This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# PSZ 19:16 (Pind.

1/97)

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

**BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
**

JUDUL:

υ

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

SESI PENGAJIAN: Saya

2006 / 2007

**CHAN CHEE HAN
**

(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/ Sarjana/ Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tandakan (3) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam (AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/ badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

3

TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

**Alamat Tetap: PETI SURAT 61162, 91021 TAWAU, SABAH.
**

Tarikh

CATATAN:

**PM DR. IR. MAHMOOD MD. TAHIR Nama Penyelia
**

Tarikh:

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

* ** Potong yang tidak berkenaan.

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

υ

Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/ organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

“I hereby declare that I have read this project report and in my opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure).”

Signature

:

Name of Supervisor : P.M. Dr. Ir. Mahmood Md. Tahir Date : 01 NOVEMBER 2006

i

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

CHAN CHEE HAN

A project report submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

NOVEMBER, 2006

ii I declare that this project report entitled “Comparison Between BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 & Eurocode 3 for The Design of Multi-Storey Braced Steel Frame” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. Signature Name Date : : Chan Chee Han : 01 NOVEMBER 2006 . The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

iii To my beloved parents and siblings .

I am most thankful to my parents and family for their support and encouragement given to me unconditionally in completing this task. I would like to express my appreciation to my thesis supervisor. PM. Mahmood’s research students. Dr. Mr. Tahir of the Faculty of Civil Engineering. Mahmood Md. patience and guidance during the duration of my study. Tan for their helpful guidance in the process of completing this study.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. I would also like to express my thankful appreciation to Dr. . Ir. Without the contribution of all those mentioned above. for his generous advice. Shek and Mr. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. this work would not have been possible. Finally.

Eurocode 3 also reduced the deflection value due to unfactored imposed load of up to 3. the percentage of difference had been reduced to the range of 0.95%. design methods.06% and moment capacity by up to 6.96% more steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. with the application of partial strength connections.43%. structural column designed by Eurocode 3 has compression capacity of between 5.34% less than BS 5950: Part 1:2000 design. Design worksheets are created for the design of structural beam and column.v ABSTRACT Reference to standard code is essential in the structural design of steel structures. Meanwhile. Therefore. Eurocode 3 produced braced steel frames which consume 1. This study intends to testify the claim. However.11% to 10. loading values and etc. . However.63% in comparison with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. serviceability limit states check governs the design of Eurocode 3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. These details include the basis and concept of design. This paper presents comparisons of findings on a series of two-bay. safety factors. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design.27% and 9. specifications to be followed.60% to 17. four-storey braced steel frames with spans of 6m and 9m and with steel grade S275 (Fe 460) and S355 (Fe 510) by designed using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. The design method by Eurocode 3 has reduced beam shear capacity by up to 4.

Institut Pembinaan Keluli (SCI) berpendapat bahawa rekabentuk struktur keluli menggunakan Eurocode 3 adalah 6 – 8% lebih menjimatkan daripada menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.43%.34% kurang daripada rekabentuk menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. nilai beban. 4 tingkat yang terdiri daripada rentang rasuk 6m dan 9m serta gred keluli S275 (Fe 430) dan S355 (Fe 510). dan sebagainya. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji pendapat ini. Namun begitu.vi ABSTRAK Dalam rekabentuk struktur keluli. .63% berbanding BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Eurocode 3 menghasilkan kerangka keluli dirembat yang menggunakan berat besi 1.06% dan keupayaan momen rasuk sebanyak 6.27% – 9.96% lebih banyak daripada kerangka yang direkabentuk oleh BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. didapati bahawa keadaan had kebolehkhidmatan mengawal rekabentuk Eurocode 3 disebabkan beban mati tanpa faktor yang perlu diambilkira dalam pemeriksaan pesongan. Kandungan dalam kod piawai secara amnya mengandungi butiran rekabentuk yang komprehensif.11% – 10. Justeru. Selain itu. Kertas kerja komputer ditulis untuk merekabentuk rasuk dan tiang keluli. spesifikasi yang perlu diikuti. rujukan kepada kod piawai adalah penting.60% – 17. Rekebentuk menggunakan Eurocode 3 telah mengurangkan keupayaan ricih rasuk sehingga 4. Eurocode 3 juga mengurangkan nilai pesongan yang disebabkan oleh beban kenaan tanpa faktor sehingga 3. cara rekabentuk. factor keselamatan. penggunaan sambungan kekuatan separa telah berjaya mengurangkan lingkungan berat besi kepada 0.95%. tiang keluli yang direkebentuk oleh Eurocode 3 mempunyai keupayaan mampatan 5. Namun begitu. Kertas ini menunjukkan perbandingan keputusan kajian ke atas satu siri kerangka besi terembat 2 bay. Butiran-butiran ini mengandungi asas dan konsep rekabentuk.

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii xii xiii xiv xv THESIS TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES LISTOF NOTATIONS I INTRODUCTION 1.4 1.5 Introduction Background of Project Objectives Scope of Project Report Layout 1 3 4 4 5 .3 1.2 1.1 1.

3 Serviceability Limit State 2.3.3.3.2 BS 5950 2.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 2. Mc 2.3.2 Ultimate Limit State 2.2.3 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.4 Loading 2.3.Rd 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 .Rd Moment Capacity.3.3.1.2.2 2.3.6 Deflection 2.1 Unstiffened Web 2.4.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.1.1 (EC3) Design Concept of EC3 2.3.5.2 Serviceability 2.3.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.1 2.1.3.2 2.3 Shear Capacity. Pv Moment Capacity.1 2.1.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.1.4.1 Ultimate Limit States 2.2 2.3. Vpl.3.3. Mc.5.3.3.3.2.2.4 Actions of EC3 2.viii II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.4.1 Cross-sectional Classification 2.1 Application Rules of EC3 2.1.2.4.3 Background of BS 5950 Scope of BS 5950 Design Concept of BS 5950 2.3.2 2.1.2 Stiffened Web 2.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2.3 Cross-sectional Classification Shear Capacity.3.1 2.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 2.4.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.2.

6.Rd 2.1 Introduction 34 .2 Slenderness.4.5 Deflection 2.6.2.2.7.3.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.4. Ry.Rd 2.6. λ 2.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.4. λ 2.1.5.3 Buckling Resistance.Rd 2.5. LE 2.6.4 Buckling Resistance.1.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 2.Rd 2.Rd 2.1.1 2.6. Nb.2.3 Compression Resistance.4. Rb.7 Conclusion 2.6.2.5.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 2.4.3.2 Crippling Resistance.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.7.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.6.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.2 Structural Beam Structural Column 31 32 29 30 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 29 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 III METHODOLOGY 3.4.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.4.5.1 Effective Length. l 2.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.1 Crushing Resistance.3 Compression Resistance.5.4.ix 2.1 Cross-section Capacity 2. Nc. Ra.5.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces 2.1. Pc 2.1.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.4.2 Slenderness.1.1 Buckling Length.5.4.6.1.

4 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Structural Layout & Specifications 3.2 3.1.7 3.2 4.1 Structural Capacity 5.10.10 Structural Column Design 3.1.4.1 Load Combination 3.8.2 4.6 3.9 Structural Beam Design 3.2 Shear Calculation 3.8.5 3.3 Structural Beam Structural Column 66 66 70 73 75 Deflection Economy of Design V CONCLUSIONS 5.2 3.x 3.3 3.9.1.8 Structural Layout Specifications 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 42 43 44 46 47 51 57 57 61 35 36 Loadings Factor of Safety Categories Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3.1 BS 5950 3.10.2 EC 3 IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 4.2 BS 5950 EC 3 3.1 4.1 Structural Beam 81 81 .8.4.1 3.1 3.1 Structural Capacity 4.9.3 Moment Calculation 3.

3 5.2 5.xi 5.4 Structural Column 82 82 83 84 Deflection Values Economy Recommendation for Future Studies REFERENCES 85 APPENDIX A1 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 APPENDIX A2 APPENDIX B1 APPENDIX B2 APPENDIX C1 APPENDIX C2 APPENDIX D .2 5.1.

2 3.2 4.5 4.9 4.4 4.xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.12 Criteria to be considered in structural beam design Criteria to be considered in structural column design Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) Shear capacity of structural beam Moment capacity of structural beam Compression resistance and percentage difference Moment resistance and percentage difference Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Total steel weight of the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) 31 32 43 44 45 67 68 71 71 73 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) 46 .3 3.1 3.2 3.10 4.8 4.7 4.11 4.1 2.3 4. TITLE PAGE 2.4 4.1 4.6 4.

3 4.1(b) 4.2 3.xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.1 3. TITLE PAGE 3.1(a) 4.1(c) Schematic diagram of research methodology Floor plan view of the steel frame building Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame Bending moment of beam for rigid construction Bending moment of beam for semi-rigid construction Bending moment of beam for simple construction 37 38 39 80 80 80 .

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D Frame Analysis Based on BS 5950 Frame Analysis Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 Structural Column Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Column Design Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 (Revised) 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 .

Rd Mb.Major axis .Rd Mc.Rd Ry.Rd Mpl.Rd Vpl.xv LIST OF NOTATIONS BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 EUROCODE 3 Axial load Shear force Bending moment Partial safety factor Radius of gyration .Rd Rb.y.y.Rd h A Aeff Av .Minor axis Depth between fillets Compressive strength Flexural strength Design strength Slenderness Web crippling resistance Web buckling resistance Web crushing resistance Buckling moment resistance Moment resistance at major axis Shear resistance Depth Section area Effective section area Shear area F Fv M γ NSd VSd MSd γM0 γM1 rx ry d pc pb py λ Pcrip Pw Mbx Mcx Pv D Ag Aeff Av iy iz d fc fb fy λ Ra.y.y.

z c/tf d/tw b l tf tw Sx Sy Wpl.Minor axis Elastic modulus .z .Major axis .xvi Plastic modulus .y Wpl.Major axis .y Wel.Minor axis Flange Web Width of section Effective length Flange thickness Web thickness Zx Zy b/T d/t B LE T t Wel.

as well as the trading volume and diplomatic ties between these countries. These details include the basis and concept of design. countries or nations that do not publish their own standard codes will adopt a set of readily available code as the national reference. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. These codes were a product of constant research and development. loading values and etc. climate and national preferences. economic and functional building. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site. Meanwhile. many countries have published their own standard codes. namely suitability of application of the code set in a country with respect to its culture. . The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe.1 Introduction Structural design is a process of selecting the material type and conducting indepth calculation of a structure to fulfill its construction requirements.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. design methods. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. specifications to be followed. In present days. safety factors. and past experiences of experts at respective fields. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science. In the structural design of steel structures. reference to standard code is essential. Several factors govern the type of code to be adopted.

Standardization of design code for structural steel in Malaysia is primarily based on the practice in Britain. These preliminary standards of ENV will be revised. The earliest documents seeking to harmonize design rules between European countries were the various recommendations published by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. designers. published by the European Commission. were developed. contractors and manufacturers of construction products among the European member countries. operators and users. Eurocode 3 has developed in stages. As with other Europeans standards. Therefore. Eurocodes will be used in public procurement specifications and to assess products for ‘CE’ (Conformité Européen) mark. It is believed that Eurocode 3 is more comprehensive and better developed compared to national codes. Buckling resistance and shear resistance are two major elements of structural steel design. This was followed by the various parts of a pre-standard code. ENV1993 (ENV stands for EuroNorm Vornorm) issued by Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) – the European standardisation committee. ECCS. . The establishment of Eurocode 3 will provide a common understanding regarding the structural steel design between owners. From these. the move to withdraw BS 5950 and replace with Eurocode 3 will be taking place in the country as soon as all the preparation has completed. amended in the light of any comments arising out of its use before being reissued as the EuroNorm standards (EN). Codes of practice provide detailed guidance and recommendations on design of structural elements. Therefore. provision for these topics is covered in certain sections of the codes.2 Like most of the other structural Eurocodes. the initial draft Eurocode 3. The study on Eurocode 3 in this project will focus on the subject of moment and shear design.

However. The increasing complexity of codes arises due to several reasons. even though there seems to be no benefit to the designer for the majority of his regular workload. Many designers feel depressed when new codes are introduced (Charles. causing safety issues. for those who pursue economy of material. simple design is possible if the code requirements are presented in an easy-to-use format. such as the tables of buckling stresses in existing BS codes. Lacking analytical and calculative proof. Finally. earlier design practice under-estimated strength in various circumstances affecting economy. Besides. in its publication of “eurocodesnews” magazine has claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950. namely earlier design over-estimated strength in a few particular circumstances. Design can be complex.3 1. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI). this project is intended to testify the claim.2 Background of Project The arrival of Eurocode 3 calls for reconsideration of the approach to design. . this can be achieved if the designer is not too greedy in the pursuit of the least steel weight from the strength calculations. and new forms of structure evolve and codes are expanded to include them. but it can be simplified for those pursuing speed and clarity. There are new formulae and new complications to master. simple design is possible if a scope of application is defined to avoid the circumstances and the forms of construction in which strength is over-estimated by simple procedures. 2005).

The comparison will be made between the EC3 with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.4 Scope of Project The project focuses mainly on the moment and shear design on structural steel members of a series four-storey. 3) To compare the economy aspect between the designs of both BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. The multi-storey steel frame will be first analyzed by using Microsoft Excel worksheets to obtain the shear and moment values. This structure is intended to serve as an office building. 1. 2) To study on the effect of changing the steel grade from S275 to S355 in Eurocode 3. hereafter referred to as EC3. All the beam-column connections are to be assumed simple.3 Objectives The objectives of this project are: 1) To compare the difference in the concept of the design using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. design spreadsheets will be created to calculate and design the structural members. Next. 2 bay braced frames. A study on the basis and design concept of EC3 will be carried out. The standard code used here will be Eurocode 3. hereafter referred to as BS 5950. Comparison to other steel structural design code is made.4 1. .

5 1. Chapter II presents the literature review that discusses the design procedures and recommendations for steel frame design of the codes EC3 and BS 5950. . Meanwhile. Chapter I presents an introduction to the study. Chapter III will be a summary of research methodology. Results and discussions are presented in Chapter IV. conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter V.5 Report Layout The report will be divided into five main chapters.

1 General rules and rules for buildings” covers the general rules for designing all types of structural steel. Principles and application rules are also clearly stated. It also covers specific rules for building structures. The use of local application rules are allowed only if they have similar principles as EC3 .1 (EC3) EC3. Eurocode is separated by the use of different construction materials. “Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. while Eurocode 4 covers for composite construction. Eurocode 1 covers loading situations. or better known as Eurocode. serviceability and resistance of a structure. Eurocode covers concrete construction.CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2. was initiated by the Commission of European Communities as a standard structural design guide. Eurocode 3 covers steel construction.2 Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1. It was intended to smooth the trading activities among the European countries. Application rules must be written in italic style.1.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2. Principles should be typed in Roman wordings. 2.1 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) European Code.1. EC3 stresses the need for durability. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design.

Safety factor values are recommended in EC3. Partial safety factor is applied to loadings and design for durability. Every European country using EC3 has different loading and material standard to accommodate safety limit that is set by respective countries. Potential damage should be limited or avoided by appropriate choice of one or more of the following criteria: Avoiding. it will sustain all actions and other influences likely to occur during execution and use and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs. selecting a structural form and design that can survive adequately the accidental removal of an individual element. . impact or consequences of human errors.3. It should also be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like explosions. EC3 covers two limit states. EC3 stresses the need for durability. and with appropriate degrees of reliability. which are ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. having due regard to its intended life and its cost. 2. it will remain fit for the use for which it is required. eliminating or reducing the hazards which the structure is to sustain.3 Design Concept of EC3 All designs are based on limit state design. 2. serviceability and resistance of structure (Taylor. 2001). and tying the structure together. durability and serviceability design does not differ too much.1 Application Rules of EC3 A structure should be designed and constructed in such a way that: with acceptable probability.1. to an extent disproportionate to the original cause.7 and their resistance.1. selecting a structural form which has low sensitivity to the hazards considered. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design.

wind loads. movable imposed loads. temperature effects or settlement.1. self-weight of structures. e.8 2. for example. or an imposed deformation in indirect action. actions are defined as fixed actions. including supports and foundations.4 Actions of EC3 An action (F) is a force (load) applied to the structure in direct action. explosions or impact from vehicles. fittings.g. or which limits its functional effectiveness. Actions are classified by variation in time and by their spatial variation. . snow loads. and loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it. and free actions. e. 2.g. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people. which causes discomfort to people. ancillaries and fixed equipment. Partial or whole of structure will suffer from failure.g.g. e. including: deformations or deflections which adversely affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (including the proper functioning of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-structural elements. and vibration. damage to the building or its contents. self-weight.2 Ultimate Limit State Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse. actions can be grouped into permanent actions (G). considered as a rigid body. which result in different arrangements of actions. In time variation classification. It may require certain consideration. rupture.1. wind loads or snow loads. in spatial variation classification. and accidental loads (A). e. imposed loads.3 Serviceability Limit State Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met. Meanwhile. or loss of stability of the structure or any part of it. This failure may be caused by excessive deformation.1. variable actions (Q). e.3.g.3. 2.

shear resistance. 2.2 BS 5950 2. . Part 8 comprises of code of practice for fire resistance design. but offsetting potential reductions in economy was also one of the reasons. lateral-torsional buckling. Part 1 covers the code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections. Part 2 and 7 deal with specification for materials. They are being used in buildings and allied structures not specifically covered by other standards. sheeting respectively.2 Scope of BS 5950 Part 1 of BS 5950 provides recommendations for the design of structural steelwork using hot rolled steel sections. local buckling. members subject to combined axial force and bending moment. BS 5950 comprises of nine parts. which was withdrawn. flats. etc.9 2.1 Background of BS 5950 BS 5950 was prepared to supersede BS 5950: Part 1: 1990. hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed structural hollow sections. plates. Part 6 covers design for light gauge profiled steel sheeting. and Part 9 covers the code of practice for stressed skin design. avoidance of disproportionate collapse. welded sections and cold formed sections. fabrication and erected for rolled. Part 3 and Part 4 focus mainly on composite design and construction.2. Several clauses were technically updated for topics such as sway stability. Changes were due to structural safety. Part 5 concerns design of cold formed thin gauge sections.2.

rupture.3. inclusive of general yielding.3. In the case of combined imposed load and wind load. The load carrying capacity of each member should be such that the factored loads will not cause failure. wind induced oscillation. stability against overturning and sway sensitivity. vibration. in the design for limiting states. serviceability loads should be taken as the unfactored specified values.2. 2. The fundamental of the methods are different joints for different methods.1 Ultimate Limit States Several elements are considered in ultimate limit states. namely simple design. in checking. Meanwhile. and experimental verification. and durability. buckling and mechanism formation. fracture due to fatigue. In the case of combined horizontal crane loads and wind load. 2. only 80% of the full specified values need to be considered when checking for serviceability.2 Serviceability Limit States There are several elements to be considered in serviceability limit states – Deflection.10 2. Generally. They are: strength.2. semi-continuous design.3 Design Concept of BS 5950 There are several methods of design. Generally. BS 5950 covers two types of states – ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states.2. . the specified loads should be multiplied by the relevant partial factors γf given in Table 2. and brittle fracture. continuous design. only the greater effect needs to be considered when checking for serviceability.

. The classification of each element of a cross-section subject to compression (due to a bending moment or an axial force) should be based on its width-to-thickness ratio. The elements of a cross-section are generally of constant thickness.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below.3. overhead traveling cranes. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling Bearing capacity of web Deflection 2. There are dead. All relevant loads should be separately considered and combined realistically as to compromise the most critical effects on the elements and the structure as a whole.2. imposed and wind loading. 2. earth and groundwater loading.1 Cross-sectional Classification Cross-sections should be classified to determine whether local buckling influences their capacity.11 2. Where necessary.4 Loading BS 5950 had identified and classified several loads that act on the structure. Loading conditions during erection should be given particular attention. the settlement of supports should be taken into account as well. without calculating their local buckling resistance.

Class 1 section is used for plastic design as the plastic hinge rotation capacity enables moment redistribution within the structure.2 Shear Capacity.2. 2.3. Cross-sections at this category should be given explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling. the complete cross-section should be classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression elements. Class 2 is known as compact section. It is cross-section with plastic hinge rotation capacity.6pyAv . the plastic moment capacity cannot be reached. Alternatively. Sections that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi-compact sections should be classified as class 4 slender.12 Generally. Pv The web of a section will sustain the shear in a structure. However. It enables plastic moment to take place. Class 4 is known as slender section. a crosssection may be classified with its compression flange and its web in different classes. local buckling will bar any rotation at constant moment. However. When this section is applied. the stress at the extreme compression fiber can reach design strength. given by: Pv = 0.3 of BS 5950 states the shear force Fv should not be greater than the shear capacity Pv. Class 3 is known as semi-compact section. Shear capacity is normally checked at section part that sustains the maximum shear force. Class 1 is known as plastic section. Clause 4. Fv.

3 Moment Capacity. Mc At sectional parts that suffer from maximum moment. BS 5950 provides various formulas for different type of sections. and Zeff is the effective section modulus.2. Clause 4.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv does not exceed 60% of the shear capacity Pv.3.3. .13 in which Av is the shear area. 2.5.3. py is the design strength of steel and it depends on the thickness of the web. There are two situations to be verified in the checking of moment capacity – low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity. Seff is the effective plastic modulus. Z is the section modulus. Mc = pyZ or alternatively Mc = pySeff for class 3 semi-compact sections. 2.2 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = pyS for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections. moment capacity of the section needs to be verified. and Mc = pyZeff for class 4 slender cross-sections where S is the plastic modulus.

and Mc = py(Zeff – ρSv/1.5) for class 4 slender cross-sections in which Sv is obtained from the following: - For sections with unequal flanges: Sv = S – Sf.3. Clause 4. and ρ is given by ρ = [2(Fv/Pv) – 1]2 .2pyZ for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections. - Otherwise: Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av.14 2.3.5) or alternatively Mc = py(Seff – ρSv) for class 3 semi-compact sections.2.5.2 High Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv exceeds 60% of the shear capacity Pv.3 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = py(S – ρSv) < 1. in which Sf is the plastic modulus of the effective section excluding the shear area Av. Mc = py(Z – ρSv/1.

provided that the flanges are not class 4 slender.4. but the web is designed for shear only. obtained from Table 21 BS 5950 t = web thickness b) High shear – “flanges only” method If the applied shear Fv > 0.3. Vw = dtqw where d = depth of the web.15 2. if the web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 70ε for a rolled section.4. if the web depth-to-thickness d/t ≤ 62ε.4. The moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined taking account of the interaction of shear and moment using the following methods: a) Low shear Provided that the applied shear Fv ≤ 0.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2. it should be assumed not to be susceptible to shear buckling and the moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined using 2.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4.4.4.3. it should be assumed to be susceptible to shear buckling.2 states that.3.3.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4.6Vw. or 62ε for a welded section. qw = shear buckling strength of the web.3.4.1 of BS 5950 states that. 2. where Vw is the simple shear buckling resistance.6Vw. a conservative value Mf for .

provided that the applied moment does not exceed the “low-shear” moment capacity given in a).except at the end of a member: n = 5 .5.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.1 Unstiffened Web Clause 4.or H-section: k=T+r k=T .at the end of a member: n = 2 + 0. the web should be designed using Annex H.6be/k but n ≤ 5 and k is obtained as follows: .3. It is given by: Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw in which. with each flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf.for a rolled I. where pyf is the design strength of the compression flange.3.for a welded I.1 states that bearing stiffeners should be provided where the local compressive force Fx applied through a flange by loads or reactions exceeds the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web at the web-to-flange connection.16 the moment capacity may be obtained by assuming that the moment is resisted by the flanges alone.5.6Vw.2.3 for the applied shear combined with any additional moment beyond the “flanges-only” moment capacity Mf given by b). 2. c) High shear – General method If the applied shear Fv > 0. .or H-section: .

3.5. The capacity Ps of the stiffener should be obtained from: Ps = As. r is the root radius.netpy in which As. the smaller value should be used to calculate both the web capacity Pbw and the stiffener capacity Ps. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load. 2. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 8 of BS 5950. 2.net is the net cross-sectional area of the stiffener.17 where b1 is the stiff bearing length.6 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. allowing for cope holes for welding. and t is the web thickness.2 Stiffened Web Bearing stiffeners should be designed for the applied force Fx minus the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web. pyw is the design strength of the web.3. T is the flange thickness. be is the distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing. . If the web and the stiffener have different design strengths.

plastic hinge is disallowed because local buckling will occur first.1 Cross-sectional Classification A beam section should firstly be classified to determine whether the chosen section will possibly suffer from initial local buckling. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Bearing capacity of web a) b) c) Crushing resistance Crippling resistance Buckling resistance (v) Deflection 2. This limit allows the formation of a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. Clause 5. It can also achieve rectangular stress block.3 of EC3 provided limits on the outstand-to-thickness (c/tf) for flange and depth-tothickness (d/tw) in Table 5. When the flange of the beam is relatively too thin. It has limited rotation capacity.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. To avoid this. However. Class 2 is also known as compact section. Beam sections are classified into 4 classes. This section can develop plastic moment resistance. the beam will buckle during pre-mature stage.1.4. Class 1 is known as plastic section. .3.18 2. It is applicable for plastic design.

fy is the steel yield strength and γMO is partial safety factor as stated in Clause 5. Vpl.Rd where Vpl. It is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression resistance. and ε = [235/fy]0. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance.19 Class 3 is also known as semi-compact section. Calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength. Shear buckling resistance should be verified when for an unstiffened web.2 Shear Capacity. 2. The member will fail before it reaches design stress. the inequality should be satisfied: Vsd ≤ Vpl.Rd The web of a section will sustain shear from the structure. kγ is the buckling factor for shear. The stress block will be of triangle shape. the ratios of c/tf and d/tw will be the highest among all four classes. Apart from that.1. Pre-mature buckling will occur before yield strength is achieved.4. Class 4 is known as slender section.Rd = Av (fy / √3) / γMO Av is the shear area. Vsd.1.5 . At each crosssection. the ratio of d/tw > 69ε or d/tw > 30ε √kγ for a stiffened web. Shear capacity will normally be checked at section that takes the maximum shear force.

Mc. low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity.3.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity When maximum shear force. Vsd exceeds 50% of the design resistance Vpl. the design moment resistance of a cross-section should be reduced to MV.4.5. Vsd is equal or less than the design resistance Vpl.Rd.3.Rd.20 2.3. 2.Rd = Wpl fy / γMO Class 3 cross-sections: Mc. There are two situations to verify when checking moment capacity – that is.Rd Moment capacity should be verified at sections sustaining maximum moment. the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear .4.Rd. γMO and γM1 are partial safety factors.2 High Shear Moment Capacity Clause 5. For class 4 cross-sections.4.4.Rd may be determined as follows: Class 1 or 2 cross-sections: Mc. 2. Weff is the elastic modulus at effective shear area. the design moment resistance of a cross-section Mc. when maximum shear force. as stated in Clause 5.Rd = Wel fy / γMO Class 4 cross-sections: Mc.Rd = Weff fy / γM1 where Wpl and Wel the plastic modulus and elastic modulus respectively.3 Moment Capacity.7 states that.

4.4.Rd of the web of an I. Clause 5. However.4.21 force. Thus.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces The resistance of an unstiffened web to transverse forces applied through a flange. Ry.3 provides that the design crushing resistance.Rd where ρ = (2Vsd / Vpl. it is obtained as follows: MV.Ed / fyf)2]0.5 [1 – (σf. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange.Rd Situation becomes critical when a point load is applied to the web. crippling of the web in the form of localized buckling and crushing of the web close to the flange.5 . Ry. this checking is unnecessary.Rd – 1)2 2. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange.5 (fyf / fyw)0.7. For cross-sections with equal flanges.Rd = (Wpl – ρAv2/4tw) fy / γMO but MV. is governed by one of the three modes of failure – Crushing of the web close to the flange.1 Crushing Resistance. if shear force acts directly at web without acting through flange in the first place. 2.Rd = (ss + sγ) tw fγw / γM1 in which sγ is given by sγ = 2tf (bf / tw)0. and buckling of the web over most of the depth of the member. checking should be done at section subject to maximum shear force.Rd ≤ Mc. H or U section should be obtained from: Ry. This checking is intended to prevent the web from buckling under excessive compressive force. bending about the major axis.

Rd The design buckling resistance Rb.Rd Msd ≤ Mc. the following criteria should be satisfied: Fsd ≤ Ra. H or U section is given by: Ra.5 + 3(tw / tf)(ss / d)] / γM1 where ss is the length of stiff bearing.4.2.Rd of the web of an I.Rd and Fsd / Ra.4. Ra.3 Buckling Resistance. fyf and fyw are yield strength of steel at flange and web respectively.5.Rd of the web of an I.Rd The design crippling resistance Ra. and ss / d < 0.Rd = (χ βA fy A) / γM1 .Rd + Msd / Mc.4. Rb.Rd ≤ 1.5tw2(Efyw)0.22 but bf should not be taken as more than 25tf. For member subject to bending moments.2 Crippling Resistance. 2.5 [(tf / tw)0. obtained from beff = [h2 + ss2]0. Rb. H or U section should be obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with an effective beff. σf.4.5 2.Sd = 0.Ed is the longitudinal stress in the flange.

1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam. 2. Column is a compressive member and it generally supports compressive point loads.2.5. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only. checking is normally conducted for capacity of steel column to compression only. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 4. however. 2.1 of EC3.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 The design of structural steel column is relatively easier than the design of structural steel beam. 2.5 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard.5.4.1 and Table 5. Therefore.23 where βA = 1 and buckling curve c is used at Table 5.5. This. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) Effective length Slenderness Compression resistance . applies only to non-moment sustaining column. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load.

T-section struts. λ = LE / r 2.4. the compression resistance Pc of a member is given by: Pc = Ag pc (for class 1 plastic.1.5.5. 2. channel. For continuous columns in multi-storey buildings of simple design.2 Slenderness.1. Pc According to Clause 4.7. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its effective length LE divided by its radius of gyration r about the relevant axis.24 2.5. in accordance of Table 22. angle. This concept is not applicable for battened struts. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross-sections) . LE The effective length LE of a compression member is determined from the segment length L centre-to-centre of restraints or intersections with restraining members in the relevant plane. column members that carry more than 90% of their reduced plastic moment capacity Mr in the presence of axial force is assumed to be incapable of providing directional restraint. and back-to-back struts. directional restraint is based on connection stiffness and member stiffness. Depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plate.3 Compression Resistance. depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plane.1.1 Effective Length.

5. pc the compressive strength obtained from Table 23 and Table 24. and Mcy is the moment capacity about minor axis.25 Pc = Aeff pcs (for class 4 slender cross-section) where Aeff is the effective cross-sectional area. 2. the checking of cross-section capacity is as follows: My Fc M + x + ≤1 Ag p y M cx M cy where Fc is the axial compression. py is the design steel strength. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area. 2.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections.5. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. Mx is the moment about major axis. My is the moment about minor axis. Mcx is the moment capacity about major axis.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally.2.5. for class 1 plastic. in which λ is based on the radius of gyration r of the gross cross-section. and pcs is the value of pc from Table 23 and Table 24 for a reduced slenderness of λ(Aeff/Ag)0. .

26 2.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 The design of steel column according to EC3 is quite similar to the design of steel column according to BS 5950. Mb the buckling resistance moment. Mx the maximum end moment on x-axis. 2. the following stability check needs to be satisfied: My F Mx + + ≤ 1 .6.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Buckling length Slenderness Compression resistance Buckling resistance . 2.5.0 Pc M bs p y Z y where F is the axial force in column. Pc the compression resistance of column. and Zy the elastic modulus.2 Member Buckling Resistance In simple construction.2. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only. py the steel design strength.

4.2 Slenderness. Alternatively. provided that both ends of a column are effectively held in position laterally.Rd According to Clause 5.Rd = A fy / γM0 (for class 1 plastic.1. determined using the properties of the gross cross-section. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its buckling length l divided by its radius of gyration i about the relevant axis. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact crosssections) .4. the value of λ should not exceed 250. the compression resistance Nc.1 Buckling Length. Nc. whereas for column resisting self-weight and wind loads only. 2. l The buckling length l of a compression member is dependant on the restraint condition at both ends.1.1.5 states that. λ=l/i For column resisting loads other than wind loads.6. 2. Clause 5.3 Compression Resistance.5.27 2. the buckling length l may be conservatively be taken as equal to its system length L.Rd of a member is given by: Nc.6.6. the value of λ should not exceed 180. the buckling length l may be determined using informative of Annex E provided in EC3.1.

Rd .Rd 2. The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nb. and Aeff / A for Class 4 cross-sections.4 Buckling Resistance.1.5. the relevant buckling mode is generally “flexural” buckling.1 states that the design buckling resistance of a compression member should be taken as: Nc.Rd For compression members. Clause 5. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.28 Nc.1. For hot rolled steel members with the types of cross-section commonly used for compression members.6.Rd = χ βA A fy / γM1 where βA = 1 for Class 1. 2 or 3 cross-sections. Nb.Rd = Aeff fy / γM1 (for class 4 slender cross-section) The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nc.

6.Sd ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ≤1 ⎢ M Ny . z f yd for Class 4 cross-sections where fyd = fy/γM1. y .Sd + + ≤1 N pl . Rd M pl .Sd N Sd M z .Sd + N Sd e Ny M z . Rd ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ α β for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections M y . z f yd for Class 3 cross-sections M y . α = 2.Sd + N Sd e Nz N Sd + + ≤1 Aeff f yd Weff .2. cross-section capacity depends on the types of cross-section and applied moment. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. Clause 5.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. y f yd Weff .4. for bi-axial bending the following approximate criterion may be used: ⎡ M y . β = 5n but β ≥ 1.Sd ⎤ ⎡ M z . y f yd Wel . z .Sd + + ≤1 Af yd Wel . Rd for a conservative approximation where. in which n = Nsd / Npl.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. Rd ⎥ ⎣ M Nz .Rd.6.Sd N Sd M z .8. 2. Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject . M y . for I and H sections.29 2. Rd M pl . Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section when subject to uniform compression.1 states that.

30 only to moment about the relevant axis; and eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross-section is subject to uniform compression.

However, for high shear (VSd ≥ 0.5 Vpl.Rd), Clause 5.4.9 states that the design resistance of the cross-section to combinations of moment and axial force should be calculated using a reduced yield strength of (1 – ρ)fy for the shear area, where ρ = (2VSd / Vpl.Rd – 1)2.

2.6.2.2 Member Buckling Resistance

A column, subject to buckling moment, may buckle about major axis or minor axis or both. All members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.Sd must satisfy the following condition:

k y M y.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1,0 N b. y . Rd ηM c. y . Rd

where Nb.y.Rd is the design buckling resistance for major axis; Mc.y.Rd is the design moment resistance for major-axis bending, ky is the conservative value and taken as 1,5; and η = γM0 / γM1 for Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-sections, but 1,0 for Class 4.

2.7

Conclusion

This section summarizes the general steps to be taken when designing a structural member in simple construction.

31 2.7.1 Structural Beam

Table 2.1 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.1 : Criteria to be considered in structural beam design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 80ε 100ε 120ε ε = (275 / py)0.5 2.0 Shear Capacity Pv = 0.6pyAv Av = Dt Vpl.Rd = fyAv / (√3 x γM0) γM0 = 1,05 Av from section table 3.0 Moment Capacity Mc = pyS Mc = pyZ Mc = pyZeff Class 1, 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1,05 γM1 = 1,05 4.0 Bearing Capacity Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 72ε 83ε 124ε ε = (235 / fy)0,5 EC3

32

Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw Smaller of Ry.Rd = (ss + sy) tw fyw / γM1 Ra.Rd = 0,5tw2(Efyw)0,5 [(tf/tw)0,5 + 3(tw/tf)(ss/d)]/γM1 Rb.Rd = χβAfyA / γM1 5.0 Shear Buckling Resistance d/t ≤ 70ε Ratio 6.0 Deflection L / 360 Limit (Beam carrying plaster or other brittle finish) N/A Limit (Total deflection) L / 250 L / 350 d/tw ≤ 69ε

2.7.2

Structural Column

Table 2.2 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.2 : Criteria to be considered in structural column design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 80ε / 1 + r1 100ε / 1 + 1.5r1 Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 396ε / (13α – 1) 456ε / (13α – 1) EC3

05 γM1 = 1.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.0 Pc M bs p y Z y k y M y.05 Nc.0 Moment Resistance Mb = pbSx Mb = pbZx Mb = pbZx.5 Class 3 Semi-compact 42ε / (0. y .05 4.Rd = Aefffy / γM1 3. 2.33 120ε / 1 + 2r2 r1 = Fc / dtpyw. Rd .5(1 + γM0σw / fy) σw = NSd / dtw ε = (235 / fy)0. Rd ηM c.67 + 0.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1.0 Stability Check My F Mx + + ≤ 1 . y .eff Class 1.Rd = Afy / γM0 γM0 = 1.33ψ) ψ = 2γM0σa / fy – 1 σa = NSd / A α = 0.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1.5 2.0 N b. -1 < r1 ≤ 1 r2 = Fc / Agpyw ε = (275 / py) 0. 3 Class 4 Nc.0 Compression Resistance Pc = Agpc Pc = Aeffpcs Class 1. 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.

Checking on several elements. analysis on the difference between the results using two codes is done. Next. Please refer to Figure 3.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3. an understanding on the cross-section classification for BS 5950 is also carried out. design and comparison works will follow subsequently. The first step is to study and understand the cross-section classification for steel members as given in EC. Analysis. Eventually.1 for the flowchart of the methodology of this study. buckling capacity and deflection is carried out. Beams and columns are designed for the maximum moment and shear force obtained from computer software analysis. comparison of the results will lead to recognizing the difference in design approach for each code. At the same time. . bearing capacity. moment capacity.1 Introduction As EC3 will eventually replace BS 5950 as the new code of practice. it is necessary to study and understand the concept of design methods in EC3 and compare the results with the results of BS 5950 design. such as shear capacity. analyzing the tables provided and the purpose of each clause stated in the code.

Simple construction allows the connection of beam-to-column to be pinned jointed. . Please refer to Appendices A1 and A2 for the analysis worksheets created for the purpose of calculating shear force and bending moment values based on the requirements of different safety factors of both codes. Calculation of bending moment. M and shear force. the use of advanced structural analysis software is not needed. Different factors of safety with reference to BS 5950 and EC3 are defined respectively. As the scope of this study is limited at simple construction.2 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The structural analysis of the building frame will be carried out by using Microsoft Excel worksheets. End moments are zero.35 3. Sections 3. only beam shear forces will be transferred to the structural column.4 to 3.8 discuss in detail all the specifications and necessary data for the analysis of the multi-storey braced frame. that is M = wL2 / 8 V = wL / 2 where w is the uniform distributed load and L the beam span. V are based on simply-supported condition. Therefore.

36 3. Meanwhile. Several trial and error calculations can be used to cut down on the calculation time needed as well as prevent calculation error. the method of design using EC3 will be based on the work example drawn by Narayanan et. The method of design using BS 5950 will be based on the work example drawn by Heywood (2003). Please refer to Appendices B1 to C2 for the calculation worksheets created for the purpose of the design of structural beam and column of both design codes. Furthermore. Microsoft Excel worksheets will show the calculation steps in a clear and fair manner. .3 Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The design of beam and column is calculated with Microsoft Excel software. The Microsoft Excel software is used for its features that allow continual and repeated calculations using values calculated in every cell of the worksheet. (1995). al.

37 Determine Research Objective and Scope Phase 1 Literature Review Determination of building and frame dimension Specify loadings & other specifications Phase 2 Frame analysis using Microsoft Excel (V=wL/2. Combined) Pass Comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 Phase 3 END Figure 3.1: Schematic diagram of research methodology . M=wL2/8) Design worksheet development using Microsoft Excel Beams and columns design Fail Checking (Shear. Moment.

1 Structural Layout In order to make comparisons of the design of braced steel frame between BS 5950-1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. Please refer to Figure 3.2 : Floor plan view of the steel frame building. The storey height will be 5m from ground floor to first floor.4. a parametric study for the design of multi-storey braced frames is carried out. the 4-storey frame consists of four (4) bays. the storey height will be 4m. The number of storey of the frame is set at four (4). whereas for other floors (1st to 2nd.38 3. there will be three (3) numbers of 4-storey frames. 3rd to roof). Each of the frame’s longitudinal length is 6m.4 Structural Layout & Specifications 3. 6m 6m 6/9m 6/9m Figure 3. 2nd to 3rd. 4th storey is roof while the rest will serve as normal floors. In plan view. The intermediate frame will be used as the one to be analysed and designed.3 for the illustrations of building plan view and elevation view respectively. Two (2) lengths of bay width will be used in the analysis – 6m and 9m respectively. in total.2 and Figure 3. .

All the bays will be serving the same function. Top flange of beams are effectively restraint against lateral torsional buckling. Web cleats will be used as the connection method to create pinned connection. . all the beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pinned. All the roof bays will be used for general purposes.3 : Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame. Meanwhile. The main steel frame will consist of solely universal beam (UB) and universal column (UC).2 Specifications The designed steel frame structure is meant for office for general use. all the column-to-column connections are to be rigid. Meanwhile. flat roof system will be introduced to cater for some activities on roof top. As this is a simple construction.39 4m 4m 4m 5m Figure 3. 3.4.

5kN/m2. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. Consequently.3 of Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) states that the characteristic values of imposed floor load and imposed roof load must be obtained from Part 1 and Part 3 of BS 6399 respectively. 125mm think floor panel will be used for other floors. In this design.4kN/m2 and 3. Meanwhile. Therefore. each bay will contribute half of the load intensity to the intermediate frame. Meanwhile.5 Loadings Section 2.5kN/m2 is appropriate. The type of precast flooring system to be used will be solid precast floor panel. precast solid floor panel of 100mm thick was selected for flat roof. the intensity of slab selfweight will be 2. For precast floor selfweight. section 6. Weight of concrete is given by 24kN/m3. all the values of imposed loads of both BS 5950 and EC3 design will be based on BS 6399.40 Precast concrete flooring system will be introduced to this project.2 (Flat roofs) states that. Multiplying the thickness of the slabs. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in 9kN/m and 15kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. Therefore. This value will be used as this frame model is meant for a general office usage. a uniform load intensity of 1.2. 3. all floors will be of one-way slab. for a flat roof with access available for cleaning. Therefore. Table 8 (Offices occupancy class) states that the intensity of distributed load of offices for general use will be 2. this value will be adopted. .0kN/m2 respectively. repair and other general purposes. For imposed roof load.

partial safety factors.4 for dead load. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in kN/m and 24kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively. From Table 2. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 4 cross-section.41 The finishes on the flat roof will be waterproofing membrane and decorative screed.5. finishes and fittings. for normal design situations.4. Meanwhile. Meanwhile. The factor γM0 is used where the failure mode is plasticity or yielding. γM0. depending on the interior designer’s intention. is given by 1. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 1. γM1. variable actions Q include live loads such as imposed load. a selection of floor carpets and ceramic tiles will be used. γf should be taken as 1.1. is given by 1. the principal combination of loads that should be taken into account will be load combination 1 – Dead load and imposed gravity loads. γF for dead load.2 “Buildings without cranes” of BS 5950 states that.05 as well. Combining the superimposed dead load with selfweight.6 Factor of Safety Section 2. In EC3.0kN/m2 for finishes (superimposed dead load) on all floors will be assumed. γG is given by 1.35. A general load intensity of 1.4kN/m2 and 4kN/m2 respectively. 2 or 3 cross-section. and 1. the total dead load intensity for roof and floor slabs are 3. γQ is given by 1. Partial safety factors for loads. For other floors.1. permanent actions G include dead loads such as self-weight of structure. The .05. in the design of buildings not subject to loads from cranes. for imposed floor load. 3.6 for imposed load.

1.7 Categories In this project. the load combination will be 1. two (2) types of steel grade will be used. According to BS 5950.6 times total imposed .1 Load Combination This section describes the structural analysis of the steel frame.8.4 times total dead load plus 1. 3. In BS 5950.2 “Material properties for hot rolled steel” (C-EC3) limits thickness of flange to less than or equal to 40mm for nominal yield strength fy of 275N/mm2 and larger but less than or equal to 100mm for fy of 255N/mm2. Meanwhile.8 Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3. 3. namely S 275 (or Fe 430 as identified in EC3) and S 355 (or Fe 510 as identified in EC3). in order to justify the effect of design strength of a steel member on the strength of a steel member. For steel grade S 355. which governs the resistance of a Class 4 (slender) cross-section. py is 275N/mm2 for thickness less than or equal to 16mm and 265N/mm2 for thickness larger but less than or equal to 40mm.42 factor γM1 is used where the failure mode is buckling – including local buckling. py is 355N/mm2 and 345N/mm2 respectively for the same limits of thickness. For steel grade S 275. design strength py is decided by the thickness of the thickest element of the cross-section (for rolled sections). in the meantime. 3. fy is 355N/mm2 and 335N/mm2 respectively for the same thickness limits. for Fe 510.

For the roof.43 load (1.2 Shear Calculation This steel frame is pinned jointed at all beam-to-column supports. This is done by summating the resultant shear . there is a difference of approximately 4. BS 5950 results in higher value of shear. the load combination will be 1. 3. the resultant load combination.28 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 206.88 6m 137.1. For all other floors. For simple construction.5 times total imposed load (1. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width. the resulting shear values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3. For the roof.92 From Table 4. w.9kN/m. the w will be 59. the shear.35 times total dead load plus 1. Table 3.1 below: Table 3.35DL + 1.55 268. the w will be 62.5% between the analyses of both codes. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors. V at end connections is given by V = wl/2. the resultant load combination.8. The next table. will be 45. will be 48kN/m.4DL + 1.1 Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 144 187.64kN/m.6LL).92 Bay Width 9m 216 281. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula. According to EC3. Clearly. For all other floors.76kN/m. w.7 179.5LL).2 will present the accumulating axial loads acting on the structural columns of the steel frame.

1 950.55 475.84 1039. similar with the beam shear.84 707.31 Int.76 1061.8.3 Moment Calculation For simple construction. 137.54 Int.62 Ext. since all the beam-to-column connections are pinned jointed.08 Int. 206.3: . Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula.94 1488. Table 3. 216 497. = Internal column Ext.76 9m Ext.92 519.5%.64 6m Ext.96 992.44 force from beam of each floor.98 496.Ground 288 663. 413. 275.26 675. can be calculated by using the formula M=wl2/8. Roof – 3rd 3rd – 2nd 2nd – 1st 1st .78 2026.39 1013.4 633. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width. Internal columns will sustain axial load two times higher than external columns of same floor level as they are connected to two beams.76 1559. the resulting moment values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3.52 EC 3 9m 6m Ext.52 2123. 144 331.88 779. 432 995. M.2 Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) BS 5950 Floor Int. = External column The accumulating axial loads based on the two codes vary approximately 4. structural beam moment.68 1415.28 Int.52 1351.47 744. 3.7 316.

BS 5950 results in higher value of moment. Regardless of the width of the bay. initially.6% between the analyses of both codes.3 Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 216 281. there will be no end moments being transferred from the structural beams.4% to 4. D or h is the depth of column section (m).45 Table 3. Therefore.55 268.74 605. e is the eccentricity of resultant shear from the face of column (m). since this is simple construction. For the moments of the structural columns. Clearly.23 6m 206. the eccentricity of the resultant shear from the face of the structural column will be 100mm. in this case. the depth of the column has not been decided yet. the higher the load combination of a floor.88 Bay Width 9m 486 634. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors. . Since this is only preliminary analysis as well. Me. Subsequently.07 From Table 3. the depth (D for BS 5950 and h for EC 3) of a structural column is assumed to be 400mm. there will be a moment due to eccentricity of the resultant shear from the beams. can be determined from the following formula: Me = V (e + D/2) = V (e + h/2) where V is resultant shear of structural beam (kN).3.92 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 464. the eccentricity moment. the higher the difference percentage will be. However. there is a difference of approximately 4. In this project.

3. Roof Other Floors 21. 30.4 94. 32. 20. 30. Table 3.88 Int.6 56.6 Int.78 Int. . 20. two major checks that need to be done is shear and moment resistance at ultimate limit state.4 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) BS 5950 Floor Int.98 80.08 EC 3 9m 6m Ext. 32.6 63.56 6m Ext.68 These values of eccentricity moments will be useful for the estimation of initial size of a column member during structural design in later stage.46 V for external column can be easily obtained from shear calculation. V can be expressed as V = (1.66 57. 21. Table 3.66 53.38 9m Ext. Next.9 Structural Beam Design Structural beam design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam.98 86. The moments for floor columns will be evenly distributed as the ratio of EI1/L1 and EI2/L2 is less than 1.0DL. In simple construction. For BS 5950.35DL + 1. for internal column.4DL + 1. V should be obtained by deducting the factored combination of floor dead (DL) and imposed load (LL) with unfactored floor dead load.0DL. For EC 3.84 Ext. serviceability check in the form of deflection check will need to be done.6LL) – 1.5LL) – 1.4 84.4 below summarizes the moment values due to eccentricity. However. V can be expressed as V = (1.5.

B = 152. ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) . necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. b/T = 6. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. D = 454.92kN and 281. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). the sections are rearranged in ascending form. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 187.6mm.1mm. shear capacity.99. Sx = 1290cm3. UB section 457x152x60 is chosen.88 x 103 / 275 = 1025cm3 From the rearranged table. Elastic modulus. T = 13.8kg/m. moment capacity and web bearing capacity. Zx = 1120cm3. d = 407. Flange thickness. 3.3.9mm. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. Width. t = 8.47 The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the floor beam of length 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430). Web thickness. From the section table for universal beam.3mm. d/t = 50. From the section table.1 BS 5950 In simple construction. Sx = M / py = 281. Depth.88kNm. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.9.6mm. Plastic modulus. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 59. Depth between fillets.

flange is Class 1 plastic section. 0.54kN > Fv Therefore. Pv = 0.26mm2 Pv = 0.2. the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε = 80. section 4. Mc = 275 x 1290 x 10-3 .0.5 is checked. section 4. Therefore.3 “Shear capacity” is checked. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section.57kN > Fv = 187.6 x 607. therefore.5 “Moment capacity. Actual d/t did not exceed 80.6Pv = 0.3. shear capacity is adequate. which is smaller than 9ε = 9. For web of I-section.0 in this design. clause 4.5 states that if the d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for a rolled section.0.0. Mc” is checked. Therefore.75. where neutral axis is at mid-depth. actual d/t = 50.1 x 454. For class 1 plastic cross-section. it is low shear.26 x 10-3 = 607.48 = 1.0 Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950.4. Next. Av = 8. Since both flange and web are plastic.6pyAv.2.57 = 364. Actual b/T = 5. this section is Class 1 plastic section. Since actually d/t < 70. Next. shear buckling needs not be checked.92kN Therefore. Mc = pySx. where Av = tD for a rolled I-section. web is Class 1 plastic section.4. After clause 4. Meanwhile. Shear capacity. shear buckling resistance should be checked.6 x 275 x 3682.6 = 3682.

2 + 2 x 13.6be/k.02 x 8. To prevent crushing of the web due to forces applied through a flange. therefore. M = 281.88kNm from analysis < Mc = 354. OK.2 x 275 x 1120 x 10-3 = 369.5mm At support.2mm b1 = t + 1. bearing stiffener should be provided. bearing capacity of web. moment capacity is adequate.3 = 51.6 x 10. section 4. 1.2pyZx = 1. n = 2 + 0.92kN . If Fv exceeds Pbw.49 = 354.2pyZx.3 + 10. n = 2 b1 + nk = 98.1 x 275 x 10-3 = 218.34kN > Fv = 187.75kNm Therefore. Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw r = 10.5.2 “Bearing capacity of web” is checked. be = 0. Mc should be limited to 1.75kNm To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads.6kNm > Mc.02mm k=T+r = 13.2 = 23.6r + 2T (Figure 13) = 8.02mm Pbw = 98.1 + 1.

The section is adequate. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4. Therefore.0m E = 205kN/mm2 I = 25500cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. δlim = 6000 / 360 = 16. only unfactored imposed load shall be used to calculate the deflection. the deflection is satisfactory. Generally. w = 15kN/m for floors. This is done in the form of deflection check.5) should be conducted. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value. the bearing capacity at support is adequate.50 Therefore.84mm Table 8 (Suggested limits for calculated deflections) suggests that for “beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish). the serviceability limit state check (Section 2. L = 6. However. In this case. the vertical deflection limit should be L/360. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length. δ. . it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done.67mm >δ Therefore.

9. Area of .92 x 103 / 275 = 977.y = 1051cm3. From the section table. Depth between fillets. Plastic modulus. Therefore.9cm2.9cm3 From the rearranged table.28kN and 268.51 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.2 EC 3 In simple construction.4mm. From the section table for universal beam. Width. Web thickness. Wel. 3. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 179. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 54kg/m. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Flange thickness. d = 360. UB section 406x178x54 is chosen. h = 402. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl.y = M / py = 268. Av = 32. Elastic modulus. moment capacity.92kNm.9mm. shear capacity. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.6mm. lateral torsional buckling. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling.6mm.y = 927cm3. resistance of web to crushing. it is adequate to be used. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. crippling and buckling. tw = 7. tf = 10. Depth. Wpl. Shear area.6mm. b = 177.y (cm3). Wpl.

5 x 497. UB section 406x178x54 is Class 1 section.4 ≤ 66.1 “Shear resistance of cross-section” of beam is checked. neutral axis at mid depth”.28kN γM0 = 1.5Vpl.6(a). VSd = 179.6cm2.28kN Therefore. Before checks are done for ultimate limit states. flange subject to compression only”. For S275 (Fe 430).28kN .9mm. that is Vpl. Actual d/tw = 47.49kN > VSd = 179. iLT = 4. Therefore. Actual c/tf = 8. A = 68. d/tw = 47. section classification is a must.6. c/tf = 8. Next. yield strength.05) = 497.2 for Class 1 elements. limiting c/tf ratio (c is half of b) is 9. Web is Class 1 element. For “web subject to bending.6 for Class 1 elements.05 Vpl. fu = 430N/mm2.36cm. VSd from analysis at each cross-section should not exceed the design plastic shear resistance Vpl. fy = 275N/mm2 and ultimate tensile strength. The design value of shear force. shear resistance is sufficient.48 = 298.9 x 100 x 275) / (√3 x 1.15.Rd. 0. section 5. Second moment of area. Based on Table 3.Rd = 0.Rd = (32.1. tf = 10.4. aLT = 131cm. From Table 5. limiting d/tw ratio is 66.52 section. for “outstand element of compression flange. Flange is Class 1 element. These values must be adopted as characteristic values in calculations.15 ≤ 9.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0.5.2.48kN > 179. Iy = 18670cm4. tf ≤ 40mm.

Rd = Wpl.Ed/fyf)2]0. Rb.2 “Moment resistance of cross-section with low shear” the design value of moment MSd must not exceed the design moment resistance of the cross-section Mc.6 “Shear buckling” requires that webs must have transverse stiffeners at the supports if d/tw is greater than 63. section 5. Therefore. low shear. For low shear.6 “Resistance of webs to transverse forces” requires transverse stiffeners to be provided in any case that the design value VSd applied through a flange to a web exceeds the smallest of the following – Crushing resistance.53 Therefore. Therefore.Rd = (ss + sy) twfyw / γM1 where at support.26kNm > MSd Therefore.Rd. MSd = 268. section 5.5 .Rd and buckling resistance. Ry. sy = tf(bf/tw)0. Actual d/tw = 47.5.1 for steel grade Fe 430 and Fe 510 respectively.Rd = 1051 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.5 [1 – (γM0 σf.5[fyf/fyw]0.4 < 63. Ry.5 “Lateral-torsional buckling” needs not be checked. Section 5.8.8 and 56.5. shear buckling check is not required.Rd. For crushing resistance.y fy / γM0 for Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section. Section 5. the moment capacity is sufficient.92kNm Mc. crippling resistance.05 = 275. not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling. Ra.5. The beam is fully restrained.

Ed = 0. σf. Ra.14 ≤ 0. OK γM1 = 1.5 [(10.69) x 7. fyf = 275N/mm2.5 [(tf/tw)0.6 = 1731.5 = 405.5 x 7. Rb.05 E = 210kN/mm2 Ra. bending moment is zero.5 + 3(7.62 + 502]0.5 = 52.5tw2 (Efyw)0.9/7.6 / 7.05.8mm beff should be less than [h2 + ss2]0.Rd = 0.Rd = 0.4 = 0. OK.Rd = (50 + 52.8kN For buckling resistance.05 = 204.5[h2 + ss2]0.54 At support.Rd = βA fc A / γM1 A = beff x tw beff = 0.7mm.5 [402.5 + 0 + 50/2 = 227.5 + 3(tw/tf) (ss/d)] / γM1 ss/d = 50 / 360.9 (177.5 + a + ss/2 = 0.69mm Ry.6)0.4kN For crippling resistance.05 = 307. ss = 50mm at support.14)] / 1. A = 227.6 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.6/10.9)(0. sy = 10.8 x 7.28mm2 .6)0. γM0 = 1.62 (210000 x 275)0.2.

6 = 118. deflection should take into account deflection due to both permanent loads and imposed loads.8kN Ry.5 d/t = 2.05 = 197.8N/mm2 Rb.4kN Minimum of the 3 values are 197. λ = 2.5kN. buckling about y-y axis. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value. From Figure 4. (Permanent load) .1.55 βA = 1 γM1 = 1.13 (rolled I-section).28 x 10-3 / 1.5kN Ra.2) should be conducted. fc = 119. Generally.Rd = 307. fc = 121N/mm2 λ√βA = 120. the serviceability limit state check (Section 4. fc = 117N/mm2 By interpolation.29). which is larger than VSd = 179. λ√βA = 118.05 For ends restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement (Table 5. Therefore.Rd = 1 x 119. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done.6kN/m for floors.Rd = 204. This is done in the form of deflection check.28kN.5 x 360.8 x 1731.6 From Table 5.4 / 7. curve (a) is used.6 λ√βA = 118. the web of the section can resist transverse forces. OK. δmax = δ1 + δ2 – δ0 (hogging δ0 = 0 at unloaded state) w1 = 27.

In this case.88mm δ2 = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 6. the vertical deflection limit should be L/350 for δ2 and L/250 for δmax. the deflection is satisfactory.46mm Table 4. 2 = 6000 / 350 = 17.14mm > δ2 δlim. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length. The section is adequate.6 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 11. max = 6000 / 250 = 24mm > δ1 + δ2 = 18. However. δlim. .0m E = 210kN/mm2 Iy = 18670cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection.1 (Recommended limiting values for vertical deflections) suggests that for “floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-flexible partitions”. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check.34mm Therefore. (Imposed load) L = 6.56 w2 = 15kN/m for floors. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI δ1 = 5 x 27. δ.

57 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. Therefore, it is adequate to be used.

3.10

Structural Column Design

Structural column design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. In simple construction, apart from section classification, two major checks that need to be done is compression and combined axial and bending at ultimate limit state.

The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the internal column “ground floor to 1st floor” (length 5m) of the steel frame with bay width 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).

3.10.1 BS 5950

In simple construction, apart from section classification, necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be compression resistance and combined axial force and moment. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1415.52kN and 63.08kNm respectively.

From the section table for universal column, the sections are rearranged in ascending form, first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.

Sx = M / py

58 = 63.08 x 103 / 275 = 229.4cm3

From the rearranged table, UC section 203x203x60 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.

From the section table, the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 60kg/m; Depth, D = 209.6mm; Width, B = 205.2mm; Web thickness, t = 9.3mm; Flange thickness, T = 14.2mm; Depth between fillets, d = 160.8mm; Plastic modulus, Sx = 652cm3; Elastic modulus, Zx = 581.1cm3; Radius of gyration, rx = 8.96cm, ry = 5.19cm; Gross area, Ag = 75.8cm2; b/T = 7.23 (b = 0.5B); d/t = 17.3.

T < 16mm, therefore, py = 275N/mm2 ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) = 1.0

Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950. Actual b/T = 7.23, which is smaller than 9ε = 9.0. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section (Outstand element of compression flange). Therefore, flange is Class 1 plastic section. Meanwhile, actual d/t = 17.3. For web of I-section under axial compression and bending, the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε / 1 + r1, where r1 is given by r1 = Fc / dtpy. r1 = 1415.52 x 103 / 160.8 x 9.3 x 275 = 3.44 but -1 < r1 ≤ 1, therefore, r1 = 1 Limiting d/t value = 80 x 1 / 1 + 1 = 40

59 > Actual d/t = 17.3 Therefore, the web is Class 1 plastic section. Since both flange and web are plastic, this section is Class 1 plastic section.

Next, based on section 4.7.2 “Slenderness” and section 4.7.3 “Effective lengths”, and from Table 22 (Restrained in direction at one end), the effective length, LE = 0.85L = 0.85 x 5000 = 4250mm. λx = LEx / rx = 4250 / 8.96 x 10 = 47.4

Next, based on section 4.7.4 “Compression resistance”, for class 1 plastic section, compression resistance, Pc = Agpc. pc is the compressive strength determined from Table 24. For buckling about x-x axis, T < 40mm, strut curve (b) is used. λx = 46, pc = 242N/mm2 λx = 48, pc = 239N/mm2 From interpolation, λx = 47.4, pc = 239.9N/mm2 Pc = Agpc = 75.8 x 100 x 239.9 x 10-3 = 1818.44kN > Fc = 1415.52kN Therefore, compressive resistance is adequate.

for columns in simple construction. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length. Section 4. the column should satisfy the relationship (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) + (My / pyZy) ≤ 1 My = 0.60 Next.5L / ry = 0.03kNm . the moment will be equally divided.08kNm.7 “Columns in simple structures”. My / pyZy = 0 Equivalent slenderness λLT of column is given by λLT = 0.5.17 From Table 16 (Bending strength pb for rolled sections). Therefore. M = 31.19 x 10 = 48. For EI / L1st-2nd : EI / Lground-1st < 1. The moment is distributed between the column lengths above and below 1st floor. Mi = 63.5 x 5000 / 5. λLT = 45. the beam reaction. pb = 250N/mm2 λLT = 50. when only nominal moments are applied. is assumed to be acting 100mm from the face of the column.7.54kNm.78 x 652 x 10-3 = 170. From frame analysis. R. pb = 260. therefore. λLT = 48.78N/mm2 Mb = pbSx = 260.17. pb = 233N/mm2 From interpolation.

necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be cross-section resistance (in the form of moment resistance) and in-plane failure about major axis (which is a combination of axial force and eccentricity moment). Wpl.10.96 < 1.2 EC 3 In simple construction.52 / 1818. apart from section classification. UC section 254x254x73 is chosen. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl. The moment will then be divided by the design strength fy to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.5cm3 From the rearranged table. it is adequate to be used.88 x 103 / 275 = 210.61 (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) = 1415. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.03 = 0.y (cm3).54 / 170. .08kN and 57. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.y = MSd / fy = 57. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1351.88kNm respectively. From the section table for universal column. 3. the combined resistance against axial force and eccentricity moment is adequate.44 + 31.0 Therefore. This section satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check. Therefore.

86cm. therefore.2 x 8. Flange thickness.73N/mm2 Table 5.2 respectively. A = 92.5. Depth between fillets. c/tf = 8. the web is Class 1. Radius of gyration.6mm. the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 73kg/m.6(a) of C-EC3 for Class 1 elements. iz = 6. Depth. iLT = 6.1.y = 990cm3.8 gives the limiting values of stress σw for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections.5cm. tf = 14. d/tw = 23. fu = 430N/mm2 Sectional classification is based on Table 5. Area of section. Av = 25. with d/tw = 23.62 From the section table.94 < 9.y = 895cm3. From Table 5. Second moment of area. d = 200.5b). the classification depends on the mean web stress. Shear area. Wpl. h = 254mm.2mm. Width. .2. section 5. iy = 11.2 and 10.94. Since both flange and web are plastic.6cm2.6 “Axially loaded members with moments” will be checked. b = 254mm. Beforehand.3.9cm2. aLT = 98.08 x 103 / 200. Web thickness. For web subject to bending and compression. for outstand element of compression flange (flange subject to compression only). fy = 275N/mm2.8.2mm. the limiting values of c/tf for Class 1 and 2 are 9.46cm. Actual c/tf = 8. Plastic modulus. Therefore. Elastic modulus. From this table. For symmetric I-section of Class 1 or 2. section 5.1cm. Iy = 11370cm4.2mm < 40mm. tf = 14. tw = 8.3. σw. Next. σw = NSd / dtw = 1351. from. Actual c/tf = 8.6 = 784.94 (c = 0. flange is Class 1 element. Wel. this section is Class 1 section.

y.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0 = (25.6 x 102 x 275) x 10-3 / (√3 x 1.11 x 259. From Table 5.58kN 0.Sd / L = 57. MNy.Rd = 1.Sd = My.88 x 103 / 5000 = 11. allowing for axial force.1 : MNy.05 = 2433.11 Mpl.y.Rd > Vmax.1 = 0.1 Therefore.y.y fy / γM0 = 990 x 10-3 x 275 / 1.555) .08 / 2433.9 x 102 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.Rd is such that n < 0.Rd = Wpl.Rd (1 – n) Mpl.Sd Therefore. MN.63 Vpl.555 ≥ 0.3 x (1 – 0.Rd = 1.11 Mpl. n = NSd / Npl.27.Rd n ≥ 0.05) = 387.Rd (1 – n) Npl.1kN Maximum applied shear load (at top of column) is Vmax.05 = 259.1kN n = 1351.y.Rd = Mpl.Rd Reduced design plastic moment.Rd = 1. the section is subject to a low shear.1 : MNy.3kNm MNy.Rd = A fy / γM0 = 92.5Vpl.

3.Sd must satisfy the expression (NSd / Nb. βA = 1 λy√βA = 38.Sd / ηMc.0 Ly = 0.1 x 10 = 38.85L = 0. fc = 250N/mm2 λy√βA = 40.13 “Selection of buckling curve for fc”.64 = 128.6.85 x 5000 = 4250mm Slenderness ratio λy = Ly / iy = 4250 / 11. the moment resistance is sufficient.Rd) ≤ 1.3 tf ≤ 40mm λy√βA = 38.Rd) + (kyMy.1kNm > MSd = 28. buckling curve (b) is used.y.3. section 5.2 “Axial compression and major axis bending” states that all members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My. fc = 249. λy√βA = 38.3 Based on Table 5.7N/mm2 . Lastly.94kNm Therefore. for buckling about y-y axis. fc = 248N/mm2 From interpolation.y.

0 Therefore.65 Nb.05 = 1 x 249.3kN ky = interaction factor about yy axis = 1.1) = 0. Therefore. the resistance against in-plane failure against major axis is sufficient. it is adequate to be used.3) + (1.95 < 1.7 x 92.Rd) = (1351. This section 254x254x73 UC satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.9 x 102 x 10-3 / 1.y.08 / 2209. γM1 = 1.05 = 2209.5 (Conservative value) η = γM0 / γM1 =1 (NSd / Nb.y. .Sd / ηMc.5 x 28.Rd) + (kyMy.Rd = βA fc A / γM1.94 / 1 x 128.y.

2 for moment capacity. The results are arranged accordingly. structural capacity is sub-divided into beam and column. . deflection. namely structural capacity. The results are shown in Table 4.1 Structural Beam UB sections ranging from 305x102x25 to 533x210x122 are being tabulated in ascending form. 4.1 for shear capacity and Table 5. The results based on BS 5950 and EC3 calculation are compiled together to show the difference between each other. Shear capacity and moment capacity of each section are being calculated separately. Here.1. 4.CHAPTER IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The results of the structural design of the braced steel frame (beam and column) are tabulated and compiled in the next sections.1 Structural Capacity Structural capacity deals with shear and moment resistance of a particular section chosen. based on steel grade S275 and S355. and weight of steel.

35 793.06 EC 3 (kN) 284.86 619.88 -18.7 -0.74 393.79 2.36 11.78 -20.78 -25.38 1.6 14.5 461.11 -2 2.32 877.73 -3.27 0.71 429.27 13.56 S275 Difference (kN) 7.87 -0.94 2.47 596.02 698.46 -3.8 800.83 0.98 305.25 382.15 3.22 2.47 545.48 759.78 942.55 3.92 2.45 -1.67 Table 4.37 338. 2.52 443.18 8.72 -12.78 541.61 345.55 583.31 2.15 -16.28 8.94 2.35 -1.34 523.5 S355 Difference (kN) 9.32 EC 3 (kN) 366.94 559.62 515.47 341.4 0.13 19.75 -13.86 1204.15 507.19 4.65 0.1 Shear capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 291.99 15.65 724.09 773.32 783.21 668.79 2.83 0.96 6.93 1.13 705.56 3.2 -2.31 446.57 680.18 358.65 846.92 394.53 356.21 667.27 845.63 12.72 % Diff.74 -0.35 431.09 -2.66 704.39 462.89 678.53 943.38 811.23 -9.59 460.19 387.3 14.96 666.06 1.1 -2.26 -8.57 13.21 -24.81 528.98 1134.6 405.09 1012.26 2.11 -1.46 2.17 8.82 2.7 1.56 400.56 -5.5 642.87 433.5 1102.15 3.38 20.19 1.92 588.55 1.07 942.91 1011.09 -2.58 753.42 820.91 -19.4 -0.74 594.81 523.81 1024.85 405.2 1102.16 551.65 635.27 14.27 0.45 623.29 452.7 -0.93 11.84 727.78 15.5 529.02 12.65 420.13 1091.84 300.5 -0.33 577.62 1.29 5. BS 5950 (kN) 376.38 1.65 0.6 1.24 3.79 398.4 -10.24 0.06 1.95 2.11 1218.53 564.57 -2.66 5.39 511.09 16.14 583.82 2.5 1.51 1.21 441.99 589.55 522.81 -3.56 15.21 15.32 860.77 -3.51 384.68 6.93 1.79 11.55 617.61 340.64 0.74 2.74 0.58 308.95 404.46 478.56 878.77 728.48 517.19 1.47 831.99 918.28 554.16 4.64 5.88 876.37 399.14 784.66 497.2 777.39 1.73 -2.1 493.16 1057.34 44.83 938.5 1.79 12.28 303.75 437.44 471.74 2.41 925.79 2.44 2.35 730.78 456.37 609.68 1007.66 24.93 334.85 767.32 10.14 .81 -3.51 18.97 392.5 1.03 4.69 4.26 888.77 1146.93 11.6 10.04 % Diff.2 447.33 862.7 9.02 496.64 0.5 -0.69 -1.02 6.55 712.55 1.85 517.67 644.6 1.85 854.15 343.33 409.52 439.77 6.58 34.99 660.51 -4.14 18.81 -2.38 542.05 607.08 2.4 0.86 -0.27 819.3 683.

06 % Diff.45 1431.43 -1. the difference percentage ranges from -3. For steel grade S275.83 132.Rd = (Av x fy) / (γM0 x √3) … (EC3) … (BS 5950) Av is obtained from section table.62 182. Also.57% to 4.97 EC 3 (kNm) 113.43 160.64 The difference is based on deduction of shear capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.05 110.94 162.8 8.6 137.49 1295. This value.07 170.41 143. the difference percentage ranges from -2.07 6.35 -0.58 -9.78 11.3 6.51 1007.05 1099.58 4.91 % Diff.81 5.59 4. which is approximately 8.13 -0. Table 4.2 Moment capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 94. 1 / (γM0 x √3) ≈ 0.28 148.13 8.07 .3% less than 0.05 3. varies with Av = Dt as suggested by BS 5950.68 533x210x109 533x210x122 995. For steel grade S355.06%.77 4.76 4.35 217.97 6.06 1115.57 206.57 -4. There are a few explanations to the variations. 6.01 -16.55.98 141.43 3. Most of the values given are lesser than Dt value.94 -12.85 EC 3 (kNm) 88 106.76 191.21 -1. Negative value indicates that the shear capacity calculated from EC3 is higher than that from BS 5950. these facts explain the reason why shear capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.23 168.59 5. BS 5950 (kNm) 121.44 1300.14 8.6 as suggested by BS 5950.86 125.29 S275 Difference (kNm) 6.56 S355 Difference (kNm) 7. The shear capacity of a structural beam is given by Pv = 0. however.43 3.06%. Therefore.6 py Av Av = Dt Vpl.69% to 4.03 1440.59 5. meanwhile.

1 539 619.5 330 371.65 404.75 484.3 426 479.41 19.32 10.01 4.32 1.02 315.16 5.05 35.1 1.35 302.5 5.57 5.5 691.04 1.9 619.58% to 6.07 609.65 749.95 479.05 232.78 487.6 341.99 4.29 15. meanwhile.66 2.4 264.86 8.25 397.12 5.53 5.83 275.43 4.44 12. .51 1.89 1.33 471.35 624.85 585.11 5.68 0.35 693.75 431.36 2.78 15.98 20.67 20.5 354.26 312.46 5.45 769.2 24.32 0.98 352.27 1.72 9.68 560.97 14.95 514.6 5.71 9.53 171.11 242.61 4.13 246.88 10.84 13.44 14.55 433. For steel grade S355.25 453.11 261.33 221.41% to 6. the difference percentage ranges from 1.85 27.98 24.44 4.58 5.08 510.55 4.73 19.17 24.3 844.52 395.75 332.85 11.3 4.42 5.9 900.02 18.87 4.48 17.3 695.57 355.75 199.29 1.55 257.65 244.02 377.11 5.01 182.67 425.83 4.95 566.95 848 184.33 192.4 838.45 234.24 1.14 410.08 358.85 5.49 5.1 5.63 4.19 370.28 15.14 3.49 15.47 955.73 21.24 1.57 5.48 5.5 479.31 4.68 12 13.13 318.86 4.94 10.69 188.35 1104 238.62 7.39 682.41 221.45 976.87 4.95 189.75 631.16 5.81 529.8 1082.49 5.06 0.95 275.83 5.02 455.91 The difference is based on deduction of moment capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.7 211.33 198 232.08 5.93 885.5 34.08 6.43%.79 141.27 14.55 429.53 549.25 5.34 404.38 8.23 213.65 5.17 255.31 19.05 336.75 562.55 21.95 385.9 11.17 7.06 11.95 532.85 5.29 202.4 277.65 149.8 799.24 17.1 220.17 171.24 376.17 27.37 16.45 521.75 398.5 390.52 434.63 4.25 497.63 7.5 654.73 2.53 1.5 14.29 2.2 291.41 5.21 287.1 5.53 5.05 0.52 11.83 1.93 740.95 24.33 181.28 5.43 4.66 5.1 244.5 457.26 317.96 10.01 4.08 252.35 731.67 685.28 5.55 4.22 13. Positive value indicates that the moment capacity calculated from EC3 is lower than that from BS 5950.77 233. the difference percentage ranges from 0.16 9.7 18.86 4.92 13.95 755.96 21.5 302.9 163.1 285.75 300.45 18. For steel grade S275.25 517.05 11.5 44.6 300.5 15.03%.65 590.55 9.05 585.69 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 195.

For example. whether it is Class 1. for a UB section 406x178x54. . these facts explain the reason why moment capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.3. A study is conducted to determine independently compression and bending moment capacity of structural column with actual length of 5m.85%.1.4 shows the result and percentage difference of moment resistance. There is a variation of approximately 0.95. sectional classification tables – Table 11 and Table 5. Table 4.y fy / γM0 … (BS 5950) … (EC3) From EC3 equation.1 of BS 5950 and EC3 respectively. Besides that. plastic modulus based on BS 5950 (Sx) and EC3 (Wpl.3 shows the result and percentage difference of compression resistance while Table 4. 4.Rd = Wpl. are revised. For a column web subject to bending and compression. Therefore.2 Structural Column In determining the structural capacity of a column. BS 5950 only provides a clearer guideline to the classification of Class 3 semi-compact section. Meanwhile. Class 2 or Class 3 element. EC3 provides better guidelines to classify a section web.0 as suggested by BS 5950. 1 / γM0 ≈ 0.70 There are a few explanations to the variations.y) are 1060cm3 and 1051cm3 respectively. This is approximately 5% less than 1. The moment capacity of a structural beam is given by Mc = py Sx Mc. there are some variations between plastic modulus specified by BS 5950 section table and EC3 section table.

**71 Table 4.3 Compression resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 1027.63 1403.56 1588.95 1818.44 2199.15 2667.72 2341.45 2878.73 3454.34 4291.41 5419.6 3205.31 3901.39 4553.57 5256.95 6612.78 8028.11 9489.33 EC 3 (kN) 956.1 1323.8 1500 1721.2 2067.3 2508.5 2209.3 2715.9 3269.7 4057.6 5117.3 3025.8 3695.7 4292 4965.7 6242.4 7572.7 8958.9 S275 Difference (kN) 71.53 79.76 88.95 97.24 131.85 159.22 132.15 162.83 184.64 233.81 302.3 179.51 205.69 261.57 291.25 370.38 455.41 530.43 S355 Difference (kN) 117.66 142.41 158.24 170.26 213.57 255.76 209.85 256.99 295.49 375.39 486.02 271.11 310.04 385.76 426.68 530.78 641.15 735.89

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kN) 1259.66 1773.41 2007.94 2298.26 2780.37 3373.46 2982.65 3668.29 4402.89 5474.39 6918.72 4097.01 4987.14 5821.16 6720.88 8455.58 10267.55 12138.99

EC 3 (kN) 1142 1631 1849.7 2128 2566.8 3117.7 2772.8 3411.3 4107.4 5099 6432.7

% Diff.

6.96 5.68 5.6 5.35 6 5.97 5.64 5.66 5.35 5.45 5.58 5.6 5.27 5.74 5.54 5.6 5.67 5.59

9.34 8.03 7.88 7.41 7.68 7.58 7.04 7.01 6.71 6.86 7.02 6.62 6.22 6.63 6.35 6.28 6.24 6.06

3825.9 4677.1 5435.4 6294.2 7924.8 9626.4 11403.1

**Table 4.4 Moment resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 69.47 129.03 146.73 167.96 205.13 249.38 277.94 344.27 413.51 EC 3 (kNm) 80.9 130.2 148.5 171.3 209.8 256.4 259.3 320.8 388.7 S275 Difference (kNm) -11.43 -1.17 -1.77 -3.34 -4.67 -7.02 18.64 23.47 24.81 S355 Difference (kNm) -30.81 -7.67 -9.49 -12.6 -16.45 -21.92 14.12 17.68 16.48

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kNm) 73.69 160.33 182.21 208.5 254.35 309.08 348.82 431.88 518.18

EC 3 (kNm) 104.5 168 191.7 221.1 270.8 331 334.7 414.2 501.7

% Diff.

-16.45 -0.91 -1.21 -1.99 -2.28 -2.81 6.71 6.82 6

-41.81 -4.78 -5.21 -6.04 -6.47 -7.09 4.05 4.09 3.18

72

254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 521.91 669.51 438.6 538.83 633.77 738.82 946.51 1168.56 1403.39 490.3 633.3 416.2 511.2 600.5 700.6 900.4 1111.3 1287.4 31.61 36.21 22.4 27.63 33.27 38.22 46.11 57.26 115.99 6.06 5.41 5.11 5.13 5.25 5.17 4.87 4.9 8.26 653.96 838.26 575.44 705.68 828.47 964.08 1231.05 1515.42 1815.14 632.9 817.5 537.2 660 775.3 904.4 1162.4 1434.5 1676 21.06 20.76 38.24 45.68 53.17 59.68 68.65 80.92 139.14 3.22 2.48 6.65 6.47 6.42 6.19 5.58 5.34 7.67

Shear capacity designed by BS 5950 is overall higher than EC3 design by the range of 5.27 – 6.96% and 6.22 – 9.34% for steel grade S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) respectively. This is mainly due to the partial safety factor γM1 of 1,05 imposed by EC3 in the design. Also, the compression strength fc determined from Table 5.14(a) of EC3 is less than the compression strength pc determined from Table 24 of BS 5950.

Meanwhile, as the size of section increases, the difference percentage changes from -16.45% to 8.26% for S275 (Fe 460) and -41.81% to 7.67% for S355 (Fe 510). This means that smaller sizes designed by EC3 have higher moment capacity than BS 5950 design. From the moment capacity formula of BS 5950,

Mb = pbSx

pb depends on equivalent slenderness λLT, which is also dependant on the member length. The bigger the member size, the higher the radius of gyration, ry is. Therefore, pb increases with the increase in member size.

However, moment capacity based on EC3 design,

Mpl.y.Rd = Wpl.y fy / γM0

73 The moment capacity is not dependant on equivalent slenderness. Therefore, when member sizes increase, eventually, the moment capacity based on EC3 is overtaken by BS 5950 design.

4.2

Deflection

Table 4.5 shows the deflection values due to floor imposed load. In BS 5950, this is symbolized as δ while for EC3, this is symbolized as δ2.

**Table 4.5 Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load
**

UB SECTION BS 5950 (δ, mm) 27.56 22.99 19 17.22 15.06 12.89 14.53 12.47 10.55 14.97 12.11 10.2 8.76 7.72 6.33 9.88 7.86 6.6 5.72 5.08 4.52 L = 6.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 27.62 22.16 18.54 16.83 14.77 12.68 14.1 12.13 10.31 14.71 11.93 9.98 8.51 7.51 6.17 9.71 7.69 6.46 5.6 4.95 4.39 Difference (mm) -0.06 0.83 0.46 0.39 0.29 0.21 0.43 0.34 0.24 0.26 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.13 % Diff. -0.22 3.61 2.42 2.26 1.93 1.63 2.96 2.73 2.27 1.74 1.49 2.16 2.85 2.72 2.53 1.72 2.16 2.12 2.1 2.56 2.88 BS 5950 (δ, mm) 139.53 116.41 96.17 87.18 76.23 65.25 73.54 63.14 53.43 75.77 61.28 51.66 44.33 39.07 32.06 50.01 39.81 33.43 28.94 25.72 22.9 L = 9.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 139.83 112.19 93.86 85.2 74.79 64.19 71.36 61.42 52.2 74.49 60.42 50.51 43.09 38 31.23 49.17 38.94 32.68 28.33 25.08 22.25 Difference (mm) -0.3 4.22 2.31 1.98 1.44 1.06 2.18 1.72 1.23 1.28 0.86 1.15 1.24 1.07 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.75 0.61 0.64 0.65 % Diff. -0.22 3.63 2.4 2.27 1.89 1.62 2.96 2.72 2.3 1.69 1.4 2.23 2.8 2.74 2.59 1.68 2.19 2.24 2.11 2.49 2.84

305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74

29 0.23 0.4 “Design values of material coefficients” of C-EC3 states that E = 210kN/mm2.25 13. section 3.55 23.51 0. as required by EC3. δmax.49 2.1 0.08 0.53 0.26 2.01 1. Iy = 16060cm4 from EC3 section table.56 2. subject to 15kN/m of unfactored imposed floor load.12 17.06 0.78 3. It also indicates that deflection value calculated from BS 5950 is normally higher than that from EC3.16 9.71 3.07 0.63 2.62 5.42 0.16 11.33 4. For example.13 8. The first explanation for this difference is the modulus of elasticity value.03 9.34 18.32 0.75 2. the difference percentage ranges from -0.75 18.85 1.1 0. Different from BS 5950.25 2.77 2.16 1.47 29.26 0.41 1.24 2.68 2.85 1.33 12.79 16.74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 5.21 3.58 0. .06 0.37 2. E.19 2.4 0.22 28.3 “Other properties” of BS 5950 states that E = 205kN/mm2.84 4.25 0.1 3. there is also slight difference between second moment of area in both codes.33 3.7 2.46 2.01 0. for a section 356x171x57.63 19.68 13.05 0.8 1.22% to 3.32 10. the difference percentage ranges from -0. Section 3.21 24.46 2. Ix = 16000cm4 from BS 5950 section table.25 2.22% to 3.98 21.5 above.64 4.77 4.96 1. Apart from that.31 2.07 1.77 16.08 0.06 0.4 2.07 0.04 0.93 2.26 18.35 0.71 3.83 20. Meanwhile. for a floor beam of 6m long.59 2.56 2.21 2.52 0.6 2.08 21.7 2. This is basically same as the range of beam length 6m.29 0.13 0.18 1. EC3 requires deflection due to permanent dead load to be included in the final design. for a floor beam of 9m long.66 2.4 2.51 21.01 2.85 15.37 4.74 4.73 1.56 2.34 1.55 From Table 4. Meanwhile.61%.1.33 0. Meanwhile.61 3.27 3.43 2.04 2. However.25 16. the major difference between the deflection designs of these two codes is the total deflection.38 2.83 13.7 2.36 8. The minor differences had created differences between the deflection values.2 3.54 2.9 9.05 0.66 0.1.45 14.1 0.84 11.63%.

4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 7.7 for BS 5950 and EC3 design respectively. external columns and internal columns have been designed for the most optimum size.3 Economy of Design After all the roof beams.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . the results of the design (size of structural members) are tabulated in Table 4.122 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x60 4.889 152x152x23 152x152x37 152x152x37 203x203x52 3. the weight of steel will be used as a gauge.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x52 203x203x86 9. To compare the economy of the design.750 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x152x60 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .6 Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 1 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 2 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 3 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 4 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x191x67 406x140x46 406x140x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd . Table 4.6 and Table 4.75 4.744 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) . floor beams.

645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 9.122 9.821 . Table 4.571 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.9.821 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) Summary of the total steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.76 Table 4. is tabulated in Table 4.645 3.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .750 4.571 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.313 9.8.7 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 356x171x45 To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . meanwhile.313 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.889 9.744 EC3 4. The saving percentage.8 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Types of Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.

821 4.744 3. Meanwhile. Regardless of bay width.77 Table 4. the connections of beam-to-column were assumed to be “partial strength connection”. The percentage of saving offered by BS 5950 design ranges from 1.889 EC3 4. depending on the steel grade. larger hot-rolled section is required to provide adequate moment capacity and also stiffness against deflection.42 15. This is because overall deflection was considered in EC3 design.9 EC3 design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4. The percentage savings for braced steel frame with 9m span is higher than that one with 6m span.750 9.645 9.60% to 17. the percentage savings by using BS 5950 are higher than EC3 for S355 steel grade with respect to S275 steel grade. all frame types. Semi-continuous .9. Further check on the effect of deflection was done.122 7.313 % 1.60 17. This resulted in higher percentage difference. unaffected by the effect of imposed load deflection. This is because deeper. BS 5950 design allowed lighter section.96%.571 9. This time.96 5. beam spans and steel grade designed by using BS 5950 offer weight savings as compared with EC3.29 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) As shown in Table 4.

4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 8.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . Table 4. For uniformly distributed loading.5.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .503 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.211 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x178x52 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .10 shown. where zero “support” stiffness corresponds to a value of β = 5.0. the deflection value is given as: δ = βwL4 / 384EI For a span with connections having a partial strength less than 45%.749 Roof Section Designation (Semi-continous) Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) . which was used in the beam design. the deflection coefficient.78 frame is achieved in this condition.10 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x151x67 406x140x46 356x127x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd . Columns remained the same as there was no change in the value of eccentricity moment and axial force. This is different from pinned joint in simple construction. Please refer to Appendix D for a redesign work after the β value had been revised and the section redesigned to withstand bending moment from analysis process. The renewed beam sections are tabulated in Table 4. β is treated as β = 3.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.

749 Table 4.645 5.744 EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.211 10. The saving percentage.22 9.503 7.11 .12. Table 4.744 Total Steel Weight (ton) EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.645 3.42 3.122 9.889 8.122 9.749 % 0.95 BS 5950 4.889 8.750 4.11 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Types of Frame Bay Width (m) 2Bay 4Storey 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.11.211 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.12 Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.750 4.79 Summary of the total revised steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4. meanwhile. is tabulated in Table 4.503 9.

The moment capacity will be the deciding factor. the effect of deflection on the design will be eliminated. if rigid connection is introduced. wL2/8 MR wL2/8 MR wL2/8 (a) Design moment. the sagging moment at mid span became less than that of simple construction (Figure 4. The greater difference for steel grade S355 indicated that deflection still plays a deciding role in EC3 design. the gap reduces. MD = wL /8 – MR 2 (b) (c) Figure 4.95%. it can be seen that there is an obvious reduction of steel weight required for the braced steel frame.11% to 10.0.12. Eventually. if it is built semi-continuously.1(c)). Therefore. (b) semi-rigid construction.1(b)). Even though EC3 design still consumed higher steel weight. However. Please refer to Figure 4. with deflection coefficient set as β = 1.80 From Table 4. (c) simple construction. . the percentage of difference had been significantly reduced to the range of 0. The effect of dead load on the deflection of beam had been gradually reduced.1 Bending moment of beam for: (a) rigid construction. as the connection stiffness becomes higher.1(a) for the illustration of rigid connection. The ability of partial strength connection had enabled moment at mid span to be partially transferred to the supports (Figure 4.

5. a summary on the results of the objectives is categorically discussed.05 in the moment capacity . calculation based on EC3 had reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 4. Apart from that. Av value also caused the difference.43%.06% with regard to BS 5950 due to the variance between constant values of the shear capacity formula specified by both codes.1. Suggestions of further research work are also included in this chapter. Meanwhile.1 Structural Beam For the shear capacity of a structural beam. This is mainly due to the application of partial safety factor. calculation based on EC3 had effectively reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 6. In review to the research objectives. The application of different steel grade did not contribute greater percentage of difference between the shear capacities calculated by both codes.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents the summary for the study on the comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 for the design of multi-storey braced frame.1 Structural Capacity 5. for the moment capacity of structural beam. γM0 of 1. the difference between the approaches to obtain shear area.

compared with BS 5950. there is also a deviation in between the compressive strength. only moments due to eccentricity will be transferred to structural column. only compressive resistance comparison of structural column was made. it was found that for a same value of λ.27% to 9. as compared to the partial safety factor. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. From interpolation.0 as suggested by BS 5950.0m long. γM of 1. γM0 of 1. For the same value of unfactored imposed load. This comparison is based on a structural column of 5. This is due to the implication of partial safety factor. EC3 design created majority . 5.05 as required by EC3 design. a structural beam will be subject to deflection. axial compression is much more critical. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. The design of structural beam proposed by EC3 is concluded to be safer than that by BS 5950.82 calculation required by EC3. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. fc and pc respectively. it is obvious that EC3 stresses on the safety of a structural beam.2 Deflection Values When subject to an unfactored imposed load. 5. With the inclusion of partial safety factor. Therefore. In comparison. of both codes. A reduction in the range of 5. fc is smaller than pc. Meanwhile.24% of column compressive resistance was achieved when designing by EC3.1.2 Structural Column In simple construction. Therefore.

For a 2-bay.22% to 3. . 4-storey.3 Economy Economy aspect in this study focused on the minimum steel weight that is needed in the construction of the braced steel frame. E. compared with the section chosen for BS 5950 design.645 tons and 9.122 tons and 7. and 4. and 9. thus can sustain higher load without deforming too much. 4-storey.83 lower deflection values with respect to BS 5950 design.750 tons for BS 5950 design. Section 4.889 tons for BS 5950 design. In this study. serviceability limit states check governs the design of EC3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check.1 of EC3 provided proof to this.744 tons and 3.821 tons and 4.63%. For a 2-bay. The main reason for the deviation is the difference in the specification of modulus of elasticity.2. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 9.313 tons for EC3 design. The total steel weight of structural beams and columns was accumulated for comparison. The difference ranges from 0. BS 5950 specifies 205kN/mm2 while EC3 specifies 210kN/mm2. Higher E means the elasticity of a member is higher. it was found that EC3 design produced braced steel frames that require higher steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950. 9m bay width steel frame.571 tons for EC3 design. Cross-section with higher second moment of area value. taking into account deflection due to permanent loads. the total deflection was greater. I will have to be chosen. 6m bay width steel frame. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 4. Therefore. 5. However.

22% 5.42% 2-bay. 9m bay width. 6m bay width. However. 9m bay width. 9m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 10. The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. 4-storey. S355 (Fe 510): 15.42% 2-bay.29% Further study was extended for the application of partial strength connection for beam-to-column connections in EC3 design. 4-storey. 6m bay width. 4-storey.60% 2-bay. S275 (Fe 430): 5.84 The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. S275 (Fe 430): 5.0 to 3. S355 (Fe 510): 7. S275 (Fe 430): 0.95% 2-bay. S275 (Fe 430): 1. This study showed that steel weight did not contribute to cost saving of EC3 design. 9m bay width. 4-storey. 4-storey.96% 2-bay. 6m bay width. The reduction in deflection coefficient from 5. since the results of the third objective contradicted with the background of the study (claim by Steel Construction Institute). it is suggested that an unbraced steel frame design is conducted to study the behavior.5 had successfully reduced the percentage of difference between the steel weights designed by both codes. structural design and economic aspect based on both of the design codes. . S355 (Fe 510): 17. 4-storey. 4-storey. 4-storey. it is recommended that further studies to be conducted to focus on the economy aspect of EC3 with respect to BS 5950. 6m bay width.4 Recommendation for Future Studies For future studies.11% 2-bay.

” London: European Committee for Standardization. “Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000 Volume 2: Worked examples.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. al. “Steel Design Can be Simple Using EC3.85 REFERENCES Charles King (2005).1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Steel Construction Institute (SCI) (2005). British Standards Institution (2001). November 2005. 4. . Issue 3. 29-32.” London: British Standards Institution. Paper 2658. D. European Committee for Standardization (1992). “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. (1995). 24-27.” ICE Journal. Taylor J. “EN 1993 Eurocode 3 – Steel. “British Standard – Structural Use of Steelwork in Building: Part 1: Code of Practice for Design – Rolled and Welded Sections. Vol 13 No 4. Narayanan R et. Heywood M. & Lim J B (2003). “Introduction to Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) – with Worked Examples.” Eurocodenews.C.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. “EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. (2001).” New Steel Construction.

86 APPENDIX A1 .

DL Live Load.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.87 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.4 x 24 + 1. LL = = 4 1.6 x 15 = 62.4DL + 1.64 kN/m .5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4.6LL Roof w = 1. LL LOAD FACTORS Dead Load.4 1.6 2.6 + 1. DL Live Load.4 x 27. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.6 FACTORED LOAD w = 1. LL Floors Dead Load. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load. of Bay No. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. DL Live Load.6 15 kN/m kN/m = = 1. MAHMOOD 1.6 x 9 = 48 kN/m Floors w = 1.0 DATA No.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.88 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame .1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 2. MAHMOOD 2.

0 LOAD LAYOUT 48 kN/m 6m 48 kN/m 62.89 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. MAHMOOD 2.64 kN/m 62. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m .64 kN/m 62.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.

68 1415. contributed by beam shear. V = 48 x 6 / 2 = 144 kN M = 48 x 6^2 / 8 = 216 kNm Floor beams.88 kNm 4. MAHMOOD 4. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.92 kN M = 62. . Roof beams.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced. Shear. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column .Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.1 Beam Moment.84 707. V = 62.76 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.90 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 288 663.52 144 331.64 x 6 / 2 = 187.64 x 6^2 / 8 = 281.92 519. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.84 1039.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.92) 288 (187.88 281.88 281.84 (187.88 Shear (kN) (144) (144) 144 (187.84 [3] [4] 707.84 (187.76 1415.92) 144 [1] 331. MAHMOOD 5.92) 1039.92 (187.92 [2] 519.92) 331.88 281.76 .88 281.68 (187.52 707.92) 519.91 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.88 281.0 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 216 216 281. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.92) 663.

6 28.19 31.19 [3] 28.19 28.54 28.54 28.6 21.19 Moments are calculated from (1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.54 28.19 31. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.54 31.6 [1] 21.6 [2] 28.19 21.54 28.19 28.19 28.92 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.19 31. MAHMOOD Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 21.6 31.19 21.54 31.0DL Most critical condition .19 28.6LL) .4DL+1.6 21.1.19 [4] 28.

93 APPENDIX A2 .

LL = = 4 1.35 x 24 + 1.0 DATA No. DL Live Load.5 x 15 = 59. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.94 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.35DL + 1. MAHMOOD 1. LL = = 1.35 1.76 kN/m . of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.9 kN/m Floors w = 1.5 x 9 = 45.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4. DL Live Load. LL Floors Dead Load. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.35 x 27. of Bay No.6 15 kN/m kN/m LOAD FACTORS Dead Load.6 + 1. DL Live Load. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load.5 FACTORED LOAD w = 1.5LL Roof w = 1.6 2.

MAHMOOD 2.95 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.0 2.

96 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.9 kN/m 6m 45.76 kN/m 59.0 LOAD LAYOUT 45. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.76 kN/m . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.9 kN/m 59.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.76 kN/m 59. MAHMOOD 2.76 kN/m 59.

9 x 6^2 / 8 = 206. MAHMOOD 4.97 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.4 633.7 kN M = 45.52 1351.92 kNm 4.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced.9 x 6 / 2 = 137. . contributed by beam shear. V = 45. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column. V = 59.96 992. Roof beams. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC. Shear.28 kN M = 59.98 496.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 275.7 316.26 675.54 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment.76 x 6 / 2 = 179.55 kNm Floor beams. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 Beam Moment.76 x 6^2 / 8 = 268.08 137.

92 268.7 (179.92 268.7) 137.28) 137.98 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 5.28) 633.92 5.28) 275.1 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 206.55 206. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.4 (179.7 [1] 316.26 (179.98 (179.26 [3] [4] 675.55 268.28) 496.08 675.92 268.98 [2] 496.92 268.54 .96 (179.54 1351.92 268.2 Shear (kN) (137. MAHMOOD 5.7) (137.28) 316. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.28) 992.52 (179.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.89 26.66 19.89 28.89 26.5LL) .89 28.89 Moments are calculated from (1.89 26.89 26.94 26.94 28. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.66 26.94 26.0DL Most critical condition . MAHMOOD 5.3 Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 20.66 20.35DL+1.71 20.1.66 26.89 19.71 28.89 26.89 26.89 28.89 20.94 26.99 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.94 26.94 28.

100 APPENDIX B1 .

MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23.1 40.8 60.3 82 82.101 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 67.1 24.1 67.2 179 238.1 37 37 39 39.3 41.9 43 45 46 46.1 Sx (cm3) 171 259 234 342 258 306 403 353 314 393 481 543 483 539 724 659 623 614 566 775 888 720 711 896 1100 846 1060 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 59.1 Sx (cm3) 1010 1290 1200 1210 1350 1470 1450 1500 1630 1650 1830 1810 2060 2010 2380 2230 2610 2880 2830 3280 3200 3680 4140 4590 5550 7490 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 305x102x25 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x28 254x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 406x140x39 356x127x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 406x140x46 305x165x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 457x152x60 406x178x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x191x67 457x152x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x152x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 281. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.88 kNm Sx = M / fy = 281.2 28.0m) STC.2 89.1 67.2 28. L = 6.1 48.1 139.3 101 101.1 98.3 92.2 74.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 1025 cm Try UB 457x152x60 .2 74.2 74.1 32.1 67.3 30 31.9 149.2 109 113 122 125.1 25.1 51 52.1 82.8 33.8 25.3 54 54.

3 Therefore.75 50. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. py = = mm 275 S275 < N/mm 2 16mm ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 Outstand element of compression flange. subject to pure bending.102 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.3 < 80 Web is plastic Class 1 Section is : Class 1 plastic section . Section chosen = 457x152x60 UB 1.0m) STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.3 407. L = 6.6 152. Limiting d/t = 80ε = 80 Actual d/t = 50.8 454. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 5. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams. neutral axis at mid-depth.75 = < 9 9 Flange is plastic Class 1 Section is symmetrical. MAHMOOD 1.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 13.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = 59.9 8.1 DATA Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.1 13.6 1290 1120 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm 3 b/T = d/t = 5.3 2.0 1.

103

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

3.0

SHEAR BUCKLING If d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for rolled section, shear buckling resistance should be checked. d/t = 50.3 < 70ε = 70 Therefore, shear buckling needs not be checked

4.0

SHEAR CAPACITY Fv = 187.92 kN

Pv = 0.6pyAv py = 275 N/mm Av = tD = 8.1 x 454.6 2 = 3682.26 mm

2

Pv = 0.6 x 275 x 3682.26 x 0.001 = 607.57 kN Fv Pv < Therefore, the shear capacity is adequate

5.0

MOMENT CAPACITY M= 281.88 kNm

0.6Pv = 0.6 x 607.57 = 364.542 kN Fv 0.6Pv < Therefore, it is low shear Mc = pySx = 275 x 1290 x 0.001 = 354.75 kNm 1.2pyZ = 1.2 x 275 x 1120 x 0.001 = 369.6 kNm Mc M < < 1.2pyZ Mc OK Moment capacity is adequate

104

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

6.0 6.1

WEB BEARING & BUCKLING Bearing Capacity Pbw = (b1 + nk) tpyw r= 10.2 mm (Unstiffened web)

b1 = t + 1.6r + 2T = 8.1 + 1.6 x 10.2 + 2 x 13.3 = 51.02 mm k= T+r = 13.3 + 10.2 = 23.5 mm At the end of a member (support), n = 2 + 0.6be/k = 2 b1 + nk = = = = = < but n ≤ 5 be = 0

51.02 + 2 x 23.5 98.02 mm 98.02 x 8.1 x 275 x 0.001 218.34 kN 187.92 Pbw kN

Pbw

Fv Fv

Bearing capacity at support is ADEQUATE

105

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

7.0

**SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION CHECK Unfactored imposed loads: w= = E= I= δ= 9 15 205 25500
**

4

kN/m kN/m kN/mm cm

4 2

for roofs for floors

L=

6

m

5wL 384EI = 5 x 15 x 6^4 x 10^5 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4.84 mm

Beam condition Carrying plaster or other brittle finish Deflection limit = Span / 360 = 6 x 1000 / 360 = 16.67 mm 4.84mm < 16.67mm

The deflection is satisfactory!

106 APPENDIX B2 .

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.y = M / fy = 268.0m) STC.107 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.92 kNm W pl.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268. L = 6. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl.9 cm3 Try 406x178x54 UB .92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.

Second moment of area.36 131 8.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area. L = 6. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .9 360. cm 4 cm cm cm 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.4 1051 927 32.9 68.0 1.6 7.4 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.6 18670 4.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10.0m) STC.15 47.108 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.6 177.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.y = W el. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. = 406x178x54 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl. Section chosen 1.6 10.9 Therefore.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 54 402. MAHMOOD 1.

5 x 497.2 (b) Web. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.15 <= 9. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.7 3.Rd < Therefore.001 / 1.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.0m) STC.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .4 > 46.05 √3 = 497. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.Rd = 0.92 kNm 0.9 x 100 275 1.48 kN VSd < Vpl. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 47.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.05 = 275.05 = 32.5Vpl.48 = 298.26 kNm MSd Mc. it is low shear Mc.49 kN VSd 0.109 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.Rd = W pl. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0. L = 6. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.001 γMO = 1.y fy / γMO = 1051 x 275 x 0.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.5Vpl.7 Web is Class 2 element 406x178x54 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.28 kN V pl.

⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.001 / 1. not susceptible to LTB 6.05 204.5 σf. L = 6.0m) STC. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).5 Ry. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 47.4 kN = VSd = 179.69) x 7.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.Rd = (50 + 52.6 x 275 x 0.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 52.4 63. MAHMOOD 5.28 kN < Ry. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.Rd = γM1 At support.8 < 63.110 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.69 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.

3 ≤ = 1.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.Rd 268.98 <= 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.5 0.92 275. L = 6. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.4 = γM1 = E= Ra. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 360.Rd = > 0.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span. MAHMOOD At midspan.26 7. MSd Mc.0m) STC.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.2 0.8 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.111 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 ] . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. Rd = 0. h= a= 402. Ra.6 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0.14 1.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.05 205 307.

5 x SQRT(402.6 2 = 1731.28 x 0.75d Rolled I-section. L = 6.6 l = 0.5 = 405.117) / (120 .5 x 360.8 x 1731.Rd = 1 x 119.5 d/t = 2.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.7 mm Buckling resistance of web.8 N/mm 2 Rb.001 / 1.6 fc 121 117 fc = 121 . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.8 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.112 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.118) x (121 . buckling about y-y axis.0m) STC.6^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 227.8 x 7. MAHMOOD beff = 0.5 kN > At mid span. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 118 120 118. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. λ = 2. Rb.6 . VSd = 0 VSd = 179.28 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .118) = 119.(118.05 = 197.6 = 118.4 / 7.05 A = beff x tw = 227.

46 = 18.88 + 6.46 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0m) STC.113 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.34 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory. MAHMOOD 8.88 6.0 1. .δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 18670 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 11.14 mm OK δmax = 11.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 . L = 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.

114 APPENDIX C1 .

4 988.4 cm Try 203x203x60 UC .08 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 229.1 310.3 247.1 652 802.08 kNm M= Sx = M / fy = 63.1 497.4 568. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 5. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Sx (cm3) 184.8 1228 1589 1485 1953 2482 1875 2298 2964 2680 2417 3457 3436 3977 4689 4245 5101 5818 6994 8229 10009 12078 14247 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 63.6 978.115 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0m) STC.

8 652 581. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 8.2 = mm S275 < < < N/mm 2 16mm 40mm 63mm Therefore.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 14.3 2. MAHMOOD 1.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = rx = ry = Ag = 60 209. L = 5.0 DATA Fc = 1415. Gross area.23 17. Section chosen = 203x203x60 UC 1.96 5.19 75.3 14. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.0m) STC. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.2 9.2 160.116 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.8 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 2 3 b/T = d/t = 7.52 kN L= 5 m 1. py = 275 ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 .2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.6 205.

MAHMOOD Outstand element of compression flange.52 kN Pc = pcAg py = Ag = 275 75. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.or H-section under axial compression and bending ("generally" case) r1 = Fc dtpy = 1415.23 < < = < 10ε = 15ε = 9 9 10 15 Flange is plastic Class 1 Web of I.52 x 1000 / (160.1 SLENDERNESS Effective Length About the x-x axis.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm λx = LEX / rx = 4250 / (8.96 x 10) = 47. L = 5.8 x 9.0 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE Fc = 1415. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.8 N/mm cm 2 2 Buckling about x-x axis . Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 7.85L = 0. "Restrained in direction at one end" LEX = 0.5r1 = 40 All ≥ 40ε < Section is : = 40 Web is plastic Class 1 Class 1 plastic section 3.0 3.44 r1 = 1 Actual d/t = < 17.0m) STC.3 x 275) -1 < r1 ≤ 1 = 3.117 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.3 80ε 1+r1 100ε 1+1.4 4.

5.0m) STC. MAHMOOD Use strut curve (b) λx = λ 46 48 Interpolation: pcx = 242 .239) 2 = 239. L = 5. For EI/L1 : EI/L2 < 1.001 = 1818. R From frame analysis sheets. Mi = 63.46) x (242 .46) / (48 .(47.0 NOMINAL MOMENT DUE TO ECCENTRICITY For columns in simple construction.118 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length.44 kN Fc < Pc 47. R is assumed to act 100mm off the face of the column.8 x 100 x 0. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column. the moment will be equally divided. Therefore.4 pc 242 239 Therefore.54 kNm .9 x 75.08 kNm 100 mm Moments are distributed between the column lengths above and below level 2.4 . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. M= 31. beam reaction.9 N/mm Pc = pcAg = 239. the compressive resistance is adequate 5.

001 = 170.54 170.5 L/ry = (0.03 = < 0.52 1818. 7.45) / (50 .17 py = λLT 45 50 275 pb 250 233 N/mm 2 pb = 250 . MAHMOOD 6.0 4.96 1.17 .19 x 10) = 48. L = 5.0m) STC.0 CONCLUSION Compression Resistance = Combined Axial Force and Moment Check = Use of the section is adequate Use : 203x203x60 UC OK OK . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 6.78 x 652 x 0.(48.0 COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND MOMENT CHECK The column should satisfy the relationship My Fc Mx + + ≤1 Pc M bs pyZ y λLT = 0.44 + 31.03 kNm 1415.119 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.00 The combined resistance against axial force and moment is adequate.78 N/mm Mb = pbSx = 260.5 x 5 x 1000) / (5.250) 2 = 260. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.45) x (233 .

120 APPENDIX C2 .

88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 210. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 5.y (cm3) 184 248 309 497 567 654 801 990 979 1225 1589 1484 1952 2485 1872 2293 2970 2675 2418 3455 3438 3978 4691 4243 5101 5814 6997 8225 10010 12080 14240 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 57.y = M / fy = 57.5 cm Try 254x254x73 UC .0m) STC.88 kNm M= W pl.121 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Wpl.

The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.2 200.5 8.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel tf = 14.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. Section chosen = 254x254x73 UC 1.9 11370 6.08 kN Msd = 28.2 990 895 11.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.y = W el.0 DATA NSd = 1351.6 14. MAHMOOD 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.46 92. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 . Second moment of area.1 6.0m) STC.86 98.3 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 4 cm cm cm 2 3 2.94 kNm L= 5 m 1. = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.y = iy = iz = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 73 254 254 8.2 Therefore.94 23. L = 5.122 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Area of section. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.

94 kNm kNm Sufficient moment resistance .555 >= n < 0.1 n ≥ 0.123 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.001 / 1.y.1 Mpl.Rd = > MSd = 128.Rd(1-n) W pl.Rd = γMO γMO = 1.5 Limit d/tw Class 2 = 35.11 Mpl.Rd = 1.2 Class 3 = 13.y.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.Rd = Mpl.001 / 1.1 = 0.3 <= 30.y fy γMO = 990 x 275 x 0.Rd = 0.Rd Mny.1 Mny. subject to bending and compression : Classify web as subject to compression and bending d/tw = 23.0 CROSS-SECTION RESISTANCE n= NSd Npl. L = 5.Rd A fy Npl.05 = 2433.3 kNm Mny.05 = 259.2 Limit c/tf Class 2 = 10.y.94 <= 9.8 3.9 (b) Web. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.9 x 100 x 275 x 0.Rd = 92. it is Class 1 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 30. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0m) STC.5 Web is Class 1 element Therefore.1 Class 3 = 38.05 Npl.1 28.08 / 2433.1 kN n = 1351.

Rd η M c .248) 2 = 249.95 (Conservative value) + kyMy.5 NSd Nb.Rd = = 1351.9 x 100 x 0.Rd = βA f c A γM1 l y = 0.3 Buckling about y-y axis (Curve b) βA = λy√βA = tf λ√βA 38 40 1 38.38) / (250 .001 / 1.7 x 92.0 N b .3 <= fc 250 248 40mm fc = 250 .0m) STC.85 L (Restrained about both axes) = 0. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 IN-PLANE FAILURE ABOUT MAJOR AXIS Members subject to axial compression and major axis bending must satisfy k y M y .124 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. y .5 x 28.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm Slenderness ratio λy = l y / iy = 4250 / (11.94 1 x 128.7 N/mm Nb.Sd ηMc.y.3 .1 1 η= = + < γMO / γM1 1 Therefore. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. y .y.3 0.(38.38) x (40 .y. MAHMOOD 4.Rd = 1 x 249.05 = 2209. Sd N Sd + ≤ 1 .y.08 2209.3 kN ky = 1.1 x 10) = 38. sufficient resistance against in-plane failure against major axis .Rd 1. Rd Nb. L = 5.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0m) STC.0 3. L = 5. MAHMOOD 5. Use : 254x254x73 UC OK OK . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.125 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 4.0 CONCLUSION Cross Section Resistance In-plane Failure About Major Axis Use of the section is adequate.

126 APPENDIX D .

92 kNm W pl.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.9 cm3 Try 457x152x52 UB . L = 6.127 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.y = M / fy = 268.0m) Rev 1 STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0m) Rev 1 STC.0 1. Section chosen 1. cm 4 cm cm cm 2. Second moment of area. MAHMOOD 1.6 1096 950 36. = 457x152x52 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.4 7.6 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.6 21370 3.5 66. L = 6.59 121 6.128 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.y = W el.6 10. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.8 152.99 53.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.9 407.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 52 449.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.9 Therefore.

2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.Rd = W pl. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange. it is low shear Mc.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.5 x 551. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 53.5Vpl. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.7 3.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .7 Web is Class 2 element 457x152x52 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.99 <= 9.y fy / γMO = 1096 x 275 x 0.129 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 x 100 275 1.001 γMO = 1.5Vpl.05 √3 = 551.05 = 287. L = 6.001 / 1.92 = 331.92 kNm 0.28 kN V pl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.05 = 36.0m) Rev 1 STC.2 (b) Web.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.15 kN VSd 0.Rd < Therefore.05 kNm MSd Mc.92 kN VSd < Vpl.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.Rd = 0.6 > 46.

tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.Rd = γM1 At support.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0m) Rev 1 STC.05 = 196.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. L = 6.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 48.5 σf. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.28 kN < Ry. MAHMOOD 5.68 kN VSd = 179.6 x 275 x 0.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.Rd = (50 + 48.8 < 63.130 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance.5 Ry.6 63. not susceptible to LTB 6.81 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .81) x 7.001 / 1. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 53.

Rd = 0.Rd 268. Ra.05 205 299.5 0.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .92 287. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 407. h= a= 449.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.0m) Rev 1 STC.131 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.16 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.6 = γM1 = E= Ra. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.94 <= 1.05 7.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD At midspan.3 ≤ = 1.2 0.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.Rd = > 0.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span. MSd Mc. L = 6.12 1.5 ] .5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.8 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0.

Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.98) / (135 .Rd = 1 x 98.5 x 407.6 2 = 1909.75d Rolled I-section.5 = 452. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 N/mm 2 Rb. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 130 135 134. Rb.132 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.9 x 1909.05 A = beff x tw = 251.130) = 98.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .(134. buckling about y-y axis.3 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.5 x SQRT(449. λ = 2.130) x (103 .9 kN > At mid span.88 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.3 x 7.6 mm Buckling resistance of web.0m) Rev 1 STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.8^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 251.1 .6 / 7.5 d/t = 2.1 l = 0.1 fc 103 98 fc = 103 . MAHMOOD beff = 0.6 = 134.05 = 179. L = 6.88 x 0.001 / 1.

133 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.14 mm OK δmax = 7. MAHMOOD 8.21 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory. L = 6.95 = 11. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.95 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 .0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.26 3.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 21370 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 3.26 + 3.5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 7.0 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1. . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0m) Rev 1 STC.