281 256 256 253 247 207 196 193 189 188 182 10,269
CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

Air China 2,029 China Eastern Airlines 1,394 China Southern Airlines 1,340 United Airlines 788 Lufthansa 434 Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines 420 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 407 Singapore Airlines 363 Air France 356 Air Canada 314 Emirates Airline 307 American Airlines 299 Hainan Airlines 278 Delta Air Lines 249 All Nippon Airways 245 Other Airlines 4,649

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 60,000
50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

13,872

Total

13,872

95

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

France
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe 7% 7% 25% 32% 5% 4% N & Cen America Asia/Pacific 0 B777 A320 A330 B737 A340 B747 B767 A380 B757 CRJ Other… 1,000 2,000 3,000

Total Footprint =

13,821 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
10,132 1,805 466 326 323 192 182 91 80 21 20 19 15 12 11 126

Footprint by Aircraft Type
4,000

Origin Airports
5,000
Paris (CDG) Paris (Orly) Nice Lyon Marseille Provence Beauvais Toulouse Bordeaux Nantes Montpellier Strasbourg Carcassonne Lille Biarritz Bergerac Other Airports

Destination Airports
St-Denis de la Reunion New York (JFK) Tokyo (Narita) Hong Kong Shanghai Montreal Pointe-a-Pitre Singapore Sao Paulo Fort de France Los Angeles Dubai Seoul Rio de Janeiro Beijing Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
411 401 386 290 289 287 262 258 245 242 238 231 230 227 196 9,627

20%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America
E & South Africa

Total

13,821

Total

13,821

Airlines
Air France Easyjet Corsairfly Delta Air Lines Ryanair American Airlines Air Caraibes Royal Air Maroc Air Austral Japan Airlines Emirates Airline Lufthansa Cathay Pacific Singapore Airlines United Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
6,090 439 365 358 340 213 203 195 186 181 179 170 154 145 142 4,462

City-Pair Hierarchy
Paris (CDG)-Tokyo (Narita) Paris (CDG)-New York (JFK) Paris (CDG)-Hong Kong Paris (CDG)-Shanghai Paris (CDG)-Singapore Paris (Orly)-St-Denis de la Reunion Paris (Orly)-Pointe-a-Pitre Paris (CDG)-Sao Paulo Paris (CDG)-Los Angeles Paris (Orly)-Fort de France Paris (CDG)-Montreal Paris (CDG)-Seoul Paris (CDG)-Rio de Janeiro Paris (CDG)-Beijing Paris (CDG)-Mexico City Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
386 373 290 289 258 249 248 245 238 233 232 230 227 196 190 9,935
CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

13,821

Total

13,821

96

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Spain
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe South America 15% 63% 2% 2% 0% 0% N & Cen America 0 A320 B737 A340 A330 B767 B777 B757 CRJ B747 E190 Other… 1,000 2,000

Total Footprint =

10,648 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
4,788 1,781 763 682 512 446 352 214 202 178 138 133 86 84 71 218

Footprint by Aircraft Type
3,000

Origin Airports
4,000
Madrid Barcelona Palma de Mallorca Malaga Granadilla de Abone Alicante Las Palmas Fuerteventura Lanzarote Valencia Eivissa Girona Bilbao Sevilla Murcia Other Airports

Destination Airports
Buenos Aires London (Gatwick) New York (JFK) Sao Paulo Lima Amsterdam Mexico City Bogota Frankfurt Dusseldorf Manchester Santiago de Chile London (Stansted) Miami Roma Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
398 289 263 260 236 224 217 211 210 197 189 184 178 170 166 7,255

18%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East
Asia/Pacific

Total

10,648

Total

10,648

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
340 236 214 209 184 175 172 131 130 115 104 89 81 78 77 8,313
CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

Iberia Airlines 2,166 Madrid-Buenos Aires Ryanair 1,391 Madrid-Lima Easyjet 712 Madrid-Mexico City Air Europa 564 Madrid-Sao Paulo Air Berlin 512 Madrid-Santiago de Chile Vueling Airlines 370 Madrid-New York (JFK) LAN Airlines 242 Madrid-Bogota Condor Flugdienst 211 Madrid-Miami American Airlines 196 Madrid-Caracas Norwegian Air Shuttle 189 Madrid-La Habana Lufthansa 188 Madrid-Santo Domingo TUIfly 188 Madrid-Cancun Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, 184 S.A. Madrid-London (Heathrow) Monarch Airlines 183 Barcelona-New York (JFK) Jet2.com 182 Madrid-Dubai Other Airlines 3,171 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

10,648

Total

10,648

97

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Hong Kong
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe 21% 3% 52% 2% N & Cen America 0 B777 A330 B747 A340 A320 B737 A380 B767 B757 D1C Other… 1,000 2,000

Total Footprint =

10,363 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
10,363

Footprint by Aircraft Type
3,000

Origin Airports
4,000
Hong Kong

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) San Francisco Singapore Taipei Sydney New York (JFK) Bangkok Vancouver Los Angeles Beijing Paris (CDG) Toronto Shanghai Seoul Chicago Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
843 524 451 450 419 348 323 305 297 292 290 290 285 280 280 4,688

22%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East
E & South Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

10,363

Total

10,363

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
Hong Kong-London (Heathrow) Hong Kong-San Francisco Hong Kong-Singapore Hong Kong-Taipei Hong Kong-Sydney Hong Kong-New York (JFK) Hong Kong-Bangkok Hong Kong-Vancouver Hong Kong-Los Angeles Hong Kong-Beijing Hong Kong-Paris (CDG) Hong Kong-Toronto Hong Kong-Shanghai Hong Kong-Seoul Hong Kong-Chicago Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
843 524 451 450 419 348 323 305 297 292 290 290 285 280 280 4,688
CO2 (kt) 3,000
2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

Cathay Pacific 4,824 Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines 609 United Airlines 429 Singapore Airlines 288 Hong Kong Airlines 286 Qantas 270 British Airways 232 Air Canada 207 Lufthansa 190 China Airlines 174 Air New Zealand 160 Virgin Atlantic Airways 144 Thai Airways International 143 Air France 142 Emirates Airline 133 Other Airlines 2,133

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

10,363

Total

10,363

98

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Singapore
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe 28% Middle East 65% 4% 2% 1% 0 B777 A380 A330 A320 B747 A340 B767 B737 B787 A300 Other… 1,000 2,000

Total Footprint =

9,816 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
9,816

Footprint by Aircraft Type
3,000

Origin Airports
4,000
Singapore

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Sydney Frankfurt Hong Kong Melbourne Tokyo (Narita) Brisbane Seoul Bangkok Paris (CDG) Beijing Shanghai Jakarta Dubai Manila Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,015 529 502 451 376 334 295 274 263 258 256 253 242 234 222 4,313

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

N & Cen America
E & South Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

9,816

Total

9,816

Airlines
Singapore Airlines Qantas British Airways Emirates Airline SilkAir Tiger Airways Cathay Pacific Jetstar Asia Airways Lufthansa Qatar Airways KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Jetstar Airways Air France China Eastern Airlines All Nippon Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
4,726 818 350 299 279 271 223 208 195 131 115 113 113 112 101 1,761

City-Pair Hierarchy
Singapore-London (Heathrow) Singapore-Sydney Singapore-Frankfurt Singapore-Hong Kong Singapore-Melbourne Singapore-Tokyo (Narita) Singapore-Brisbane Singapore-Seoul Singapore-Bangkok Singapore-Paris (CDG) Singapore-Beijing Singapore-Shanghai Singapore-Jakarta Singapore-Dubai Singapore-Manila Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
1,015 529 502 451 376 334 295 274 263 258 256 253 242 234 222 4,313
CO2 (kt) 3,000
2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 30,000
25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

9,816

Total

9,816

99

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Australia
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific N & Cen America Middle East 3% 1% 0 A330 B777 B747 A380 A340 B737 A320 B767 F100 Q400 Other… 1,000 2,000

Total Footprint =

9,497 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
4,817 2,175 1,160 853 173 148 129 40 1 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
3,000

Origin Airports
4,000
Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Perth Coolangatta/Gold Coast Adelaide Cairns Darwin Port Hedland Maroochydore Newcastle

Destination Airports
Singapore Los Angeles Hong Kong Dubai Kuala Lumpur Bangkok Auckland Abu Dhabi Denpasar Tokyo (Narita) Guangzhou Shanghai Seoul Johannesburg San Francisco Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,510 1,124 868 694 598 550 471 312 284 266 261 256 229 211 160 1,702

18% 12% 66%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa
South America

Other Airports

0

Total

9,496

Total

9,497

Airlines
Qantas Emirates Airline Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific Virgin Australia Jetstar Airways Thai Airways International Malaysia Airlines United Airlines Etihad Airways Air New Zealand China Southern Airlines AirAsia X Korean Air Garuda Indonesia Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
2,079 1,035 775 564 521 488 373 370 325 294 266 261 171 159 153 1,663

City-Pair Hierarchy
Sydney-Los Angeles Sydney-Singapore Sydney-Hong Kong Melbourne-Singapore Sydney-Bangkok Brisbane-Singapore Sydney-Dubai Melbourne-Hong Kong Melbourne-Los Angeles Melbourne-Kuala Lumpur Sydney-Abu Dhabi Perth-Singapore Brisbane-Los Angeles Sydney-Kuala Lumpur Perth-Dubai Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
707 530 418 376 314 295 277 244 225 215 212 198 192 181 173 4,940
CO2 (kt) 3,000
2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

9,497

Total

9,497

100

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Canada
ICAO Destination Regions
N & Cen America Europe 35% 25% 2% 36% 2% 0% Asia/Pacific 0 B777 B767 A330 B737 A320 B747 A340 CRJ A300 ERJ Other… 500 1,000 1,500

Total Footprint =

8,366 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
3,698 2,155 1,261 620 179 157 78 57 53 24 24 13 12 8 6 20

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000

Origin Airports
2,500
Toronto Vancouver Montreal Calgary Edmonton Ottawa Halifax Winnipeg Quebec Regina Saskatoon St. Johns Victoria Kelowna London Other Airports

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Hong Kong Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Amsterdam Beijing Shanghai Tokyo (Narita) Chicago Los Angeles Seoul Taipei Cancun Las Vegas San Francisco Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
758 595 418 357 287 254 243 226 202 196 183 173 172 153 127 4,022

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America
Middle East

Total

8,366

Total

8,366

Airlines
Air Canada WestJet Air Transat Cathay Pacific United Airlines British Airways KLM Royal Dutch Airlines American Airlines Sunwing Airlines Lufthansa Air France Delta Air Lines Korean Air EVA Air US Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
3,080 588 558 425 392 312 261 219 209 183 174 148 131 104 104 1,477

City-Pair Hierarchy
Vancouver-Hong Kong Toronto-Hong Kong Toronto-London (Heathrow) Montreal-Paris (CDG) Vancouver-London (Heathrow) Toronto-Frankfurt Vancouver-Shanghai Toronto-Beijing Vancouver-Taipei Vancouver-Beijing Vancouver-Sydney Vancouver-Seoul Toronto-Amsterdam Toronto-Shanghai Toronto-Paris (CDG) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
305 290 277 230 206 170 136 130 124 124 120 114 109 107 107 5,817
CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

8,366

Total

8,366

101

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

South Korea
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific N & Cen America 17% 50% 3% 0% E & South Africa Europe 0 B777 A330 B747 A320 B737 A380 B767 A340 B757 A300 Other… 1,000 2,000

Total Footprint =

8,292 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
7,919 316 45 6 6 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
3,000

Origin Airports
4,000
Seoul Busan Keku Daegu Cheong Ju Yangyang Yeosu

Destination Airports
Los Angeles Bangkok San Francisco New York (JFK) Hong Kong Singapore Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Honolulu Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow) Manila Tokyo (Haneda) Atlanta Chicago Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
541 374 368 367 307 275 270 230 224 216 193 187 183 163 163 4,231

30%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East

Other Airports

0

Total

8,292

Total

8,292

Airlines
Korean Air Asiana Airlines Singapore Airlines Thai Airways International United Airlines Lufthansa KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Cathay Pacific Delta Air Lines Jeju Air Vietnam Airlines Emirates Airline Air France China Eastern Airlines Philippine Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
3,859 1,757 230 184 131 125 106 105 100 89 87 81 81 78 74 1,204

City-Pair Hierarchy
Seoul-Los Angeles Seoul-San Francisco Seoul-New York (JFK) Seoul-Bangkok Seoul-Hong Kong Seoul-Singapore Seoul-Frankfurt Seoul-Paris (CDG) Seoul-Honolulu Seoul-London (Heathrow) Seoul-Tokyo (Haneda) Seoul-Tokyo (Narita) Seoul-Manila Seoul-Atlanta Seoul-Chicago Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
541 368 367 315 280 274 270 230 224 193 183 177 164 163 163 4,380
CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

8,292

Total

8,292

102

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Thailand
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe Middle East 2% 1% 0 B777 A330 B747 A320 A340 B767 B737 A380 A300 B757 Other… 1,000 2,000

Total Footprint =

8,209 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
7,583 533 49 25 9 8 2 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
3,000
Bangkok Phuket Chiang Mai Koh Samui Krabi Hatyai Surat Thani Chiang Rai Hua Hin

Destination Airports
Seoul London (Heathrow) Hong Kong Tokyo (Narita) Sydney Singapore Frankfurt Moscow Dubai Amsterdam Kuala Lumpur Copenhagen Paris (CDG) Taipei Zurich Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
433 402 388 350 342 334 311 246 240 228 194 190 177 175 166 4,032

33% 10% 54%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa
N & Cen America

Other Airports

0

Total

8,208

Total

8,209

Airlines
Thai Airways International Emirates Airline Thai AirAsia Transaero Airlines China Airlines Korean Air EVA Air Qatar Airways Cathay Pacific British Airways Japan Airlines Lufthansa Etihad Airways Turkish Airlines KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
3,078 294 201 197 188 185 180 178 178 142 127 126 123 117 101 2,795

City-Pair Hierarchy
Bangkok-London (Heathrow) Bangkok-Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok-Hong Kong Bangkok-Seoul Bangkok-Sydney Bangkok-Frankfurt Bangkok-Singapore Bangkok-Dubai Bangkok-Amsterdam Bangkok-Copenhagen Bangkok-Paris (CDG) Bangkok-Taipei Bangkok-Zurich Bangkok-Moscow Bangkok-Melbourne Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
402 350 322 315 314 306 264 237 228 190 174 169 155 154 146 4,483
CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 30,000
25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

8,209

Total

8,209

103

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Netherlands
ICAO Destination Regions
N & Cen America 26% 10% 6% 4% 27% 1% Asia/Pacific Europe 0 B747 B777 A330 B737 A320 B767 MD11 E190 B757 F70 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

7,539 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
7,300 153 60 21 5

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,500

Origin Airports
2,000
Amsterdam Eindhoven Rotterdam Maastricht Groningen

Destination Airports
Bangkok Hong Kong Kuala Lumpur Singapore Shanghai Detroit Atlanta New York (JFK) Beijing Houston Tokyo (Narita) Dubai Seoul Nairobi Minneapolis Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
228 228 207 197 188 177 173 165 159 155 150 145 137 135 129 4,969

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

26%

South America
E & South Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

7,539

Total

7,539

Airlines
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Delta Air Lines Transavia Easyjet Arkefly United Airlines China Southern Airlines Cathay Pacific China Airlines Malaysia Airlines Ryanair Singapore Airlines Air France Emirates Airline Kenya Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
4,458 743 306 124 121 120 119 113 103 101 99 98 57 55 51 870

City-Pair Hierarchy
Amsterdam-Bangkok Amsterdam-Hong Kong Amsterdam-Kuala Lumpur Amsterdam-Singapore Amsterdam-Shanghai Amsterdam-Detroit Amsterdam-Atlanta Amsterdam-New York (JFK) Amsterdam-Beijing Amsterdam-Houston Amsterdam-Tokyo (Narita) Amsterdam-Dubai Amsterdam-Seoul Amsterdam-Nairobi Amsterdam-Minneapolis Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
228 228 207 197 188 177 173 165 159 155 150 145 137 135 129 4,969
CO2 (kt) 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

7,539

Total

7,539

104

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Italy
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America Asia/Pacific 6% 55% 1% 0% 0 A320 B737 A330 B777 B767 A340 B747 E190 BAE… CRJ Other… 500 1,000 1,500

Total Footprint =

7,488 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
3,422 1,944 463 302 240 168 144 95 91 85 75 68 54 53 34 252

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000

Origin Airports
2,500
Roma Milano Venezia Bergamo Bologna Pisa Napoli Treviso Firenze Verona Torino Catania Palermo Bari Cagliari Other Airports

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) Dubai Paris (CDG) Madrid London (Gatwick) Sao Paulo Tokyo (Narita) Buenos Aires Hong Kong London (Heathrow) Amsterdam Barcelona London (Stansted) Frankfurt Beijing Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
346 266 257 218 195 173 173 159 153 147 140 140 139 138 133 4,709

16%

14% 8%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East
South America

Total

7,488

Total

7,488

Airlines
Alitalia Ryanair Easyjet Emirates Airline Lufthansa Delta Air Lines Air France British Airways Air China Cathay Pacific Singapore Airlines Wizz Air Qatar Airways Air Berlin Thai Airways International Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,399 858 455 266 249 244 194 179 154 153 133 115 112 110 105 2,764

City-Pair Hierarchy
Roma-New York (JFK) Roma-Buenos Aires Roma-Tokyo (Narita) Milano-New York (JFK) Milano-Dubai Roma-Beijing Roma-Washington Roma-Sao Paulo Roma-Toronto Roma-Dubai Milano-Singapore Milano-Hong Kong Milano-Sao Paulo Roma-Madrid Roma-London (Heathrow) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
180 159 122 115 108 107 104 98 97 93 92 87 76 74 69 5,908
CO2 (kt) 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

7,488

Total

7,488

105

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

India
ICAO Destination Regions
Middle East Europe 25% 32% 8% 32% 3% Asia/Pacific 0 B777 A330 A320 B737 B747 A340 B767 A300 B757 B787 Other… 500 1,000 1,500

Total Footprint =

7,182 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
2,503 2,083 617 499 300 256 234 203 143 59 59 57 40 36 28 66

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000

Origin Airports
2,500
Delhi Mumbai Chennai/Madras Bangalore Cochin Hyderabad Calicut Trivandrum Kolkata Ahmedabad Goa Tiruchirapally Lucknow Amritsar Mangalore Other Airports

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Dubai Singapore Frankfurt Bangkok Newark Hong Kong Doha Paris (CDG) Kuala Lumpur Sharjah Riyadh Muscat Brussels Abu Dhabi Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
887 843 540 370 344 326 251 239 227 203 203 196 171 161 143 2,077

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

N & Cen America
E & South Africa

Total

7,182

Total

7,182

Airlines
Air India Jet Airways Emirates Airline British Airways Lufthansa Singapore Airlines Qatar Airways Air India Express Saudi Arabian Airlines Thai Airways International United Airlines Air France Air Arabia Cathay Pacific Malaysia Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,099 900 607 469 424 253 201 189 175 167 166 164 136 135 133 1,962

City-Pair Hierarchy
Mumbai-London (Heathrow) Delhi-London (Heathrow) Mumbai-Newark Mumbai-Singapore Mumbai-Dubai Delhi-Singapore Delhi-Dubai Delhi-Frankfurt Delhi-Bangkok Delhi-Paris (CDG) Mumbai-Bangkok Delhi-Chicago Delhi-Newark Delhi-Hong Kong Chennai/Madras-Dubai Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
354 352 217 166 155 140 130 128 121 119 114 112 109 104 100 4,761
CO2 (kt) 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

7,182

Total

7,182

106

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Brazil
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America 15% 6% 45% 2% 0% South America 0 B777 A330 B767 A340 B737 B747 A320 B757 CRJ E190 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

5,932 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
3,783 1,429 156 120 95 92 86 45 39 29 26 8 8 7 3 5

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,500

Origin Airports
2,000
Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro Brasilia Belo Horizonte Porto Alegre Salvador Recife Fortaleza Manaus Natal Campinas Florianopolis Iguassu Falls Curitiba Belem Other Airports

Destination Airports
Miami Lisboa Paris (CDG) New York (JFK) Frankfurt London (Heathrow) Madrid Buenos Aires Dubai Panama City Roma Amsterdam Atlanta Mexico City Orlando Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
545 522 472 368 353 315 295 278 225 178 156 131 130 129 120 1,716

32%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East
E & South Africa

Total

5,932

Total

5,932

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
Sao Paulo-Miami Sao Paulo-New York (JFK) Sao Paulo-Paris (CDG) Rio de Janeiro-Paris (CDG) Sao Paulo-Frankfurt Sao Paulo-London (Heathrow) Sao Paulo-Madrid Sao Paulo-Buenos Aires Sao Paulo-Mexico City Sao Paulo-Dubai Rio de Janeiro-Frankfurt Sao Paulo-Doha Rio de Janeiro-Dubai Sao Paulo-Orlando Rio de Janeiro-New York (JFK) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
286 260 245 227 218 211 209 163 129 115 114 111 110 110 108 3,317
CO2 (kt) 2,500
2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 1,275 American Airlines 582 TAP Portugal 561 Air France 345 Lufthansa 277 United Airlines 263 Emirates Airline 246 Delta Air Lines 232 Iberia Airlines 202 British Airways 195 Copa Airlines 165 Alitalia 152 LAN Airlines 143 Gol Transportes Aéreos 136 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 131 Other Airlines 1,028

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

5,932

Total

5,932

107

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Russia
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe Asia/Pacific 11% 59% N & Cen America 0 A320 B737 A330 B777 B767 B747 B757 A340 IL9 SU9 Other… 500 1,000 1,500

Total Footprint =

5,736 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
4,512 539 157 97 39 39 38 38 31 29 21 21 20 19 17 119

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000

Origin Airports
2,500
Moscow St. Petersburg Yekaterinburg Novosibirsk Rostov Na Donu Kazan Krasnodar Samara Krasnoyarsk Vladivostok Irkutsk Khabarovsk Ufa Sochi Surgut Other Airports

Destination Airports
Beijing Bangkok New York (JFK) Dubai Frankfurt London (Heathrow) Tashkent Yerevan Higuey Shanghai Paris (CDG) Dushanbe Tel Aviv Seoul Phuket Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
231 198 193 156 133 133 129 116 114 111 111 111 111 106 102 3,681

23%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

7%
0%

Middle East
E & South Africa

Total

5,736

Total

5,736

Airlines
Aeroflot Russian Airlines Transaero Airlines S7 Airlines (Siberia Airlines) Rossiya - Russian Airlines Lufthansa Uzbekistan Airways Singapore Airlines UTair Aviation Emirates Airline Ural Airlines Turkish Airlines British Airways Air France Czech Airlines Aerosvit Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,583 1,088 243 210 151 127 122 114 102 98 71 71 62 60 59 1,576

City-Pair Hierarchy
Moscow-New York (JFK) Moscow-Beijing Moscow-Bangkok Moscow-London (Heathrow) Moscow-Shanghai Moscow-Higuey Moscow-Dubai Moscow-Phuket Moscow-Paris (CDG) Moscow-Tokyo (Narita) Moscow-Tel Aviv Moscow-Frankfurt Moscow-Hong Kong Moscow-Yerevan Moscow-Hurghada Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
193 166 155 125 111 107 93 92 90 89 85 84 82 80 78 4,106
CO2 (kt) 1,200
1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

5,736

Total

5,736

108

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Turkey
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe Asia/Pacific 12% 10% 55% Middle East 2% 1% 1% 0 B737 A320 B777 A330 A340 B767 B757 A300 B747 IL9 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

5,026 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
4,146 434 117 112 99 40 27 15 9 7 5 4 4 2 1 5

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,500

Origin Airports
2,000
Istanbul Antalya Ankara Izmir Dalaman Bodrum Adana Kayseri Gaziantep Hatay Trabzon Anadolu Samsun Konya Zonguldak Other Airports

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) Dusseldorf Seoul Frankfurt Singapore Munich Bangkok Amsterdam London (Heathrow) Moscow Los Angeles Dubai Ercan Stuttgart Tokyo (Narita) Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
201 137 134 130 126 116 107 100 100 97 97 95 94 89 80 3,323

19%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

N & Cen America
E & South Africa

Total

5,026

Total

5,026

Airlines
Turkish Airlines Pegasus Airlines SunExpress Air Berlin Condor Flugdienst Lufthansa Air Mali International Singapore Airlines TUIfly Aeroflot Russian Airlines Emirates Airline Easyjet Delta Air Lines Saudi Arabian Airlines Atlasjet Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
3,023 288 175 80 78 75 71 58 56 48 45 44 42 41 41 860

City-Pair Hierarchy
Istanbul-New York (JFK) Istanbul-Seoul Istanbul-Singapore Istanbul-Bangkok Istanbul-London (Heathrow) Istanbul-Los Angeles Istanbul-Dubai Istanbul-Tokyo (Narita) Istanbul-Paris (CDG) Istanbul-Shanghai Istanbul-Amsterdam Istanbul-Chicago Istanbul-Washington Istanbul-Tehran Istanbul-Hong Kong Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
201 134 126 107 100 97 95 80 79 73 73 71 68 68 64 3,591
CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

5,026

Total

5,026

109

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Malaysia
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific 17% 13% 70% 0% E & South Africa Europe Middle East 0 B777 A330 A320 B747 B737 A380 A340 B767 B757 A300 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

4,494 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
4,237 127 97 20 6 3 2 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 0

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Kuala Lumpur George Town Kota-Kinabalu Kuching Langkawi Miri Ipoh Johor Bahru Kuantan Pulau Tioman Batu Berendam Kuala Terengganu Kota Bharu Tawau Other Airports

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Hong Kong Melbourne Amsterdam Singapore Sydney Dubai Bangkok Seoul Jakarta Taipei Doha Tokyo (Narita) Paris (CDG) Beijing Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
282 230 215 206 185 181 180 145 140 136 130 119 111 96 94 2,043

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

4,492

Total

4,494

Airlines
Malaysia Airlines AirAsia AirAsia X Emirates Airline Qatar Airways KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Cathay Pacific Indonesia AirAsia Saudi Arabian Airlines Iran Air Korean Air Etihad Airways China Airlines SilkAir Oman Air Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,844 526 457 230 129 119 118 97 72 57 50 49 49 42 42 613

City-Pair Hierarchy
Kuala Lumpur-London (Heathrow) Kuala Lumpur-Melbourne Kuala Lumpur-Amsterdam Kuala Lumpur-Sydney Kuala Lumpur-Dubai Kuala Lumpur-Hong Kong Kuala Lumpur-Bangkok Kuala Lumpur-Jakarta Kuala Lumpur-Seoul Kuala Lumpur-Doha Kuala Lumpur-Tokyo (Narita) Kuala Lumpur-Taipei Kuala Lumpur-Singapore Kuala Lumpur-Paris (CDG) Kuala Lumpur-Beijing Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
282 215 206 181 180 166 136 124 121 119 111 108 106 96 94 2,247
CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 30,000
25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

4,494

Total

4,494

110

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Switzerland
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America 8% 3% 47% 2% 0% E & South Africa Asia/Pacific 0 A320 A340 A330 B767 B737 BAE… B777 A380 F100 E190 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

4,397 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
3,120 993 259 15 7 2 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Zurich Geneva Basel Bern St. Gallen - Altenrhein Lugano Sion

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) Dubai Bangkok Singapore London (Heathrow) Newark Tokyo (Narita) Tel Aviv Sao Paulo Istanbul Madrid Hong Kong Los Angeles Beijing Montreal Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
202 170 155 138 134 121 88 85 82 81 80 79 78 77 77 2,749

22%

18%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East

Other Airports

0

Total

4,397

Total

4,397

Airlines
Swiss European Air Lines Easyjet United Airlines Singapore Airlines Edelweiss Air Emirates Airline Lufthansa Air Berlin British Airways Thai Airways International Air Canada Easyjet Switzerland Qatar Airways Delta Air Lines TAP Portugal Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
2,001 320 143 138 138 132 97 86 85 78 67 61 60 52 51 887

City-Pair Hierarchy
Zurich-Bangkok Zurich-New York (JFK) Zurich-Singapore Zurich-Dubai Zurich-Tokyo (Narita) Zurich-Newark Zurich-Sao Paulo Zurich-Hong Kong Zurich-Los Angeles Zurich-Beijing Zurich-San Francisco Zurich-Shanghai Zurich-Johannesburg Zurich-Chicago Zurich-Tel Aviv Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
155 152 138 125 88 83 82 79 78 77 76 76 71 70 66 2,980
CO2 (kt) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

4,397

Total

4,397

111

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Taiwan
ICAO Destination Regions
0 A330 B747 B777 A340 A320 B737 B767 MD80 E190 B757 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

4,292 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
4,090 200 <1 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Taipei Kaohsiung Taitung Hualien Magong

Destination Airports
Hong Kong Los Angeles San Francisco Tokyo (Narita) Singapore Bangkok Tokyo (Haneda) Vancouver Osaka Seoul Kuala Lumpur Shanghai Ho Chi Minh City Macau Jakarta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
530 503 288 236 198 174 133 124 122 115 111 111 93 87 79 1,386

Asia/Pacific 26% 69% N & Cen America 5%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Europe

Other Airports

0

Total

4,290

Total

4,292

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
Taipei-Los Angeles Taipei-Hong Kong Taipei-San Francisco Taipei-Tokyo (Narita) Taipei-Singapore Taipei-Bangkok Taipei-Tokyo (Haneda) Taipei-Vancouver Taipei-Osaka Taipei-Seoul Taipei-Kuala Lumpur Taipei-Shanghai Taipei-Ho Chi Minh City Kaohsiung-Hong Kong Taipei-Jakarta Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
503 450 288 215 194 170 133 124 120 110 108 103 83 80 79 1,532
CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

China Airlines 1,511 EVA Air 1,346 Cathay Pacific 274 Japan Airlines 96 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 86 TransAsia Airways 70 Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines70 Thai Airways International 59 Singapore Airlines 57 Uni Air 56 China Eastern Airlines 53 Air China 52 Mandarin Airlines 51 All Nippon Airways 45 China Southern Airlines 44 Other Airlines 421

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

4,292

Total

4,292

112

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Mexico
ICAO Destination Regions
N & Cen America 28% 13% 58% 1% Europe South America Asia/Pacific 0 B737 A320 B747 B767 B777 A330 ERJ MD80 A340 B757 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

3,950 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,893 1,081 229 188 181 72 51 35 29 21 21 18 14 13 10 94

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Mexico City Cancun Guadalajara Los Cabos Puerto Vallarta Monterrey Tijuana Leon Cozumel Mazatlan Morelia Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo Aguascalientes Queretaro Veracruz Other Airports

Destination Airports
Madrid Los Angeles Houston Paris (CDG) Dallas-Fort Worth Frankfurt Amsterdam Sao Paulo Chicago Atlanta New York (JFK) San Francisco Miami Phoenix Buenos Aires Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
303 248 239 231 199 155 145 129 123 117 112 110 102 93 83 1,560

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

3,950

Total

3,950

Airlines
AeroMéxico United Airlines American Airlines Delta Air Lines US Airways Air France Volaris Airlines Alaska Airlines Iberia Airlines Lufthansa KLM Royal Dutch Airlines WestJet LAN Airlines Copa Airlines British Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
747 362 309 189 152 151 135 131 126 123 120 113 94 93 91 1,015

City-Pair Hierarchy
Mexico City-Madrid Mexico City-Paris (CDG) Mexico City-Sao Paulo Mexico City-Frankfurt Mexico City-Amsterdam Cancun-Madrid Mexico City-Los Angeles Mexico City-Miami Mexico City-New York (JFK) Mexico City-Santiago de Chile Mexico City-Buenos Aires Cancun-London (Gatwick) Mexico City-Lima Guadalajara-Los Angeles Mexico City-London (Heathrow) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
214 190 129 123 120 89 82 76 75 73 66 64 64 61 61 2,462
CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

3,950

Total

3,950

113

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Qatar
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Europe 30% 12% 9% 3% 42% 3% 1% Middle East 0 B777 A330 A320 A340 B737 B757 B787 A300 ERJ E190 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

3,881 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
3,881

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,500

Origin Airports
2,000
Doha

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Bangkok Manila Houston Kuala Lumpur Singapore Melbourne Sao Paulo Frankfurt Dubai Washington New York (JFK) Paris (CDG) Hong Kong Jakarta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
212 144 126 121 119 113 112 111 109 107 104 101 95 86 73 2,147

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

N & Cen America
E & South Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

3,881

Total

3,881

Airlines
Qatar Airways Lufthansa Emirates Airline Jet Airways KLM Royal Dutch Airlines SriLankan Airlines Flydubai EgyptAir Air India Express Etihad Airways Turkish Airlines Gulf Air Bahrain Oman Air Middle East Airlines Nepal Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
3,560 39 39 30 28 23 21 18 16 11 10 9 9 8 8 52

City-Pair Hierarchy
Doha-London (Heathrow) Doha-Bangkok Doha-Manila Doha-Houston Doha-Kuala Lumpur Doha-Singapore Doha-Melbourne Doha-Sao Paulo Doha-Frankfurt Doha-Dubai Doha-Washington Doha-New York (JFK) Doha-Paris (CDG) Doha-Hong Kong Doha-Jakarta Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
212 144 126 121 119 113 112 111 109 107 104 101 95 86 73 2,147
CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000
20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

3,881

Total

3,881

114

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Saudi Arabia
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific Middle East 34% 17% 4% 43% 2% 0% Europe 0 B777 B747 A330 A320 B737 A340 A300 A380 B767 E190 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

3,857 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
2,014 1,304 351 128 17 15 14 14 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Jeddah Riyadh Dammam Medina Yanbu Khamis Mushayat Gassim Taif Tabuk

Destination Airports
Jakarta Cairo Dubai London (Heathrow) Manila Dhaka Mumbai Istanbul Karachi Lahore Kuala Lumpur Frankfurt Calicut Washington Abu Dhabi Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
380 322 291 176 145 131 123 119 106 98 96 91 84 82 81 1,533

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

N & Cen America
E & South Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

3,856

Total

3,857

Airlines
Saudi Arabian Airlines EgyptAir Air India Riau Airlines Nas Air Emirates Airline Lufthansa Garuda Indonesia Lion Air (Lion Mentari Airlines ) Turkish Airlines Biman Bangladesh Airlines British Airways Batavia Air Flydubai Jet Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,599 185 165 144 127 115 106 106 103 85 77 69 61 60 60 797

City-Pair Hierarchy
Jeddah-Jakarta Jeddah-Cairo Jeddah-Dubai Riyadh-London (Heathrow) Riyadh-Dubai Riyadh-Cairo Riyadh-Manila Riyadh-Dhaka Jeddah-Karachi Jeddah-Kuala Lumpur Jeddah-London (Heathrow) Jeddah-New York (JFK) Jeddah-Lahore Jeddah-Casablanca Riyadh-Mumbai Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
331 154 139 111 91 79 74 73 71 69 65 62 59 57 57 2,365
CO2 (kt) 1,200
1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000
20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

3,857

Total

3,857

115

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

South Africa
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe Asia/Pacific 12% 7% 5% 41% 3% Middle East 0 A340 B777 B747 A330 A380 B737 A320 B767 BAE… ER3 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

3,616 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
2,990 563 62 2 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Johannesburg Cape Town Durban Nelspruit Lanseria

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) Dubai Frankfurt Hong Kong Amsterdam Sydney Atlanta Paris (CDG) New York (JFK) Sao Paulo Zurich Munich Singapore Perth Mumbai Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
743 356 217 208 161 147 127 127 109 89 82 81 80 64 61 966

14% 18%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa
N & Cen America

Other Airports

0

Total

3,616

Total

3,616

Airlines
South African Airways British Airways Emirates Airline KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Lufthansa Qantas Delta Air Lines Air France Virgin Atlantic Airways Cathay Pacific Singapore Airlines Swiss European Air Lines Turkish Airlines Qatar Airways Etihad Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,151 451 356 161 151 147 127 127 125 116 80 71 60 57 50 386

City-Pair Hierarchy
Johannesburg-London (Heathrow) Cape Town-London (Heathrow) Johannesburg-Hong Kong Johannesburg-Frankfurt Johannesburg-Dubai Johannesburg-Sydney Johannesburg-Atlanta Cape Town-Dubai Johannesburg-Paris (CDG) Johannesburg-New York (JFK) Johannesburg-Sao Paulo Johannesburg-Amsterdam Johannesburg-Singapore Cape Town-Amsterdam Johannesburg-Zurich Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
484 259 208 186 181 147 127 118 111 109 89 83 80 78 71 1,286
CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

3,616

Total

3,616

116

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Indonesia
ICAO Destination Regions
0 A330 B777 A320 B747 B737 B767 A340 ATR F100 T20 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

3,065 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,825 930 137 50 43 14 11 10 8 6 5 5 5 4 3 7

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Jakarta Denpasar Surabaya Medan Bandung Yogyakarta Ujung Pandang Balikpapan Semarang Solo City Palembang Manado Padang Pekanbaru Praya Other Airports

Destination Airports
Singapore Kuala Lumpur Jeddah Hong Kong Seoul Tokyo (Narita) Dubai Sydney Taipei Bangkok Perth Melbourne Doha Abu Dhabi Riyadh Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
488 325 297 289 199 182 156 148 141 99 94 89 73 61 48 377

Asia/Pacific 22% 77% 1% Middle East Europe

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

3,065

Total

3,065

Airlines
Garuda Indonesia Indonesia AirAsia Lion Air (Lion Mentari Airlines ) Cathay Pacific Singapore Airlines Korean Air Emirates Airline China Airlines AirAsia Saudi Arabian Airlines Qatar Airways Jetstar Airways Batavia Air Virgin Australia Malaysia Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
752 224 159 159 156 126 119 112 110 107 92 91 88 79 73 616

City-Pair Hierarchy
Jakarta-Jeddah Jakarta-Singapore Jakarta-Hong Kong Jakarta-Dubai Jakarta-Tokyo (Narita) Denpasar-Singapore Jakarta-Kuala Lumpur Jakarta-Seoul Denpasar-Hong Kong Denpasar-Perth Denpasar-Seoul Denpasar-Sydney Jakarta-Taipei Jakarta-Doha Denpasar-Kuala Lumpur Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
297 242 160 156 137 135 124 110 100 90 89 83 78 73 73 1,118
CO2 (kt) 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

3,065

Total

3,065

117

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Philippines
ICAO Destination Regions
Asia/Pacific 23% Middle East 19% 57% 1% N & Cen America Europe 0 B777 B747 A320 A330 A340 B767 B737 E190 A300 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

2,633 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
2,330 176 91 29 4 <1 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Manila Lapu-Lapu Luzon Kalibo Davao City Iloilo Bacolod Laoag

Destination Airports
Seoul Singapore Hong Kong Los Angeles Tokyo (Narita) San Francisco Doha Abu Dhabi Dubai Bangkok Vancouver Bahrain Riyadh Kuala Lumpur Honolulu Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
275 268 215 164 155 148 132 126 126 96 91 81 74 65 63 555

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

2,631

Total

2,633

Airlines
Philippine Airlines Cebu Pacific Saudi Arabian Airlines Qatar Airways Etihad Airways Emirates Airline Cathay Pacific Singapore Airlines Korean Air Gulf Air Bahrain Delta Air Lines Asiana Airlines Japan Airlines Zest Airways Hawaiian Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
856 218 145 132 126 126 104 93 86 81 70 64 40 38 33 421

City-Pair Hierarchy
Manila-Singapore Manila-Seoul Manila-Los Angeles Manila-Hong Kong Manila-San Francisco Manila-Tokyo (Narita) Manila-Abu Dhabi Manila-Dubai Manila-Doha Manila-Vancouver Manila-Bangkok Manila-Bahrain Lapu-Lapu-Seoul Manila-Riyadh Manila-Honolulu Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
222 165 164 163 148 134 126 126 126 91 87 81 78 74 63 785
CO2 (kt) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

2,633

Total

2,633

118

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Portugal
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe South America E & South Africa 0 A320 A330 B737 A340 B777 A300 F100 ERJ B757 B767 Other… 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

2,496 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,689 374 321 82 26 4 2

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Lisboa Porto Faro Funchal Ponta Delgada Terceira Porto Santo

Destination Airports
Luanda Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro Paris (Orly) London (Gatwick) Newark Frankfurt Madrid Amsterdam London (Heathrow) Brasilia Geneva Barcelona Belo Horizonte Salvador Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
144 122 118 93 77 74 70 67 62 60 53 53 53 50 49 1,349

23% 7% 7% 59% 3% 1%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

N & Cen America
W & Cen Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

2,496

Total

2,496

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
129 101 98 60 57 53 52 50 49 47 45 43 42 41 37 1,590
CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

TAP Portugal 1,380 Lisboa-Luanda Ryanair 204 Lisboa-Sao Paulo Easyjet 198 Lisboa-Rio de Janeiro TAAG Angola Airlines (Linhas Aéreas de 77Angola)Lisboa-Newark Lufthansa 64 Lisboa-London (Heathrow) SATA International 46 Lisboa-Brasilia Transavia 34 Lisboa-Paris (Orly) Air Berlin 31 Lisboa-Belo Horizonte Monarch Airlines 29 Lisboa-Salvador Jet2.com 27 Lisboa-Madrid British Airways 27 Lisboa-Amsterdam Emirates Airline 27 Lisboa-Recife Air France 26 Lisboa-Fortaleza Aer Lingus 25 Lisboa-Frankfurt Iberia Airlines 23 Lisboa-Porto Alegre Other Airlines 278 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

2,496

Total

2,496

119

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Argentina
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe South America 2% 39% 1% N & Cen America 0 B777 A340 B767 B737 A320 B747 A330 E190 IL9 CRJ Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

2,480 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
2,417 46 7 5 2 1 1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Buenos Aires Cordoba Mendoza Rosario Iguassu Salta San Carlos de Bariloche Rio Gallegos

Destination Airports
Madrid Miami Sao Paulo Roma Frankfurt Lima Santiago de Chile London (Heathrow) Paris (CDG) Rio de Janeiro New York (JFK) Mexico City Panama City Dallas-Fort Worth Barcelona Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
342 265 166 160 152 112 107 104 102 95 79 76 68 66 58 529

30%

28%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Asia/Pacific
E & South Africa

Other Airports

0

Total

2,479

Total

2,480

Airlines

CO2 (kt)
481 295 177 173 152 105 104 102 95 86 80 80 68 65 59 359

City-Pair Hierarchy
Buenos Aires-Madrid Buenos Aires-Miami Buenos Aires-Sao Paulo Buenos Aires-Roma Buenos Aires-Frankfurt Buenos Aires-London (Heathrow) Buenos Aires-Paris (CDG) Buenos Aires-Lima Buenos Aires-Santiago de Chile Buenos Aires-Rio de Janeiro Buenos Aires-New York (JFK) Buenos Aires-Mexico City Buenos Aires-Dallas-Fort Worth Buenos Aires-Barcelona Buenos Aires-Atlanta Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
340 265 164 160 152 104 102 100 93 92 79 76 66 58 54 575
CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

Aerolineas Argentinas American Airlines LAN Airlines Iberia Airlines Lufthansa Alitalia British Airways Air France United Airlines Gol Transportes Aéreos Air Europa TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) Copa Airlines AeroMéxico LAN Argentina Other Airlines

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -2,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

2,480

Total

2,480

120

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Belgium
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe 0 A330 B737 A320 B767 B777 BAE… E190 B757 ERJ Q400 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

2,479 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
2,094 354 16 10 4

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Brussels Charleroi Liege Oostende Antwerpen

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) Newark Mumbai Washington Chennai/Madras Delhi Madrid Toronto Abu Dhabi Roma Beijing Istanbul Barcelona Chicago Atlanta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
120 98 58 56 52 51 50 48 47 46 46 45 44 41 40 1,634

21%

10%
6% 4%

N & Cen America Asia/Pacific

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

56%

3%

W & Cen Africa
Middle East

Other Airports

0

Total

2,479

Total

2,479

Airlines

CO2 (kt)
610 289 284 231 148 75 47 46 42 39 37 34 34 29 29 502

City-Pair Hierarchy
Brussels-New York (JFK) Brussels-Newark Brussels-Mumbai Brussels-Washington Brussels-Chennai/Madras Brussels-Delhi Brussels-Toronto Brussels-Abu Dhabi Brussels-Beijing Brussels-Istanbul Brussels-Chicago Brussels-Atlanta Brussels-Montreal Brussels-Bangkok Brussels-Madrid Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
120 98 58 56 52 51 48 47 46 44 41 40 37 37 35 1,669
CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

Brussels Airlines Jet Airways Ryanair Jetairfly United Airlines Delta Air Lines Etihad Airways Hainan Airlines Turkish Airlines Lufthansa Thai Airways International US Airways Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) Easyjet Air Canada Other Airlines

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

2,479

Total

2,479

121

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Egypt
ICAO Destination Regions
Middle East Europe 40% 0 A320 B737 B777 A330 B747 A340 B757 A300 B767 E170 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

2,310 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,669 213 201 154 26 24 18 4 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Cairo Hurghada Ras Nasrani Alexandria Luxor Marsa Alam Assiut Taba Aswan

Destination Airports
Jeddah Moscow Dubai Kuwait City Riyadh London (Heathrow) New York (JFK) Bangkok Paris (CDG) Doha Frankfurt Guangzhou Abu Dhabi Khartoum Johannesburg Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
196 135 118 111 101 99 75 66 59 57 51 50 48 48 41 1,053

8%
43% 4% 3% 2%

Asia/Pacific

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa
N & Cen America

Other Airports

0

Total

2,310

Total

2,310

Airlines
EgyptAir Saudi Arabian Airlines Transaero Airlines Thomson Air Berlin Emirates Airline Qatar Airways Easyjet Guinee Airlines British Airways Kuwait Airways Magnicharters Etihad Airways Samara Airlines Air Arabia Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,072 138 136 51 50 44 43 37 34 34 33 31 29 27 26 525

City-Pair Hierarchy
Cairo-Jeddah Cairo-Dubai Cairo-London (Heathrow) Cairo-Riyadh Hurghada-Moscow Cairo-New York (JFK) Cairo-Kuwait City Cairo-Bangkok Cairo-Paris (CDG) Cairo-Guangzhou Ras Nasrani-Moscow Cairo-Khartoum Cairo-Abu Dhabi Cairo-Doha Cairo-Johannesburg Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
154 99 92 79 78 75 72 66 59 50 48 48 47 44 41 1,257
CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -2,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

2,310

Total

2,310

122

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

New Zealand
ICAO Destination Regions
0 B777 B737 A340 A320 B747 A330 B767 A380 500 1,000

Total Footprint =

2,200 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,895 198 75 20 7 4 2

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
1,500
Auckland Christchurch Wellington Queenstown Dunedin Hamilton Rotorua

Destination Airports
Sydney Singapore Los Angeles Hong Kong Melbourne Brisbane San Francisco Seoul Kuala Lumpur Guangzhou Santiago de Chile Bangkok Shanghai Tokyo (Narita) Vancouver Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
268 255 217 190 168 155 109 87 85 74 73 61 56 55 49 298

Asia/Pacific 18% 78% 4% N & Cen America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America

Other…

Other Airports

0

Total

2,200

Total

2,200

Airlines
Air New Zealand Singapore Airlines Qantas Virgin Australia Emirates Airline Cathay Pacific LAN Airlines Korean Air China Southern Airlines Malaysia Airlines Jetstar Airways Thai Airways International Air Pacific Aerolineas Argentinas Jetstar Asia Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
934 214 167 116 104 101 90 87 74 69 67 61 23 23 20 51

City-Pair Hierarchy
Auckland-Los Angeles Auckland-Hong Kong Auckland-Singapore Auckland-Sydney Auckland-Melbourne Auckland-San Francisco Auckland-Brisbane Auckland-Seoul Christchurch-Singapore Auckland-Guangzhou Auckland-Santiago de Chile Auckland-Kuala Lumpur Auckland-Bangkok Auckland-Shanghai Auckland-Tokyo (Narita) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
217 190 178 170 120 109 99 87 77 74 73 69 61 56 55 565
CO2 (kt) 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -2,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

2,200

Total

2,200

123

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Israel
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America Asia/Pacific 9% 51% 1% 0% 0 B777 B747 B737 B767 A320 A330 A340 B757 A300 IL9 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,952 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,945 8

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
600
Tel Aviv Eilat

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) Newark London (Heathrow) Moscow Paris (CDG) Philadelphia Zurich Toronto Los Angeles Frankfurt Bangkok Madrid Roma Hong Kong Kiev Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
305 245 110 91 91 74 66 65 63 62 59 49 47 46 35 544

39%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa
Middle East

Other Airports

0

Total

1,952

Total

1,952

Airlines
El Al Israel Airlines United Airlines Delta Air Lines US Airways Lufthansa British Airways Swiss European Air Lines Continental Airlines Air Canada Transaero Airlines Korean Air Iberia Airlines Air France Alitalia Aerosvit Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
894 124 118 74 63 52 48 42 39 33 31 29 29 28 27 322

City-Pair Hierarchy
Tel Aviv-New York (JFK) Tel Aviv-Newark Tel Aviv-London (Heathrow) Tel Aviv-Paris (CDG) Tel Aviv-Moscow Tel Aviv-Philadelphia Tel Aviv-Zurich Tel Aviv-Toronto Tel Aviv-Los Angeles Tel Aviv-Frankfurt Tel Aviv-Bangkok Tel Aviv-Madrid Tel Aviv-Roma Tel Aviv-Hong Kong Tel Aviv-Kiev Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
305 245 110 90 85 74 66 65 63 62 59 49 47 46 35 551
CO2 (kt) 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -2,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,952

Total

1,952

124

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Denmark
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe 21% 11% 62% 6% N & Cen America Middle East Asia/Pacific 0 A320 B737 A340 MD80 B747 A330 CRJ B777 B767 717 Other… 100 200

Total Footprint =

1,905 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,779 100 13 12 2 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
300

Origin Airports
400
Copenhagen Billund Aarhus Aalborg Esbjerg Bornholm

Destination Airports
Bangkok Tokyo (Narita) Newark Oslo Beijing Chicago London (Heathrow) Stockholm Paris (CDG) Helsinki Washington Amsterdam Dubai Frankfurt Reykjavik Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
173 70 67 62 58 55 54 54 52 49 49 47 45 43 42 985

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,905

Total

1,905

Airlines

CO2 (kt)
793 151 125 54 53 44 44 40 37 35 32 32 31 30 30 374

City-Pair Hierarchy
Copenhagen-Bangkok Copenhagen-Tokyo (Narita) Copenhagen-Newark Copenhagen-Beijing Copenhagen-Chicago Copenhagen-London (Heathrow) Copenhagen-Oslo Copenhagen-Stockholm Copenhagen-Helsinki Copenhagen-Washington Copenhagen-Paris (CDG) Copenhagen-Dubai Copenhagen-Reykjavik Copenhagen-Singapore Copenhagen-Shanghai Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
173 70 67 58 55 54 54 50 49 49 46 45 40 40 39 1,016
CO2 (kt) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) Norwegian Air Shuttle Thai Airways International Ryanair Easyjet British Airways Emirates Airline Singapore Airlines Qatar Airways Lufthansa Air France Cimber Air Blue1 Icelandair KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,905

Total

1,905

125

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Austria
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe 16% 10% 67% 7% Middle East N & Cen America Asia/Pacific 0 A320 B737 B777 B767 F100 E190 A340 Q400 F70 A330 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,849 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,687 71 36 26 21 8

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Wien Salzburg Graz Linz Innsbruck Klagenfurt

Destination Airports
Bangkok Dubai Frankfurt Tokyo (Narita) Moscow New York (JFK) Dusseldorf London (Heathrow) Zurich Washington Paris (CDG) Berlin Istanbul Toronto Hamburg Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
107 100 84 76 59 55 51 49 44 43 42 36 34 34 34 1,001

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,849

Total

1,849

Airlines
Austrian Airlines Niki Lufthansa Air Berlin Emirates Airline China Airlines Germanwings EVA Air British Airways Turkish Airlines Aeroflot Russian Airlines Air France SunExpress Iberia Airlines Swiss European Air Lines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
929 191 94 77 72 33 32 29 28 24 21 19 16 15 15 255

City-Pair Hierarchy
Wien-Bangkok Wien-Dubai Wien-Tokyo (Narita) Wien-New York (JFK) Wien-Moscow Wien-Frankfurt Wien-London (Heathrow) Wien-Zurich Wien-Washington Wien-Paris (CDG) Wien-Dusseldorf Wien-Toronto Wien-Istanbul Wien-Beijing Wien-Taipei Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
107 100 76 55 54 52 49 44 43 42 40 34 34 33 33 1,052
CO2 (kt) 600
500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,849

Total

1,849

126

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Vietnam
ICAO Destination Regions
0 B777 A330 A320 B767 B737 A340 B747 MD80 ATR F70 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,707 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,068 616 22 <1 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Ho Chi Minh City Hanoi Da Nang Nha Trang Cam Rahn Can Tho

Destination Airports
Seoul Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Narita) Singapore Bangkok Moscow Taipei Frankfurt Kuala Lumpur Hong Kong Sydney Melbourne Busan Osaka London (Gatwick) Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
212 174 154 127 119 119 112 97 75 59 53 51 44 43 43 226

26% 72% 2%

Asia/Pacific Europe Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,706

Total

1,707

Airlines
Vietnam Airlines Asiana Airlines Korean Air Air France Japan Airlines Singapore Airlines China Airlines Thai Airways International Aeroflot Russian Airlines EVA Air Cathay Pacific AirAsia Malaysia Airlines All Nippon Airways Emirates Airline Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
835 89 70 53 51 51 47 45 45 35 32 29 28 28 27 242

City-Pair Hierarchy
Ho Chi Minh City-Seoul Ho Chi Minh City-Tokyo (Narita) Ho Chi Minh City-Paris (CDG) Ho Chi Minh City-Taipei Hanoi-Paris (CDG) Hanoi-Seoul Ho Chi Minh City-Singapore Ho Chi Minh City-Bangkok Ho Chi Minh City-Moscow Hanoi-Moscow Hanoi-Tokyo (Narita) Ho Chi Minh City-Sydney Hanoi-Singapore Hanoi-Bangkok Ho Chi Minh City-Melbourne Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
128 100 94 82 81 74 73 68 64 55 54 53 52 51 51 628
CO2 (kt) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 12,000
10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,707

Total

1,707

127

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Ireland
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe 30% 7% 63% 0% Asia/Pacific N & Cen America Middle East 0 A320 B737 A330 B757 B767 B777 BAE… ATR MD80 A300 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,584 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,299 129 110 32 12 3 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
600
Dublin Shannon Cork Knock Killarney/Kerry Waterford Carrickfinn

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) London (Heathrow) Abu Dhabi Chicago Boston Dubai Newark London (Gatwick) London (Stansted) Atlanta Malaga Paris (CDG) Amsterdam Faro Philadelphia Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
156 81 68 68 66 50 50 45 41 40 38 38 30 29 28 758

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,584

Total

1,584

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
Dublin-New York (JFK) Dublin-Abu Dhabi Dublin-Chicago Dublin-London (Heathrow) Dublin-Boston Dublin-Dubai Shannon-New York (JFK) Dublin-Atlanta Dublin-Paris (CDG) Dublin-London (Gatwick) Dublin-Malaga Dublin-Philadelphia Dublin-Newark Dublin-Frankfurt Shannon-Newark Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
107 68 68 55 51 50 49 40 33 31 29 28 25 25 25 901
CO2 (kt) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

Aer Lingus 665 Ryanair 414 Delta Air Lines 78 Etihad Airways 68 United Airlines 50 Emirates Airline 50 US Airways 37 British Airways 33 Air France 30 American Airlines 21 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) 18 Lufthansa 16 Wizz Air 13 Continental Airlines 12 Air Transat 11 Other Airlines 66

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,584

Total

1,584

128

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Sweden
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe 10% 8% 78% 4% Asia/Pacific N & Cen America 0 B737 A320 A330 B747 MD80 E190 B757 B767 CRJ 717 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,548 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,289 212 27 7 4 3 2 2 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Stockholm Gothenburg Malmo Linkoping Vaxjo Karlstad Skelleftea Norrkoping Umea Arvidsjaur Pajala Visby Sveg Orebro Torsby Other Airports

Destination Airports
Bangkok London (Heathrow) Newark Copenhagen Frankfurt Amsterdam Helsinki Chicago Beijing Oslo Istanbul Paris (CDG) Doha Munich Brussels Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
103 85 70 64 58 56 52 47 46 45 42 42 37 35 35 730

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Middle East
E & South Africa

0%

Total

1,548

Total

1,548

Airlines

CO2 (kt)
369 201 167 108 89 53 46 43 38 37 34 27 27 25 24 260

City-Pair Hierarchy
Stockholm-Bangkok Stockholm-Newark Stockholm-London (Heathrow) Stockholm-Copenhagen Stockholm-Chicago Stockholm-Beijing Stockholm-Oslo Stockholm-Helsinki Stockholm-Frankfurt Stockholm-Doha Stockholm-Amsterdam Stockholm-Paris (CDG) Stockholm-Istanbul Stockholm-Barcelona Stockholm-Zurich Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
103 70 67 50 47 46 42 42 40 37 37 34 31 29 28 848
CO2 (kt) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) Ryanair Norwegian Air Shuttle Thai Airways International Lufthansa British Airways Air China KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Turkish Airlines Qatar Airways Wizz Air Finnair Air France Brussels Airlines Blue1 Other Airlines

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,548

Total

1,548

129

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Finland
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe 44% Asia/Pacific 5% 50% 1% N & Cen America Middle East 0 A330 A320 A340 B737 E190 717 B757(2) E170 B767 S20 Other… 100 200

Total Footprint =

1,413 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,335 33 18 8 7 6 2 2 1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
300

Origin Airports
400
Helsinki Tampere Turku Vaasa Lappeenranta Oulu Kokkola/Pietarsaari Mariehamn Pori Kittila Kajaani Jyvõskylõ Joensuu Rovaniemi Ivalo Other Airports

Destination Airports
Bangkok Singapore Tokyo (Narita) Hong Kong Copenhagen Shanghai Osaka Stockholm Nagoya New York (JFK) Beijing Seoul London (Heathrow) Paris (CDG) Delhi Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
89 75 73 71 62 59 57 56 54 51 49 46 43 35 35 558

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

1,413

Total

1,413

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
Helsinki-Bangkok Helsinki-Singapore Helsinki-Tokyo (Narita) Helsinki-Hong Kong Helsinki-Shanghai Helsinki-Osaka Helsinki-Nagoya Helsinki-New York (JFK) Helsinki-Copenhagen Helsinki-Beijing Helsinki-Seoul Helsinki-London (Heathrow) Helsinki-Stockholm Helsinki-Paris (CDG) Helsinki-Delhi Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
89 75 73 71 59 57 54 51 49 49 46 43 42 35 35 585
CO2 (kt) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

Finnair 1,031 Blue1 70 Norwegian Air Shuttle 55 Lufthansa 49 Ryanair 38 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) 20 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 19 American Airlines 17 Turkish Airlines 15 British Airways 15 Air Finland 14 Air Berlin 14 Air Baltic 12 TAP Portugal 8 Icelandair 7 Other Airlines 29

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000
20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,413

Total

1,413

130

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Peru
ICAO Destination Regions
0 B767 A320 B777 A340 A330 B737 B757 E190 B787 CRJ Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,410 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,408 <1 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
600
Lima Cuzco Arequipa Iquitos

Destination Airports
Madrid Miami Santiago de Chile Amsterdam Buenos Aires Los Angeles Sao Paulo Paris (CDG) Mexico City Bogota Panama City New York (JFK) Atlanta Caracas Houston Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
226 119 111 98 97 67 65 63 60 51 43 40 34 32 32 269

35%

South America

28%

N & Cen America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Europe
37%

Other Airports

0

Total

1,408

Total

1,410

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
226 119 111 98 97 67 65 63 60 51 43 40 34 32 32 270
CO2 (kt) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

LAN Airlines 568 Lima-Madrid TACA Airlines 213 Lima-Miami Iberia Airlines 101 Lima-Santiago de Chile KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 98 Lima-Amsterdam Air Europa 64 Lima-Buenos Aires Air France 63 Lima-Los Angeles United Airlines 46 Lima-Sao Paulo American Airlines 45 Lima-Paris (CDG) Copa Airlines 43 Lima-Mexico City Delta Air Lines 34 Lima-Bogota AeroMéxico 29 Lima-Panama City Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, 23 S.A. Lima-New York (JFK) LACSA 19 Lima-Atlanta Air Canada 17 Lima-Caracas TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 15 Lima-Houston Other Airlines 33 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -2,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,410

Total

1,410

131

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Greece
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America 0 A320 B737 B767 A330 B757 B777 A340 B747 Q400 E190 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,392 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
723 158 152 108 58 57 42 18 15 14 8 7 7 7 5 13

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Athens Heraklion Thessaloniki Rhodos Kos Kerkyra Chania Santorini Mykonos Island Zakinthos Kefallinia Island Kavala Samos Patras Volos Other Airports

Destination Airports
London (Heathrow) London (Gatwick) Larnaca Munich Paris (CDG) Frankfurt Moscow New York (JFK) Roma Brussels Amsterdam Zurich Dusseldorf Milano Wien Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
69 68 59 58 55 53 52 50 43 37 36 36 35 32 28 681

86%

7%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

6%
1%

Middle East Asia/Pacific

Total

1,392

Total

1,392

Airlines
Aegean Airlines Easyjet Ryanair TUIfly Air Berlin Delta Air Lines Thomson British Airways Air France Lufthansa Swiss European Air Lines Condor Flugdienst Olympic Airlines Emirates Airline Transavia Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
202 123 101 54 50 45 44 43 40 37 36 34 34 27 27 494

City-Pair Hierarchy
Athens-London (Heathrow) Athens-New York (JFK) Athens-Paris (CDG) Athens-Larnaca Athens-Roma Athens-Munich Athens-Dubai Athens-Frankfurt Athens-Brussels Athens-Doha Athens-Istanbul Athens-Philadelphia Athens-Zurich Athens-Amsterdam Athens-Milano Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
69 50 49 42 28 27 27 27 21 21 20 20 19 18 17 936
CO2 (kt) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000
20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,392

Total

1,392

132

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Chile
ICAO Destination Regions
South America 32% 21% 9% 38% N & Cen America Europe Asia/Pacific 0 B767 A340 A320 B777 B737 B747 A330 E190 CRJ B787 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,375 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,356 10 4 3 2 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
600
Santiago de Chile Isla de Pascua Iquique Arica Antofagasta Punta Arenas

Destination Airports
Madrid Miami Lima Paris (CDG) Sao Paulo Buenos Aires Mexico City Auckland Panama City Bogota Toronto New York (JFK) Dallas-Fort Worth Sydney Atlanta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
185 125 119 109 97 94 73 73 65 60 57 53 51 51 49 114

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,375

Total

1,375

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
185 125 111 109 97 94 73 73 65 60 57 53 51 51 49 122
CO2 (kt) 300
250 200 150 100 50 -

LAN Airlines 682 Santiago de Chile-Madrid Air France 109 Santiago de Chile-Miami American Airlines 104 Santiago de Chile-Lima Iberia Airlines 92 Santiago de Chile-Paris (CDG) Air Canada 67 Santiago de Chile-Sao Paulo Copa Airlines 65 Santiago de Chile-Buenos Aires Qantas 51 Santiago de Chile-Mexico City Delta Air Lines 49 Santiago de Chile-Auckland TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 36 Santiago de Chile-Panama City Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, 33 S.A. Santiago de Chile-Bogota AeroMéxico 30 Santiago de Chile-Toronto Sky Airline 15 Santiago de Chile-New York (JFK) Aerolineas Argentinas 13 Santiago de Chile-Dallas-Fort Worth Gol Transportes Aéreos 7 Santiago de Chile-Sydney LACSA 7 Santiago de Chile-Atlanta Other Airlines 15 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,375

Total

1,375

133

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Morocco
ICAO Destination Regions
Middle East 22% 11% 64% Asia/Pacific 3% N & Cen America Europe 0 B777 A330 A300 B747 A320 B737 B757 A340 ATR YN7 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,327 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
820 231 80 53 41 41 28 25 3 3 2 <1 <1 <1 0

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
600
Casablanca Marrakech Agadir Tanger Fes Nador Rabat Oujda Essaouira Al Hoceima Ouarzazate Tetuan El Aaiun Goulimime Other Airports

Destination Airports
Paris (Orly) Paris (CDG) Dubai Jeddah Brussels Marseille Provence Istanbul Charleroi Montreal Amsterdam Abu Dhabi Tunis New York (JFK) Madrid Lyon Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
168 74 54 53 48 42 41 39 36 35 35 34 34 30 30 573

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

1,326

Total

1,327

Airlines
Royal Air Maroc Ryanair Easyjet Jetairfly Air Arabia Maroc Emirates Airline Air France Saudi Arabian Airlines Etihad Airways Turkish Airlines Thomson Iberia Airlines Qatar Airways Jet4you EgyptAir Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
630 105 80 65 58 54 54 37 35 26 26 16 16 15 14 96

City-Pair Hierarchy
Casablanca-Paris (Orly) Casablanca-Dubai Casablanca-Jeddah Marrakech-Paris (Orly) Casablanca-Istanbul Casablanca-Paris (CDG) Casablanca-Montreal Casablanca-Abu Dhabi Casablanca-Tunis Casablanca-New York (JFK) Agadir-Paris (Orly) Casablanca-Cairo Casablanca-Milano Casablanca-Brussels Marrakech-London (Gatwick) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
54 54 51 50 41 38 36 35 34 34 25 24 20 19 19 794
CO2 (kt) 300
250 200 150 100 50 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -1,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,327

Total

1,327

134

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Pakistan
ICAO Destination Regions
Middle East 22% 11% 64% Asia/Pacific 3% N & Cen America Europe 0 B777 A330 A300 B747 A320 B737 B757 A340 ATR YN7 Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,282 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
393 377 374 109 23 2 2 <1 <1 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type

Origin Airports
600
Karachi Islamabad Lahore Peshawar Sialkot Quetta Faisalabad Rahim Yar Khan Turbat Multan Gwadar

Destination Airports
Dubai Jeddah Riyadh Abu Dhabi London (Heathrow) Manchester Bangkok Doha Muscat Toronto Bahrain Birmingham Sharjah Dammam Kuwait City Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
222 183 103 83 80 75 73 49 46 45 32 30 27 26 26 182

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,280

Total

1,282

Airlines
Riau Airlines Saudi Arabian Airlines Emirates Airline Shaheen Air International Thai Airways International Qatar Airways Etihad Airways Airblue Gulf Air Bahrain Air Berlin Nas Air Turkish Airlines Oman Air Cathay Pacific Kuwait Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
589 142 118 68 54 45 40 30 30 27 26 21 19 17 11 44

City-Pair Hierarchy
Karachi-Dubai Karachi-Jeddah Lahore-Jeddah Lahore-Dubai Islamabad-Dubai Lahore-Manchester Islamabad-Jeddah Islamabad-Manchester Karachi-Bangkok Islamabad-London (Heathrow) Islamabad-Birmingham Islamabad-Riyadh Lahore-Abu Dhabi Peshawar-Dubai Lahore-London (Heathrow) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
92 70 59 53 45 40 39 34 34 32 30 30 30 28 27 637
CO2 (kt) 300
250 200 150 100 50 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -1,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,282

Total

1,282

135

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Norway
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe Asia/Pacific 87% 6% 5% 2% N & Cen America Middle East 0 B737 A320 B777 A330 E190 MD80 CRJ B757 Q400 B757(2) Other… 200 400

Total Footprint =

1,276 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
835 115 96 94 63 43 11 9 7 1 1 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
600

Origin Airports
800
Oslo Rygge Bergen Stavanger Sandefjord Trondheim Haugesund Kristiansand Alesund Tromso Bodo Evenes Roros

Destination Airports
Copenhagen Amsterdam Newark Bangkok London (Heathrow) Stockholm Frankfurt Alicante Malaga London (Gatwick) Doha Las Palmas Paris (CDG) Reykjavik Berlin Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
109 84 67 66 65 50 48 44 38 37 27 26 26 25 25 538

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,275

Total

1,276

Airlines

CO2 (kt)
318 314 147 73 66 57 31 27 27 21 19 18 18 16 12 114

City-Pair Hierarchy
Oslo-Newark Oslo-Bangkok Oslo-Copenhagen Oslo-London (Heathrow) Oslo-Stockholm Oslo-Amsterdam Oslo-Frankfurt Oslo-Doha Oslo-Paris (CDG) Oslo-Munich Oslo-Helsinki Oslo-Reykjavik Bergen-Copenhagen Oslo-Istanbul Oslo-Alicante Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
67 66 54 47 42 35 34 27 25 23 21 21 20 18 18 758
CO2 (kt) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) Norwegian Air Shuttle Ryanair KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Thai Airways International Lufthansa British Airways Qatar Airways Wizz Air United Airlines Wideroe Turkish Airlines Icelandair Air Baltic Aeroflot Russian Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,276

Total

1,276

136

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Colombia
ICAO Destination Regions
0 A320 A330 A340 B737 B767 E190 B757 CRJ E170 T20 Other… 100 200

Total Footprint =

1,275 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,077 85 76 16 11 3 2 1 1 1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
300

Origin Airports
400
Bogota Cali Rio Negro Cartagena de Indias Barranquilla Armenia Pereira Cucuta Bucaramanga San Andreas Island Rio Hacha

Destination Airports
Madrid Miami Panama City Sao Paulo Paris (CDG) New York (JFK) Santiago de Chile Mexico City Frankfurt Lima Quito Buenos Aires Barcelona Fort Lauderdale Caracas Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
241 128 73 72 69 67 60 59 56 54 43 41 39 38 35 200

34%

32%

N & Cen America South America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Europe
34%

Other Airports

0

Total

1,274

Total

1,275

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
172 78 72 69 60 60 59 56 52 50 41 39 36 35 32 363
CO2 (kt) 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, 596 S.A. Bogota-Madrid Iberia Airlines 95 Bogota-Miami Copa Airlines 90 Bogota-Sao Paulo Air France 69 Bogota-Paris (CDG) LAN Airlines 66 Bogota-Santiago de Chile Lufthansa 56 Bogota-New York (JFK) American Airlines 55 Bogota-Mexico City United Airlines 33 Bogota-Frankfurt Delta Air Lines 30 Bogota-Lima TACA Airlines 28 Cali-Madrid Spirit Airlines 22 Bogota-Buenos Aires Aerolineas Argentinas 20 Bogota-Barcelona Aerolineas Galapagos (Aerogal) 19 Bogota-Panama City Air Canada 17 Bogota-Quito JetBlue Airways 17 Bogota-Caracas Other Airlines 62 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,275

Total

1,275

137

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Dominican Republic
ICAO Destination Regions
0 A330 A320 B767 B737 B747 B757 B777 A340 E190 MD80 Other… 50 100 150

Total Footprint =

1,231 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
611 408 102 70 27 12

Footprint by Aircraft Type
200

Origin Airports
250

Destination Airports
New York (JFK) Madrid Moscow Paris (CDG) Frankfurt Miami Panama City Toronto Atlanta Newark Dusseldorf Montreal Lima Boston Charlotte Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
197 162 107 92 83 72 56 40 40 35 29 23 19 18 17 241

Higuey Santo Domingo Santiago de los Caballeros Puerto Plata La Romana San Jose

43%

Europe N & Cen America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

10% 47%

South America

Other Airports

0

Total

1,231

Total

1,231

Airlines
JetBlue Airways American Airlines Condor Flugdienst Air Europa Transaero Airlines Delta Air Lines Air France Copa Airlines Iberia Airlines Air Berlin XL Airways France US Airways United Airlines Aeroflot Russian Airlines Flexflight Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
154 110 93 90 88 68 54 54 49 49 46 32 27 25 24 268

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
CO2 (kt) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

Higuey-Moscow 107 Santo Domingo-Madrid 105 Santiago de los Caballeros-New York (JFK) 84 Santo Domingo-New York (JFK) 82 Higuey-Madrid 56 Higuey-Paris (CDG) 52 Higuey-Frankfurt 37 Santo Domingo-Miami 33 Santo Domingo-Panama City 32 Santo Domingo-Paris (CDG) 32 Higuey-Atlanta 31 Higuey-Toronto 28 Santo Domingo-Frankfurt 23 Higuey-Miami 21 Higuey-Dusseldorf 21 Other Routes 488

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,231

Total

1,231

138

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Panama
ICAO Destination Regions
0 B737 E190 MD11 A340 A320 B757 B777 B767 A300 A330 Other… 200 400 600

Total Footprint =

1,227 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,227 <1 <1

Footprint by Aircraft Type
800

Origin Airports
1,000
Panama City David Bocas del Toro

Destination Airports
Amsterdam Sao Paulo Santiago de Chile Miami Buenos Aires Madrid Lima Rio de Janeiro Mexico City Los Angeles Bogota La Habana Santo Domingo Caracas New York (JFK) Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
94 72 65 58 49 47 43 41 40 37 35 33 32 29 28 524

43%

South America 12% N & Cen America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

45%

Europe

Other Airports

0

Total

1,227

Total

1,227

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy

CO2 (kt)
94 72 65 58 49 47 43 41 40 37 35 33 32 29 28 524
CO2 (kt) 300
250 200 150 100 50 -

Copa Airlines 945 Panama City-Amsterdam KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 94 Panama City-Sao Paulo Iberia Airlines 47 Panama City-Santiago de Chile United Airlines 30 Panama City-Miami American Airlines 26 Panama City-Buenos Aires Gol Transportes Aéreos 13 Panama City-Madrid Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, 12 S.A. Panama City-Lima Delta Air Lines 12 Panama City-Rio de Janeiro Continental Airlines 11 Panama City-Mexico City Santa Barbara Airlines 10 Panama City-Los Angeles LACSA 6 Panama City-Bogota TACA Airlines 5 Panama City-La Habana Spirit Airlines 4 Panama City-Santo Domingo TAME 3 Panama City-Caracas Aerosur 2 Panama City-New York (JFK) Other Airlines 5 Other Routes

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,227

Total

1,227

139

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Poland
ICAO Destination Regions
Europe N & Cen America 11% 1% 1% Middle East Asia/Pacific 0 B737 A320 B767 ERJ E190 E170 CRJ Q400 F100 ATR Other… 100 200 300

Total Footprint =

1,127 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
597 156 100 85 67 53 24 22 14 9

Footprint by Aircraft Type
400

Origin Airports
500
Warsaw Krakow Gdansk Katowice Wroclaw Poznan Rzeszow Lodz Bydgoszcz Szczecin

Destination Airports
London (Stansted) Frankfurt London (Luton) Chicago Dublin Munich Paris (CDG) Toronto New York (JFK) London (Heathrow) Roma Liverpool Amsterdam Stockholm Newark Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
63 56 54 48 45 43 39 30 30 28 25 22 22 21 19 579

87%

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Other Airports

0

Total

1,127

Total

1,127

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

City-Pair Hierarchy
Warsaw-Chicago Warsaw-Paris (CDG) Warsaw-Toronto Warsaw-New York (JFK) Warsaw-London (Heathrow) Warsaw-Frankfurt Warsaw-Amsterdam Warsaw-Newark Warsaw-London (Luton) Warsaw-Moscow Warsaw-Zurich Warsaw-Munich Warsaw-Tel Aviv Warsaw-Roma Warsaw-Brussels Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
48 32 30 30 28 27 21 19 19 17 17 16 15 14 13 780
CO2 (kt) 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 -

LOT Polish Airlines 358 Ryanair 271 Wizz Air 204 Lufthansa 74 Easyjet 25 Norwegian Air Shuttle 23 Air France 21 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) 14 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 14 Swiss European Air Lines 13 Aeroflot Russian Airlines 13 British Airways 12 Aer Lingus 10 Finnair 8 TAP Portugal 7 Other Airlines 58

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

1,127

Total

1,127

140

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Profile F3 Airport Footprint Profiles
Profile F3 contains carbon footprint profiles for the 15 airports listed at the bottom of the figure to the right. The top 20 airports capture about 40% of the global carbon footprint for scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. The profiles for the top five airports (dark orange colour in the figure), are contained in Chapter 5. The Innovata database identifies 1,368 separate airports that were used for scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. After grouping there were 1,274 airports (more correctly termed cities in cases where the airport grouping has been applied) in the dataset (see Section 8.2). The profiles are ordered by descending weight of CO2.
Airport London (Heathrow) Dubai Hong Kong Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Singapore Tokyo (Narita) New York (JFK) Seoul Bangkok Amsterdam Los Angeles Beijing Shanghai Sydney Madrid Moscow Kuala Lumpur Istanbul Taipei Other Airports Total CO2 (kt) 16,394 10,976 10,363 10,193 10,132 9,816 8,905 8,201 7,919 7,583 7,300 7,007 5,074 4,965 4,817 4,788 4,512 4,237 4,146 4,090 209,440 360,857 Cumulative % 4.5 7.6 10.5 13.3 16.1 18.8 21.3 23.5 25.7 27.8 29.9 31.8 33.2 34.6 35.9 37.3 38.5 39.7 40.8 42.0 100.0

141

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Singapore
ICAO Destination Region
2% 4% 1%
Europe Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

9,816 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,015 529 502 451 376 334 295 274 263 258 256 253 242 234 222 4,313

B777 A380 A330 A320 B747 A340 B767 B737 B787 A300 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000

Destination Airports
4,000
London (Heathrow) Sydney Frankfurt Hong Kong Melbourne Tokyo (Narita) Brisbane Seoul Bangkok Paris (CDG) Beijing Shanghai Jakarta Dubai Manila Other Airports

Airlines
Singapore Airlines Qantas British Airways Emirates Airline SilkAir Tiger Airways Cathay Pacific Jetstar Asia Airways Lufthansa Qatar Airways KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Jetstar Airways Air France China Eastern Airlines All Nippon Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
4,726 818 350 299 279 271 223 208 195 131 115 113 113 112 101 1,761

28% 65%

Middle East

N & Cen America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa

Total

9,816

Total

9,816

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Singapore Airlines Qantas British Airways

Emirates Airline
Cathay Pacific Lufthansa

Sydney

Frankfurt

Melbourne

Paris (CDG)

Seoul

Hong Kong

Jakarta

Bangkok

London (Heathrow)

Tokyo (Narita)

Shanghai

Brisbane

Manila

Beijing

Dubai

Air France China Eastern Airlines Korean Air

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

142

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Tokyo (Narita)
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint =

8,905 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
626 464 414 408 386 350 347 333 298 272 216 211 202 193 177 4,010

B777 B747 B767 A330 A380 A340 B737 B787 A320 B757 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Destination Airports
5,000
Los Angeles Honolulu Chicago New York (JFK) Paris (CDG) Bangkok London (Heathrow) Singapore Frankfurt San Francisco Taipei Hong Kong Washington Dallas-Fort Worth Seoul Other Airports

Airlines
Japan Airlines All Nippon Airways Delta Air Lines United Airlines American Airlines Singapore Airlines Air France Lufthansa Air Canada Alitalia Korean Air KLM Royal Dutch Airlines China Airlines Thai Airways International Cathay Pacific Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,408 1,348 1,198 943 410 232 205 199 177 171 151 150 150 139 122 1,901

2%
Asia/Pacific

23%

42%
Europe

33%
Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

8,905

Total

8,905

CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
All Nippon Airways Japan Airlines United Airlines

Delta Air Lines
American Airlines Singapore Airlines

Paris (CDG)

Frankfurt

Chicago

New York (JFK)

San Francisco

Hong Kong

Bangkok

Washington

Honolulu

Los Angeles

Singapore

Taipei

London (Heathrow)

Dallas-Fort Worth

Seoul

Air France China Airlines Thai Airways International

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

143

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

New York (JFK)
ICAO Destination Region
Europe

Total Footprint =
Destination Airports
3,000
London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Narita) Paris (CDG) Seoul Hong Kong Tel Aviv Sao Paulo Dubai Frankfurt Istanbul Moscow Roma Madrid Amsterdam Zurich Other Airports

8,201 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
1,000 408 372 367 348 305 260 253 248 201 193 180 175 165 152 3,575

B777 B747 B767 A330 A340 A380 A320 B737 B757 B757(… Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

1%

1% 8%

Asia/Pacific N & Cen America

9%

10%
21%

50%

South America Middle East E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Delta Air Lines 1,229 American Airlines 1,040 British Airways 503 Cathay Pacific 384 JetBlue Airways 332 Korean Air 262 Emirates Airline 253 Air France 249 El Al Israel Airlines 187 Lufthansa 180 TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 176 Virgin Atlantic Airways 163 Turkish Airlines 159 Swiss European Air Lines 150 Alitalia 147 Other Airlines 2,785

Total

8,201

Total

8,201

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Delta Air Lines American Airlines British Airways

Cathay Pacific
Korean Air Emirates Airline

Paris (CDG)

Frankfurt

Istanbul

Tel Aviv

Amsterdam

Seoul

Hong Kong

Sao Paulo

London (Heathrow)

Tokyo (Narita)

Moscow

Madrid

Zurich

Dubai

Roma

Air France El Al Israel Airlines Virgin Atlantic Airways

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

144

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Seoul
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

7,919 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
541 368 367 315 280 274 270 230 224 193 183 177 164 163 163 4,007

B777 A330 B747 A380 B737 A320 B767 A340 B757 A300 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000

Destination Airports
4,000
Los Angeles San Francisco New York (JFK) Bangkok Hong Kong Singapore Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Honolulu London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Haneda) Tokyo (Narita) Manila Atlanta Chicago Other Airports

Airlines
Korean Air Asiana Airlines Singapore Airlines Thai Airways International United Airlines Lufthansa KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Cathay Pacific Delta Air Lines Emirates Airline Air France Garuda Indonesia Jeju Air Turkish Airlines Philippine Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
3,736 1,698 229 170 131 125 106 105 96 81 81 74 70 67 65 1,084

3%

0%
N & Cen America

18%
47%
Europe

32%

Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa

Total

7,919

Total

7,919

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Korean Air Asiana Airlines Singapore Airlines

2,000
1,500 1,000 500 -

Thai Airways International
United Airlines Cathay Pacific Air France Lufthansa All Nippon Airways

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

145

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Bangkok
ICAO Destination Region
2%
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

7,583 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
402 350 322 315 314 306 264 237 228 190 174 169 155 154 146 3,857

B777 A330 B747 A340 A320 B767 B737 A380 A300 B757 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000

Destination Airports
3,000
London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Narita) Hong Kong Seoul Sydney Frankfurt Singapore Dubai Amsterdam Copenhagen Paris (CDG) Taipei Zurich Moscow Melbourne Other Airports

Airlines
Thai Airways International Emirates Airline China Airlines EVA Air Cathay Pacific Thai AirAsia Qatar Airways British Airways Korean Air Japan Airlines Lufthansa Etihad Airways Turkish Airlines Transaero Airlines KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
3,033 292 183 180 178 176 169 142 130 127 126 123 117 106 101 2,402

0%
Europe

11%
Middle East

34%

53%
E & South Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

N & Cen America

Total

7,583

Total

7,583

CO2 (kt) 2,500

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Thai Airways International Emirates Airline China Airlines

2,000
1,500 1,000 500 -

20,000
15,000 10,000 5,000 -

EVA Air
British Airways Cathay Pacific

Sydney

Frankfurt

Amsterdam

Paris (CDG)

Copenhagen

Tokyo (Narita)

London (Heathrow)

Melbourne

Seoul

Hong Kong

Singapore

Zurich

Dubai

Moscow

Taipei

Lufthansa KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Qantas

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

146

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Amsterdam
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint =

7,300 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
228 228 207 197 188 177 173 165 159 155 150 145 137 135 129 4,730

B747 B777 A330 B737 B767 A320 MD11 E190 B757 F70 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Destination Airports
2,000
Bangkok Hong Kong Kuala Lumpur Singapore Shanghai Detroit Atlanta New York (JFK) Beijing Houston Tokyo (Narita) Dubai Seoul Nairobi Minneapolis Other Airports

Airlines
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Delta Air Lines Transavia Easyjet Arkefly United Airlines China Southern Airlines Cathay Pacific China Airlines Malaysia Airlines Singapore Airlines Emirates Airline Air France Kenya Airways Surinam Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
4,458 743 207 124 121 120 119 113 103 101 98 55 52 51 42 792

5% 6% 10%

1%

Asia/Pacific Europe

28% 23% 27%

South America E & South Africa Middle East W & Cen Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

7,300

Total

7,300

CO2 (kt) 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Delta Air Lines Cathay Pacific

China Airlines
Malaysia Airlines Singapore Airlines China Southern Airlines

Detroit

Hong Kong

Houston

New York (JFK)

Bangkok

Nairobi

Beijing

Dubai

Seoul

Kuala Lumpur

Tokyo (Narita)

Minneapolis

Singapore

Shanghai

Atlanta

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

Emirates Airline Kenya Airways

147

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Los Angeles
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

7,007 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
705 664 628 541 503 297 281 238 225 217 199 192 168 166 151 1,832

B777 B747 A380 A340 B737 A330 A320 B767 E190 B757 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000

Destination Airports
4,000
Sydney London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Narita) Seoul Taipei Hong Kong Shanghai Paris (CDG) Melbourne Auckland Dubai Brisbane Beijing Frankfurt Tokyo (Haneda) Other Airports

Airlines
Qantas United Airlines Korean Air Cathay Pacific Delta Air Lines American Airlines Air New Zealand British Airways China Airlines Lufthansa EVA Air Virgin Australia Air France Asiana Airlines Singapore Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
650 458 404 297 291 286 276 272 265 234 228 226 214 213 201 2,493

3% 9%

2%
Europe

N & Cen America

24% 62%
Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America

Total

7,007

Total

7,007

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Qantas United Airlines Korean Air Cathay Pacific British Airways Air New Zealand Delta Air Lines China Airlines American Airlines EVA Air Virgin Australia Asiana Airlines Emirates Airline Air France Air China Lufthansa All Nippon Airways Virgin Atlantic Airways Singapore Airlines

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

148

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Beijing
ICAO Destination Region
Europe

Total Footprint =

5,074 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
292 256 256 247 196 193 182 168 166 163 159 146 130 124 109 2,285

B777 A330 B747 B767 A340 A320 A380 B737 B757 B787 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Destination Airports
2,000
Hong Kong Frankfurt Singapore San Francisco Paris (CDG) Chicago Dubai Los Angeles Moscow London (Heathrow) Amsterdam New York (JFK) Toronto Vancouver Bangkok Other Airports

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

7% 2%
Asia/Pacific

37% 27%

N & Cen America

Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

27%
E & South Africa

Air China 1,575 United Airlines 396 Hainan Airlines 250 Singapore Airlines 159 Lufthansa 154 Air Canada 151 Emirates Airline 126 Air France 124 Delta Air Lines 121 Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines 120 China Southern Airlines 119 British Airways 98 American Airlines 98 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 97 Aeroflot Russian Airlines 83 Other Airlines 1,403

Total

5,074

Total

5,074

CO2 (kt) 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Air China United Airlines Singapore Airlines

Air Canada
Emirates Airline Air France

Frankfurt

Paris (CDG)

Chicago

Amsterdam

Hong Kong

Dubai

New York (JFK)

San Francisco

Los Angeles

London (Heathrow)

Vancouver

Singapore

Bangkok

Moscow

Toronto

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines China Southern Airlines Lufthansa

149

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Shanghai
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

4,965 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
289 289 285 281 253 207 189 188 171 157 136 130 127 123 114 2,026

B777 A330 A340 B747 A320 B767 B737 A380 B757 A300 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Destination Airports
2,000
Frankfurt Paris (CDG) Hong Kong Los Angeles Singapore Chicago London (Heathrow) Amsterdam Tokyo (Narita) Sydney Vancouver Bangkok Dubai Seoul San Francisco Other Airports

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

5% 0%
Europe

25%

40%

N & Cen America

30%

Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa

China Eastern Airlines 1,151 United Airlines 392 Air China 321 Lufthansa 220 American Airlines 201 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines 188 Air Canada 162 Singapore Airlines 162 Air France 154 Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines 134 Delta Air Lines 129 Emirates Airline 127 Shanghai Airlines 112 Aeroflot Russian Airlines 92 All Nippon Airways 88 Other Airlines 1,331

Total

4,965

Total

4,965

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
China Eastern Airlines United Airlines American Airlines

20,000
15,000 10,000 5,000 -

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
Air China Singapore Airlines

Frankfurt

Paris (CDG)

Chicago

Amsterdam

Sydney

Hong Kong

Vancouver

Bangkok

Dubai

Seoul

London (Heathrow)

Tokyo (Narita)

San Francisco

Los Angeles

Singapore

Air France Lufthansa Dragonair, Hong Kong Dragon Airlines

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

150

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Sydney
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

4,817 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
707 530 418 314 277 212 181 170 168 160 160 160 158 147 144 911

B747 A330 B777 A380 A340 B737 A320 B767 CNA ATR Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Destination Airports
2,000
Los Angeles Singapore Hong Kong Bangkok Dubai Abu Dhabi Kuala Lumpur Auckland Tokyo (Narita) Seoul San Francisco Dallas-Fort Worth Shanghai Johannesburg Honolulu Other Airports

Airlines
Qantas Emirates Airline United Airlines Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific Virgin Australia Etihad Airways Thai Airways International Malaysia Airlines Jetstar Airways Air Canada Delta Air Lines China Southern Airlines Air New Zealand Air China Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,358 398 322 268 231 208 173 155 142 137 119 113 113 95 94 890

3% 10%

2%
N & Cen America

Middle East

27%

58%
E & South Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

South America

Total

4,817

Total

4,817

CO2 (kt) 2,000 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Qantas Emirates Airline United Airlines

Singapore Airlines
Cathay Pacific Etihad Airways Virgin Australia Thai Airways International Malaysia Airlines

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

151

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Madrid
ICAO Destination Region
3% 3% 1% 0%
South America Europe N & Cen America

Total Footprint =

4,788 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
340 236 214 209 184 175 172 131 130 115 104 89 81 77 74 2,457

A340 A320 A330 B767 B737 B777 B747 CRJ B757 E190 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Destination Airports
2,000
Buenos Aires Lima Mexico City Sao Paulo Santiago de Chile New York (JFK) Bogota Miami Caracas La Habana Santo Domingo Cancun London (Heathrow) Dubai Roma Other Airports

Airlines

CO2 (kt)

28%

36%

Middle East Asia/Pacific

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

29%

W & Cen Africa E & South Africa

Iberia Airlines 2,129 Air Europa 522 LAN Airlines 242 Easyjet 147 Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, 146 S.A. Ryanair 145 American Airlines 124 Aerolineas Argentinas 89 AeroMéxico 87 Emirates Airline 77 Delta Air Lines 71 TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas) 67 Air China 63 Lufthansa 60 US Airways 58 Other Airlines 760

Total

4,788

Total

4,788

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Iberia Airlines Air Europa LAN Airlines

Aerolineas Argentinas
AeroMéxico Emirates Airline

Lima

Mexico City

Caracas

New York (JFK)

Buenos Aires

La Habana

Miami

Santo Domingo

Bogota

Dubai

Sao Paulo

Santiago de Chile

Cancun

London (Heathrow)

Roma

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

Avianca - Aerovias Nacionales de Colombia, S.A. American Airlines TAM Airlines (TAM Linhas Aereas)

152

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Moscow
ICAO Destination Region
Europe

Total Footprint =

4,512 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
193 166 155 125 111 107 93 92 90 89 85 84 82 80 78 2,882

A320 A330 B777 B737 B747 B767 B757 A340 IL9 SU9 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000 1,500

Destination Airports
2,000
New York (JFK) Beijing Bangkok London (Heathrow) Shanghai Higuey Dubai Phuket Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Narita) Tel Aviv Frankfurt Hong Kong Yerevan Hurghada Other Airports

Airlines
Aeroflot Russian Airlines Transaero Airlines S7 Airlines (Siberia Airlines) Singapore Airlines Lufthansa UTair Aviation Uzbekistan Airways Emirates Airline British Airways Vietnam Airlines Air France Delta Air Lines VIM Airlines Air China Turkish Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,581 987 151 122 89 85 69 66 63 58 49 48 45 43 41 1,016

6% 1%
Asia/Pacific

14%
N & Cen America

25%

54%
Middle East

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa

Total

4,512

Total

4,512

CO2 (kt) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Aeroflot Russian Airlines Transaero Airlines Emirates Airline

British Airways
Delta Air Lines Air China

Paris (CDG)

Frankfurt

Tel Aviv

Dubai

New York (JFK)

Tokyo (Narita)

Hong Kong

Beijing

Bangkok

Higuey

Shanghai

Phuket

Yerevan

London (Heathrow)

Hurghada

Air France Lufthansa Armavia

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

153

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Kuala Lumpur
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

4,237 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
282 215 206 181 180 166 136 124 121 119 111 108 106 96 94 1,990

B777 A330 A320 B747 B737 A380 A340 B767 B757 A300 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000

Destination Airports
1,500
London (Heathrow) Melbourne Amsterdam Sydney Dubai Hong Kong Bangkok Jakarta Seoul Doha Tokyo (Narita) Taipei Singapore Paris (CDG) Beijing Other Airports

Airlines
Malaysia Airlines AirAsia X AirAsia Emirates Airline Qatar Airways KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Cathay Pacific Indonesia AirAsia Saudi Arabian Airlines Iran Air Etihad Airways Korean Air Oman Air China Airlines Thai Airways International Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,818 457 452 230 129 119 88 77 71 57 49 47 42 42 36 523

0% 14% 18% 68%
Middle East Europe

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

E & South Africa

Total

4,237

Total

4,237

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Malaysia Airlines Emirates Airline AirAsia X

20,000
15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Qatar Airways
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines AirAsia

Melbourne

Sydney

Amsterdam

Paris (CDG)

Dubai

Hong Kong

Jakarta

Seoul

Bangkok

Tokyo (Narita)

London (Heathrow)

Singapore

Beijing

Doha

Taipei

Cathay Pacific Korean Air China Airlines

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

154

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Istanbul
ICAO Destination Region
1% 3% 12% 14% 22%
South America W & Cen Africa Europe

Total Footprint =

4,146 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
201 134 126 107 100 97 95 80 79 73 73 71 68 68 64 2,711

A320 B737 B777 A330 A340 B767 B757 A300 E190 B747 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000

Destination Airports
1,500
New York (JFK) Seoul Singapore Bangkok London (Heathrow) Los Angeles Dubai Tokyo (Narita) Paris (CDG) Shanghai Amsterdam Chicago Washington Tehran Hong Kong Other Airports

Airlines
Turkish Airlines Pegasus Airlines Singapore Airlines SunExpress Emirates Airline Delta Air Lines Lufthansa British Airways Korean Air Malaysia Airlines Atlasjet Air France Saudi Arabian Airlines Azerbaijan Airlines Asiana Airlines Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
2,960 210 58 46 45 42 42 37 37 33 32 31 30 30 30 484

1%

Asia/Pacific Middle East

47%

N & Cen America E & South Africa

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Total

4,146

Total

4,146

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
Turkish Airlines

Singapore Airlines
Emirates Airline Delta Air Lines British Airways Korean Air

Paris (CDG)

Amsterdam

Chicago

Seoul

Dubai

New York (JFK)

Washington

London (Heathrow)

Tokyo (Narita)

Los Angeles

Hong Kong

Bangkok

Singapore

Shanghai

Tehran

Asiana Airlines Air France

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

Air Fiji
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines

155

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Taipei
ICAO Destination Region
5%
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

4,090 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
503 450 288 215 194 170 133 124 120 110 108 103 83 79 76 1,333

A330 B747 B777 A340 A320 B737 B767 MD80 B757 A300 Other…

Footprint by Aircraft Type
500 1,000

Destination Airports
1,500
Los Angeles Hong Kong San Francisco Tokyo (Narita) Singapore Bangkok Tokyo (Haneda) Vancouver Osaka Seoul Kuala Lumpur Shanghai Ho Chi Minh City Jakarta New York (JFK) Other Airports

Airlines
China Airlines EVA Air Cathay Pacific KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Japan Airlines Thai Airways International TransAsia Airways Singapore Airlines China Eastern Airlines Air China All Nippon Airways Uni Air China Southern Airlines AirAsia X Jetstar Asia Airways Other Airlines

CO2 (kt)
1,456 1,327 274 86 80 59 59 57 52 52 45 45 44 34 34 385

28% 67%

N & Cen America

CO2 (kt) CO2 (kt)

Europe

Total

4,090

Total

4,090

CO2 (kt) 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Destination Airports - CO2 Split between Airlines
China Airlines EVA Air Cathay Pacific

Japan Airlines
Thai Airways International Singapore Airlines

Osaka

Seoul

Hong Kong

Jakarta

Tokyo (Haneda)

Ho Chi Minh City

New York (JFK)

Bangkok

San Francisco

Vancouver

Singapore

Tokyo (Narita)

Kuala Lumpur

Los Angeles

Shanghai

All Nippon Airways AirAsia X Jetstar Asia Airways

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements (Mvts) Movements

156

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Profile F4 Airline Footprint Profiles
Profile F4 contains carbon footprint profiles for the 15 airlines listed at the bottom of the figure to the right. The top 20 airlines capture about 50% of the global carbon footprint for scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. The profiles for the top five airlines (dark orange colour in the figure), are contained in Chapter 6. The Innovata database identifies 492 separate airlines that operated scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. The profiles are ordered by descending weight of CO2.
Airline Emirates Airline British Airways Lufthansa United Airlines Delta Air Lines Air France Singapore Airlines Cathay Pacific American Airlines KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Korean Air Qatar Airways Ryanair Thai Airways International Air Canada Turkish Airlines Qantas Etihad Airways Easyjet Iberia Airlines Other Airlines Total CO2 (kt) 17,333 15,808 15,344 14,828 12,743 12,389 10,498 10,135 10,030 9,079 7,982 7,330 6,803 6,311 6,179 6,123 5,181 4,779 4,645 4,302 173,033 360,857 Cumulative % 4.8 9.2 13.4 17.5 21.1 24.5 27.4 30.2 33.0 35.5 37.7 39.8 41.7 43.4 45.1 46.8 48.2 49.6 50.9 52.0 100.0

157

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Air France
ICAO Destination Region
1% 4% 7% 11% 15% 3%
Europe N & Cen America Asia/Pacific South America

Total Footprint = 12,389 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 A320 A330 A380 A340 B747 BAE 146 ERJ CRJ E170 Other… 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Paris (CDG)-New York (JFK) New York (JFK)-Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Narita)-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Tokyo (Narita) Los Angeles-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Los Angeles Paris (CDG)-Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro-Paris (CDG) Sao Paulo-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Sao Paulo Paris (CDG)-Shanghai Shanghai-Paris (CDG) Hong Kong-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Hong Kong Mexico City-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Mexico City Paris (Orly)-St-Denis de la Reunion St-Denis de la Reunion-Paris (Orly) San Francisco-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-San Francisco Paris (CDG)-Beijing Beijing-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Montreal Montreal-Paris (CDG) Atlanta-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Atlanta Singapore-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Singapore Paris (CDG)-Johannesburg Johannesburg-Paris (CDG) Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
249 249 205 205 188 188 174 174 170 170 154 154 142 142 131 131 130 130 127 127 125 124 123 123 114 114 113 113 111 111 7,879

59%

W & Cen Africa E & South Africa Middle East

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Origin Airports
Paris (CDG) Paris (Orly) New York (JFK) Los Angeles Tokyo (Narita) Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Shanghai Hong Kong Mexico City St-Denis de la Reunion San Francisco Beijing Montreal Pointe-a-Pitre Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
5,539 385 249 214 205 174 170 154 142 131 130 127 124 123 116 4,406

CO2 (kt) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

12,389

Total

12,389

158

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Singapore Airlines
ICAO Destination Region
1% 6% 1% 1%
Asia/Pacific Europe N & Cen America

Total Footprint = 10,498 kt CO2
City-Pair Hierarchy
6,000

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 A380 A330 A340 B747 A320 CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) 2,000 4,000

CO2 (kt)
444 444 268 268 233 233 195 195 184 184 162 162 159 159 148 148 145 145 145 145 138 138 137 137 130 130 117 117 115 115 5,055

16%
Middle East

75%

E & South Africa South America

Other…

Origin Airports
Singapore London (Heathrow) Frankfurt Hong Kong Sydney Tokyo (Narita) Seoul Los Angeles Melbourne San Francisco Shanghai Beijing Brisbane Paris (CDG) Zurich Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
4,726 444 312 288 268 232 229 201 195 189 162 159 148 145 138 2,660

CO2 (kt) 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000

5,000
-

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Singapore-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Singapore Singapore-Sydney Sydney-Singapore Singapore-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Singapore Singapore-Melbourne Melbourne-Singapore Singapore-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Singapore Shanghai-Singapore Singapore-Shanghai Beijing-Singapore Singapore-Beijing Brisbane-Singapore Singapore-Brisbane Singapore-Seoul Paris (CDG)-Singapore Singapore-Paris (CDG) Seoul-Singapore Singapore-Zurich Zurich-Singapore Auckland-Singapore Singapore-Auckland Singapore-Newark Newark-Singapore Singapore-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Singapore Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Los Angeles Other Routes

Total

10,498

Total

10,498

159

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Cathay Pacific
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint = 10,135 kt CO2

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 A330 B747 A340 A320 CNA CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong Hong Kong-London (Heathrow) New York (JFK)-Hong Kong Hong Kong-New York (JFK) Hong Kong-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Hong Kong San Francisco-Hong Kong Hong Kong-San Francisco Hong Kong-Sydney Sydney-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Vancouver Vancouver-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Singapore Singapore-Hong Kong Taipei-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Taipei Melbourne-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Toronto Toronto-Hong Kong Paris (CDG)-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Paris (CDG) Hong Kong-Melbourne Hong Kong-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Hong Kong Chicago-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Chicago Johannesburg-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Johannesburg Hong Kong-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Hong Kong Other Routes

CO2 (kt)
432 431 348 348 297 297 270 270 231 231 216 216 192 192 188 188 178 173 173 149 148 124 118 118 117 117 116 115 108 108 3,926

2% 1%
N & Cen America

10% 15% 72%
Europe

Middle East

E & South Africa

Other…

Origin Airports
Hong Kong London (Heathrow) New York (JFK) Los Angeles Taipei San Francisco Vancouver Sydney Singapore Melbourne Bangkok Toronto Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Narita) Frankfurt Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
4,824 432 384 297 274 270 252 231 223 178 178 173 154 122 118 2,025

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

10,135

Total

10,135

160

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

American Airlines
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint = 10,030 kt CO2
City-Pair Hierarchy
5,000

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 B767 B757 B737 MD80 ERJ ERD CRJ ATR ER3 Other… 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

CO2 (kt)

8% 14% 15% 63%

Europe

South America

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Asia/Pacific

Origin Airports
Miami Dallas-Fort Worth New York (JFK) London (Heathrow) Chicago Tokyo (Narita) Sao Paulo Buenos Aires Los Angeles Paris (CDG) Shanghai San Juan Rio de Janeiro Madrid Santiago de Chile Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,695 1,121 1,040 849 716 410 354 295 286 213 201 179 133 124 104 2,309

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow) 237 London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) 236 Dallas-Fort Worth-Tokyo (Narita) 193 Tokyo (Narita)-Dallas-Fort Worth 193 London (Heathrow)-Dallas-Fort Worth 179 Dallas-Fort Worth-London (Heathrow) 179 Miami-Sao Paulo 179 Sao Paulo-Miami 179 Chicago-London (Heathrow) 174 London (Heathrow)-Chicago 173 Miami-Buenos Aires 150 Buenos Aires-Miami 150 Shanghai-Chicago 105 Chicago-Shanghai 105 Chicago-Beijing 98 Beijing-Chicago 98 Los Angeles-Shanghai 96 Shanghai-Los Angeles 96 Chicago-Tokyo (Narita) 93 Tokyo (Narita)-Chicago 93 New York (JFK)-Sao Paulo 88 Sao Paulo-New York (JFK) 88 Sao Paulo-Dallas-Fort Worth 88 Dallas-Fort Worth-Sao Paulo 88 London (Heathrow)-Miami 85 Miami-London (Heathrow) 85 Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) 81 Tokyo (Narita)-Los Angeles 81 London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles 79 Los Angeles-London (Heathrow) 79 Other Routes 6,182

Total

10,030

Total

10,030

161

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
ICAO Destination Region
Europe

Total Footprint =

9,079 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
188 188 150 150 126 126 123 123 120 120 120 120 106 106 105 105 104 104 101 98 98 98 98 97 97 96 96 96 96 94 5,629

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B747 B777 A330 B737 MD11 E190 F70 F100 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Shanghai-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Shanghai Amsterdam-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Amsterdam Los Angeles-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Los Angeles New York (JFK)-Amsterdam Amsterdam-New York (JFK) Mexico City-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Mexico City Amsterdam-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Amsterdam Seoul-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Seoul Amsterdam-Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur-Amsterdam Houston-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Houston Curacao-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Singapore Amsterdam-Lima Lima-Amsterdam Singapore-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Beijing Beijing-Amsterdam Toronto-Amsterdam Amsterdam-Toronto Amsterdam-San Francisco San Francisco-Amsterdam Panama City-Amsterdam Other Routes

4%

3%

1%

Asia/Pacific N & Cen America South America

7%
12% 16% 57%

E & South Africa Middle East W & Cen Africa

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other…

Origin Airports
Amsterdam Shanghai Tokyo (Narita) Los Angeles New York (JFK) Mexico City Hong Kong Kuala Lumpur Singapore Seoul Houston Curacao Bangkok Lima Beijing Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
4,458 188 150 126 123 120 120 119 115 106 104 101 101 98 97 2,952

CO2 (kt) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

9,079

Total

9,079

162

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Korean Air
ICAO Destination Region
1% 1% 8% 20%
Middle East Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

7,982 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
294 294 262 262 164 163 153 153 113 113 106 106 106 106 104 104 98 98 91 91 90 90 87 87 84 84 84 84 81 81 4,147

Footprint by Aircraft Type
-1,000 B777 A330 B747 A380 B737 A300 B767 A320 B757 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Seoul-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Seoul Seoul-New York (JFK) New York (JFK)-Seoul Atlanta-Seoul Seoul-Atlanta Seoul-Honolulu Honolulu-Seoul Seoul-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Seoul Chicago-Seoul Seoul-Chicago London (Heathrow)-Seoul Seoul-London (Heathrow) Washington-Seoul Seoul-Washington Bangkok-Seoul Seoul-Bangkok Frankfurt-Seoul Seoul-Frankfurt Seoul-Sydney Sydney-Seoul Seoul-Auckland Auckland-Seoul Seoul-Singapore Singapore-Seoul Seoul-San Francisco San Francisco-Seoul Hong Kong-Seoul Seoul-Hong Kong Other Routes

0%

N & Cen America Europe

70%
South America E & South Africa

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other Types

Origin Airports
Seoul Los Angeles New York (JFK) Atlanta Honolulu Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok Paris (CDG) Chicago London (Heathrow) Washington Busan Hong Kong Frankfurt Sydney Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
3,736 404 262 164 153 151 130 113 106 106 104 99 91 91 90 2,183

CO2 (kt) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

500
-

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

7,982

Total

7,982

163

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Qatar Airways
ICAO Destination Region
2% 2% 5% 1%
Middle East Asia/Pacific Europe

Total Footprint =

7,330 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
212 212 144 144 126 126 121 121 119 119 113 113 112 112 111 111 104 104 101 101 95 95 86 86 74 74 73 73 71 71 4,006

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 A330 A320 A340 B787 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Heathrow)-Doha Doha-London (Heathrow) Doha-Bangkok Bangkok-Doha Manila-Doha Doha-Manila Doha-Houston Houston-Doha Doha-Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur-Doha Doha-Singapore Singapore-Doha Melbourne-Doha Doha-Melbourne Doha-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Doha Doha-Washington Washington-Doha New York (JFK)-Doha Doha-New York (JFK) Paris (CDG)-Doha Doha-Paris (CDG) Doha-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Doha Doha-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Doha Doha-Jakarta Jakarta-Doha Osaka-Doha Doha-Osaka Other Routes

15%
23% 52%

N & Cen America South America E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other Types

Origin Airports
Doha London (Heathrow) Bangkok Singapore Sao Paulo Kuala Lumpur Manila Houston Melbourne Washington New York (JFK) Paris (CDG) Hong Kong Frankfurt Jakarta Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
3,560 212 169 131 130 129 126 121 112 104 101 95 86 74 73 2,108

CO2 (kt) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000

CO2 v Distance

500
-

Mvts 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

7,330

Total

7,330

164

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Ryanair
ICAO Destination Region
B737 0%
Europe

Total Footprint =

6,803 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
20 20 20 20 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 12 6,372

Footprint by Aircraft Type
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Stansted)-Roma Roma-London (Stansted) Dublin-London (Stansted) London (Stansted)-Dublin Madrid-Charleroi Charleroi-Madrid London (Stansted)-Stockholm Stockholm-London (Stansted) Bergamo-London (Stansted) London (Stansted)-Bergamo Barcelona-Charleroi Charleroi-Barcelona Pisa-London (Stansted) London (Stansted)-Pisa Roma-Charleroi Charleroi-Roma Dublin-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Dublin Malaga-London (Stansted) London (Stansted)-Malaga London (Stansted)-Krakow Krakow-London (Stansted) Roma-Barcelona Barcelona-Roma Bergamo-Barcelona Barcelona-Bergamo Roma-Madrid Madrid-Roma London (Stansted)-Madrid Madrid-London (Stansted) Other Routes

100%

Asia/Pacific

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other Types

Origin Airports
London (Stansted) Dublin Charleroi Bergamo Roma Malaga Beauvais Madrid Hahn Stockholm Alicante Barcelona Niederrhein Girona Palma de Mallorca Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
615 324 284 229 179 162 161 145 143 141 134 130 129 124 119 3,784

CO2 (kt) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000

CO2 v Distance

500
-

Mvts 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

6,803

Total

6,803

165

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Thai Airways International
ICAO Destination Region
1%
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

6,311 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
197 197 174 174 155 155 139 139 124 121 121 118 118 114 114 108 108 103 100 100 85 85 82 81 78 78 77 77 66 66 2,857

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 B747 A330 A340 A300 B737 A380 A320 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500

City-Pair Hierarchy
Bangkok-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Bangkok London (Heathrow)-Bangkok Bangkok-London (Heathrow) Sydney-Bangkok Bangkok-Sydney Tokyo (Narita)-Bangkok Bangkok-Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok-Copenhagen Bangkok-Melbourne Melbourne-Bangkok Paris (CDG)-Bangkok Bangkok-Paris (CDG) Bangkok-Munich Munich-Bangkok Bangkok-Stockholm Copenhagen-Bangkok Stockholm-Bangkok Hong Kong-Bangkok Bangkok-Hong Kong Bangkok-Osaka Osaka-Bangkok Seoul-Bangkok Bangkok-Seoul Zurich-Bangkok Bangkok-Zurich Bangkok-Singapore Singapore-Bangkok Oslo-Bangkok Bangkok-Oslo Other Routes

1%

0%
Europe

19%
N & Cen America

79%

Middle East

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

E & South Africa

Other…

Origin Airports
Bangkok Frankfurt London (Heathrow) Seoul Sydney Hong Kong Tokyo (Narita) Copenhagen Melbourne Paris (CDG) Munich Stockholm Osaka Zurich Singapore Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
3,033 197 174 170 155 143 139 125 121 118 114 108 85 78 77 1,473

CO2 (kt) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000

CO2 v Distance

500
-

Mvts 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

6,311

Total

6,311

166

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Air Canada
ICAO Destination Region
N & Cen America

Total Footprint =

6,179 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
176 176 120 119 117 117 107 107 107 107 99 99 96 96 89 89 66 65 61 61 60 60 58 58 58 58 57 57 55 55 3,527

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B777 B767 A320 A330 E190 ERJ CRJ CRA DH1 DH3 Other… 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Heathrow)-Toronto Toronto-London (Heathrow) Vancouver-Sydney Sydney-Vancouver Hong Kong-Toronto Toronto-Hong Kong Toronto-Frankfurt Toronto-Shanghai Shanghai-Toronto Frankfurt-Toronto Toronto-Beijing Beijing-Toronto Tokyo (Narita)-Toronto Toronto-Tokyo (Narita) Vancouver-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Vancouver Vancouver-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Vancouver Toronto-Sao Paulo Sao Paulo-Toronto Toronto-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Toronto Frankfurt-Calgary Calgary-Frankfurt Tokyo (Narita)-Vancouver Vancouver-Tokyo (Narita) Santiago de Chile-Toronto Toronto-Santiago de Chile Vancouver-Shanghai Shanghai-Vancouver Other Routes

3% 14% 18%
Europe

65%

Asia/Pacific

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

South America

Origin Airports
Toronto Vancouver London (Heathrow) Montreal Frankfurt Hong Kong Calgary Tokyo (Narita) Shanghai Beijing Sydney Los Angeles Paris (CDG) Ottawa San Francisco Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,732 611 431 380 249 207 204 177 162 151 119 115 98 81 70 1,391

CO2 (kt) 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

6,179

Total

6,179

167

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Turkish Airlines
ICAO Destination Region
2% 6% 7% 1% 1%
Europe Asia/Pacific N & Cen America Middle East

Total Footprint =

6,123 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
159 159 107 107 97 97 80 80 73 73 71 70 69 69 68 68 67 67 65 64 64 64 63 62 62 61 60 60 56 56 3,805

Footprint by Aircraft Type
-500 A320 B737 A330 B777 A340 CNC PL2 CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Istanbul-New York (JFK) New York (JFK)-Istanbul Bangkok-Istanbul Istanbul-Bangkok Los Angeles-Istanbul Istanbul-Los Angeles Istanbul-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Istanbul Shanghai-Istanbul Istanbul-Shanghai Istanbul-Chicago Chicago-Istanbul Istanbul-Singapore Singapore-Istanbul Washington-Istanbul Istanbul-Washington Seoul-Istanbul Istanbul-Seoul Hong Kong-Istanbul Istanbul-Hong Kong Istanbul-Beijing Beijing-Istanbul Istanbul-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Istanbul Osaka-Istanbul Istanbul-Osaka Johannesburg-Istanbul Istanbul-Johannesburg Sao Paulo-Istanbul Istanbul-Sao Paulo Other Routes

13% 70%

E & South Africa South America W & Cen Africa

Other Types

Origin Airports
Istanbul New York (JFK) Bangkok Los Angeles Tokyo (Narita) Singapore Shanghai Chicago Washington Seoul Hong Kong Beijing London (Heathrow) Osaka Johannesburg Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
2,960 159 117 97 80 80 73 70 68 67 65 64 62 62 60 2,040

CO2 (kt) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000

CO2 v Distance

500
-

Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -5,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

6,123

Total

6,123

168

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Qantas
ICAO Destination Region
Asia/Pacific

Total Footprint =

5,181 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
320 317 295 295 174 174 160 159 158 155 147 147 134 133 130 130 126 125 97 97 77 77 73 73 70 70 67 67 62 61 1,012

Footprint by Aircraft Type
B747 A380 A330 B737 B767 Q400 CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt) 1,000 2,000 3,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Sydney-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Sydney Singapore-London (Heathrow) London (Heathrow)-Singapore Los Angeles-Melbourne Melbourne-Los Angeles Sydney-Dallas-Fort Worth Sydney-Singapore Singapore-Sydney Dallas-Fort Worth-Brisbane Sydney-Johannesburg Johannesburg-Sydney Singapore-Frankfurt Frankfurt-Singapore Brisbane-Los Angeles Los Angeles-Brisbane Hong Kong-Sydney Sydney-Hong Kong Sydney-Tokyo (Narita) Tokyo (Narita)-Sydney Melbourne-Singapore Singapore-Melbourne Bangkok-Sydney Sydney-Bangkok Brisbane-Singapore Singapore-Brisbane Melbourne-Hong Kong Hong Kong-Melbourne Singapore-Perth Perth-Singapore Other Routes

3% 9% 16%

1%
N & Cen America

Europe

71%

E & South Africa

South America

Other…

Origin Airports
Sydney Singapore Los Angeles Melbourne London (Heathrow) Hong Kong Brisbane Dallas-Fort Worth Johannesburg Frankfurt Auckland Bangkok Tokyo (Narita) Perth Shanghai Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
1,358 818 650 360 348 270 258 155 147 133 125 101 97 81 59 221

CO2 (kt) 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000

CO2 v Distance

500
-

Mvts 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 -1,000

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

5,181

Total

5,181

169

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Etihad Airways
ICAO Destination Region
Middle East

Total Footprint =

4,779 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
173 172 139 139 126 126 123 123 110 110 101 101 95 95 91 91 86 86 79 79 68 68 58 58 55 55 50 50 49 49 1,975

Footprint by Aircraft Type
A330 B777 A340 A320 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Sydney-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Sydney London (Heathrow)-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-London (Heathrow) Abu Dhabi-Manila Manila-Abu Dhabi Bangkok-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Bangkok Abu Dhabi-Chicago Chicago-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Melbourne Melbourne-Abu Dhabi New York (JFK)-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-New York (JFK) Manchester-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Manchester Paris (CDG)-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Paris (CDG) Frankfurt-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Frankfurt Abu Dhabi-Dublin Dublin-Abu Dhabi Jakarta-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Jakarta Abu Dhabi-Seoul Seoul-Abu Dhabi Johannesburg-Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi-Johannesburg Abu Dhabi-Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur-Abu Dhabi Other Routes

5% 1%

0%

Asia/Pacific Europe N & Cen America E & South Africa W & Cen Africa

16%

24%

54%

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other Types

Origin Airports
Abu Dhabi Sydney London (Heathrow) Manila Bangkok Chicago Melbourne New York (JFK) Manchester Paris (CDG) Frankfurt Dublin Beijing Jakarta Seoul Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
2,356 173 139 126 123 110 101 95 91 86 79 68 60 58 55 1,061

CO2 (kt) 2,500 2,000 1,500

CO2 v Distance

1,000
500 -

Mvts 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

4,779

Total

4,779

170

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Easyjet
ICAO Destination Region
A320 1%
Europe

Total Footprint =

4,645 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
29 29 28 28 27 27 23 23 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 18 18 18 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 15 15 15 15 4,035

Footprint by Aircraft Type
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
London (Gatwick)-Barcelona Barcelona-London (Gatwick) Milano-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Milano Malaga-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Malaga Madrid-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Madrid Milano-Paris (CDG) Paris (CDG)-Milano Faro-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Faro Geneva-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Geneva London (Gatwick)-Roma Roma-London (Gatwick) Paphos-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Paphos Paris (Orly)-Roma Roma-Paris (Orly) London (Gatwick)-Alicante Alicante-London (Gatwick) Paris (CDG)-Barcelona Barcelona-Paris (CDG) Palma de Mallorca-London (Gatwick) London (Gatwick)-Palma de Mallorca Paris (CDG)-Madrid Madrid-Paris (CDG) London (Gatwick)-Nice Nice-London (Gatwick) Other Routes

99%

Middle East

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other Types

Origin Airports
London (Gatwick) Geneva Milano Berlin London (Luton) Paris (CDG) Madrid Barcelona Bristol Amsterdam London (Stansted) Malaga Liverpool Roma Basel Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
665 203 194 185 180 165 147 146 126 124 120 114 112 105 105 1,953

CO2 (kt) 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

4,645

Total

4,645

171

CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

Iberia Airlines
ICAO Destination Region
1% 1% 15% 21% 0%
South America N & Cen America W & Cen Africa Europe

Total Footprint =

4,302 kt CO2
CO2 (kt)
170 170 126 126 123 123 101 101 96 95 92 92 89 89 84 84 76 74 72 72 63 63 62 62 58 58 54 54 52 52 1,668

Footprint by Aircraft Type
A340 A320 CRJ 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

City-Pair Hierarchy
Madrid-Buenos Aires Buenos Aires-Madrid Mexico City-Madrid Madrid-Mexico City Sao Paulo-Madrid Madrid-Sao Paulo Lima-Madrid Madrid-Lima Madrid-Bogota Bogota-Madrid Santiago de Chile-Madrid Madrid-Santiago de Chile New York (JFK)-Madrid Madrid-New York (JFK) Miami-Madrid Madrid-Miami Guayaquil-Madrid Madrid-Quito Madrid-San Jose San Jose-Madrid Madrid-Montevideo Montevideo-Madrid Madrid-Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro-Madrid Madrid-Caracas Caracas-Madrid La Habana-Madrid Madrid-La Habana Chicago-Madrid Madrid-Chicago Other Routes

62%
E & South Africa Middle East

CO2 CO(kt) 2 (kt)

Other Types

Origin Airports
Madrid Buenos Aires Sao Paulo Mexico City Lima Bogota Santiago de Chile Miami New York (JFK) Guayaquil San Jose Montevideo Rio de Janeiro Caracas La Habana Other Airports

CO2 (kt)
2,129 170 140 126 101 95 92 90 89 76 72 63 62 58 54 885

CO2 (kt) 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 -

CO2 v Distance

Mvts 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 -

Distance Range (km)
CO2 CO2(kt) (kt) Movements Movements

Total

4,302

Total

4,302

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Profile F5 Route Footprints
Profile F5 lists carbon footprint information for the top 1,000 city-pair routes categorised by the size of the carbon footprint. The information for each route is split into the component legs (eg information is shown both for London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) and for New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow)) to enable easier access to the data. The information is listed alphabetically so that the reader can readily access data for any given airport. There are approximately 25,000 city pairs in the Innovata dataset. The top 1,000 routes listed capture about 45% of the global carbon footprint for scheduled international passenger flights in 2012. The column headed ‘CO2 (kt)’ contains the total computed amount of CO2 generated by scheduled international passenger flights on each of the routes in 2012.

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City Pair
Abu Dhabi-Bangkok Abu Dhabi-Chicago Abu Dhabi-Frankfurt Abu Dhabi-London (Heathrow) Abu Dhabi-Manchester Abu Dhabi-Manila Abu Dhabi-Melbourne Abu Dhabi-New York (JFK) Abu Dhabi-Paris (CDG) Abu Dhabi-Sydney Agana-Manila Agana-Tokyo (Narita) Amsterdam-Atlanta Amsterdam-Bangkok Amsterdam-Beijing Amsterdam-Chicago Amsterdam-Curacao Amsterdam-Detroit Amsterdam-Dubai Amsterdam-Hong Kong Amsterdam-Houston Amsterdam-Johannesburg Amsterdam-Kuala Lumpur Amsterdam-Lima Amsterdam-Los Angeles Amsterdam-Mexico City Amsterdam-Minneapolis Amsterdam-Nairobi Amsterdam-New York (JFK) Amsterdam-Osaka Amsterdam-Panama City Amsterdam-San Francisco Amsterdam-Sao Paulo Amsterdam-Seoul Amsterdam-Shanghai Amsterdam-Singapore Amsterdam-Tokyo (Narita) Amsterdam-Toronto Amsterdam-Washington Amsterdam-Zanderij Atlanta-Amsterdam Atlanta-Dubai Atlanta-Frankfurt Atlanta-Johannesburg Atlanta-London (Heathrow) Atlanta-Paris (CDG) Atlanta-Seoul Atlanta-Tokyo (Narita) Auckland-Brisbane Auckland-Hong Kong Auckland-Los Angeles

CO2 (kt)
123 110 116 189 91 126 101 95 91 212 88 125 173 228 159 112 100 177 145 228 155 83 207 98 126 120 129 135 165 84 94 96 91 137 188 197 150 109 82 90 173 115 106 127 146 172 164 128 99 190 217

CO2/PAX (kg)
553 1,340 484 504 635 778 1,030 1,012 436 1,047 275 241 728 1,053 1,094 811 820 608 551 1,242 958 1,019 1,183 1,205 1,341 1,563 618 711 675 1,053 1,119 1,017 1,114 1,257 1,426 1,204 1,320 690 626 849 728 1,350 634 1,492 581 690 1,314 1,243 238 982 1,069

City Pair
Auckland-Melbourne Auckland-San Francisco Auckland-Seoul Auckland-Singapore Auckland-Sydney Bahrain-London (Heathrow) Bahrain-Manila Bangalore-Frankfurt Bangalore-London (Heathrow) Bangkok-Abu Dhabi Bangkok-Amsterdam Bangkok-Beijing Bangkok-Copenhagen Bangkok-Delhi Bangkok-Doha Bangkok-Dubai Bangkok-Frankfurt Bangkok-Guangzhou Bangkok-Helsinki Bangkok-Hong Kong Bangkok-Istanbul Bangkok-Kuala Lumpur Bangkok-London (Heathrow) Bangkok-Manila Bangkok-Melbourne Bangkok-Moscow Bangkok-Mumbai Bangkok-Munich Bangkok-Osaka Bangkok-Paris (CDG) Bangkok-Seoul Bangkok-Shanghai Bangkok-Singapore Bangkok-Stockholm Bangkok-Sydney Bangkok-Taipei Bangkok-Tokyo (Haneda) Bangkok-Tokyo (Narita) Bangkok-Wien Bangkok-Zurich Beijing-Amsterdam Beijing-Bangkok Beijing-Chicago Beijing-Dubai Beijing-Frankfurt Beijing-Hong Kong Beijing-Kuala Lumpur Beijing-London (Heathrow) Beijing-Los Angeles Beijing-Moscow Beijing-Munich

CO 2 (kt)
120 109 87 178 170 126 81 92 85 123 228 110 190 121 144 237 306 96 89 322 107 136 402 87 146 154 114 114 111 174 315 130 264 108 314 169 100 350 107 155 159 109 193 182 256 292 94 163 168 166 103

CO 2/PAX (kg)
256 1,181 1,085 944 212 568 798 840 891 553 1,053 365 921 275 586 503 944 177 876 202 801 144 932 234 770 706 270 965 402 973 356 288 170 911 799 283 388 451 948 809 1,094 365 1,210 587 784 211 463 893 1,028 572 728

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City Pair
Beijing-New York (JFK) Beijing-Newark Beijing-Paris (CDG) Beijing-Roma Beijing-San Francisco Beijing-Seattle Beijing-Seoul Beijing-Singapore Beijing-Tokyo (Narita) Beijing-Toronto Beijing-Vancouver Beijing-Washington Beirut-Paris (CDG) Birmingham-Dubai Bogota-Madrid Boston-Frankfurt Boston-London (Heathrow) Boston-Paris (CDG) Bridgetown-London (Gatwick) Brisbane-Auckland Brisbane-Dubai Brisbane-Hong Kong Brisbane-Los Angeles Brisbane-Singapore Brussels-New York (JFK) Brussels-Newark Buenos Aires-Frankfurt Buenos Aires-Lima Buenos Aires-London (Heathrow) Buenos Aires-Madrid Buenos Aires-Miami Buenos Aires-Paris (CDG) Buenos Aires-Rio de Janeiro Buenos Aires-Roma Buenos Aires-Santiago de Chile Buenos Aires-Sao Paulo Cairo-Dubai Cairo-Jeddah Cairo-London (Heathrow) Calgary-London (Heathrow) Cancun-Madrid Cape Town-Dubai Cape Town-London (Heathrow) Caracas-Madrid Caracas-Miami Cayenne-Paris (Orly) Chennai/Madras-Dubai Chennai/Madras-Singapore Chicago-Abu Dhabi Chicago-Amsterdam Chicago-Beijing Chicago-Delhi

CO2 (kt)
146 100 196 107 247 90 96 256 92 130 124 101 92 102 172 97 299 86 162 99 112 87 192 295 120 98 152 100 104 340 265 102 92 160 93 164 99 154 92 99 89 118 259 129 87 85 100 86 110 112 193 112

CO2/PAX (kg)
1,243 1,257 881 906 1,055 794 122 458 196 1,215 834 1,274 367 625 757 614 495 565 732 238 1,374 672 1,313 624 524 640 1,305 261 1,277 934 734 1,272 216 1,273 133 178 272 165 351 599 878 805 1,028 646 202 711 303 267 1,340 811 1,210 1,379

City Pair
Chicago-Frankfurt Chicago-Hong Kong Chicago-London (Heathrow) Chicago-Munich Chicago-Paris (CDG) Chicago-Seoul Chicago-Shanghai Chicago-Tokyo (Narita) Colombo-Dubai Colombo-London (Heathrow) Colombo-Singapore Copenhagen-Bangkok Curacao-Amsterdam Dallas-Fort Worth-Brisbane Dallas-Fort Worth-Dubai Dallas-Fort Worth-Frankfurt

CO 2 (kt)
255 280 442 114 124 163 207 414 108 85 98 173 133 155 111 114

CO 2/PAX (kg)
754 1,414 607 678 588 1,202 1,299 1,106 333 929 283 918 800 1,521 1,419 746 805 893 1,182 275 1,379 238 687 402 711 1,348 1,349 700 416 355 225 508 198 479 608 563 1,182 1,214 1,302 1,149 383 586 76 473 698 1,420 602 507 779 1,313 1,234 381

Dallas-Fort Worth-London (Heathrow) 276 Dallas-Fort Worth-Sao Paulo Dallas-Fort Worth-Tokyo (Narita) Delhi-Bangkok Delhi-Chicago Delhi-Dubai Delhi-Frankfurt Delhi-Hong Kong Delhi-London (Heathrow) Delhi-New York (JFK) Delhi-Newark Delhi-Paris (CDG) Delhi-Singapore Denpasar-Hong Kong Denpasar-Perth Denpasar-Seoul Denpasar-Singapore Denpasar-Sydney Detroit-Amsterdam Detroit-Frankfurt Detroit-Nagoya Detroit-Seoul Detroit-Shanghai Detroit-Tokyo (Narita) Dhaka-Dubai Doha-Bangkok Doha-Dubai Doha-Frankfurt Doha-Hong Kong Doha-Houston Doha-Kuala Lumpur Doha-London (Heathrow) Doha-Manila Doha-Melbourne Doha-New York (JFK) Doha-Paris (CDG) 88 193 121 112 130 128 104 352 91 109 119 140 100 90 89 135 83 177 93 115 89 111 136 103 144 107 109 86 121 119 212 126 112 101 95

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City Pair
Doha-Sao Paulo Doha-Singapore Doha-Washington Dubai-Amsterdam Dubai-Atlanta Dubai-Bangkok Dubai-Beijing Dubai-Birmingham Dubai-Brisbane Dubai-Cairo Dubai-Cape Town Dubai-Chennai/Madras Dubai-Colombo Dubai-Dallas-Fort Worth Dubai-Delhi Dubai-Dhaka Dubai-Doha Dubai-Dusseldorf Dubai-Frankfurt Dubai-Glasgow Dubai-Guangzhou Dubai-Hamburg Dubai-Hong Kong Dubai-Houston Dubai-Hyderabad Dubai-Istanbul Dubai-Jakarta Dubai-Jeddah Dubai-Johannesburg Dubai-Karachi Dubai-Kuala Lumpur Dubai-Kuwait City Dubai-Lagos Dubai-London (Gatwick) Dubai-London (Heathrow) Dubai-Los Angeles Dubai-Manchester Dubai-Manila Dubai-Melbourne Dubai-Milano Dubai-Moscow Dubai-Mumbai Dubai-Munich Dubai-Nairobi Dubai-New York (JFK) Dubai-Paris (CDG) Dubai-Perth Dubai-Rio de Janeiro Dubai-Riyadh Dubai-Roma Dubai-San Francisco Dubai-Sao Paulo

CO2 (kt)
111 113 104 142 115 238 183 102 112 99 118 100 107 111 130 97 108 91 176 81 106 89 203 134 95 95 157 139 181 93 180 115 100 149 542 199 172 126 122 108 93 155 135 87 253 188 173 111 89 93 122 115

CO2/PAX (kg)
1,301 682 1,275 554 1,350 503 588 625 1,374 272 803 303 333 1,419 238 386 76 521 490 623 649 543 602 1,490 255 325 727 182 700 162 571 119 606 603 543 1,498 587 769 1,284 475 355 214 433 351 1,174 539 1,000 1,357 125 447 1,494 1,401

City Pair
Dubai-Seattle Dubai-Seoul Dubai-Shanghai Dubai-Singapore Dubai-Sydney Dubai-Tokyo (Narita) Dubai-Washington Dubai-Wien Dubai-Zurich Dublin-New York (JFK) Dusseldorf-Dubai Fort de France-Paris (Orly) Frankfurt-Abu Dhabi Frankfurt-Atlanta Frankfurt-Bangalore Frankfurt-Bangkok Frankfurt-Beijing Frankfurt-Boston Frankfurt-Buenos Aires Frankfurt-Chicago Frankfurt-Dallas-Fort Worth Frankfurt-Delhi Frankfurt-Detroit Frankfurt-Doha Frankfurt-Dubai Frankfurt-Hong Kong Frankfurt-Houston Frankfurt-Johannesburg Frankfurt-Los Angeles Frankfurt-Mexico City Frankfurt-Miami Frankfurt-Moscow Frankfurt-New York (JFK) Frankfurt-Newark Frankfurt-Osaka Frankfurt-Philadelphia Frankfurt-Rio de Janeiro Frankfurt-San Francisco Frankfurt-Sao Paulo Frankfurt-Seoul Frankfurt-Shanghai Frankfurt-Singapore Frankfurt-Tokyo (Narita) Frankfurt-Toronto Frankfurt-Vancouver Frankfurt-Washington Glasgow-Dubai Guangzhou-Bangkok Guangzhou-Dubai Guangzhou-Los Angeles Guangzhou-Melbourne Guangzhou-Paris (CDG)

CO 2 (kt)
93 124 127 234 277 89 139 100 125 107 91 236 116 106 92 306 257 97 152 255 114 128 93 109 176 235 160 186 166 123 100 84 248 164 119 115 114 282 218 270 289 502 298 169 83 256 81 96 106 120 95 128

CO 2/PAX (kg)
1,309 691 685 623 1,288 823 1,288 404 506 513 521 724 484 634 840 944 784 614 1,305 754 746 687 563 473 490 1,008 776 777 1,035 1,057 803 189 565 630 1,021 622 1,001 977 1,036 831 973 1,092 964 606 695 693 623 177 649 1,286 840 1,060

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City Pair
Guangzhou-Singapore Guangzhou-Sydney Guayaquil-Madrid Hamburg-Dubai Helsinki-Bangkok Higuey-Moscow Ho Chi Minh City-Paris (CDG) Ho Chi Minh City-Seoul Ho Chi Minh City-Taipei Ho Chi Minh City-Tokyo (Narita) Hong Kong-Amsterdam Hong Kong-Auckland Hong Kong-Bangkok Hong Kong-Beijing Hong Kong-Brisbane Hong Kong-Chicago Hong Kong-Delhi Hong Kong-Denpasar Hong Kong-Doha Hong Kong-Dubai Hong Kong-Frankfurt Hong Kong-Jakarta Hong Kong-Johannesburg Hong Kong-Kuala Lumpur Hong Kong-London (Heathrow) Hong Kong-Los Angeles Hong Kong-Manila Hong Kong-Melbourne Hong Kong-Milano Hong Kong-Moscow Hong Kong-Mumbai Hong Kong-New York (JFK) Hong Kong-Newark Hong Kong-Osaka Hong Kong-Paris (CDG) Hong Kong-Perth Hong Kong-San Francisco Hong Kong-Seoul Hong Kong-Shanghai Hong Kong-Singapore Hong Kong-Sydney Hong Kong-Taipei Hong Kong-Tokyo (Haneda) Hong Kong-Tokyo (Narita) Hong Kong-Toronto Hong Kong-Vancouver Honolulu-Nagoya Honolulu-Osaka Honolulu-Seoul Honolulu-Sydney Honolulu-Tokyo (Haneda) Honolulu-Tokyo (Narita)

CO2 (kt)
95 113 132 89 89 107 94 128 82 100 228 190 323 292 95 280 104 100 86 203 235 160 207 166 843 297 163 191 87 82 91 348 118 112 290 87 524 280 285 451 419 450 121 212 290 305 82 165 224 144 145 464

CO2/PAX (kg)
241 770 899 543 876 1,027 1,156 340 252 375 1,242 982 202 211 672 1,414 402 355 698 602 1,008 333 1,134 268 1,034 1,309 152 731 1,035 707 459 1,451 1,487 255 1,070 589 1,262 229 147 275 704 129 333 283 1,388 1,160 483 622 723 834 632 566

City Pair
Houston-Amsterdam Houston-Doha Houston-Dubai Houston-Frankfurt Houston-Lagos Houston-London (Heathrow) Houston-Paris (CDG) Houston-Tokyo (Narita) Hyderabad-Dubai Istanbul-Bangkok Istanbul-Dubai Istanbul-London (Heathrow) Istanbul-Los Angeles Istanbul-New York (JFK) Istanbul-Seoul Istanbul-Singapore Jakarta-Dubai Jakarta-Hong Kong Jakarta-Jeddah Jakarta-Kuala Lumpur Jakarta-Seoul Jakarta-Singapore Jakarta-Tokyo (Narita) Jeddah-Cairo Jeddah-Dubai Jeddah-Jakarta Johannesburg-Amsterdam Johannesburg-Atlanta Johannesburg-Dubai Johannesburg-Frankfurt Johannesburg-Hong Kong Johannesburg-London (Heathrow) Johannesburg-New York (JFK) Johannesburg-Paris (CDG) Johannesburg-Sao Paulo Johannesburg-Sydney Karachi-Dubai Kuala Lumpur-Amsterdam Kuala Lumpur-Bangkok Kuala Lumpur-Beijing Kuala Lumpur-Doha Kuala Lumpur-Dubai Kuala Lumpur-Hong Kong Kuala Lumpur-Jakarta Kuala Lumpur-London (Heathrow) Kuala Lumpur-Melbourne Kuala Lumpur-Paris (CDG) Kuala Lumpur-Perth Kuala Lumpur-Seoul Kuala Lumpur-Shanghai Kuala Lumpur-Singapore Kuala Lumpur-Sydney

CO 2 (kt)
155 121 134 160 82 292 110 100 95 107 95 100 97 201 134 126 156 160 297 124 110 242 137 154 139 331 83 127 181 186 208 484 109 111 89 147 92 206 136 94 119 180 166 124 282 215 96 86 121 85 106 181

CO 2/PAX (kg)
958 1,420 1,490 776 1,199 863 800 1,222 255 801 325 223 1,265 818 842 969 727 334 880 126 576 119 566 165 182 879 1,019 1,492 700 777 1,135 929 1,028 864 769 1,248 162 1,183 144 463 602 571 268 125 1,158 653 1,196 432 503 380 59 719

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City Pair
Kuala Lumpur-Taipei Kuala Lumpur-Tokyo (Narita) Kuwait City-Dubai Kuwait City-London (Heathrow) Kuwait City-Washington La Habana-Madrid La Habana-Paris (CDG) Lagos-Dubai Lagos-Houston Lagos-London (Heathrow) Las Vegas-London (Gatwick) Las Vegas-London (Heathrow) Lima-Amsterdam Lima-Buenos Aires Lima-Madrid Lima-Miami Lima-Santiago de Chile Lisboa-Luanda Lisboa-Rio de Janeiro Lisboa-Sao Paulo London (Gatwick)-Bridgetown London (Gatwick)-Dubai London (Gatwick)-Las Vegas London (Gatwick)-Orlando London (Gatwick)-St. Lucia London (Heathrow)-Abu Dhabi London (Heathrow)-Atlanta London (Heathrow)-Bahrain London (Heathrow)-Bangalore London (Heathrow)-Bangkok London (Heathrow)-Beijing London (Heathrow)-Boston London (Heathrow)-Buenos Aires London (Heathrow)-Cairo London (Heathrow)-Calgary London (Heathrow)-Cape Town London (Heathrow)-Chicago London (Heathrow)-Colombo

CO2 (kt)
108 111 115 87 99 122 82 100 82 144 108 105 98 97 226 119 111 129 98 101 162 149 108 227 91 189 145 126 85 402 163 299 104 92 99 260 442 85

CO2/PAX (kg)
352 518 119 502 1,210 774 857 606 1,199 462 921 915 1,205 261 851 352 223 598 828 849 732 603 921 742 747 504 581 568 891 932 893 495 1,277 351 599 1,028 606 930 805 711 507 543 1,034 863 223 929 1,158 503 461 915 902 118

City Pair
London (Heathrow)-Miami London (Heathrow)-Montreal London (Heathrow)-Moscow London (Heathrow)-Mumbai London (Heathrow)-Nairobi London (Heathrow)-New York (JFK) London (Heathrow)-Newark London (Heathrow)-Philadelphia London (Heathrow)-Phoenix London (Heathrow)-Rio de Janeiro London (Heathrow)-Riyadh London (Heathrow)-San Francisco London (Heathrow)-Sao Paulo London (Heathrow)-Seattle London (Heathrow)-Seoul London (Heathrow)-Shanghai London (Heathrow)-Singapore London (Heathrow)-Tel Aviv London (Heathrow)-Tokyo (Narita) London (Heathrow)-Toronto London (Heathrow)-Vancouver London (Heathrow)-Washington Los Angeles-Agana Los Angeles-Amsterdam Los Angeles-Auckland Los Angeles-Beijing Los Angeles-Brisbane Los Angeles-Dubai Los Angeles-Frankfurt Los Angeles-Guangzhou Los Angeles-Hong Kong Los Angeles-Istanbul Los Angeles-London (Heathrow) Los Angeles-Melbourne Los Angeles-Mexico City Los Angeles-Papeete Los Angeles-Paris (CDG) Los Angeles-Seoul Los Angeles-Shanghai Los Angeles-Singapore Los Angeles-Sydney Los Angeles-Taipei Los Angeles-Tokyo (Haneda) Los Angeles-Tokyo (Narita) Luanda-Lisboa Madrid-Bogota Madrid-Buenos Aires Madrid-Cancun Madrid-Caracas Madrid-La Habana Madrid-Lima Madrid-London (Heathrow)

CO 2 (kt)
411 82 125 354 167 1,000 390 134 92 104 111 476 210 97 193 189 1,015 110 347 278 205 360 137 132 217 168 192 199 166 120 297 97 664 225 82 102 238 541 281 86 705 503 151 628 123 172 340 89 130 115 236 81

CO 2/PAX (kg)
743 495 215 796 741 556 527 561 923 1,041 548 940 996 833 985 890 1,149 352 970 535 806 587 1,078 1,298 1,068 1,028 1,313 1,498 1,035 1,286 1,309 1,265 902 1,338 241 673 966 1,046 1,048 1,373 1,335 1,243 987 938 595 757 934 878 647 782 849 118

London (Heathrow)-Dallas-Fort Worth 276 London (Heathrow)-Delhi London (Heathrow)-Doha London (Heathrow)-Dubai London (Heathrow)-Hong Kong London (Heathrow)-Houston London (Heathrow)-Istanbul London (Heathrow)-Johannesburg London (Heathrow)-Kuala Lumpur London (Heathrow)-Kuwait City London (Heathrow)-Lagos London (Heathrow)-Las Vegas London (Heathrow)-Los Angeles London (Heathrow)-Madrid 352 212 542 843 292 100 483 282 89 144 105 664 81

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City Pair
Madrid-Mexico City Madrid-Miami Madrid-New York (JFK) Madrid-Santiago de Chile Madrid-Santo Domingo Madrid-Sao Paulo Manchester-Abu Dhabi Manchester-Dubai Manchester-Orlando Manila-Abu Dhabi Manila-Bahrain Manila-Bangkok Manila-Doha Manila-Dubai Manila-Hong Kong Manila-Los Angeles Manila-San Francisco Manila-Seoul Manila-Singapore Manila-Tokyo (Narita) Manila-Vancouver Mauritius-Paris (CDG) Melbourne-Abu Dhabi Melbourne-Auckland Melbourne-Bangkok Melbourne-Doha Melbourne-Dubai Melbourne-Guangzhou Melbourne-Hong Kong Melbourne-Kuala Lumpur Melbourne-Los Angeles Melbourne-Shanghai Melbourne-Singapore Mexico City-Amsterdam Mexico City-Frankfurt Mexico City-Los Angeles Mexico City-Madrid Mexico City-Paris (CDG) Mexico City-Sao Paulo Miami-Buenos Aires Miami-Caracas Miami-Frankfurt Miami-Lima Miami-London (Heathrow) Miami-Madrid Miami-Paris (CDG) Miami-Rio de Janeiro Miami-Santiago de Chile Miami-Sao Paulo Milano-Dubai Milano-Hong Kong Milano-New York (JFK)

CO2 (kt)
214 131 175 184 104 209 91 172 104 126 81 87 126 126 163 164 148 165 222 134 91 171 101 120 146 112 122 95 244 215 225 96 376 120 123 82 214 190 129 265 86 100 117 410 130 121 97 126 286 108 87 115

CO2/PAX (kg)
860 604 493 1,055 742 847 635 587 672 778 798 234 779 769 152 1,318 1,270 258 243 279 1,072 1,002 1,029 255 770 1,313 1,284 840 728 653 1,338 764 613 1,563 1,057 241 860 937 827 735 202 803 352 743 604 721 566 555 693 475 1,035 553

City Pair
Milano-Singapore Minneapolis-Amsterdam Minneapolis-Tokyo (Narita) Montreal-London (Heathrow) Montreal-Paris (CDG) Moscow-Bangkok Moscow-Beijing Moscow-Dubai Moscow-Frankfurt Moscow-Higuey Moscow-Hong Kong Moscow-London (Heathrow) Moscow-New York (JFK) Moscow-Paris (CDG) Moscow-Phuket Moscow-Shanghai Moscow-Tel Aviv Moscow-Tokyo (Narita) Mumbai-Bangkok Mumbai-Dubai Mumbai-Frankfurt Mumbai-Hong Kong Mumbai-London (Heathrow) Mumbai-Newark Mumbai-Singapore Munich-Bangkok Munich-Beijing Munich-Chicago Munich-Dubai Munich-Newark Munich-Sao Paulo Munich-Singapore Munich-Tokyo (Narita) Munich-Washington Nagoya-Detroit Nagoya-Honolulu Nairobi-Amsterdam Nairobi-Dubai Nairobi-London (Heathrow) New York (JFK)-Abu Dhabi New York (JFK)-Amsterdam New York (JFK)-Beijing New York (JFK)-Brussels New York (JFK)-Delhi New York (JFK)-Doha New York (JFK)-Dubai New York (JFK)-Dublin New York (JFK)-Frankfurt New York (JFK)-Hong Kong New York (JFK)-Istanbul New York (JFK)-Johannesburg New York (JFK)-London (Heathrow)

CO 2 (kt)
92 129 89 82 230 155 166 93 84 107 82 125 193 90 92 111 85 89 114 155 81 91 354 217 166 114 103 114 135 94 82 143 162 106 115 82 135 90 167 95 165 146 120 91 101 253 107 248 348 201 109 1,000

CO 2/PAX (kg)
1,181 618 1,057 494 587 707 572 355 189 1,027 707 215 692 212 799 594 244 775 270 214 703 459 796 1,409 422 965 728 678 433 537 909 1,104 893 701 1,182 484 711 349 741 1,012 675 1,243 524 1,348 1,234 1,174 513 565 1,451 818 1,028 556

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City Pair
New York (JFK)-Madrid New York (JFK)-Milano New York (JFK)-Moscow New York (JFK)-Paris (CDG) New York (JFK)-Rio de Janeiro New York (JFK)-Roma New York (JFK)-San Juan

CO2 (kt)
175 115 193 372 108 180 136

CO2/PAX (kg)
493 553 692 564 775 687 228 210 224 778 1,200 951 1,008 1,190 568 1,257 640 1,349 629 1,487 527 1,409 537 1,360 1,495 1,031 1,239 569 741 672 764 1,053 402 1,021 255 622 1,095 116 187 1,119 673 436 690 973 881 368 565 1,272 588 701 381 539

City Pair
Paris (CDG)-Guangzhou Paris (CDG)-Ho Chi Minh City Paris (CDG)-Hong Kong Paris (CDG)-Houston Paris (CDG)-Johannesburg Paris (CDG)-Kuala Lumpur Paris (CDG)-La Habana Paris (CDG)-Los Angeles Paris (CDG)-Mauritius Paris (CDG)-Mexico City Paris (CDG)-Miami Paris (CDG)-Montreal Paris (CDG)-Moscow Paris (CDG)-New York (JFK) Paris (CDG)-Osaka Paris (CDG)-Rio de Janeiro Paris (CDG)-San Francisco Paris (CDG)-Santiago de Chile Paris (CDG)-Sao Paulo Paris (CDG)-Seoul Paris (CDG)-Shanghai Paris (CDG)-Singapore Paris (CDG)-St-Denis de la Reunion Paris (CDG)-Tel Aviv Paris (CDG)-Tokyo (Haneda) Paris (CDG)-Tokyo (Narita) Paris (CDG)-Toronto Paris (CDG)-Washington Paris (Orly)-Cayenne Paris (Orly)-Fort de France Paris (Orly)-Pointe-a-Pitre Paris (Orly)-St-Denis de la Reunion Perth-Denpasar Perth-Dubai Perth-Hong Kong Perth-Kuala Lumpur Perth-Singapore Philadelphia-Frankfurt Philadelphia-London (Heathrow) Phoenix-London (Heathrow) Phuket-Moscow Phuket-Seoul Pointe-a-Pitre-Paris (Orly) Rio de Janeiro-Buenos Aires Rio de Janeiro-Dubai Rio de Janeiro-Frankfurt Rio de Janeiro-Lisboa Rio de Janeiro-London (Heathrow) Rio de Janeiro-Miami Rio de Janeiro-New York (JFK) Rio de Janeiro-Paris (CDG) Riyadh-Dubai

CO 2 (kt)
128 94 290 110 111 96 82 238 171 190 121 232 90 373 86 227 132 109 245 230 289 258 98 89 90 386 107 149 83 233 248 249 90 173 88 87 198 115 134 92 92 97 246 92 110 114 98 104 97 108 227 91

CO 2/PAX (kg)
1,060 1,156 1,070 800 864 1,196 857 966 1,002 937 721 587 212 564 1,095 1,020 983 1,338 1,060 996 1,044 1,123 1,050 298 1,105 1,038 623 593 710 725 710 1,046 225 1,000 589 432 396 622 561 923 799 390 710 216 1,358 1,001 828 1,041 566 775 1,020 125

New York (JFK)-Santiago de los Caballeros84 New York (JFK)-Santo Domingo New York (JFK)-Sao Paulo New York (JFK)-Seoul New York (JFK)-Shanghai New York (JFK)-Tel Aviv New York (JFK)-Tokyo (Narita) New York (JFK)-Zurich Newark-Beijing Newark-Brussels Newark-Delhi Newark-Frankfurt Newark-Hong Kong Newark-London (Heathrow) Newark-Mumbai Newark-Munich Newark-Shanghai Newark-Singapore Newark-Tel Aviv Newark-Tokyo (Narita) Newark-Zurich Orlando-London (Gatwick) Orlando-Manchester Orlando-Sao Paulo Osaka-Amsterdam Osaka-Bangkok Osaka-Frankfurt Osaka-Hong Kong Osaka-Honolulu Osaka-Paris (CDG) Osaka-Seoul Osaka-Taipei Panama City-Amsterdam Papeete-Los Angeles Paris (CDG)-Abu Dhabi Paris (CDG)-Atlanta Paris (CDG)-Bangkok Paris (CDG)-Beijing Paris (CDG)-Beirut Paris (CDG)-Boston Paris (CDG)-Buenos Aires Paris (CDG)-Chicago Paris (CDG)-Delhi Paris (CDG)-Doha Paris (CDG)-Dubai 82 260 367 102 305 408 152 100 98 109 164 117 390 217 94 108 130 243 100 83 227 104 110 84 111 120 112 165 86 131 120 94 102 91 172 174 196 92 86 102 124 119 95 188

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

City Pair
Riyadh-London (Heathrow) Roma-Beijing Roma-Buenos Aires Roma-Dubai Roma-New York (JFK) Roma-Sao Paulo Roma-Tokyo (Narita) Roma-Toronto Roma-Washington San Francisco-Agana San Francisco-Amsterdam San Francisco-Auckland San Francisco-Beijing San Francisco-Dubai San Francisco-Frankfurt San Francisco-Hong Kong San Francisco-London (Heathrow) San Francisco-Paris (CDG) San Francisco-Seoul San Francisco-Shanghai San Francisco-Sydney San Francisco-Taipei San Francisco-Tokyo (Narita) San Juan-New York (JFK) Santiago de Chile-Buenos Aires Santiago de Chile-Lima Santiago de Chile-Madrid Santiago de Chile-Miami Santiago de Chile-Paris (CDG) Santiago de Chile-Sao Paulo

CO2 (kt)
111 107 159 93 180 98 122 97 104 115 96 109 247 122 282 524 476 132 368 114 160 288 271 136 94 111 185 125 109 97

CO2/PAX (kg)
548 906 1,273 447 687 1,070 1,130 649 736 1,029 1,017 1,181 1,055 1,494 977 1,262 940 983 1,016 1,108 1,357 1,176 843 228 133 223 1,055 555 1,338 242 210 740 224 1,114 178 892 1,301 1,401 1,036 769 849 996 847 827 692 908 778 764 1,060 1,070 241 981

City Pair
Seattle-Beijing Seattle-Dubai Seattle-London (Heathrow) Seattle-Seoul Seattle-Tokyo (Narita) Seoul-Amsterdam Seoul-Atlanta Seoul-Auckland Seoul-Bangkok Seoul-Beijing Seoul-Chicago Seoul-Denpasar Seoul-Detroit Seoul-Dubai Seoul-Frankfurt Seoul-Ho Chi Minh City Seoul-Hong Kong Seoul-Honolulu Seoul-Istanbul Seoul-Jakarta Seoul-Kuala Lumpur Seoul-London (Heathrow) Seoul-Los Angeles Seoul-Manila Seoul-New York (JFK) Seoul-Osaka Seoul-Paris (CDG) Seoul-Phuket Seoul-San Francisco Seoul-Seattle Seoul-Shanghai Seoul-Singapore Seoul-Sydney Seoul-Taipei Seoul-Tokyo (Haneda) Seoul-Tokyo (Narita) Seoul-Vancouver Seoul-Washington Shanghai-Amsterdam Shanghai-Bangkok Shanghai-Chicago Shanghai-Detroit Shanghai-Dubai Shanghai-Frankfurt Shanghai-Hong Kong Shanghai-Kuala Lumpur Shanghai-London (Heathrow) Shanghai-Los Angeles Shanghai-Melbourne Shanghai-Moscow Shanghai-New York (JFK) Shanghai-Newark

CO 2 (kt)
90 93 97 106 161 126 163 87 315 96 163 89 89 124 270 128 280 224 134 110 120 193 541 164 367 131 230 97 368 106 123 274 160 110 183 177 114 104 188 130 207 110 127 289 285 85 189 281 96 111 102 108

CO 2/PAX (kg)
794 1,309 833 864 809 1,293 1,314 1,085 356 122 1,202 508 1,214 691 831 340 229 723 842 576 503 985 1,046 258 1,200 116 996 390 1,016 864 111 465 924 169 149 154 802 1,281 1,427 288 1,299 1,302 685 973 147 380 889 1,048 764 594 951 1,360

Santiago de los Caballeros-New York (JFK) 84 Santo Domingo-Madrid Santo Domingo-New York (JFK) Sao Paulo-Amsterdam Sao Paulo-Buenos Aires Sao Paulo-Dallas-Fort Worth Sao Paulo-Doha Sao Paulo-Dubai Sao Paulo-Frankfurt Sao Paulo-Johannesburg Sao Paulo-Lisboa Sao Paulo-London (Heathrow) Sao Paulo-Madrid Sao Paulo-Mexico City Sao Paulo-Miami Sao Paulo-Munich Sao Paulo-New York (JFK) Sao Paulo-Orlando Sao Paulo-Paris (CDG) Sao Paulo-Roma Sao Paulo-Santiago de Chile Sao Paulo-Zurich 105 82 91 163 88 111 115 218 89 101 211 209 129 286 82 260 110 245 98 97 82

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

City Pair
Shanghai-Paris (CDG) Shanghai-San Francisco Shanghai-Seoul Shanghai-Singapore Shanghai-Sydney Shanghai-Taipei Shanghai-Tokyo (Narita) Shanghai-Toronto Shanghai-Vancouver Singapore-Amsterdam Singapore-Auckland Singapore-Bangkok Singapore-Beijing Singapore-Brisbane Singapore-Chennai/Madras Singapore-Colombo Singapore-Delhi Singapore-Denpasar Singapore-Doha Singapore-Dubai Singapore-Frankfurt Singapore-Guangzhou Singapore-Hong Kong Singapore-Istanbul Singapore-Jakarta Singapore-Kuala Lumpur Singapore-London (Heathrow) Singapore-Los Angeles Singapore-Manila Singapore-Melbourne Singapore-Milano Singapore-Mumbai Singapore-Munich Singapore-Newark Singapore-Paris (CDG) Singapore-Perth Singapore-Seoul Singapore-Shanghai Singapore-Sydney Singapore-Taipei Singapore-Tokyo (Haneda) Singapore-Tokyo (Narita) Singapore-Zurich St. Lucia-London (Gatwick) St-Denis de la Reunion-Paris (CDG) St-Denis de la Reunion-Paris (Orly) Stockholm-Bangkok Sydney-Abu Dhabi Sydney-Auckland Sydney-Bangkok Sydney-Dallas-Fort Worth Sydney-Denpasar

CO2 (kt)
289 114 123 253 157 103 171 107 136 197 173 263 256 295 86 86 140 134 113 234 502 95 451 125 242 107 1,015 86 222 376 92 166 143 130 258 198 274 253 529 194 164 334 138 91 99 249 103 212 170 314 160 84

CO2/PAX (kg)
1,044 1,108 111 392 789 109 183 1,262 883 1,204 944 171 458 624 267 279 416 199 682 623 1,092 241 274 969 119 59 1,149 1,373 243 613 1,181 422 1,104 1,495 1,123 397 465 392 629 315 488 516 1,038 747 1,050 1,046 911 1,046 212 798 1,572 479

City Pair
Sydney-Dubai Sydney-Guangzhou Sydney-Hong Kong Sydney-Honolulu Sydney-Johannesburg Sydney-Kuala Lumpur Sydney-Los Angeles Sydney-San Francisco Sydney-Seoul Sydney-Shanghai Sydney-Singapore Sydney-Tokyo (Narita) Sydney-Vancouver Taipei-Bangkok Taipei-Ho Chi Minh City Taipei-Hong Kong Taipei-Kuala Lumpur Taipei-Los Angeles Taipei-Osaka Taipei-Osaka Taipei-San Francisco Taipei-Seoul Taipei-Shanghai Taipei-Singapore Taipei-Tokyo (Haneda) Taipei-Tokyo (Narita) Taipei-Vancouver Tel Aviv-London (Heathrow) Tel Aviv-Moscow Tel Aviv-New York (JFK) Tel Aviv-Newark Tel Aviv-Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Haneda)-Bangkok Tokyo (Haneda)-Hong Kong Tokyo (Haneda)-Honolulu Tokyo (Haneda)-Los Angeles Tokyo (Haneda)-Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Haneda)-Seoul Tokyo (Haneda)-Singapore Tokyo (Haneda)-Taipei Tokyo (Narita)-Agana Tokyo (Narita)-Amsterdam Tokyo (Narita)-Atlanta Tokyo (Narita)-Bangkok Tokyo (Narita)-Beijing Tokyo (Narita)-Chicago Tokyo (Narita)-Dallas-Fort Worth Tokyo (Narita)-Detroit Tokyo (Narita)-Dubai Tokyo (Narita)-Frankfurt Tokyo (Narita)-Ho Chi Minh City Tokyo (Narita)-Hong Kong

CO 2 (kt)
277 113 418 144 147 181 707 160 160 158 530 168 119 170 83 450 108 503 120 120 288 110 103 194 133 215 124 110 85 305 245 90 100 121 145 151 90 183 164 133 125 150 128 350 92 414 193 136 89 298 98 211

CO 2/PAX (kg)
1,288 770 703 834 1,248 719 1,336 1,357 924 789 629 859 1,372 283 250 129 352 1,243 187 187 1,176 169 109 315 205 239 1,015 352 244 1,007 1,031 298 388 333 632 987 1,105 149 488 205 241 1,321 1,243 451 196 1,106 1,182 1,149 823 964 377 284

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

City Pair
Tokyo (Narita)-Honolulu Tokyo (Narita)-Houston Tokyo (Narita)-Jakarta Tokyo (Narita)-Kuala Lumpur Tokyo (Narita)-London (Heathrow) Tokyo (Narita)-Los Angeles Tokyo (Narita)-Manila Tokyo (Narita)-Minneapolis Tokyo (Narita)-Moscow Tokyo (Narita)-Munich Tokyo (Narita)-New York (JFK) Tokyo (Narita)-Newark Tokyo (Narita)-Paris (CDG) Tokyo (Narita)-Roma Tokyo (Narita)-San Francisco Tokyo (Narita)-Seattle Tokyo (Narita)-Seoul Tokyo (Narita)-Shanghai Tokyo (Narita)-Singapore Tokyo (Narita)-Sydney Tokyo (Narita)-Taipei Tokyo (Narita)-Toronto Tokyo (Narita)-Vancouver Tokyo (Narita)-Washington Tokyo (Narita)-Zurich Toronto-Amsterdam Toronto-Beijing Toronto-Frankfurt Toronto-Hong Kong Toronto-London (Heathrow) Toronto-Paris (CDG) Toronto-Roma Toronto-Shanghai Toronto-Tokyo (Narita) Vancouver-Beijing Vancouver-Frankfurt Vancouver-Hong Kong Vancouver-London (Heathrow) Vancouver-Manila Vancouver-Seoul Vancouver-Shanghai Vancouver-Sydney Vancouver-Taipei Vancouver-Tokyo (Narita) Washington-Addis Ababa Washington-Amsterdam Washington-Beijing Washington-Doha Washington-Dubai Washington-Frankfurt Washington-Kuwait City Washington-London (Heathrow)

CO2 (kt)
464 100 137 111 347 626 134 89 89 162 408 100 386 120 272 160 177 171 333 168 216 96 106 202 88 109 130 170 290 277 107 90 107 96 124 83 305 206 94 114 136 120 124 106 93 82 101 104 139 256 99 360

CO2/PAX (kg)
566 1,222 566 518 970 939 279 1,057 775 893 1,191 1,239 1,038 1,130 843 810 154 183 516 859 238 1,180 647 1,243 985 691 1,215 606 1,388 535 623 643 1,261 1,180 834 695 1,160 806 1,071 802 883 1,372 1,015 647 1,303 626 1,274 1,275 1,288 693 1,210 587

City Pair
Washington-Munich Washington-Paris (CDG) Washington-Seoul Washington-Tokyo (Narita) Wien-Bangkok Wien-Dubai Zanderij-Amsterdam Zurich-Bangkok Zurich-Dubai Zurich-New York (JFK) Zurich-Newark Zurich-Sao Paulo Zurich-Singapore Zurich-Tokyo (Narita) Washington-Paris (CDG) Washington-Seoul Washington-Tokyo (Narita) Wien-Bangkok Wien-Dubai Zanderij-Amsterdam Zurich-Bangkok Zurich-Dubai Zurich-New York (JFK) Zurich-Newark Zurich-Sao Paulo Zurich-Singapore Zurich-Tokyo (Narita)

CO 2 (kt)
106 149 104 201 107 100 90 155 125 152 83 82 138 88 149 104 201 107 100 90 155 125 152 83 82 138 88

CO 2/PAX (kg)
700 593 1,281 1,243 948 404 849 809 506 568 569 981 1,038 985 593 1,281 1,243 948 404 849 809 506 568 569 981 1,038 985

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CONTENTS: Profiles–Home Profiles–Region Profiles–Country Profiles–Airport Profiles–Airline Profiles-Routes

About the Author
Dave Southgate retired from the Australian Government Public Service in July 2012 after a 31 year career as an ‘environmental bureaucrat’. After working in both State and Federal Government environmental agencies for 8 years he joined the aviation area of the Australian Government Transport Department in late 1989 and stayed there until he retired. Throughout his time in Transport he specialised in aircraft noise; in the latter years he also became involved in aviation climate change issues and developed a particular interest in carbon footprinting. Dave has a longstanding interest in transparency and in facilitating public involvement in environmental decision-making through the development of ‘simple’ ways to describe patterns of pollution. As an outcome of working with representatives of the Sydney community his team developed innovative concepts for describing and assessing aircraft noise.66 In 2008 Dave was awarded the Australian Government Public Service Medal (PSM) for his work in this area.67 From 2004 to 2012 Dave was the Australian Government representative on the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP). He pursued his interest in carbon footprinting while on CAEP and was a member of the group that oversaw the development of the ICAO Carbon Calculator.68 In October 2012 he published The Carbon Footprint of Aircraft Operations in Australia – 2011.69 Dave has a science/engineering background and has degrees from the Universities of Liverpool, London (Imperial College) and Tasmania.

66

Expanding Ways to Describe and Assess Aircraft Noise, Dept of Transport and Regional Services, 2000. http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/aviation/environmental/transparent_noise/expanding/index.aspx 67http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/honours/honour_roll/search.cfm?aus_award_id=1137899&search_type=quick&showIn d=true 68 ICAO Carbon Calculator: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/CarbonOffset/Pages/default.aspx 69 The carbon footprint of aircraft operations in Australia – 2011, D Southgate, 2012: http://www.scribd.com/doc/110857161/The-Carbon-Footprint-of-Aircraft-Operations-in-Australia-2011

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