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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

**BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
**

JUDUL:

υ

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

SESI PENGAJIAN: Saya

2006 / 2007

**CHAN CHEE HAN
**

(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/ Sarjana/ Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tandakan (3) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam (AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/ badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

3

TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

**Alamat Tetap: PETI SURAT 61162, 91021 TAWAU, SABAH.
**

Tarikh

CATATAN:

**PM DR. IR. MAHMOOD MD. TAHIR Nama Penyelia
**

Tarikh:

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

* ** Potong yang tidak berkenaan.

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

υ

Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/ organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

“I hereby declare that I have read this project report and in my opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure).”

Signature

:

Name of Supervisor : P.M. Dr. Ir. Mahmood Md. Tahir Date : 01 NOVEMBER 2006

i

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

CHAN CHEE HAN

A project report submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

NOVEMBER, 2006

ii I declare that this project report entitled “Comparison Between BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 & Eurocode 3 for The Design of Multi-Storey Braced Steel Frame” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. Signature Name Date : : Chan Chee Han : 01 NOVEMBER 2006 . The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

iii To my beloved parents and siblings .

I would like to express my appreciation to my thesis supervisor. this work would not have been possible. Shek and Mr. Dr. . Mahmood’s research students.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. Ir. patience and guidance during the duration of my study. Mahmood Md. Without the contribution of all those mentioned above. Tan for their helpful guidance in the process of completing this study. Tahir of the Faculty of Civil Engineering. I would also like to express my thankful appreciation to Dr. PM. Finally. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. I am most thankful to my parents and family for their support and encouragement given to me unconditionally in completing this task. for his generous advice. Mr.

design methods. specifications to be followed. These details include the basis and concept of design. This paper presents comparisons of findings on a series of two-bay. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.27% and 9.v ABSTRACT Reference to standard code is essential in the structural design of steel structures. Eurocode 3 produced braced steel frames which consume 1.43%. This study intends to testify the claim.06% and moment capacity by up to 6. serviceability limit states check governs the design of Eurocode 3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. Therefore. Eurocode 3 also reduced the deflection value due to unfactored imposed load of up to 3. However.63% in comparison with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. loading values and etc. . the percentage of difference had been reduced to the range of 0. Design worksheets are created for the design of structural beam and column.11% to 10. safety factors. Meanwhile. with the application of partial strength connections. four-storey braced steel frames with spans of 6m and 9m and with steel grade S275 (Fe 460) and S355 (Fe 510) by designed using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3.96% more steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. structural column designed by Eurocode 3 has compression capacity of between 5. However. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. The design method by Eurocode 3 has reduced beam shear capacity by up to 4.34% less than BS 5950: Part 1:2000 design.60% to 17.95%.

Namun begitu.34% kurang daripada rekabentuk menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.27% – 9. Justeru. tiang keluli yang direkebentuk oleh Eurocode 3 mempunyai keupayaan mampatan 5. Rekebentuk menggunakan Eurocode 3 telah mengurangkan keupayaan ricih rasuk sehingga 4. Kertas kerja komputer ditulis untuk merekabentuk rasuk dan tiang keluli. Kandungan dalam kod piawai secara amnya mengandungi butiran rekabentuk yang komprehensif. cara rekabentuk.43%. rujukan kepada kod piawai adalah penting. factor keselamatan. Institut Pembinaan Keluli (SCI) berpendapat bahawa rekabentuk struktur keluli menggunakan Eurocode 3 adalah 6 – 8% lebih menjimatkan daripada menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.60% – 17. spesifikasi yang perlu diikuti.vi ABSTRAK Dalam rekabentuk struktur keluli. 4 tingkat yang terdiri daripada rentang rasuk 6m dan 9m serta gred keluli S275 (Fe 430) dan S355 (Fe 510). dan sebagainya. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji pendapat ini. didapati bahawa keadaan had kebolehkhidmatan mengawal rekabentuk Eurocode 3 disebabkan beban mati tanpa faktor yang perlu diambilkira dalam pemeriksaan pesongan.95%. Selain itu. Butiran-butiran ini mengandungi asas dan konsep rekabentuk. penggunaan sambungan kekuatan separa telah berjaya mengurangkan lingkungan berat besi kepada 0. nilai beban. Eurocode 3 menghasilkan kerangka keluli dirembat yang menggunakan berat besi 1. Eurocode 3 juga mengurangkan nilai pesongan yang disebabkan oleh beban kenaan tanpa faktor sehingga 3.11% – 10.63% berbanding BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.96% lebih banyak daripada kerangka yang direkabentuk oleh BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Namun begitu. Kertas ini menunjukkan perbandingan keputusan kajian ke atas satu siri kerangka besi terembat 2 bay. .06% dan keupayaan momen rasuk sebanyak 6.

1 1.vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii xii xiii xiv xv THESIS TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES LISTOF NOTATIONS I INTRODUCTION 1.4 1.5 Introduction Background of Project Objectives Scope of Project Report Layout 1 3 4 4 5 .3 1.2 1.

2 2.3.3.4.2 Ultimate Limit State 2.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.4.1.4.3.3 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.5.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2.2 Stiffened Web 2.1.3.3.2 Serviceability 2.3.3 Shear Capacity. Mc.1.5.3.6 Deflection 2.2.1.3.3.1 (EC3) Design Concept of EC3 2. Vpl.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 2.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 2.3 Background of BS 5950 Scope of BS 5950 Design Concept of BS 5950 2.4 Actions of EC3 2.3 Cross-sectional Classification Shear Capacity.2.Rd 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 .3.1 Cross-sectional Classification 2.2 BS 5950 2.1 Application Rules of EC3 2.3.1.3.1.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.2.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.3.3 Serviceability Limit State 2.4.2.1 2.viii II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.3.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.3. Pv Moment Capacity.2.1 Ultimate Limit States 2.1.3.1 2.2.3. Mc 2.2 2.2 2.4.1 Unstiffened Web 2.3.Rd Moment Capacity.2 2.1 2.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.4 Loading 2.3.

2.5.5.6.6.5.3 Buckling Resistance.1.1.6. λ 2. Nb. λ 2.2. Ra.4.5 Deflection 2.Rd 2.1 Introduction 34 .3.4.2 Slenderness.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 2.4.7 Conclusion 2.Rd 2.Rd 2.6.5. l 2.5.1.2 Crippling Resistance.2.4.1 Effective Length.4 Buckling Resistance.4.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces 2.6.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 2.2 Slenderness. Rb.3 Compression Resistance.6.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.7.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.4.1.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.Rd 2.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.1.2.4.1.1 2.5. Ry.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.7.5.ix 2. Nc.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.3.1 Buckling Length.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.6.4.4.1 Crushing Resistance.2 Structural Beam Structural Column 31 32 29 30 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 29 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 III METHODOLOGY 3.3 Compression Resistance.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.4.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.6. LE 2. Pc 2.Rd 2.1.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.

4.4.8 Structural Layout Specifications 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 42 43 44 46 47 51 57 57 61 35 36 Loadings Factor of Safety Categories Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3.6 3.7 3.10 Structural Column Design 3.9.1.2 EC 3 IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 4.10.1 3.3 3.3 Structural Beam Structural Column 66 66 70 73 75 Deflection Economy of Design V CONCLUSIONS 5.1.8.1 3.2 BS 5950 EC 3 3.1.1 Structural Beam 81 81 .1 Load Combination 3.1 Structural Capacity 5.8.2 4.8.1 BS 5950 3.3 Moment Calculation 3.2 3.1 Structural Capacity 4.x 3.2 4.1 4.9 Structural Beam Design 3.10.4 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Structural Layout & Specifications 3.9.5 3.2 3.2 Shear Calculation 3.

2 5.2 5.3 5.1.4 Structural Column 82 82 83 84 Deflection Values Economy Recommendation for Future Studies REFERENCES 85 APPENDIX A1 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 APPENDIX A2 APPENDIX B1 APPENDIX B2 APPENDIX C1 APPENDIX C2 APPENDIX D .xi 5.

TITLE PAGE 2.4 4.2 4.3 4.1 2.3 3.2 3.1 3.5 4.12 Criteria to be considered in structural beam design Criteria to be considered in structural column design Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) Shear capacity of structural beam Moment capacity of structural beam Compression resistance and percentage difference Moment resistance and percentage difference Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Total steel weight of the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) 31 32 43 44 45 67 68 71 71 73 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) 46 .6 4.10 4.2 3.1 4.7 4.4 4.9 4.11 4.8 4.xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.

1 3.1(c) Schematic diagram of research methodology Floor plan view of the steel frame building Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame Bending moment of beam for rigid construction Bending moment of beam for semi-rigid construction Bending moment of beam for simple construction 37 38 39 80 80 80 .xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.3 4.1(a) 4. TITLE PAGE 3.2 3.1(b) 4.

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D Frame Analysis Based on BS 5950 Frame Analysis Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 Structural Column Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Column Design Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 (Revised) 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 .

y.Rd Mb.Rd Ry.Rd Mpl.Rd Mc.y.Minor axis Depth between fillets Compressive strength Flexural strength Design strength Slenderness Web crippling resistance Web buckling resistance Web crushing resistance Buckling moment resistance Moment resistance at major axis Shear resistance Depth Section area Effective section area Shear area F Fv M γ NSd VSd MSd γM0 γM1 rx ry d pc pb py λ Pcrip Pw Mbx Mcx Pv D Ag Aeff Av iy iz d fc fb fy λ Ra.Rd Vpl.y.xv LIST OF NOTATIONS BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 EUROCODE 3 Axial load Shear force Bending moment Partial safety factor Radius of gyration .Rd h A Aeff Av .Major axis .y.Rd Rb.

z c/tf d/tw b l tf tw Sx Sy Wpl.Minor axis Elastic modulus .z .xvi Plastic modulus .Minor axis Flange Web Width of section Effective length Flange thickness Web thickness Zx Zy b/T d/t B LE T t Wel.y Wel.y Wpl.Major axis .Major axis .

design methods. safety factors. namely suitability of application of the code set in a country with respect to its culture. The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe. loading values and etc. countries or nations that do not publish their own standard codes will adopt a set of readily available code as the national reference. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site. These details include the basis and concept of design. These codes were a product of constant research and development. In present days. Meanwhile. Several factors govern the type of code to be adopted. reference to standard code is essential.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. climate and national preferences. and past experiences of experts at respective fields. In the structural design of steel structures. economic and functional building. specifications to be followed. . many countries have published their own standard codes. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science.1 Introduction Structural design is a process of selecting the material type and conducting indepth calculation of a structure to fulfill its construction requirements. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. as well as the trading volume and diplomatic ties between these countries.

contractors and manufacturers of construction products among the European member countries. . The establishment of Eurocode 3 will provide a common understanding regarding the structural steel design between owners. published by the European Commission. amended in the light of any comments arising out of its use before being reissued as the EuroNorm standards (EN). This was followed by the various parts of a pre-standard code. Codes of practice provide detailed guidance and recommendations on design of structural elements. designers.2 Like most of the other structural Eurocodes. were developed. Buckling resistance and shear resistance are two major elements of structural steel design. ENV1993 (ENV stands for EuroNorm Vornorm) issued by Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) – the European standardisation committee. It is believed that Eurocode 3 is more comprehensive and better developed compared to national codes. Eurocode 3 has developed in stages. As with other Europeans standards. ECCS. Therefore. Standardization of design code for structural steel in Malaysia is primarily based on the practice in Britain. Therefore. operators and users. the move to withdraw BS 5950 and replace with Eurocode 3 will be taking place in the country as soon as all the preparation has completed. These preliminary standards of ENV will be revised. provision for these topics is covered in certain sections of the codes. Eurocodes will be used in public procurement specifications and to assess products for ‘CE’ (Conformité Européen) mark. From these. The earliest documents seeking to harmonize design rules between European countries were the various recommendations published by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. The study on Eurocode 3 in this project will focus on the subject of moment and shear design. the initial draft Eurocode 3.

Design can be complex. causing safety issues. namely earlier design over-estimated strength in a few particular circumstances. Lacking analytical and calculative proof. simple design is possible if a scope of application is defined to avoid the circumstances and the forms of construction in which strength is over-estimated by simple procedures. this project is intended to testify the claim. Finally. However. The increasing complexity of codes arises due to several reasons. Besides. this can be achieved if the designer is not too greedy in the pursuit of the least steel weight from the strength calculations. There are new formulae and new complications to master.3 1. such as the tables of buckling stresses in existing BS codes. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI). 2005). but it can be simplified for those pursuing speed and clarity. even though there seems to be no benefit to the designer for the majority of his regular workload.2 Background of Project The arrival of Eurocode 3 calls for reconsideration of the approach to design. and new forms of structure evolve and codes are expanded to include them. for those who pursue economy of material. earlier design practice under-estimated strength in various circumstances affecting economy. Many designers feel depressed when new codes are introduced (Charles. . simple design is possible if the code requirements are presented in an easy-to-use format. in its publication of “eurocodesnews” magazine has claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950.

4 Scope of Project The project focuses mainly on the moment and shear design on structural steel members of a series four-storey.4 1. This structure is intended to serve as an office building. hereafter referred to as EC3. Next. 1. The standard code used here will be Eurocode 3. hereafter referred to as BS 5950. . Comparison to other steel structural design code is made. The multi-storey steel frame will be first analyzed by using Microsoft Excel worksheets to obtain the shear and moment values.3 Objectives The objectives of this project are: 1) To compare the difference in the concept of the design using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. 2 bay braced frames. 2) To study on the effect of changing the steel grade from S275 to S355 in Eurocode 3. 3) To compare the economy aspect between the designs of both BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. design spreadsheets will be created to calculate and design the structural members. All the beam-column connections are to be assumed simple. A study on the basis and design concept of EC3 will be carried out. The comparison will be made between the EC3 with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.

Chapter I presents an introduction to the study.5 1. conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter V. Results and discussions are presented in Chapter IV. . Meanwhile. Chapter III will be a summary of research methodology. Chapter II presents the literature review that discusses the design procedures and recommendations for steel frame design of the codes EC3 and BS 5950.5 Report Layout The report will be divided into five main chapters.

while Eurocode 4 covers for composite construction.2 Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.1 (EC3) EC3. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. “Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. was initiated by the Commission of European Communities as a standard structural design guide. The use of local application rules are allowed only if they have similar principles as EC3 . Eurocode 3 covers steel construction. Application rules must be written in italic style. serviceability and resistance of a structure.1.1. It also covers specific rules for building structures. Principles and application rules are also clearly stated.1 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) European Code. It was intended to smooth the trading activities among the European countries. Principles should be typed in Roman wordings.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2. EC3 stresses the need for durability.CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Eurocode covers concrete construction. or better known as Eurocode. Eurocode 1 covers loading situations.1 General rules and rules for buildings” covers the general rules for designing all types of structural steel. 2. Eurocode is separated by the use of different construction materials.

1. 2. 2. Safety factor values are recommended in EC3. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. EC3 stresses the need for durability. it will sustain all actions and other influences likely to occur during execution and use and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs. it will remain fit for the use for which it is required. which are ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state.3. Every European country using EC3 has different loading and material standard to accommodate safety limit that is set by respective countries. to an extent disproportionate to the original cause. . durability and serviceability design does not differ too much. 2001).1 Application Rules of EC3 A structure should be designed and constructed in such a way that: with acceptable probability. Partial safety factor is applied to loadings and design for durability. It should also be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like explosions. and with appropriate degrees of reliability. and tying the structure together. selecting a structural form and design that can survive adequately the accidental removal of an individual element.7 and their resistance.3 Design Concept of EC3 All designs are based on limit state design. serviceability and resistance of structure (Taylor. eliminating or reducing the hazards which the structure is to sustain. Potential damage should be limited or avoided by appropriate choice of one or more of the following criteria: Avoiding.1. impact or consequences of human errors. EC3 covers two limit states. selecting a structural form which has low sensitivity to the hazards considered. having due regard to its intended life and its cost.

actions are defined as fixed actions. e. which result in different arrangements of actions. actions can be grouped into permanent actions (G).3. and vibration. Meanwhile. snow loads. It may require certain consideration. . This failure may be caused by excessive deformation.g.g. temperature effects or settlement. and accidental loads (A). imposed loads. rupture. In time variation classification. e.g.g.3 Serviceability Limit State Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met. including: deformations or deflections which adversely affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (including the proper functioning of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-structural elements.1.g. self-weight of structures. which causes discomfort to people. or an imposed deformation in indirect action. variable actions (Q). wind loads or snow loads. self-weight. considered as a rigid body. explosions or impact from vehicles. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people. for example. wind loads. Partial or whole of structure will suffer from failure.3.8 2. and free actions. and loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it. or which limits its functional effectiveness. movable imposed loads. Actions are classified by variation in time and by their spatial variation. including supports and foundations. 2. in spatial variation classification. e. e. fittings. ancillaries and fixed equipment. 2.4 Actions of EC3 An action (F) is a force (load) applied to the structure in direct action. or loss of stability of the structure or any part of it. damage to the building or its contents. e.1.2 Ultimate Limit State Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse.1.

welded sections and cold formed sections. flats. Part 6 covers design for light gauge profiled steel sheeting.1 Background of BS 5950 BS 5950 was prepared to supersede BS 5950: Part 1: 1990.2. 2. etc. Changes were due to structural safety. . avoidance of disproportionate collapse.9 2. Part 2 and 7 deal with specification for materials. members subject to combined axial force and bending moment. Part 1 covers the code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections.2 Scope of BS 5950 Part 1 of BS 5950 provides recommendations for the design of structural steelwork using hot rolled steel sections. sheeting respectively. which was withdrawn. but offsetting potential reductions in economy was also one of the reasons. hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed structural hollow sections. Part 8 comprises of code of practice for fire resistance design. shear resistance. fabrication and erected for rolled. They are being used in buildings and allied structures not specifically covered by other standards.2. plates. BS 5950 comprises of nine parts.2 BS 5950 2. and Part 9 covers the code of practice for stressed skin design. lateral-torsional buckling. Part 5 concerns design of cold formed thin gauge sections. local buckling. Part 3 and Part 4 focus mainly on composite design and construction. Several clauses were technically updated for topics such as sway stability.

2. wind induced oscillation. stability against overturning and sway sensitivity. They are: strength. the specified loads should be multiplied by the relevant partial factors γf given in Table 2. The fundamental of the methods are different joints for different methods. and experimental verification. only 80% of the full specified values need to be considered when checking for serviceability. semi-continuous design. In the case of combined imposed load and wind load. Generally. Meanwhile. and brittle fracture.2.2 Serviceability Limit States There are several elements to be considered in serviceability limit states – Deflection.3.2.3 Design Concept of BS 5950 There are several methods of design. in checking. continuous design. and durability. fracture due to fatigue. 2. buckling and mechanism formation.1 Ultimate Limit States Several elements are considered in ultimate limit states. vibration. The load carrying capacity of each member should be such that the factored loads will not cause failure.10 2. rupture. namely simple design. only the greater effect needs to be considered when checking for serviceability. inclusive of general yielding. . Generally. in the design for limiting states. serviceability loads should be taken as the unfactored specified values.3. 2. BS 5950 covers two types of states – ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. In the case of combined horizontal crane loads and wind load.

1 Cross-sectional Classification Cross-sections should be classified to determine whether local buckling influences their capacity. .11 2. earth and groundwater loading. There are dead. The classification of each element of a cross-section subject to compression (due to a bending moment or an axial force) should be based on its width-to-thickness ratio. 2. the settlement of supports should be taken into account as well. without calculating their local buckling resistance. Loading conditions during erection should be given particular attention. The elements of a cross-section are generally of constant thickness. Where necessary. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling Bearing capacity of web Deflection 2. imposed and wind loading.4 Loading BS 5950 had identified and classified several loads that act on the structure.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. All relevant loads should be separately considered and combined realistically as to compromise the most critical effects on the elements and the structure as a whole. overhead traveling cranes.2.3.

a crosssection may be classified with its compression flange and its web in different classes.3 of BS 5950 states the shear force Fv should not be greater than the shear capacity Pv.3. Class 3 is known as semi-compact section. Fv. Pv The web of a section will sustain the shear in a structure. local buckling will bar any rotation at constant moment. However. the stress at the extreme compression fiber can reach design strength. When this section is applied. the complete cross-section should be classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression elements. Alternatively. Sections that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi-compact sections should be classified as class 4 slender. It is cross-section with plastic hinge rotation capacity. the plastic moment capacity cannot be reached. Clause 4. Cross-sections at this category should be given explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling. Class 1 is known as plastic section.2 Shear Capacity. However.2.6pyAv . Class 2 is known as compact section. It enables plastic moment to take place. 2. Class 1 section is used for plastic design as the plastic hinge rotation capacity enables moment redistribution within the structure. Shear capacity is normally checked at section part that sustains the maximum shear force.12 Generally. Class 4 is known as slender section. given by: Pv = 0.

BS 5950 provides various formulas for different type of sections. Mc At sectional parts that suffer from maximum moment. Seff is the effective plastic modulus. Mc = pyZ or alternatively Mc = pySeff for class 3 semi-compact sections.3 Moment Capacity. 2. py is the design strength of steel and it depends on the thickness of the web.3.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv does not exceed 60% of the shear capacity Pv. moment capacity of the section needs to be verified. Z is the section modulus. .3. and Mc = pyZeff for class 4 slender cross-sections where S is the plastic modulus.3. There are two situations to be verified in the checking of moment capacity – low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity. Clause 4.2 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = pyS for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections.5.13 in which Av is the shear area. 2.2. and Zeff is the effective section modulus.

3.2pyZ for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections. Mc = py(Z – ρSv/1.5) for class 4 slender cross-sections in which Sv is obtained from the following: - For sections with unequal flanges: Sv = S – Sf.2. Clause 4.2 High Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv exceeds 60% of the shear capacity Pv. - Otherwise: Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av. in which Sf is the plastic modulus of the effective section excluding the shear area Av. and Mc = py(Zeff – ρSv/1.3.3 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = py(S – ρSv) < 1.5.14 2.5) or alternatively Mc = py(Seff – ρSv) for class 3 semi-compact sections. and ρ is given by ρ = [2(Fv/Pv) – 1]2 .

4.6Vw. 2.3. a conservative value Mf for .3.3.6Vw. obtained from Table 21 BS 5950 t = web thickness b) High shear – “flanges only” method If the applied shear Fv > 0.1 of BS 5950 states that. provided that the flanges are not class 4 slender.15 2.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4.4.3. where Vw is the simple shear buckling resistance. if the web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 70ε for a rolled section. or 62ε for a welded section. it should be assumed to be susceptible to shear buckling. The moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined taking account of the interaction of shear and moment using the following methods: a) Low shear Provided that the applied shear Fv ≤ 0.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4.4. it should be assumed not to be susceptible to shear buckling and the moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined using 2.4. but the web is designed for shear only. qw = shear buckling strength of the web. if the web depth-to-thickness d/t ≤ 62ε.3.2 states that. Vw = dtqw where d = depth of the web.4.4.

16 the moment capacity may be obtained by assuming that the moment is resisted by the flanges alone. .or H-section: .1 states that bearing stiffeners should be provided where the local compressive force Fx applied through a flange by loads or reactions exceeds the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web at the web-to-flange connection.1 Unstiffened Web Clause 4.3.5. where pyf is the design strength of the compression flange. with each flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf. the web should be designed using Annex H.2.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2. c) High shear – General method If the applied shear Fv > 0.or H-section: k=T+r k=T .for a rolled I.at the end of a member: n = 2 + 0. It is given by: Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw in which.except at the end of a member: n = 5 .6be/k but n ≤ 5 and k is obtained as follows: .3 for the applied shear combined with any additional moment beyond the “flanges-only” moment capacity Mf given by b).3.for a welded I.6Vw. 2.5. provided that the applied moment does not exceed the “low-shear” moment capacity given in a).

be is the distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing. The capacity Ps of the stiffener should be obtained from: Ps = As.net is the net cross-sectional area of the stiffener. r is the root radius. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 8 of BS 5950.2 Stiffened Web Bearing stiffeners should be designed for the applied force Fx minus the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web.6 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. pyw is the design strength of the web. the smaller value should be used to calculate both the web capacity Pbw and the stiffener capacity Ps. T is the flange thickness. 2.17 where b1 is the stiff bearing length. 2.3. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load.5. and t is the web thickness. If the web and the stiffener have different design strengths.netpy in which As. .3. allowing for cope holes for welding.

Class 2 is also known as compact section. It has limited rotation capacity. plastic hinge is disallowed because local buckling will occur first.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. the beam will buckle during pre-mature stage. It is applicable for plastic design. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Bearing capacity of web a) b) c) Crushing resistance Crippling resistance Buckling resistance (v) Deflection 2. Class 1 is known as plastic section.3 of EC3 provided limits on the outstand-to-thickness (c/tf) for flange and depth-tothickness (d/tw) in Table 5. This limit allows the formation of a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. When the flange of the beam is relatively too thin.4.18 2. It can also achieve rectangular stress block. To avoid this. .1 Cross-sectional Classification A beam section should firstly be classified to determine whether the chosen section will possibly suffer from initial local buckling. However. Clause 5. Beam sections are classified into 4 classes. This section can develop plastic moment resistance.3.1.

and ε = [235/fy]0. It is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression resistance. the ratios of c/tf and d/tw will be the highest among all four classes. Vsd. Vpl. Calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength. The member will fail before it reaches design stress.19 Class 3 is also known as semi-compact section.Rd where Vpl. 2. Shear buckling resistance should be verified when for an unstiffened web.5 . Shear capacity will normally be checked at section that takes the maximum shear force. the ratio of d/tw > 69ε or d/tw > 30ε √kγ for a stiffened web. the inequality should be satisfied: Vsd ≤ Vpl. Class 4 is known as slender section.2 Shear Capacity.Rd = Av (fy / √3) / γMO Av is the shear area. At each crosssection. Pre-mature buckling will occur before yield strength is achieved.Rd The web of a section will sustain shear from the structure.1. fy is the steel yield strength and γMO is partial safety factor as stated in Clause 5. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. The stress block will be of triangle shape. Apart from that.1.4. kγ is the buckling factor for shear.

the design moment resistance of a cross-section should be reduced to MV.4. 2.5.Rd = Wpl fy / γMO Class 3 cross-sections: Mc. 2. Mc.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity When maximum shear force. Weff is the elastic modulus at effective shear area.Rd = Wel fy / γMO Class 4 cross-sections: Mc. Vsd exceeds 50% of the design resistance Vpl. the design moment resistance of a cross-section Mc. when maximum shear force. low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity.Rd. γMO and γM1 are partial safety factors.20 2. as stated in Clause 5.Rd may be determined as follows: Class 1 or 2 cross-sections: Mc.3.2 High Shear Moment Capacity Clause 5. Vsd is equal or less than the design resistance Vpl.3. the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear .Rd Moment capacity should be verified at sections sustaining maximum moment.4. There are two situations to verify when checking moment capacity – that is.Rd.4.3 Moment Capacity.Rd.Rd = Weff fy / γM1 where Wpl and Wel the plastic modulus and elastic modulus respectively.7 states that.4.3. For class 4 cross-sections.

5 .4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces The resistance of an unstiffened web to transverse forces applied through a flange.Rd = (ss + sγ) tw fγw / γM1 in which sγ is given by sγ = 2tf (bf / tw)0.7.3 provides that the design crushing resistance.5 [1 – (σf. if shear force acts directly at web without acting through flange in the first place.5 (fyf / fyw)0. H or U section should be obtained from: Ry. is governed by one of the three modes of failure – Crushing of the web close to the flange. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange. For cross-sections with equal flanges.4. Ry.1 Crushing Resistance. this checking is unnecessary. bending about the major axis. it is obtained as follows: MV. crippling of the web in the form of localized buckling and crushing of the web close to the flange.Rd of the web of an I. Ry. checking should be done at section subject to maximum shear force.Rd Situation becomes critical when a point load is applied to the web.21 force.Ed / fyf)2]0.Rd = (Wpl – ρAv2/4tw) fy / γMO but MV. Clause 5.4. 2.4.Rd ≤ Mc. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange.Rd where ρ = (2Vsd / Vpl. However.Rd – 1)2 2. This checking is intended to prevent the web from buckling under excessive compressive force. and buckling of the web over most of the depth of the member. Thus.

5tw2(Efyw)0.2.Rd Msd ≤ Mc.Rd of the web of an I.Rd = (χ βA fy A) / γM1 .4.Ed is the longitudinal stress in the flange.Sd = 0.Rd ≤ 1.5.Rd + Msd / Mc.5 + 3(tw / tf)(ss / d)] / γM1 where ss is the length of stiff bearing. H or U section should be obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with an effective beff. obtained from beff = [h2 + ss2]0.Rd and Fsd / Ra. σf.4.4. the following criteria should be satisfied: Fsd ≤ Ra.22 but bf should not be taken as more than 25tf.Rd The design crippling resistance Ra.5 [(tf / tw)0. 2.Rd of the web of an I. fyf and fyw are yield strength of steel at flange and web respectively. Rb. H or U section is given by: Ra.3 Buckling Resistance.Rd The design buckling resistance Rb. Ra.5 2.4. For member subject to bending moments.2 Crippling Resistance. Rb. and ss / d < 0.

For a structural steel column subject to compression load only.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 The design of structural steel column is relatively easier than the design of structural steel beam. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load.5. Column is a compressive member and it generally supports compressive point loads. This. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) Effective length Slenderness Compression resistance .5.4. Therefore.5 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 4.1 and Table 5. checking is normally conducted for capacity of steel column to compression only. 2. however.23 where βA = 1 and buckling curve c is used at Table 5.5. 2. applies only to non-moment sustaining column.1 of EC3.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam. 2.2.

2 Slenderness. Depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plate. depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plane. directional restraint is based on connection stiffness and member stiffness. T-section struts. This concept is not applicable for battened struts.5.1. in accordance of Table 22. the compression resistance Pc of a member is given by: Pc = Ag pc (for class 1 plastic.5.3 Compression Resistance.5. For continuous columns in multi-storey buildings of simple design. channel. LE The effective length LE of a compression member is determined from the segment length L centre-to-centre of restraints or intersections with restraining members in the relevant plane.7.1 Effective Length. column members that carry more than 90% of their reduced plastic moment capacity Mr in the presence of axial force is assumed to be incapable of providing directional restraint.1. 2. and back-to-back struts. angle. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its effective length LE divided by its radius of gyration r about the relevant axis.1. Pc According to Clause 4.4.24 2. λ = LE / r 2. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross-sections) .

and pcs is the value of pc from Table 23 and Table 24 for a reduced slenderness of λ(Aeff/Ag)0.25 Pc = Aeff pcs (for class 4 slender cross-section) where Aeff is the effective cross-sectional area. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections. 2.2. Mcx is the moment capacity about major axis. for class 1 plastic. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area. py is the design steel strength. Mx is the moment about major axis. My is the moment about minor axis. in which λ is based on the radius of gyration r of the gross cross-section.5. and Mcy is the moment capacity about minor axis. 2. pc the compressive strength obtained from Table 23 and Table 24.5.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. the checking of cross-section capacity is as follows: My Fc M + x + ≤1 Ag p y M cx M cy where Fc is the axial compression.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. .5. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked.

0 Pc M bs p y Z y where F is the axial force in column.26 2.2. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Buckling length Slenderness Compression resistance Buckling resistance .2 Member Buckling Resistance In simple construction. py the steel design strength.5. and Zy the elastic modulus.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 The design of steel column according to EC3 is quite similar to the design of steel column according to BS 5950. 2. the following stability check needs to be satisfied: My F Mx + + ≤ 1 . Mx the maximum end moment on x-axis. Mb the buckling resistance moment.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam.6. 2. Pc the compression resistance of column. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only.

5.27 2. Nc. 2. 2. λ=l/i For column resisting loads other than wind loads. the value of λ should not exceed 180. the buckling length l may be conservatively be taken as equal to its system length L. determined using the properties of the gross cross-section.1. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact crosssections) .1 Buckling Length.6.1. l The buckling length l of a compression member is dependant on the restraint condition at both ends.4.Rd = A fy / γM0 (for class 1 plastic.Rd of a member is given by: Nc.1. Clause 5. provided that both ends of a column are effectively held in position laterally. Alternatively.1.Rd According to Clause 5.6.2 Slenderness. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its buckling length l divided by its radius of gyration i about the relevant axis. whereas for column resisting self-weight and wind loads only.6.3 Compression Resistance. the buckling length l may be determined using informative of Annex E provided in EC3.4. the value of λ should not exceed 250. the compression resistance Nc.5 states that.

Rd = Aeff fy / γM1 (for class 4 slender cross-section) The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nc. Clause 5. and Aeff / A for Class 4 cross-sections. The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nb.1.Rd = χ βA A fy / γM1 where βA = 1 for Class 1.1 states that the design buckling resistance of a compression member should be taken as: Nc. For hot rolled steel members with the types of cross-section commonly used for compression members. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode. Nb.Rd 2.4 Buckling Resistance.1.Rd .28 Nc.6.5. 2 or 3 cross-sections.Rd For compression members. the relevant buckling mode is generally “flexural” buckling.

6. cross-section capacity depends on the types of cross-section and applied moment.Rd. Clause 5. β = 5n but β ≥ 1. y . in which n = Nsd / Npl. for I and H sections.Sd + N Sd e Ny M z .Sd ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ≤1 ⎢ M Ny . Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject .Sd + N Sd e Nz N Sd + + ≤1 Aeff f yd Weff . Rd M pl . the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked.Sd N Sd M z . Rd M pl . M y . Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section when subject to uniform compression. α = 2.6. Rd ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ α β for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections M y .Sd ⎤ ⎡ M z . Rd for a conservative approximation where. 2.Sd + + ≤1 N pl . Rd ⎥ ⎣ M Nz . y f yd Wel .Sd + + ≤1 Af yd Wel .2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. for bi-axial bending the following approximate criterion may be used: ⎡ M y .1 states that. z f yd for Class 3 cross-sections M y .2.Sd N Sd M z .4.29 2.8.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. y f yd Weff . z f yd for Class 4 cross-sections where fyd = fy/γM1. z .

30 only to moment about the relevant axis; and eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross-section is subject to uniform compression.

However, for high shear (VSd ≥ 0.5 Vpl.Rd), Clause 5.4.9 states that the design resistance of the cross-section to combinations of moment and axial force should be calculated using a reduced yield strength of (1 – ρ)fy for the shear area, where ρ = (2VSd / Vpl.Rd – 1)2.

2.6.2.2 Member Buckling Resistance

A column, subject to buckling moment, may buckle about major axis or minor axis or both. All members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.Sd must satisfy the following condition:

k y M y.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1,0 N b. y . Rd ηM c. y . Rd

where Nb.y.Rd is the design buckling resistance for major axis; Mc.y.Rd is the design moment resistance for major-axis bending, ky is the conservative value and taken as 1,5; and η = γM0 / γM1 for Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-sections, but 1,0 for Class 4.

2.7

Conclusion

This section summarizes the general steps to be taken when designing a structural member in simple construction.

31 2.7.1 Structural Beam

Table 2.1 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.1 : Criteria to be considered in structural beam design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 80ε 100ε 120ε ε = (275 / py)0.5 2.0 Shear Capacity Pv = 0.6pyAv Av = Dt Vpl.Rd = fyAv / (√3 x γM0) γM0 = 1,05 Av from section table 3.0 Moment Capacity Mc = pyS Mc = pyZ Mc = pyZeff Class 1, 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1,05 γM1 = 1,05 4.0 Bearing Capacity Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 72ε 83ε 124ε ε = (235 / fy)0,5 EC3

32

Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw Smaller of Ry.Rd = (ss + sy) tw fyw / γM1 Ra.Rd = 0,5tw2(Efyw)0,5 [(tf/tw)0,5 + 3(tw/tf)(ss/d)]/γM1 Rb.Rd = χβAfyA / γM1 5.0 Shear Buckling Resistance d/t ≤ 70ε Ratio 6.0 Deflection L / 360 Limit (Beam carrying plaster or other brittle finish) N/A Limit (Total deflection) L / 250 L / 350 d/tw ≤ 69ε

2.7.2

Structural Column

Table 2.2 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.2 : Criteria to be considered in structural column design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 80ε / 1 + r1 100ε / 1 + 1.5r1 Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 396ε / (13α – 1) 456ε / (13α – 1) EC3

0 Pc M bs p y Z y k y M y.0 Compression Resistance Pc = Agpc Pc = Aeffpcs Class 1.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1. y . y .05 4.5 Class 3 Semi-compact 42ε / (0.33 120ε / 1 + 2r2 r1 = Fc / dtpyw.eff Class 1.05 Nc.Rd = Afy / γM0 γM0 = 1. 2.05 γM1 = 1.Rd = Aefffy / γM1 3. -1 < r1 ≤ 1 r2 = Fc / Agpyw ε = (275 / py) 0. 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.33ψ) ψ = 2γM0σa / fy – 1 σa = NSd / A α = 0.0 Stability Check My F Mx + + ≤ 1 .67 + 0.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc. Rd ηM c.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.5 2.5(1 + γM0σw / fy) σw = NSd / dtw ε = (235 / fy)0. 3 Class 4 Nc.0 Moment Resistance Mb = pbSx Mb = pbZx Mb = pbZx. Rd .0 N b.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1.

At the same time. an understanding on the cross-section classification for BS 5950 is also carried out. . Next.1 for the flowchart of the methodology of this study. The first step is to study and understand the cross-section classification for steel members as given in EC. comparison of the results will lead to recognizing the difference in design approach for each code. bearing capacity. it is necessary to study and understand the concept of design methods in EC3 and compare the results with the results of BS 5950 design. Beams and columns are designed for the maximum moment and shear force obtained from computer software analysis. Please refer to Figure 3. Analysis. Checking on several elements. such as shear capacity.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3. analyzing the tables provided and the purpose of each clause stated in the code. Eventually. design and comparison works will follow subsequently. buckling capacity and deflection is carried out.1 Introduction As EC3 will eventually replace BS 5950 as the new code of practice. analysis on the difference between the results using two codes is done. moment capacity.

Calculation of bending moment. Different factors of safety with reference to BS 5950 and EC3 are defined respectively.2 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The structural analysis of the building frame will be carried out by using Microsoft Excel worksheets. As the scope of this study is limited at simple construction. that is M = wL2 / 8 V = wL / 2 where w is the uniform distributed load and L the beam span. V are based on simply-supported condition. . Therefore. End moments are zero.35 3. Sections 3. M and shear force. Simple construction allows the connection of beam-to-column to be pinned jointed. the use of advanced structural analysis software is not needed.8 discuss in detail all the specifications and necessary data for the analysis of the multi-storey braced frame. Please refer to Appendices A1 and A2 for the analysis worksheets created for the purpose of calculating shear force and bending moment values based on the requirements of different safety factors of both codes.4 to 3. only beam shear forces will be transferred to the structural column.

Meanwhile. Please refer to Appendices B1 to C2 for the calculation worksheets created for the purpose of the design of structural beam and column of both design codes.3 Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The design of beam and column is calculated with Microsoft Excel software. . The method of design using BS 5950 will be based on the work example drawn by Heywood (2003). (1995). Several trial and error calculations can be used to cut down on the calculation time needed as well as prevent calculation error. Furthermore. al. the method of design using EC3 will be based on the work example drawn by Narayanan et. Microsoft Excel worksheets will show the calculation steps in a clear and fair manner. The Microsoft Excel software is used for its features that allow continual and repeated calculations using values calculated in every cell of the worksheet.36 3.

Combined) Pass Comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 Phase 3 END Figure 3.1: Schematic diagram of research methodology . Moment. M=wL2/8) Design worksheet development using Microsoft Excel Beams and columns design Fail Checking (Shear.37 Determine Research Objective and Scope Phase 1 Literature Review Determination of building and frame dimension Specify loadings & other specifications Phase 2 Frame analysis using Microsoft Excel (V=wL/2.

Each of the frame’s longitudinal length is 6m. a parametric study for the design of multi-storey braced frames is carried out. Please refer to Figure 3. in total. there will be three (3) numbers of 4-storey frames. The storey height will be 5m from ground floor to first floor. Two (2) lengths of bay width will be used in the analysis – 6m and 9m respectively.38 3.3 for the illustrations of building plan view and elevation view respectively. In plan view. whereas for other floors (1st to 2nd. The intermediate frame will be used as the one to be analysed and designed. 3rd to roof).4 Structural Layout & Specifications 3. 6m 6m 6/9m 6/9m Figure 3. The number of storey of the frame is set at four (4). 2nd to 3rd. the storey height will be 4m. the 4-storey frame consists of four (4) bays.4.1 Structural Layout In order to make comparisons of the design of braced steel frame between BS 5950-1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. .2 and Figure 3.2 : Floor plan view of the steel frame building. 4th storey is roof while the rest will serve as normal floors.

As this is a simple construction. 3. . all the column-to-column connections are to be rigid. Meanwhile. all the beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pinned. All the bays will be serving the same function.39 4m 4m 4m 5m Figure 3.3 : Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame. flat roof system will be introduced to cater for some activities on roof top.4. All the roof bays will be used for general purposes. Meanwhile. Web cleats will be used as the connection method to create pinned connection.2 Specifications The designed steel frame structure is meant for office for general use. Top flange of beams are effectively restraint against lateral torsional buckling. The main steel frame will consist of solely universal beam (UB) and universal column (UC).

5 Loadings Section 2. Multiplying the thickness of the slabs. a uniform load intensity of 1. Therefore. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. . Therefore.5kN/m2 is appropriate. For imposed roof load. 3. all the values of imposed loads of both BS 5950 and EC3 design will be based on BS 6399.2 (Flat roofs) states that. Meanwhile.0kN/m2 respectively. 125mm think floor panel will be used for other floors. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. Weight of concrete is given by 24kN/m3. Table 8 (Offices occupancy class) states that the intensity of distributed load of offices for general use will be 2. Consequently. In this design. precast solid floor panel of 100mm thick was selected for flat roof. each bay will contribute half of the load intensity to the intermediate frame.2. the intensity of slab selfweight will be 2. Therefore. this value will be adopted. Meanwhile.40 Precast concrete flooring system will be introduced to this project.5kN/m2.3 of Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) states that the characteristic values of imposed floor load and imposed roof load must be obtained from Part 1 and Part 3 of BS 6399 respectively. This value will be used as this frame model is meant for a general office usage. The type of precast flooring system to be used will be solid precast floor panel. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in 9kN/m and 15kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively.4kN/m2 and 3. For precast floor selfweight. repair and other general purposes. section 6. all floors will be of one-way slab. for a flat roof with access available for cleaning. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design.

γF for dead load. A general load intensity of 1. is given by 1. Meanwhile. Combining the superimposed dead load with selfweight.2 “Buildings without cranes” of BS 5950 states that. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 4 cross-section. the total dead load intensity for roof and floor slabs are 3. In EC3.6 Factor of Safety Section 2. For other floors.1. for imposed floor load. partial safety factors. γM0. permanent actions G include dead loads such as self-weight of structure. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 1.5. Partial safety factors for loads. γG is given by 1. a selection of floor carpets and ceramic tiles will be used. is given by 1.4 for dead load. and 1. in the design of buildings not subject to loads from cranes. 3. γQ is given by 1. 2 or 3 cross-section.0kN/m2 for finishes (superimposed dead load) on all floors will be assumed. From Table 2.1.05. variable actions Q include live loads such as imposed load. finishes and fittings. γf should be taken as 1. the principal combination of loads that should be taken into account will be load combination 1 – Dead load and imposed gravity loads. γM1. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in kN/m and 24kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively.4kN/m2 and 4kN/m2 respectively.35.4. The .41 The finishes on the flat roof will be waterproofing membrane and decorative screed. The factor γM0 is used where the failure mode is plasticity or yielding. Meanwhile. depending on the interior designer’s intention.05 as well. for normal design situations.6 for imposed load.

which governs the resistance of a Class 4 (slender) cross-section. For steel grade S 275. In BS 5950.1 Load Combination This section describes the structural analysis of the steel frame. Meanwhile.4 times total dead load plus 1.8 Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3. design strength py is decided by the thickness of the thickest element of the cross-section (for rolled sections). 3. fy is 355N/mm2 and 335N/mm2 respectively for the same thickness limits. 3.2 “Material properties for hot rolled steel” (C-EC3) limits thickness of flange to less than or equal to 40mm for nominal yield strength fy of 275N/mm2 and larger but less than or equal to 100mm for fy of 255N/mm2. For steel grade S 355. py is 355N/mm2 and 345N/mm2 respectively for the same limits of thickness.42 factor γM1 is used where the failure mode is buckling – including local buckling.6 times total imposed .7 Categories In this project.1. According to BS 5950. the load combination will be 1. namely S 275 (or Fe 430 as identified in EC3) and S 355 (or Fe 510 as identified in EC3). for Fe 510. two (2) types of steel grade will be used. in the meantime. 3.8. in order to justify the effect of design strength of a steel member on the strength of a steel member. py is 275N/mm2 for thickness less than or equal to 16mm and 265N/mm2 for thickness larger but less than or equal to 40mm.

BS 5950 results in higher value of shear. V at end connections is given by V = wl/2.28 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 206.4DL + 1. According to EC3.5LL). there is a difference of approximately 4. will be 45. the resultant load combination. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width.1 Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 144 187. The next table. Table 3.64kN/m.92 Bay Width 9m 216 281. the load combination will be 1.9kN/m. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors. the resultant load combination.55 268.35 times total dead load plus 1.2 Shear Calculation This steel frame is pinned jointed at all beam-to-column supports.88 6m 137.6LL). Clearly. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula. For the roof. will be 48kN/m.1. This is done by summating the resultant shear . w.5% between the analyses of both codes.5 times total imposed load (1. the w will be 62.8. For all other floors.92 From Table 4.76kN/m.7 179. the w will be 59. For the roof.1 below: Table 3.43 load (1. the shear. For simple construction. 3.35DL + 1. For all other floors.2 will present the accumulating axial loads acting on the structural columns of the steel frame. the resulting shear values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3. w.

Internal columns will sustain axial load two times higher than external columns of same floor level as they are connected to two beams.3: .64 6m Ext.4 633.8.84 1039.78 2026.84 707. 206. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula.7 316.52 2123. since all the beam-to-column connections are pinned jointed. structural beam moment. 216 497.68 1415. Roof – 3rd 3rd – 2nd 2nd – 1st 1st .31 Int. 413. 275.08 Int.76 1559. 144 331.52 EC 3 9m 6m Ext.94 1488.44 force from beam of each floor. the resulting moment values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3.54 Int.96 992.62 Ext. = Internal column Ext.39 1013. 432 995.47 744. 3.3 Moment Calculation For simple construction.55 475.76 1061. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width. Table 3.88 779.5%.76 9m Ext.2 Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) BS 5950 Floor Int. 137.Ground 288 663. can be calculated by using the formula M=wl2/8.28 Int. M.98 496.52 1351.1 950. = External column The accumulating axial loads based on the two codes vary approximately 4.92 519.26 675. similar with the beam shear.

e is the eccentricity of resultant shear from the face of column (m). Clearly.55 268.3. However. BS 5950 results in higher value of moment. there will be a moment due to eccentricity of the resultant shear from the beams.23 6m 206. D or h is the depth of column section (m). the depth of the column has not been decided yet. can be determined from the following formula: Me = V (e + D/2) = V (e + h/2) where V is resultant shear of structural beam (kN).92 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 464.3 Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 216 281. Me. the higher the difference percentage will be. in this case.4% to 4. there will be no end moments being transferred from the structural beams. In this project. initially. since this is simple construction. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors. Regardless of the width of the bay. the higher the load combination of a floor. there is a difference of approximately 4. .6% between the analyses of both codes.07 From Table 3.45 Table 3. Therefore. For the moments of the structural columns.88 Bay Width 9m 486 634. the eccentricity moment. the depth (D for BS 5950 and h for EC 3) of a structural column is assumed to be 400mm. Since this is only preliminary analysis as well. the eccentricity of the resultant shear from the face of the structural column will be 100mm.74 605. Subsequently.

Roof Other Floors 21.4 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) BS 5950 Floor Int.5LL) – 1. V can be expressed as V = (1. 32. for internal column. 20.35DL + 1.9 Structural Beam Design Structural beam design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. However.38 9m Ext. 30.4 94.6 Int.4DL + 1.84 Ext.0DL.08 EC 3 9m 6m Ext.5.0DL. 20. The moments for floor columns will be evenly distributed as the ratio of EI1/L1 and EI2/L2 is less than 1. serviceability check in the form of deflection check will need to be done.6 56. .78 Int. two major checks that need to be done is shear and moment resistance at ultimate limit state. 32.98 80. 21. 3.6 63.4 84.4 below summarizes the moment values due to eccentricity. V can be expressed as V = (1.66 53.98 86.88 Int. 30.68 These values of eccentricity moments will be useful for the estimation of initial size of a column member during structural design in later stage. Next. In simple construction. Table 3.66 57. Table 3. For EC 3. For BS 5950.46 V for external column can be easily obtained from shear calculation.56 6m Ext. V should be obtained by deducting the factored combination of floor dead (DL) and imposed load (LL) with unfactored floor dead load.6LL) – 1.

d/t = 50. D = 454. Zx = 1120cm3. b/T = 6.88kNm. From the section table.3mm. d = 407. Elastic modulus.9. Depth. Sx = M / py = 281. Sx = 1290cm3. B = 152.3. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. t = 8.1mm.88 x 103 / 275 = 1025cm3 From the rearranged table. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. T = 13.9mm. ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) .92kN and 281.1 BS 5950 In simple construction. Depth between fillets. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 187.6mm. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. Flange thickness. 3. Width.8kg/m. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. From the section table for universal beam. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). moment capacity and web bearing capacity.47 The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the floor beam of length 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430). Web thickness. Plastic modulus.99.6mm. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 59. UB section 457x152x60 is chosen. shear capacity.

0.92kN Therefore. Shear capacity.0.48 = 1. Mc = 275 x 1290 x 10-3 .26mm2 Pv = 0. For class 1 plastic cross-section. Since actually d/t < 70. Next. clause 4. it is low shear. Meanwhile.26 x 10-3 = 607.0 Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950.6 x 275 x 3682. After clause 4. Av = 8.6 x 607.54kN > Fv Therefore. Pv = 0. where neutral axis is at mid-depth.5 “Moment capacity. this section is Class 1 plastic section. the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε = 80. shear buckling needs not be checked.3.2.5 is checked.1 x 454.4.57kN > Fv = 187.57 = 364. Next. where Av = tD for a rolled I-section.6pyAv. Therefore.5 states that if the d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for a rolled section.2.0. which is smaller than 9ε = 9. Mc = pySx. actual d/t = 50. Mc” is checked. therefore. Actual b/T = 5. section 4. web is Class 1 plastic section.6Pv = 0. shear capacity is adequate. Therefore.4. For web of I-section. 0.6 = 3682. Since both flange and web are plastic.3 “Shear capacity” is checked. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section.0 in this design.75. section 4. flange is Class 1 plastic section. shear buckling resistance should be checked. Actual d/t did not exceed 80.

88kNm from analysis < Mc = 354.02mm Pbw = 98.02 x 8. 1.6kNm > Mc. Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw r = 10. To prevent crushing of the web due to forces applied through a flange.1 x 275 x 10-3 = 218.2 = 23. n = 2 + 0. M = 281.34kN > Fv = 187.3 + 10.6 x 10. n = 2 b1 + nk = 98.5mm At support.75kNm Therefore.2pyZx.5.92kN . If Fv exceeds Pbw. moment capacity is adequate. section 4.2 + 2 x 13.6r + 2T (Figure 13) = 8. Mc should be limited to 1.3 = 51. bearing stiffener should be provided.2 x 275 x 1120 x 10-3 = 369. be = 0.6be/k. therefore.2pyZx = 1.1 + 1.2 “Bearing capacity of web” is checked. bearing capacity of web.75kNm To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads.49 = 354.2mm b1 = t + 1.02mm k=T+r = 13. OK.

50 Therefore. only unfactored imposed load shall be used to calculate the deflection. the serviceability limit state check (Section 2. This is done in the form of deflection check. δlim = 6000 / 360 = 16. w = 15kN/m for floors. In this case. the vertical deflection limit should be L/360. The section is adequate. . L = 6. δ.67mm >δ Therefore.0m E = 205kN/mm2 I = 25500cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4. the deflection is satisfactory. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check. Generally.84mm Table 8 (Suggested limits for calculated deflections) suggests that for “beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish). Therefore.5) should be conducted. the bearing capacity at support is adequate. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done. However. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value.

Wel. Width.y = 1051cm3. Therefore.28kN and 268. Flange thickness. Elastic modulus. d = 360. Depth between fillets.2 EC 3 In simple construction.9cm2. Wpl. tf = 10. Shear area. Web thickness.9cm3 From the rearranged table. Area of .y = 927cm3. From the section table. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. Av = 32.6mm. shear capacity. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl.9mm. h = 402.92kNm. UB section 406x178x54 is chosen.y (cm3). the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 54kg/m. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 179. 3. From the section table for universal beam. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. Wpl.9. moment capacity. Depth.y = M / py = 268. b = 177. it is adequate to be used. Plastic modulus. resistance of web to crushing.4mm. tw = 7.92 x 103 / 275 = 977. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.6mm. crippling and buckling. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. lateral torsional buckling.6mm.51 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check.

48kN > 179. neutral axis at mid depth”.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0. For S275 (Fe 430). VSd from analysis at each cross-section should not exceed the design plastic shear resistance Vpl. Actual d/tw = 47. UB section 406x178x54 is Class 1 section.1. yield strength. c/tf = 8. VSd = 179.15 ≤ 9. that is Vpl.4. Before checks are done for ultimate limit states. 0.5. tf ≤ 40mm. fy = 275N/mm2 and ultimate tensile strength.48 = 298. section 5. tf = 10. Flange is Class 1 element. iLT = 4.Rd. Next.05 Vpl.6.28kN γM0 = 1.6(a). Therefore. Based on Table 3. The design value of shear force. A = 68.49kN > VSd = 179.28kN .05) = 497. flange subject to compression only”.15.36cm.6 for Class 1 elements.4 ≤ 66. for “outstand element of compression flange.9mm. shear resistance is sufficient.2. Web is Class 1 element.Rd = 0. aLT = 131cm. Actual c/tf = 8. From Table 5.5 x 497. Iy = 18670cm4. section classification is a must. limiting c/tf ratio (c is half of b) is 9. For “web subject to bending. d/tw = 47. fu = 430N/mm2.1 “Shear resistance of cross-section” of beam is checked. Second moment of area. These values must be adopted as characteristic values in calculations.52 section.6cm2.5Vpl.Rd = (32.28kN Therefore.2 for Class 1 elements.9 x 100 x 275) / (√3 x 1. limiting d/tw ratio is 66.

section 5.53 Therefore.5.05 = 275.6 “Shear buckling” requires that webs must have transverse stiffeners at the supports if d/tw is greater than 63. Therefore.2 “Moment resistance of cross-section with low shear” the design value of moment MSd must not exceed the design moment resistance of the cross-section Mc. Section 5.Rd = Wpl. Rb.5.8.8 and 56.5 “Lateral-torsional buckling” needs not be checked.5[fyf/fyw]0. sy = tf(bf/tw)0. Therefore. the moment capacity is sufficient.5 . crippling resistance. Ry.Rd and buckling resistance.Rd = (ss + sy) twfyw / γM1 where at support.4 < 63.Ed/fyf)2]0. section 5.26kNm > MSd Therefore. MSd = 268. The beam is fully restrained. not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling.Rd. Actual d/tw = 47.1 for steel grade Fe 430 and Fe 510 respectively. Ry. low shear. For low shear. For crushing resistance.5.92kNm Mc. Section 5.Rd = 1051 x 275 x 10-3 / 1. shear buckling check is not required.6 “Resistance of webs to transverse forces” requires transverse stiffeners to be provided in any case that the design value VSd applied through a flange to a web exceeds the smallest of the following – Crushing resistance.y fy / γM0 for Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section. Ra.Rd.5 [1 – (γM0 σf.

05 E = 210kN/mm2 Ra.5[h2 + ss2]0.14)] / 1.9/7.8 x 7.5 [402.69mm Ry. Ra.8mm beff should be less than [h2 + ss2]0.05 = 307.14 ≤ 0.2.4kN For crippling resistance. γM0 = 1.6)0.6 = 1731.5 = 52.8kN For buckling resistance.6/10.62 (210000 x 275)0.05 = 204.7mm.69) x 7.5 + 0 + 50/2 = 227.9)(0.6 x 275 x 10-3 / 1. fyf = 275N/mm2.5tw2 (Efyw)0. OK.5 + 3(7. sy = 10. OK γM1 = 1.9 (177. bending moment is zero.5 + 3(tw/tf) (ss/d)] / γM1 ss/d = 50 / 360.Rd = (50 + 52.5 x 7.28mm2 .Ed = 0.5 [(tf/tw)0.5 + a + ss/2 = 0.54 At support. Rb.5 = 405.6)0.05.4 = 0.62 + 502]0.5 [(10. ss = 50mm at support.Rd = βA fc A / γM1 A = beff x tw beff = 0. σf.Rd = 0.Rd = 0. A = 227.6 / 7.

13 (rolled I-section).8kN Ry. This is done in the form of deflection check.6 λ√βA = 118.5 d/t = 2.28kN.8N/mm2 Rb. fc = 121N/mm2 λ√βA = 120. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done.29). curve (a) is used. From Figure 4.1. the web of the section can resist transverse forces.05 = 197. Generally.4kN Minimum of the 3 values are 197. λ√βA = 118. fc = 119. Therefore.28 x 10-3 / 1. which is larger than VSd = 179.5 x 360.5kN. buckling about y-y axis. fc = 117N/mm2 By interpolation. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value.2) should be conducted. λ = 2.6 From Table 5. OK.05 For ends restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement (Table 5.5kN Ra.8 x 1731.4 / 7.6 = 118.6kN/m for floors. deflection should take into account deflection due to both permanent loads and imposed loads.55 βA = 1 γM1 = 1.Rd = 307.Rd = 1 x 119. the serviceability limit state check (Section 4.Rd = 204. δmax = δ1 + δ2 – δ0 (hogging δ0 = 0 at unloaded state) w1 = 27. (Permanent load) .

The section is adequate. max = 6000 / 250 = 24mm > δ1 + δ2 = 18.88mm δ2 = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 6.0m E = 210kN/mm2 Iy = 18670cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. δ.46mm Table 4. In this case. δlim. (Imposed load) L = 6. However.14mm > δ2 δlim.56 w2 = 15kN/m for floors. 2 = 6000 / 350 = 17. . the deflection is satisfactory.1 (Recommended limiting values for vertical deflections) suggests that for “floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-flexible partitions”. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check. the vertical deflection limit should be L/350 for δ2 and L/250 for δmax. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI δ1 = 5 x 27.34mm Therefore.6 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 11.

57 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. Therefore, it is adequate to be used.

3.10

Structural Column Design

Structural column design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. In simple construction, apart from section classification, two major checks that need to be done is compression and combined axial and bending at ultimate limit state.

The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the internal column “ground floor to 1st floor” (length 5m) of the steel frame with bay width 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).

3.10.1 BS 5950

In simple construction, apart from section classification, necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be compression resistance and combined axial force and moment. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1415.52kN and 63.08kNm respectively.

From the section table for universal column, the sections are rearranged in ascending form, first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.

Sx = M / py

58 = 63.08 x 103 / 275 = 229.4cm3

From the rearranged table, UC section 203x203x60 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.

From the section table, the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 60kg/m; Depth, D = 209.6mm; Width, B = 205.2mm; Web thickness, t = 9.3mm; Flange thickness, T = 14.2mm; Depth between fillets, d = 160.8mm; Plastic modulus, Sx = 652cm3; Elastic modulus, Zx = 581.1cm3; Radius of gyration, rx = 8.96cm, ry = 5.19cm; Gross area, Ag = 75.8cm2; b/T = 7.23 (b = 0.5B); d/t = 17.3.

T < 16mm, therefore, py = 275N/mm2 ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) = 1.0

Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950. Actual b/T = 7.23, which is smaller than 9ε = 9.0. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section (Outstand element of compression flange). Therefore, flange is Class 1 plastic section. Meanwhile, actual d/t = 17.3. For web of I-section under axial compression and bending, the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε / 1 + r1, where r1 is given by r1 = Fc / dtpy. r1 = 1415.52 x 103 / 160.8 x 9.3 x 275 = 3.44 but -1 < r1 ≤ 1, therefore, r1 = 1 Limiting d/t value = 80 x 1 / 1 + 1 = 40

59 > Actual d/t = 17.3 Therefore, the web is Class 1 plastic section. Since both flange and web are plastic, this section is Class 1 plastic section.

Next, based on section 4.7.2 “Slenderness” and section 4.7.3 “Effective lengths”, and from Table 22 (Restrained in direction at one end), the effective length, LE = 0.85L = 0.85 x 5000 = 4250mm. λx = LEx / rx = 4250 / 8.96 x 10 = 47.4

Next, based on section 4.7.4 “Compression resistance”, for class 1 plastic section, compression resistance, Pc = Agpc. pc is the compressive strength determined from Table 24. For buckling about x-x axis, T < 40mm, strut curve (b) is used. λx = 46, pc = 242N/mm2 λx = 48, pc = 239N/mm2 From interpolation, λx = 47.4, pc = 239.9N/mm2 Pc = Agpc = 75.8 x 100 x 239.9 x 10-3 = 1818.44kN > Fc = 1415.52kN Therefore, compressive resistance is adequate.

λLT = 45. is assumed to be acting 100mm from the face of the column.17 From Table 16 (Bending strength pb for rolled sections). Mi = 63. The moment is distributed between the column lengths above and below 1st floor. My / pyZy = 0 Equivalent slenderness λLT of column is given by λLT = 0. pb = 250N/mm2 λLT = 50. M = 31. pb = 260. the column should satisfy the relationship (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) + (My / pyZy) ≤ 1 My = 0.7 “Columns in simple structures”. the beam reaction.08kNm. when only nominal moments are applied.5.19 x 10 = 48. From frame analysis. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length. λLT = 48. therefore. R.78 x 652 x 10-3 = 170.7. Therefore. pb = 233N/mm2 From interpolation. for columns in simple construction. Section 4.17.03kNm . For EI / L1st-2nd : EI / Lground-1st < 1.5L / ry = 0.78N/mm2 Mb = pbSx = 260.60 Next.5 x 5000 / 5.54kNm. the moment will be equally divided.

10. UC section 254x254x73 is chosen.54 / 170. 3. Wpl.88kNm respectively. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl.y = MSd / fy = 57. Therefore. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1351. apart from section classification.61 (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) = 1415.0 Therefore. the combined resistance against axial force and eccentricity moment is adequate.08kN and 57.y (cm3). it is adequate to be used.44 + 31.2 EC 3 In simple construction.03 = 0.5cm3 From the rearranged table. From the section table for universal column.96 < 1.52 / 1818. This section satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.88 x 103 / 275 = 210. . This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The moment will then be divided by the design strength fy to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be cross-section resistance (in the form of moment resistance) and in-plane failure about major axis (which is a combination of axial force and eccentricity moment). The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.

Beforehand.6mm.8 gives the limiting values of stress σw for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections. fu = 430N/mm2 Sectional classification is based on Table 5. Area of section. flange is Class 1 element. Web thickness.94 (c = 0. A = 92. σw = NSd / dtw = 1351. iz = 6. For web subject to bending and compression.94 < 9. the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 73kg/m. Flange thickness. h = 254mm.73N/mm2 Table 5. c/tf = 8.2mm.2 and 10. section 5.94. Width. Second moment of area.2mm < 40mm.5.y = 990cm3. this section is Class 1 section. Next.2 respectively.62 From the section table. For symmetric I-section of Class 1 or 2.8. From Table 5. aLT = 98. for outstand element of compression flange (flange subject to compression only). Shear area. the limiting values of c/tf for Class 1 and 2 are 9.6cm2. Wel.86cm.3. the classification depends on the mean web stress.08 x 103 / 200. Wpl. the web is Class 1. tf = 14. Av = 25.5cm.1cm.y = 895cm3. tf = 14.1. section 5. Since both flange and web are plastic. d = 200. tw = 8.3. fy = 275N/mm2. b = 254mm.6(a) of C-EC3 for Class 1 elements.6 “Axially loaded members with moments” will be checked. Actual c/tf = 8. Depth. d/tw = 23.6 = 784. iy = 11. Plastic modulus. from. Elastic modulus. Therefore. σw. Actual c/tf = 8.2. iLT = 6.5b). From this table.2mm. with d/tw = 23. .2 x 8. Iy = 11370cm4. Depth between fillets.46cm. Radius of gyration.9cm2. therefore.

y.63 Vpl.555) .Rd = Mpl.555 ≥ 0.Rd is such that n < 0.6 x 102 x 275) x 10-3 / (√3 x 1.Rd (1 – n) Mpl.Rd Reduced design plastic moment.88 x 103 / 5000 = 11.1kN n = 1351.1 : MNy.1kN Maximum applied shear load (at top of column) is Vmax.1 : MNy.05 = 2433.9 x 102 x 275 x 10-3 / 1. MNy. allowing for axial force.1 = 0.Rd = 1.Rd = 1.Rd (1 – n) Npl.58kN 0.y.11 Mpl.Sd Therefore.05 = 259. the section is subject to a low shear.Rd n ≥ 0. n = NSd / Npl.Rd > Vmax.3 x (1 – 0.11 x 259.y.05) = 387. From Table 5.Sd = My.27.Sd / L = 57.y.08 / 2433.11 Mpl.5Vpl.Rd = A fy / γM0 = 92.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0 = (25. MN.Rd = Wpl.y fy / γM0 = 990 x 10-3 x 275 / 1.3kNm MNy.1 Therefore.Rd = 1.

7N/mm2 .0 Ly = 0.1 x 10 = 38. λy√βA = 38. Lastly. for buckling about y-y axis. fc = 250N/mm2 λy√βA = 40.y.3 tf ≤ 40mm λy√βA = 38.94kNm Therefore.6. buckling curve (b) is used.y.Rd) ≤ 1.Sd / ηMc. the moment resistance is sufficient.3.3 Based on Table 5. βA = 1 λy√βA = 38.85L = 0.1kNm > MSd = 28.13 “Selection of buckling curve for fc”.3.2 “Axial compression and major axis bending” states that all members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My. fc = 249.64 = 128.Rd) + (kyMy.85 x 5000 = 4250mm Slenderness ratio λy = Ly / iy = 4250 / 11. fc = 248N/mm2 From interpolation.Sd must satisfy the expression (NSd / Nb. section 5.

Rd) + (kyMy. γM1 = 1.5 (Conservative value) η = γM0 / γM1 =1 (NSd / Nb.08 / 2209. .Rd) = (1351. the resistance against in-plane failure against major axis is sufficient. it is adequate to be used.5 x 28.y.65 Nb. This section 254x254x73 UC satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.y.05 = 1 x 249.3kN ky = interaction factor about yy axis = 1.y.Rd = βA fc A / γM1.95 < 1.05 = 2209.94 / 1 x 128.Sd / ηMc.0 Therefore. Therefore.7 x 92.1) = 0.3) + (1.9 x 102 x 10-3 / 1.

2 for moment capacity.1 Structural Beam UB sections ranging from 305x102x25 to 533x210x122 are being tabulated in ascending form. namely structural capacity. Shear capacity and moment capacity of each section are being calculated separately.CHAPTER IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The results of the structural design of the braced steel frame (beam and column) are tabulated and compiled in the next sections. 4. The results are shown in Table 4. deflection.1 Structural Capacity Structural capacity deals with shear and moment resistance of a particular section chosen. The results are arranged accordingly.1. 4. structural capacity is sub-divided into beam and column. The results based on BS 5950 and EC3 calculation are compiled together to show the difference between each other.1 for shear capacity and Table 5. . based on steel grade S275 and S355. Here. and weight of steel.

38 1.5 -0.16 4.79 12.15 3.11 -2 2.27 0.28 554.98 1134.57 13.15 -16.78 15.2 447.51 18.5 1.79 11.84 727.82 2.35 730.58 34.72 % Diff.56 15.79 2.31 446.86 -0.14 583.77 1146.6 1.32 EC 3 (kN) 366.19 4.75 437.35 -1.21 668.57 680.65 0.92 588.16 551.37 338.81 528.44 2.35 793.74 2.5 642.33 862.26 2.78 456.77 728.32 860.5 529.29 5.74 0.27 819.53 943.61 345.92 394.7 -0.24 0.8 800.47 341.67 644.73 -2.16 1057.96 6.4 -0.64 5.41 925.93 1.38 1.95 404.82 2.62 515.6 1.68 6.81 -3.13 705.58 308.22 2.07 942.75 -13.78 541.2 -2.14 .74 -0.33 577.26 888.4 -10.55 712.46 478.52 439.6 10.1 Shear capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 291.38 20.5 1.66 5.64 0.21 667.92 2.48 759.47 545.67 Table 4.5 461.93 334.55 583.55 617.06 EC 3 (kN) 284.56 3.29 452.34 523.84 300.02 6.53 564.2 777.98 305.7 1.83 938.56 400.13 19.91 1011.79 2.77 -3.26 -8.09 1012.66 497.05 607.35 431.63 12.79 398.55 522.95 2.93 11.5 1102.21 441.46 -3.42 820.78 942.69 -1.99 660.53 356.51 -4.51 1.88 -18.73 -3.28 303.46 2.55 3.66 704.7 -0.5 S355 Difference (kN) 9.65 724.09 -2.21 15.78 -25.21 -24.11 1218.38 811.36 11.27 13.2 1102.83 0.15 343.17 8.81 -3.15 507.99 15.24 3.3 683.58 753.61 340.37 609.15 3.81 1024.72 -12.74 2.14 18.28 8.65 420.99 589.91 -19.6 405.55 1.39 511.81 523.94 559.68 1007.45 -1.66 24.71 429.74 393.51 384.52 443.87 433.19 1.08 2.34 44.19 1.27 845.97 392.86 1204.09 773.19 387.83 0.14 784.85 767.56 878.62 1.38 542.27 14.18 8.57 -2.65 846.18 358.39 462.96 666.32 877.89 678.32 10.86 619.6 14.94 2.04 % Diff.85 405.44 471.1 493.59 460.13 1091.56 -5.27 0.94 2.39 1.4 0.77 6.56 S275 Difference (kN) 7.4 0.74 594.64 0.85 517.93 11.02 698.03 4.09 -2.78 -20.3 14.25 382.79 2.32 783.47 831.33 409.09 16.47 596.02 12.06 1. 2.81 -2.1 -2.31 2.65 635.5 1. BS 5950 (kN) 376.37 399.11 -1.02 496.69 4.88 876.45 623.55 1.48 517.5 -0.85 854.23 -9.7 9.87 -0.06 1.99 918.93 1.65 0.

62 182.59 5. BS 5950 (kNm) 121. which is approximately 8.07 170.94 162.21 -1.06 % Diff.28 148. the difference percentage ranges from -2. varies with Av = Dt as suggested by BS 5950.69% to 4.05 3.58 4.6 as suggested by BS 5950.51 1007. For steel grade S275.81 5.3 6.76 191.3% less than 0.05 1099.57 -4.64 The difference is based on deduction of shear capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.59 5. meanwhile.56 S355 Difference (kNm) 7.59 4. Negative value indicates that the shear capacity calculated from EC3 is higher than that from BS 5950.49 1295.91 % Diff.06%.03 1440.14 8. Also.2 Moment capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 94.58 -9. The shear capacity of a structural beam is given by Pv = 0.98 141.41 143. however. Table 4. Most of the values given are lesser than Dt value. Therefore. For steel grade S355. 1 / (γM0 x √3) ≈ 0.8 8. 6.77 4.55.05 110.85 EC 3 (kNm) 88 106.01 -16. There are a few explanations to the variations.23 168.94 -12.06 1115. the difference percentage ranges from -3.Rd = (Av x fy) / (γM0 x √3) … (EC3) … (BS 5950) Av is obtained from section table.76 4.68 533x210x109 533x210x122 995.83 132.43 3.45 1431.13 8.6 137.43 3.07 .35 217.07 6. these facts explain the reason why shear capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.29 S275 Difference (kNm) 6.57% to 4.06%.78 11.44 1300. This value.6 py Av Av = Dt Vpl.57 206.35 -0.13 -0.97 EC 3 (kNm) 113.43 -1.86 125.97 6.43 160.

43%.96 21.3 844.5 654.55 9.17 171.5 302.1 244.44 12.25 453.13 246.25 5.75 300.14 3.85 5.31 19.03%.43 4.5 457.1 1.44 14.33 198 232.63 4.25 397.1 539 619.01 4.05 232.66 5.31 4.26 317.47 955. the difference percentage ranges from 1.55 429.5 14.24 376.02 315.35 1104 238.08 358.65 149.49 15.06 0.8 1082.5 691.93 885.19 370.98 20.44 4.33 221.41 5.45 521.65 5.89 1.37 16.6 5.17 7.36 2.32 10.65 590.49 5.75 631.92 13.55 433.11 242.22 13.52 11.55 257.04 1.08 252.78 487.95 24.23 213.69 188.3 4.24 1.02 377.53 549.05 0. the difference percentage ranges from 0.51 1.53 171.75 562.85 27.32 0.42 5.9 11.28 5.8 799.73 19.79 141.95 385.65 404.41 221.85 11.28 15.77 233.83 5.58% to 6.2 291.75 199.5 330 371.9 163.95 189.53 5.52 395.1 5.01 4.83 4.29 2.88 10.95 275.5 34.5 15.11 5.5 390.85 5.95 566.7 211.05 11.61 4.25 517.55 4.33 181.67 20.21 287.05 585.87 4.33 192.95 532.27 14.17 255.29 15.58 5.55 4.65 749.53 1.81 529.05 336.53 5.16 9. . meanwhile.52 434.86 4.35 731.17 24.13 318.11 5.14 410.27 1.3 695.68 12 13.97 14.02 455.2 24.33 471.95 479.4 277.73 2.63 7.95 755.41% to 6.06 11.39 682.05 35.84 13.41 19.08 6.65 244.69 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 195.93 740.95 848 184. For steel grade S355.35 624.66 2.46 5.75 398.9 619.29 202.08 510.01 182.73 21.34 404.75 431.43 4.67 425.35 302.96 10.11 261.99 4.67 685.91 The difference is based on deduction of moment capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.48 5.63 4.1 285.86 8.87 4.6 300.3 426 479.75 332.68 560.7 18.4 838.24 1.17 27.55 21.4 264.83 1.1 5.83 275.5 354.68 0.75 484.45 18. For steel grade S275.26 312.45 976.86 4.5 44.94 10.45 234.78 15.49 5.24 17.16 5.38 8.12 5.02 18.85 585.98 24.9 900.08 5.5 479.62 7.48 17.29 1.16 5.32 1.6 341.72 9.1 220.95 514.57 5.28 5.57 355.5 5.25 497.57 5.07 609. Positive value indicates that the moment capacity calculated from EC3 is lower than that from BS 5950.35 693.98 352.71 9.45 769.

whether it is Class 1. Table 4. these facts explain the reason why moment capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950. there are some variations between plastic modulus specified by BS 5950 section table and EC3 section table. plastic modulus based on BS 5950 (Sx) and EC3 (Wpl.70 There are a few explanations to the variations.1. EC3 provides better guidelines to classify a section web. for a UB section 406x178x54.y fy / γM0 … (BS 5950) … (EC3) From EC3 equation. For a column web subject to bending and compression.95. The moment capacity of a structural beam is given by Mc = py Sx Mc. Meanwhile.0 as suggested by BS 5950. This is approximately 5% less than 1. . 1 / γM0 ≈ 0.3.1 of BS 5950 and EC3 respectively. BS 5950 only provides a clearer guideline to the classification of Class 3 semi-compact section.2 Structural Column In determining the structural capacity of a column. Therefore.3 shows the result and percentage difference of compression resistance while Table 4. are revised. A study is conducted to determine independently compression and bending moment capacity of structural column with actual length of 5m.Rd = Wpl. There is a variation of approximately 0. sectional classification tables – Table 11 and Table 5.4 shows the result and percentage difference of moment resistance. Besides that. For example. Class 2 or Class 3 element.85%. 4.y) are 1060cm3 and 1051cm3 respectively.

**71 Table 4.3 Compression resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 1027.63 1403.56 1588.95 1818.44 2199.15 2667.72 2341.45 2878.73 3454.34 4291.41 5419.6 3205.31 3901.39 4553.57 5256.95 6612.78 8028.11 9489.33 EC 3 (kN) 956.1 1323.8 1500 1721.2 2067.3 2508.5 2209.3 2715.9 3269.7 4057.6 5117.3 3025.8 3695.7 4292 4965.7 6242.4 7572.7 8958.9 S275 Difference (kN) 71.53 79.76 88.95 97.24 131.85 159.22 132.15 162.83 184.64 233.81 302.3 179.51 205.69 261.57 291.25 370.38 455.41 530.43 S355 Difference (kN) 117.66 142.41 158.24 170.26 213.57 255.76 209.85 256.99 295.49 375.39 486.02 271.11 310.04 385.76 426.68 530.78 641.15 735.89

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kN) 1259.66 1773.41 2007.94 2298.26 2780.37 3373.46 2982.65 3668.29 4402.89 5474.39 6918.72 4097.01 4987.14 5821.16 6720.88 8455.58 10267.55 12138.99

EC 3 (kN) 1142 1631 1849.7 2128 2566.8 3117.7 2772.8 3411.3 4107.4 5099 6432.7

% Diff.

6.96 5.68 5.6 5.35 6 5.97 5.64 5.66 5.35 5.45 5.58 5.6 5.27 5.74 5.54 5.6 5.67 5.59

9.34 8.03 7.88 7.41 7.68 7.58 7.04 7.01 6.71 6.86 7.02 6.62 6.22 6.63 6.35 6.28 6.24 6.06

3825.9 4677.1 5435.4 6294.2 7924.8 9626.4 11403.1

**Table 4.4 Moment resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 69.47 129.03 146.73 167.96 205.13 249.38 277.94 344.27 413.51 EC 3 (kNm) 80.9 130.2 148.5 171.3 209.8 256.4 259.3 320.8 388.7 S275 Difference (kNm) -11.43 -1.17 -1.77 -3.34 -4.67 -7.02 18.64 23.47 24.81 S355 Difference (kNm) -30.81 -7.67 -9.49 -12.6 -16.45 -21.92 14.12 17.68 16.48

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kNm) 73.69 160.33 182.21 208.5 254.35 309.08 348.82 431.88 518.18

EC 3 (kNm) 104.5 168 191.7 221.1 270.8 331 334.7 414.2 501.7

% Diff.

-16.45 -0.91 -1.21 -1.99 -2.28 -2.81 6.71 6.82 6

-41.81 -4.78 -5.21 -6.04 -6.47 -7.09 4.05 4.09 3.18

72

254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 521.91 669.51 438.6 538.83 633.77 738.82 946.51 1168.56 1403.39 490.3 633.3 416.2 511.2 600.5 700.6 900.4 1111.3 1287.4 31.61 36.21 22.4 27.63 33.27 38.22 46.11 57.26 115.99 6.06 5.41 5.11 5.13 5.25 5.17 4.87 4.9 8.26 653.96 838.26 575.44 705.68 828.47 964.08 1231.05 1515.42 1815.14 632.9 817.5 537.2 660 775.3 904.4 1162.4 1434.5 1676 21.06 20.76 38.24 45.68 53.17 59.68 68.65 80.92 139.14 3.22 2.48 6.65 6.47 6.42 6.19 5.58 5.34 7.67

Shear capacity designed by BS 5950 is overall higher than EC3 design by the range of 5.27 – 6.96% and 6.22 – 9.34% for steel grade S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) respectively. This is mainly due to the partial safety factor γM1 of 1,05 imposed by EC3 in the design. Also, the compression strength fc determined from Table 5.14(a) of EC3 is less than the compression strength pc determined from Table 24 of BS 5950.

Meanwhile, as the size of section increases, the difference percentage changes from -16.45% to 8.26% for S275 (Fe 460) and -41.81% to 7.67% for S355 (Fe 510). This means that smaller sizes designed by EC3 have higher moment capacity than BS 5950 design. From the moment capacity formula of BS 5950,

Mb = pbSx

pb depends on equivalent slenderness λLT, which is also dependant on the member length. The bigger the member size, the higher the radius of gyration, ry is. Therefore, pb increases with the increase in member size.

However, moment capacity based on EC3 design,

Mpl.y.Rd = Wpl.y fy / γM0

73 The moment capacity is not dependant on equivalent slenderness. Therefore, when member sizes increase, eventually, the moment capacity based on EC3 is overtaken by BS 5950 design.

4.2

Deflection

Table 4.5 shows the deflection values due to floor imposed load. In BS 5950, this is symbolized as δ while for EC3, this is symbolized as δ2.

**Table 4.5 Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load
**

UB SECTION BS 5950 (δ, mm) 27.56 22.99 19 17.22 15.06 12.89 14.53 12.47 10.55 14.97 12.11 10.2 8.76 7.72 6.33 9.88 7.86 6.6 5.72 5.08 4.52 L = 6.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 27.62 22.16 18.54 16.83 14.77 12.68 14.1 12.13 10.31 14.71 11.93 9.98 8.51 7.51 6.17 9.71 7.69 6.46 5.6 4.95 4.39 Difference (mm) -0.06 0.83 0.46 0.39 0.29 0.21 0.43 0.34 0.24 0.26 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.13 % Diff. -0.22 3.61 2.42 2.26 1.93 1.63 2.96 2.73 2.27 1.74 1.49 2.16 2.85 2.72 2.53 1.72 2.16 2.12 2.1 2.56 2.88 BS 5950 (δ, mm) 139.53 116.41 96.17 87.18 76.23 65.25 73.54 63.14 53.43 75.77 61.28 51.66 44.33 39.07 32.06 50.01 39.81 33.43 28.94 25.72 22.9 L = 9.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 139.83 112.19 93.86 85.2 74.79 64.19 71.36 61.42 52.2 74.49 60.42 50.51 43.09 38 31.23 49.17 38.94 32.68 28.33 25.08 22.25 Difference (mm) -0.3 4.22 2.31 1.98 1.44 1.06 2.18 1.72 1.23 1.28 0.86 1.15 1.24 1.07 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.75 0.61 0.64 0.65 % Diff. -0.22 3.63 2.4 2.27 1.89 1.62 2.96 2.72 2.3 1.69 1.4 2.23 2.8 2.74 2.59 1.68 2.19 2.24 2.11 2.49 2.84

305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74

However.51 0.7 2. the difference percentage ranges from -0. Section 3.07 0.56 2.6 2. for a floor beam of 6m long. This is basically same as the range of beam length 6m.46 2.26 18. section 3. The minor differences had created differences between the deflection values.68 2.05 0.26 0.1 0.77 16.63 2.84 11.68 13. the difference percentage ranges from -0. . Meanwhile. EC3 requires deflection due to permanent dead load to be included in the final design.8 1.78 3.1 0.19 2.21 3.56 2.64 4.84 4.37 2.01 1.34 18. Meanwhile.16 1.12 17.13 8.29 0.83 13.71 3.45 14.43 2.83 20.1 0. For example.2 3.07 1.63%. δmax.06 0.4 0. E.22% to 3.08 0.74 4.06 0. Apart from that. there is also slight difference between second moment of area in both codes.55 From Table 4.74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 5. The first explanation for this difference is the modulus of elasticity value. for a section 356x171x57.46 2.54 2.07 0.05 0.4 2.22% to 3.77 2.04 0.03 9.33 3.16 11.4 2.1.66 2.59 2.35 0.56 2.4 “Design values of material coefficients” of C-EC3 states that E = 210kN/mm2.27 3.01 0. subject to 15kN/m of unfactored imposed floor load.1 3.63 19.25 2.85 1.21 24.9 9.79 16.32 0.33 0.61%.13 0.26 2.08 21. Meanwhile.7 2.85 1.04 2.98 21.85 15. Ix = 16000cm4 from BS 5950 section table.41 1. for a floor beam of 9m long.42 0.33 12.52 0.25 16.25 13.53 0.5 above.62 5.51 21.96 1.06 0.25 0.61 3.93 2. It also indicates that deflection value calculated from BS 5950 is normally higher than that from EC3.37 4.55 23. the major difference between the deflection designs of these two codes is the total deflection.66 0.47 29.08 0.33 4. Iy = 16060cm4 from EC3 section table.01 2.1.36 8.18 1.75 18.21 2.25 2.75 2.71 3.23 0.32 10.7 2.49 2.3 “Other properties” of BS 5950 states that E = 205kN/mm2.73 1.24 2.31 2.16 9.22 28.38 2.34 1.58 0. Different from BS 5950. as required by EC3.29 0.77 4.

4th Storey 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 7.122 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x60 4. Table 4.75 4.889 152x152x23 152x152x37 152x152x37 203x203x52 3.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . the weight of steel will be used as a gauge.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x52 203x203x86 9.6 Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 1 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 2 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 3 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 4 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x191x67 406x140x46 406x140x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd .750 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x152x60 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd . external columns and internal columns have been designed for the most optimum size. To compare the economy of the design.744 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) . floor beams.6 and Table 4.7 for BS 5950 and EC3 design respectively.3 Economy of Design After all the roof beams. the results of the design (size of structural members) are tabulated in Table 4.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .

313 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.821 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) Summary of the total steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4. The saving percentage.122 9.571 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9. Table 4.571 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .76 Table 4.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 9.8.744 EC3 4. is tabulated in Table 4. meanwhile.313 9.821 .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .7 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 356x171x45 To 2nd Storey 2nd .645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.645 3.750 4.889 9.9.8 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Types of Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .

60% to 17.9. unaffected by the effect of imposed load deflection.571 9.29 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) As shown in Table 4.889 EC3 4.42 15. Regardless of bay width. This time. The percentage of saving offered by BS 5950 design ranges from 1.645 9. all frame types. the percentage savings by using BS 5950 are higher than EC3 for S355 steel grade with respect to S275 steel grade.96%. BS 5950 design allowed lighter section. This resulted in higher percentage difference.9 EC3 design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4. Meanwhile.60 17. Further check on the effect of deflection was done.821 4. larger hot-rolled section is required to provide adequate moment capacity and also stiffness against deflection.122 7.750 9.744 3. the connections of beam-to-column were assumed to be “partial strength connection”. beam spans and steel grade designed by using BS 5950 offer weight savings as compared with EC3.313 % 1. The percentage savings for braced steel frame with 9m span is higher than that one with 6m span. This is because deeper. This is because overall deflection was considered in EC3 design.96 5. Semi-continuous . depending on the steel grade.77 Table 4.

Table 4. which was used in the beam design.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .503 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4. This is different from pinned joint in simple construction. The renewed beam sections are tabulated in Table 4. For uniformly distributed loading. where zero “support” stiffness corresponds to a value of β = 5. the deflection value is given as: δ = βwL4 / 384EI For a span with connections having a partial strength less than 45%. Columns remained the same as there was no change in the value of eccentricity moment and axial force.749 Roof Section Designation (Semi-continous) Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) . β is treated as β = 3.10 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x151x67 406x140x46 356x127x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd . the deflection coefficient.0.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.78 frame is achieved in this condition.10 shown. Please refer to Appendix D for a redesign work after the β value had been revised and the section redesigned to withstand bending moment from analysis process.5.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.211 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x178x52 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 8.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .

11 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Types of Frame Bay Width (m) 2Bay 4Storey 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.750 4.11.12.122 9.645 3.79 Summary of the total revised steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.744 EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.503 7. is tabulated in Table 4.749 % 0.12 Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.503 9.889 8.211 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.645 5.889 8.22 9. Table 4. meanwhile.744 Total Steel Weight (ton) EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.42 3.95 BS 5950 4.11 .122 9. The saving percentage.750 4.211 10.749 Table 4.

as the connection stiffness becomes higher. The moment capacity will be the deciding factor. if it is built semi-continuously. wL2/8 MR wL2/8 MR wL2/8 (a) Design moment. The greater difference for steel grade S355 indicated that deflection still plays a deciding role in EC3 design.1(c)). the gap reduces. Please refer to Figure 4.1(b)).1(a) for the illustration of rigid connection. The ability of partial strength connection had enabled moment at mid span to be partially transferred to the supports (Figure 4. with deflection coefficient set as β = 1. if rigid connection is introduced. Eventually. it can be seen that there is an obvious reduction of steel weight required for the braced steel frame.11% to 10.0. the sagging moment at mid span became less than that of simple construction (Figure 4.1 Bending moment of beam for: (a) rigid construction.95%. However.80 From Table 4. Therefore. the percentage of difference had been significantly reduced to the range of 0. Even though EC3 design still consumed higher steel weight. (b) semi-rigid construction.12. the effect of deflection on the design will be eliminated. . The effect of dead load on the deflection of beam had been gradually reduced. MD = wL /8 – MR 2 (b) (c) Figure 4. (c) simple construction.

γM0 of 1.1 Structural Capacity 5. 5. the difference between the approaches to obtain shear area. In review to the research objectives. a summary on the results of the objectives is categorically discussed.06% with regard to BS 5950 due to the variance between constant values of the shear capacity formula specified by both codes. This is mainly due to the application of partial safety factor.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents the summary for the study on the comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 for the design of multi-storey braced frame.1. The application of different steel grade did not contribute greater percentage of difference between the shear capacities calculated by both codes. Av value also caused the difference.43%. Meanwhile.1 Structural Beam For the shear capacity of a structural beam. Apart from that. Suggestions of further research work are also included in this chapter.05 in the moment capacity . for the moment capacity of structural beam. calculation based on EC3 had effectively reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 6. calculation based on EC3 had reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 4.

24% of column compressive resistance was achieved when designing by EC3. This comparison is based on a structural column of 5. compared with BS 5950. there is also a deviation in between the compressive strength. For the same value of unfactored imposed load. This is due to the implication of partial safety factor. 5. The design of structural beam proposed by EC3 is concluded to be safer than that by BS 5950. it was found that for a same value of λ. A reduction in the range of 5. From interpolation. a structural beam will be subject to deflection. Therefore. as compared to the partial safety factor. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design.27% to 9.82 calculation required by EC3.2 Deflection Values When subject to an unfactored imposed load. γM of 1. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. it is obvious that EC3 stresses on the safety of a structural beam. fc and pc respectively. γM0 of 1. only moments due to eccentricity will be transferred to structural column.0m long. Therefore. EC3 design created majority .0 as suggested by BS 5950. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced.2 Structural Column In simple construction. only compressive resistance comparison of structural column was made.1. of both codes.05 as required by EC3 design. In comparison. 5. With the inclusion of partial safety factor. axial compression is much more critical. fc is smaller than pc. Meanwhile.

821 tons and 4.313 tons for EC3 design. BS 5950 specifies 205kN/mm2 while EC3 specifies 210kN/mm2.1 of EC3 provided proof to this.22% to 3.571 tons for EC3 design. Higher E means the elasticity of a member is higher. The total steel weight of structural beams and columns was accumulated for comparison. thus can sustain higher load without deforming too much. Therefore.744 tons and 3. and 4.83 lower deflection values with respect to BS 5950 design. The main reason for the deviation is the difference in the specification of modulus of elasticity. . the total deflection was greater. Section 4.3 Economy Economy aspect in this study focused on the minimum steel weight that is needed in the construction of the braced steel frame.63%.122 tons and 7. The difference ranges from 0. taking into account deflection due to permanent loads. serviceability limit states check governs the design of EC3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check.645 tons and 9. I will have to be chosen. However. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 4. 6m bay width steel frame. and 9. it was found that EC3 design produced braced steel frames that require higher steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950. In this study. compared with the section chosen for BS 5950 design.2. 4-storey. For a 2-bay. E. 4-storey. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 9. 9m bay width steel frame.750 tons for BS 5950 design. 5. Cross-section with higher second moment of area value.889 tons for BS 5950 design. For a 2-bay.

S275 (Fe 430): 5.42% 2-bay. However.22% 5. .0 to 3.96% 2-bay. 6m bay width.4 Recommendation for Future Studies For future studies. S275 (Fe 430): 1. 9m bay width. it is suggested that an unbraced steel frame design is conducted to study the behavior. 9m bay width.84 The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. since the results of the third objective contradicted with the background of the study (claim by Steel Construction Institute). The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. This study showed that steel weight did not contribute to cost saving of EC3 design. 4-storey. 4-storey. 4-storey. 6m bay width.29% Further study was extended for the application of partial strength connection for beam-to-column connections in EC3 design. 4-storey. S275 (Fe 430): 5. S275 (Fe 430): 0. structural design and economic aspect based on both of the design codes. 4-storey. 6m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 15. 4-storey.11% 2-bay.95% 2-bay. S355 (Fe 510): 17. The reduction in deflection coefficient from 5. 9m bay width. 4-storey.5 had successfully reduced the percentage of difference between the steel weights designed by both codes. 4-storey.42% 2-bay.60% 2-bay. S355 (Fe 510): 10. 9m bay width. it is recommended that further studies to be conducted to focus on the economy aspect of EC3 with respect to BS 5950. S355 (Fe 510): 7. 6m bay width.

al. & Lim J B (2003). “Introduction to Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) – with Worked Examples.C.” London: European Committee for Standardization. European Committee for Standardization (1992). 4. “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. “Steel Design Can be Simple Using EC3. (1995). British Standards Institution (2001). Issue 3. November 2005.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. Steel Construction Institute (SCI) (2005). 24-27. Taylor J. .” Eurocodenews. 29-32. Vol 13 No 4.85 REFERENCES Charles King (2005). “Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000 Volume 2: Worked examples. (2001).” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. D. “EN 1993 Eurocode 3 – Steel.” New Steel Construction.” ICE Journal. “British Standard – Structural Use of Steelwork in Building: Part 1: Code of Practice for Design – Rolled and Welded Sections.1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Paper 2658. “EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures.” London: British Standards Institution. Narayanan R et. Heywood M.

86 APPENDIX A1 .

6LL Roof w = 1. LL Floors Dead Load.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.6 + 1. LL = = 4 1. DL Live Load.0 DATA No. MAHMOOD 1.4 x 24 + 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m = = 1.6 x 9 = 48 kN/m Floors w = 1.6 2.4 x 27. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.6 x 15 = 62. DL Live Load. DL Live Load.4 1. LL LOAD FACTORS Dead Load. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width. of Bay No. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.87 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.64 kN/m .4DL + 1.6 FACTORED LOAD w = 1.

2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame .0 2. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.88 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD 2.

3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.64 kN/m 62.0 LOAD LAYOUT 48 kN/m 6m 48 kN/m 62.64 kN/m . MAHMOOD 2.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.89 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.

.68 1415. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column . horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4.64 x 6 / 2 = 187.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 288 663.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other. V = 48 x 6 / 2 = 144 kN M = 48 x 6^2 / 8 = 216 kNm Floor beams. V = 62.92 kN M = 62.84 1039.84 707.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced.76 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment.64 x 6^2 / 8 = 281. contributed by beam shear.52 144 331. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.1 Beam Moment. Roof beams. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.88 kNm 4. Shear.90 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.92 519. MAHMOOD 4.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. MAHMOOD 5.76 1415.92) 663.91 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.76 .52 707. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.88 281.92) 331.0 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 216 216 281.92) 519.92) 144 [1] 331.92 [2] 519.84 [3] [4] 707.88 281.84 (187.92) 1039.68 (187.88 Shear (kN) (144) (144) 144 (187.92 (187.84 (187.92) 288 (187.88 281.88 281.88 281.

6LL) .6 [1] 21.19 Moments are calculated from (1.54 31.19 31. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.1.19 31.6 28.19 28.54 28.54 31.19 28. MAHMOOD Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 21.19 [3] 28.6 [2] 28.6 21.54 28.19 28.6 31.54 28.19 28.19 [4] 28.0DL Most critical condition .19 21.6 21.19 31.4DL+1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.19 21.92 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.54 28.

93 APPENDIX A2 .

9 kN/m Floors w = 1.94 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.76 kN/m .5 x 9 = 45. LL = = 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m LOAD FACTORS Dead Load. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.35 1. of Bay No.5 FACTORED LOAD w = 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 x 15 = 59.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.5LL Roof w = 1. MAHMOOD 1. DL Live Load.6 + 1.35 x 27.6 2. LL = = 4 1.35DL + 1.0 DATA No. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load. LL Floors Dead Load. DL Live Load. DL Live Load.35 x 24 + 1.

95 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD 2.0 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2.

76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.96 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.0 LOAD LAYOUT 45.9 kN/m 6m 45. MAHMOOD 2.9 kN/m 59.76 kN/m .76 kN/m 59.

4 633.9 x 6 / 2 = 137.26 675. contributed by beam shear.9 x 6^2 / 8 = 206.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 275. .97 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.52 1351. Roof beams.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column . V = 59.28 kN M = 59. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.7 kN M = 45.92 kNm 4. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4. V = 45. MAHMOOD 4.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.7 316.76 x 6 / 2 = 179.54 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment.1 Beam Moment.08 137.76 x 6^2 / 8 = 268.96 992.55 kNm Floor beams. Shear. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.98 496. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.

92 268. MAHMOOD 5.4 (179. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.92 5.55 206.7 [1] 316.28) 316. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.26 (179.92 268.08 675.1 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 206.92 268.28) 633.28) 496.92 268.0 5.54 1351.28) 275.7) (137.26 [3] [4] 675.2 Shear (kN) (137.7) 137.96 (179.28) 992.7 (179.55 268.52 (179.98 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.98 [2] 496.54 .98 (179.92 268.28) 137.

89 28.89 28.94 26.66 20.89 19.99 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.89 26.94 28.89 26.35DL+1.5LL) .94 26.89 26.89 26.94 26.66 26.89 26.89 Moments are calculated from (1.89 26. MAHMOOD 5. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.94 26.66 26.94 28.89 20.3 Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 20.89 28.66 19.71 28.1.0DL Most critical condition . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.71 20.

100 APPENDIX B1 .

3 92.1 98.2 74.3 54 54.0m) STC.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 1025 cm Try UB 457x152x60 .3 41. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.2 28.1 67.2 74.1 139.3 101 101.1 67.1 25.9 43 45 46 46. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23.8 60.8 33.9 149.3 82 82.1 Sx (cm3) 171 259 234 342 258 306 403 353 314 393 481 543 483 539 724 659 623 614 566 775 888 720 711 896 1100 846 1060 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 59.1 51 52. L = 6.2 28.1 37 37 39 39.1 24.1 40.1 82.8 25.2 89.1 48. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.2 74.101 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 32.3 30 31.2 179 238.88 kNm Sx = M / fy = 281.1 67.2 109 113 122 125.1 Sx (cm3) 1010 1290 1200 1210 1350 1470 1450 1500 1630 1650 1830 1810 2060 2010 2380 2230 2610 2880 2830 3280 3200 3680 4140 4590 5550 7490 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 305x102x25 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x28 254x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 406x140x39 356x127x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 406x140x46 305x165x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 457x152x60 406x178x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x191x67 457x152x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x152x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 281.1 67.

0 1.1 13.102 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD 1. Limiting d/t = 80ε = 80 Actual d/t = 50.75 = < 9 9 Flange is plastic Class 1 Section is symmetrical. L = 6. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. neutral axis at mid-depth. Section chosen = 457x152x60 UB 1.9 8. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams. subject to pure bending.3 Therefore.3 407.6 152.0m) STC.8 454.1 DATA Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. py = = mm 275 S275 < N/mm 2 16mm ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 Outstand element of compression flange.3 < 80 Web is plastic Class 1 Section is : Class 1 plastic section . The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.6 1290 1120 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm 3 b/T = d/t = 5.3 2.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = 59. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 5.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 13.75 50.

103

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

3.0

SHEAR BUCKLING If d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for rolled section, shear buckling resistance should be checked. d/t = 50.3 < 70ε = 70 Therefore, shear buckling needs not be checked

4.0

SHEAR CAPACITY Fv = 187.92 kN

Pv = 0.6pyAv py = 275 N/mm Av = tD = 8.1 x 454.6 2 = 3682.26 mm

2

Pv = 0.6 x 275 x 3682.26 x 0.001 = 607.57 kN Fv Pv < Therefore, the shear capacity is adequate

5.0

MOMENT CAPACITY M= 281.88 kNm

0.6Pv = 0.6 x 607.57 = 364.542 kN Fv 0.6Pv < Therefore, it is low shear Mc = pySx = 275 x 1290 x 0.001 = 354.75 kNm 1.2pyZ = 1.2 x 275 x 1120 x 0.001 = 369.6 kNm Mc M < < 1.2pyZ Mc OK Moment capacity is adequate

104

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

6.0 6.1

WEB BEARING & BUCKLING Bearing Capacity Pbw = (b1 + nk) tpyw r= 10.2 mm (Unstiffened web)

b1 = t + 1.6r + 2T = 8.1 + 1.6 x 10.2 + 2 x 13.3 = 51.02 mm k= T+r = 13.3 + 10.2 = 23.5 mm At the end of a member (support), n = 2 + 0.6be/k = 2 b1 + nk = = = = = < but n ≤ 5 be = 0

51.02 + 2 x 23.5 98.02 mm 98.02 x 8.1 x 275 x 0.001 218.34 kN 187.92 Pbw kN

Pbw

Fv Fv

Bearing capacity at support is ADEQUATE

105

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

7.0

**SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION CHECK Unfactored imposed loads: w= = E= I= δ= 9 15 205 25500
**

4

kN/m kN/m kN/mm cm

4 2

for roofs for floors

L=

6

m

5wL 384EI = 5 x 15 x 6^4 x 10^5 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4.84 mm

Beam condition Carrying plaster or other brittle finish Deflection limit = Span / 360 = 6 x 1000 / 360 = 16.67 mm 4.84mm < 16.67mm

The deflection is satisfactory!

106 APPENDIX B2 .

L = 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.107 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.92 kNm W pl.0m) STC. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.y = M / fy = 268.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.9 cm3 Try 406x178x54 UB .92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.

0 1.15 47.9 Therefore.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10.0m) STC. Second moment of area. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.36 131 8.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 54 402.108 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.6 10. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.9 360. cm 4 cm cm cm 2.9 68. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. = 406x178x54 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.6 177. Section chosen 1.4 1051 927 32.6 18670 4. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 6.4 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.y = W el.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.6 7. MAHMOOD 1.

4 > 46.y fy / γMO = 1051 x 275 x 0.05 = 275.7 Web is Class 2 element 406x178x54 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.49 kN VSd 0.48 = 298.Rd = W pl.15 <= 9.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.0m) STC.2 (b) Web.5 x 497. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.7 3.5Vpl. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.109 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.28 kN V pl. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 47.001 γMO = 1. it is low shear Mc.92 kNm 0.48 kN VSd < Vpl.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.Rd = 0.5Vpl. L = 6.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .Rd < Therefore. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.26 kNm MSd Mc.9 x 100 275 1.05 = 32.05 √3 = 497.001 / 1.

0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.001 / 1.Rd = (50 + 52. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 47.8 < 63.Rd = γM1 At support.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.5 σf.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support. not susceptible to LTB 6. L = 6.6 x 275 x 0. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.4 kN = VSd = 179.5 Ry.05 204.110 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 52. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.69) x 7. MAHMOOD 5. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .4 63.0m) STC.28 kN < Ry.69 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .

h= a= 402.Rd = > 0.111 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.6 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0.26 7.8 VSd = kN/mm kN 179. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.98 <= 1.2 0. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.92 275.3 ≤ = 1.5 0.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .Rd 268.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 360.14 1. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span.4 = γM1 = E= Ra. L = 6. Ra.5 ] .05 205 307.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. Rd = 0.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support. MSd Mc.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.0m) STC. MAHMOOD At midspan.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 6.5 x SQRT(402.117) / (120 .Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.118) x (121 .Rd = 1 x 119.7 mm Buckling resistance of web.75d Rolled I-section.28 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.05 = 197.6 fc 121 117 fc = 121 .28 x 0.5 d/t = 2.6 .6^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 227.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .8 x 7.6 = 118. Rb. VSd = 0 VSd = 179. MAHMOOD beff = 0.4 / 7.5 = 405.5 x 360.112 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.8 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 118 120 118.5 kN > At mid span.001 / 1.8 N/mm 2 Rb.6 l = 0.0m) STC.8 x 1731.05 A = beff x tw = 227. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.6 2 = 1731. λ = 2.118) = 119. buckling about y-y axis.(118.

MAHMOOD 8.34 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 18670 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 11. L = 6.88 6.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.46 = 18.46 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0 1.88 + 6.0m) STC. . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.113 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 .14 mm OK δmax = 11.

114 APPENDIX C1 .

08 kNm M= Sx = M / fy = 63.08 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 229. L = 5.4 cm Try 203x203x60 UC . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.115 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 310.1 497. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.4 568.8 1228 1589 1485 1953 2482 1875 2298 2964 2680 2417 3457 3436 3977 4689 4245 5101 5818 6994 8229 10009 12078 14247 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 63.4 988.1 652 802.0m) STC.6 978.3 247. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Sx (cm3) 184.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.3 2.8 652 581.52 kN L= 5 m 1.96 5.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration. Section chosen = 203x203x60 UC 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.6 205. Gross area. py = 275 ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 . MAHMOOD 1.0 DATA Fc = 1415.19 75.2 9. L = 5.8 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 2 3 b/T = d/t = 7.116 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 8.2 160.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 14. Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = rx = ry = Ag = 60 209.2 = mm S275 < < < N/mm 2 16mm 40mm 63mm Therefore.3 14.0m) STC.23 17.

52 x 1000 / (160.23 < < = < 10ε = 15ε = 9 9 10 15 Flange is plastic Class 1 Web of I.3 x 275) -1 < r1 ≤ 1 = 3.4 4.96 x 10) = 47. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 7.85L = 0.8 x 9.1 SLENDERNESS Effective Length About the x-x axis.44 r1 = 1 Actual d/t = < 17. L = 5.0 3. MAHMOOD Outstand element of compression flange.8 N/mm cm 2 2 Buckling about x-x axis .85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm λx = LEX / rx = 4250 / (8.117 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.0 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE Fc = 1415.3 80ε 1+r1 100ε 1+1. "Restrained in direction at one end" LEX = 0.5r1 = 40 All ≥ 40ε < Section is : = 40 Web is plastic Class 1 Class 1 plastic section 3.or H-section under axial compression and bending ("generally" case) r1 = Fc dtpy = 1415. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.52 kN Pc = pcAg py = Ag = 275 75.0m) STC.

0m) STC. the moment will be equally divided. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.08 kNm 100 mm Moments are distributed between the column lengths above and below level 2.5.4 pc 242 239 Therefore.(47. MAHMOOD Use strut curve (b) λx = λ 46 48 Interpolation: pcx = 242 .46) / (48 .44 kN Fc < Pc 47. beam reaction.0 NOMINAL MOMENT DUE TO ECCENTRICITY For columns in simple construction. R From frame analysis sheets.001 = 1818. Therefore.54 kNm .46) x (242 . For EI/L1 : EI/L2 < 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 x 75. R is assumed to act 100mm off the face of the column.118 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Mi = 63. L = 5.9 N/mm Pc = pcAg = 239.239) 2 = 239. the compressive resistance is adequate 5.8 x 100 x 0.4 . M= 31. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length.

5 L/ry = (0.119 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.19 x 10) = 48.00 The combined resistance against axial force and moment is adequate.17 py = λLT 45 50 275 pb 250 233 N/mm 2 pb = 250 . L = 5.03 kNm 1415.44 + 31.001 = 170.45) / (50 .0 4.0 6.78 N/mm Mb = pbSx = 260.78 x 652 x 0.0 COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND MOMENT CHECK The column should satisfy the relationship My Fc Mx + + ≤1 Pc M bs pyZ y λLT = 0.5 x 5 x 1000) / (5.(48. MAHMOOD 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.17 . 7.54 170.0m) STC.96 1.52 1818.0 CONCLUSION Compression Resistance = Combined Axial Force and Moment Check = Use of the section is adequate Use : 203x203x60 UC OK OK .250) 2 = 260.45) x (233 .03 = < 0.

120 APPENDIX C2 .

88 kNm M= W pl.121 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 cm Try 254x254x73 UC . MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Wpl.y = M / fy = 57.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 210. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.y (cm3) 184 248 309 497 567 654 801 990 979 1225 1589 1484 1952 2485 1872 2293 2970 2675 2418 3455 3438 3978 4691 4243 5101 5814 6997 8225 10010 12080 14240 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 57.0m) STC. L = 5. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.

y = iy = iz = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 73 254 254 8. MAHMOOD 1.2 Therefore. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .122 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 990 895 11.2 200. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. L = 5.0m) STC.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.94 23.6 14.5 8. = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 11370 6.08 kN Msd = 28.46 92.94 kNm L= 5 m 1.86 98.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel tf = 14.1 6.y = W el. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.0 DATA NSd = 1351. Area of section.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.3 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 4 cm cm cm 2 3 2. Second moment of area. Section chosen = 254x254x73 UC 1.

1 n ≥ 0.123 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.001 / 1.Rd = 1.9 x 100 x 275 x 0.08 / 2433.y fy γMO = 990 x 275 x 0.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.Rd = 0.8 3.2 Limit c/tf Class 2 = 10.y.Rd = Mpl.5 Web is Class 1 element Therefore. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.05 = 259.94 kNm kNm Sufficient moment resistance .94 <= 9. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange. subject to bending and compression : Classify web as subject to compression and bending d/tw = 23.555 >= n < 0.Rd = γMO γMO = 1.2 Class 3 = 13.05 = 2433. L = 5. it is Class 1 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 30.1 = 0.0m) STC.Rd = > MSd = 128.3 <= 30.0 CROSS-SECTION RESISTANCE n= NSd Npl.Rd(1-n) W pl.1 kN n = 1351.001 / 1.1 28.Rd A fy Npl.y.5 Limit d/tw Class 2 = 35.05 Npl.11 Mpl. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.3 kNm Mny.1 Mny.Rd = 92.1 Mpl.9 (b) Web.1 Class 3 = 38.y.Rd Mny.

85 L (Restrained about both axes) = 0.1 1 η= = + < γMO / γM1 1 Therefore.0 N b .1 x 10) = 38.38) / (250 .(38.3 Buckling about y-y axis (Curve b) βA = λy√βA = tf λ√βA 38 40 1 38. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.7 x 92.5 x 28.0 IN-PLANE FAILURE ABOUT MAJOR AXIS Members subject to axial compression and major axis bending must satisfy k y M y .3 .y.y.94 1 x 128.Sd ηMc.3 <= fc 250 248 40mm fc = 250 .3 kN ky = 1.Rd 1.95 (Conservative value) + kyMy.9 x 100 x 0.05 = 2209.y. Rd η M c .7 N/mm Nb.y.3 0. y . sufficient resistance against in-plane failure against major axis .Rd = βA f c A γM1 l y = 0.Rd = 1 x 249.Rd = = 1351. y . Rd Nb.124 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm Slenderness ratio λy = l y / iy = 4250 / (11.248) 2 = 249.0m) STC.5 NSd Nb.38) x (40 . Sd N Sd + ≤ 1 .001 / 1. L = 5.08 2209. MAHMOOD 4.

Use : 254x254x73 UC OK OK . L = 5.0 3.125 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 CONCLUSION Cross Section Resistance In-plane Failure About Major Axis Use of the section is adequate. MAHMOOD 5.0 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0m) STC.

126 APPENDIX D .

127 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.9 cm3 Try 457x152x52 UB . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl. L = 6.y = M / fy = 268.0m) Rev 1 STC.92 kNm W pl.92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.

6 10. Second moment of area.59 121 6.0m) Rev 1 STC.8 152. = 457x152x52 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 52 449. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area. L = 6.y = W el.6 1096 950 36. Section chosen 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.6 21370 3.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.5 66.99 53.128 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.4 7.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10. cm 4 cm cm cm 2.0 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.6 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.9 407.9 Therefore. MAHMOOD 1. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .

28 kN V pl.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.05 = 287. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 6.05 kNm MSd Mc.5 x 551.6 > 46.05 = 36.Rd = W pl.y fy / γMO = 1096 x 275 x 0. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5Vpl.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.Rd < Therefore.7 3. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 53.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .92 kNm 0.15 kN VSd 0.5Vpl.99 <= 9.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.92 kN VSd < Vpl.05 √3 = 551.0m) Rev 1 STC.Rd = 0. L = 6.5 x 100 275 1.7 Web is Class 2 element 457x152x52 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.001 / 1.2 (b) Web.92 = 331. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.001 γMO = 1. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.129 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. it is low shear Mc.

L = 6. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.6 63.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 48.Rd = γM1 At support.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.81 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f . shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 53. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7.28 kN < Ry.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance . not susceptible to LTB 6. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.6 x 275 x 0.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).001 / 1.5 σf. MAHMOOD 5. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.68 kN VSd = 179.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.8 < 63.05 = 196.130 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.81) x 7. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.Rd = (50 + 48.0m) Rev 1 STC.5 Ry.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.8 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0. h= a= 449.16 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.5 ] . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.12 1.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .5 0.05 7.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 407.05 205 299.131 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. MAHMOOD At midspan.92 287.2 0.Rd = > 0.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support. L = 6.0m) Rev 1 STC.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0. Ra.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.94 <= 1.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.Rd 268. Rd = 0. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.3 ≤ = 1.6 = γM1 = E= Ra. MSd Mc.

88 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.9 x 1909.1 l = 0.1 . MAHMOOD beff = 0.5 x 407. λ = 2.5 d/t = 2. buckling about y-y axis. L = 6.75d Rolled I-section.6 / 7.0m) Rev 1 STC.9 kN > At mid span.5 = 452. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.(134.3 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.6 mm Buckling resistance of web. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.130) x (103 .88 x 0.132 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 x SQRT(449.9 N/mm 2 Rb.8^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 251.001 / 1.1 fc 103 98 fc = 103 . use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 130 135 134. Rb.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.Rd = 1 x 98.6 2 = 1909.05 = 179.05 A = beff x tw = 251.6 = 134. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.98) / (135 .130) = 98.3 x 7.

26 3.95 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27. MAHMOOD 8.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 .14 mm OK δmax = 7.133 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 7. .21 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.26 + 3.0m) Rev 1 STC.95 = 11. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 21370 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 3.