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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

**BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
**

JUDUL:

υ

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

SESI PENGAJIAN: Saya

2006 / 2007

**CHAN CHEE HAN
**

(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/ Sarjana/ Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tandakan (3) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam (AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/ badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

3

TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

**Alamat Tetap: PETI SURAT 61162, 91021 TAWAU, SABAH.
**

Tarikh

CATATAN:

**PM DR. IR. MAHMOOD MD. TAHIR Nama Penyelia
**

Tarikh:

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

* ** Potong yang tidak berkenaan.

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

υ

Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/ organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

“I hereby declare that I have read this project report and in my opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure).”

Signature

:

Name of Supervisor : P.M. Dr. Ir. Mahmood Md. Tahir Date : 01 NOVEMBER 2006

i

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

CHAN CHEE HAN

A project report submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

NOVEMBER, 2006

The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.ii I declare that this project report entitled “Comparison Between BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 & Eurocode 3 for The Design of Multi-Storey Braced Steel Frame” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. Signature Name Date : : Chan Chee Han : 01 NOVEMBER 2006 .

iii To my beloved parents and siblings .

for his generous advice. patience and guidance during the duration of my study. I am most thankful to my parents and family for their support and encouragement given to me unconditionally in completing this task. Dr. Mahmood’s research students. Ir. Tahir of the Faculty of Civil Engineering. Mr.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. Finally. PM. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Shek and Mr. I would also like to express my thankful appreciation to Dr. Without the contribution of all those mentioned above. . Mahmood Md. Tan for their helpful guidance in the process of completing this study. I would like to express my appreciation to my thesis supervisor. this work would not have been possible.

The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. Therefore. Design worksheets are created for the design of structural beam and column.63% in comparison with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Meanwhile. the percentage of difference had been reduced to the range of 0.34% less than BS 5950: Part 1:2000 design.v ABSTRACT Reference to standard code is essential in the structural design of steel structures.27% and 9.11% to 10. These details include the basis and concept of design. design methods.43%. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.06% and moment capacity by up to 6. The design method by Eurocode 3 has reduced beam shear capacity by up to 4. This paper presents comparisons of findings on a series of two-bay. However. safety factors. specifications to be followed. structural column designed by Eurocode 3 has compression capacity of between 5. This study intends to testify the claim.96% more steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. serviceability limit states check governs the design of Eurocode 3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. Eurocode 3 produced braced steel frames which consume 1. with the application of partial strength connections. four-storey braced steel frames with spans of 6m and 9m and with steel grade S275 (Fe 460) and S355 (Fe 510) by designed using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. . Eurocode 3 also reduced the deflection value due to unfactored imposed load of up to 3.95%. However. loading values and etc.60% to 17.

34% kurang daripada rekabentuk menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Namun begitu. Namun begitu. Justeru.06% dan keupayaan momen rasuk sebanyak 6. Kertas kerja komputer ditulis untuk merekabentuk rasuk dan tiang keluli.96% lebih banyak daripada kerangka yang direkabentuk oleh BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Butiran-butiran ini mengandungi asas dan konsep rekabentuk. tiang keluli yang direkebentuk oleh Eurocode 3 mempunyai keupayaan mampatan 5. Eurocode 3 menghasilkan kerangka keluli dirembat yang menggunakan berat besi 1. nilai beban. Kertas ini menunjukkan perbandingan keputusan kajian ke atas satu siri kerangka besi terembat 2 bay. Selain itu. 4 tingkat yang terdiri daripada rentang rasuk 6m dan 9m serta gred keluli S275 (Fe 430) dan S355 (Fe 510). Eurocode 3 juga mengurangkan nilai pesongan yang disebabkan oleh beban kenaan tanpa faktor sehingga 3. dan sebagainya.43%. rujukan kepada kod piawai adalah penting.11% – 10. Kandungan dalam kod piawai secara amnya mengandungi butiran rekabentuk yang komprehensif. cara rekabentuk. Rekebentuk menggunakan Eurocode 3 telah mengurangkan keupayaan ricih rasuk sehingga 4. Institut Pembinaan Keluli (SCI) berpendapat bahawa rekabentuk struktur keluli menggunakan Eurocode 3 adalah 6 – 8% lebih menjimatkan daripada menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji pendapat ini. didapati bahawa keadaan had kebolehkhidmatan mengawal rekabentuk Eurocode 3 disebabkan beban mati tanpa faktor yang perlu diambilkira dalam pemeriksaan pesongan. .60% – 17.27% – 9.vi ABSTRAK Dalam rekabentuk struktur keluli.63% berbanding BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. spesifikasi yang perlu diikuti. penggunaan sambungan kekuatan separa telah berjaya mengurangkan lingkungan berat besi kepada 0. factor keselamatan.95%.

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii xii xiii xiv xv THESIS TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES LISTOF NOTATIONS I INTRODUCTION 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.5 Introduction Background of Project Objectives Scope of Project Report Layout 1 3 4 4 5 .4 1.

3.2 Stiffened Web 2.3 Serviceability Limit State 2.5.4.2.3.2 Ultimate Limit State 2.3.6 Deflection 2.4 Actions of EC3 2.1.3.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 2.viii II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2.1.3.2 Serviceability 2. Pv Moment Capacity.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.1 Unstiffened Web 2.Rd Moment Capacity.3.1 (EC3) Design Concept of EC3 2.3 Background of BS 5950 Scope of BS 5950 Design Concept of BS 5950 2.3.3.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2.2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2. Vpl.3.3.1 2.3.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.2 BS 5950 2.1.Rd 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 .4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 2.3 Shear Capacity.1 Ultimate Limit States 2.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.2.4.2 2.3.3.1.4.3.3.5.1 Application Rules of EC3 2.4.2 2. Mc 2.3 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.3.3.4 Loading 2.1 Cross-sectional Classification 2.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2. Mc.1 2.1.3.2 2.2.3.2.3 Cross-sectional Classification Shear Capacity.1.2 2.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.1 2.1.4.

5.3.6.2 Crippling Resistance.4.4.2 Slenderness. Nb.5.Rd 2. l 2.5.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.3 Compression Resistance.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.6.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.2. Pc 2.1. Ry.1 Crushing Resistance.3.7.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.2 Structural Beam Structural Column 31 32 29 30 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 29 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 III METHODOLOGY 3.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 2.6.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.4.Rd 2.1.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 2.4.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.7 Conclusion 2.1 Introduction 34 .6.4.6.5.4. Ra.3 Compression Resistance.1 Buckling Length.1 2.6.2.4.1.1 Effective Length.Rd 2.2 Slenderness.2. λ 2.4 Buckling Resistance.6.Rd 2.7.2.1. Nc.5.6.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.4.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces 2. λ 2.4.5 Deflection 2.4.5.1.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2. LE 2.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2. Rb.5.1.Rd 2.ix 2.1.3 Buckling Resistance.

8.2 BS 5950 EC 3 3.2 4.6 3.2 3.3 Structural Beam Structural Column 66 66 70 73 75 Deflection Economy of Design V CONCLUSIONS 5.1 3.1.3 Moment Calculation 3.2 4.4.9.10.1 Structural Capacity 4.7 3.5 3.8.9 Structural Beam Design 3.2 3.1 Load Combination 3.3 3.8 Structural Layout Specifications 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 42 43 44 46 47 51 57 57 61 35 36 Loadings Factor of Safety Categories Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3.2 Shear Calculation 3.10.1.2 EC 3 IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 4.1.x 3.1 4.1 Structural Capacity 5.1 3.1 BS 5950 3.8.4 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Structural Layout & Specifications 3.4.10 Structural Column Design 3.9.1 Structural Beam 81 81 .

xi 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.4 Structural Column 82 82 83 84 Deflection Values Economy Recommendation for Future Studies REFERENCES 85 APPENDIX A1 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 APPENDIX A2 APPENDIX B1 APPENDIX B2 APPENDIX C1 APPENDIX C2 APPENDIX D .1.

11 4.4 4.10 4.2 3.2 3.8 4.12 Criteria to be considered in structural beam design Criteria to be considered in structural column design Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) Shear capacity of structural beam Moment capacity of structural beam Compression resistance and percentage difference Moment resistance and percentage difference Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Total steel weight of the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) 31 32 43 44 45 67 68 71 71 73 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) 46 . TITLE PAGE 2.1 3.3 4.xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.6 4.4 4.7 4.5 4.9 4.3 3.1 2.2 4.1 4.

1(b) 4.2 3.1 3.1(a) 4.3 4.1(c) Schematic diagram of research methodology Floor plan view of the steel frame building Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame Bending moment of beam for rigid construction Bending moment of beam for semi-rigid construction Bending moment of beam for simple construction 37 38 39 80 80 80 .xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE 3.

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D Frame Analysis Based on BS 5950 Frame Analysis Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 Structural Column Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Column Design Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 (Revised) 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 .

Rd Rb.y.Rd h A Aeff Av .Rd Mc.y.Minor axis Depth between fillets Compressive strength Flexural strength Design strength Slenderness Web crippling resistance Web buckling resistance Web crushing resistance Buckling moment resistance Moment resistance at major axis Shear resistance Depth Section area Effective section area Shear area F Fv M γ NSd VSd MSd γM0 γM1 rx ry d pc pb py λ Pcrip Pw Mbx Mcx Pv D Ag Aeff Av iy iz d fc fb fy λ Ra.y.Major axis .Rd Vpl.Rd Ry.xv LIST OF NOTATIONS BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 EUROCODE 3 Axial load Shear force Bending moment Partial safety factor Radius of gyration .Rd Mb.Rd Mpl.y.

Major axis .Minor axis Elastic modulus .Minor axis Flange Web Width of section Effective length Flange thickness Web thickness Zx Zy b/T d/t B LE T t Wel.Major axis .z c/tf d/tw b l tf tw Sx Sy Wpl.y Wel.y Wpl.z .xvi Plastic modulus .

design methods. . These details include the basis and concept of design. loading values and etc. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. namely suitability of application of the code set in a country with respect to its culture. specifications to be followed. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. many countries have published their own standard codes. In present days. climate and national preferences.1 Introduction Structural design is a process of selecting the material type and conducting indepth calculation of a structure to fulfill its construction requirements. countries or nations that do not publish their own standard codes will adopt a set of readily available code as the national reference. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science. economic and functional building. The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe. These codes were a product of constant research and development.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site. as well as the trading volume and diplomatic ties between these countries. Meanwhile. safety factors. and past experiences of experts at respective fields. Several factors govern the type of code to be adopted. reference to standard code is essential. In the structural design of steel structures.

Buckling resistance and shear resistance are two major elements of structural steel design. Eurocodes will be used in public procurement specifications and to assess products for ‘CE’ (Conformité Européen) mark. It is believed that Eurocode 3 is more comprehensive and better developed compared to national codes. were developed. Therefore.2 Like most of the other structural Eurocodes. designers. As with other Europeans standards. Standardization of design code for structural steel in Malaysia is primarily based on the practice in Britain. ECCS. the initial draft Eurocode 3. provision for these topics is covered in certain sections of the codes. ENV1993 (ENV stands for EuroNorm Vornorm) issued by Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) – the European standardisation committee. The earliest documents seeking to harmonize design rules between European countries were the various recommendations published by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. The study on Eurocode 3 in this project will focus on the subject of moment and shear design. amended in the light of any comments arising out of its use before being reissued as the EuroNorm standards (EN). . The establishment of Eurocode 3 will provide a common understanding regarding the structural steel design between owners. From these. published by the European Commission. Codes of practice provide detailed guidance and recommendations on design of structural elements. the move to withdraw BS 5950 and replace with Eurocode 3 will be taking place in the country as soon as all the preparation has completed. operators and users. These preliminary standards of ENV will be revised. Eurocode 3 has developed in stages. Therefore. This was followed by the various parts of a pre-standard code. contractors and manufacturers of construction products among the European member countries.

3 1. such as the tables of buckling stresses in existing BS codes. this can be achieved if the designer is not too greedy in the pursuit of the least steel weight from the strength calculations.2 Background of Project The arrival of Eurocode 3 calls for reconsideration of the approach to design. earlier design practice under-estimated strength in various circumstances affecting economy. 2005). However. causing safety issues. There are new formulae and new complications to master. simple design is possible if a scope of application is defined to avoid the circumstances and the forms of construction in which strength is over-estimated by simple procedures. Many designers feel depressed when new codes are introduced (Charles. Finally. Besides. . Lacking analytical and calculative proof. for those who pursue economy of material. and new forms of structure evolve and codes are expanded to include them. namely earlier design over-estimated strength in a few particular circumstances. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI). but it can be simplified for those pursuing speed and clarity. this project is intended to testify the claim. in its publication of “eurocodesnews” magazine has claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950. simple design is possible if the code requirements are presented in an easy-to-use format. even though there seems to be no benefit to the designer for the majority of his regular workload. The increasing complexity of codes arises due to several reasons. Design can be complex.

This structure is intended to serve as an office building. hereafter referred to as EC3.4 Scope of Project The project focuses mainly on the moment and shear design on structural steel members of a series four-storey. hereafter referred to as BS 5950. 2 bay braced frames. The comparison will be made between the EC3 with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. All the beam-column connections are to be assumed simple. A study on the basis and design concept of EC3 will be carried out. Next. Comparison to other steel structural design code is made. The standard code used here will be Eurocode 3. 1. . The multi-storey steel frame will be first analyzed by using Microsoft Excel worksheets to obtain the shear and moment values. 3) To compare the economy aspect between the designs of both BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3.4 1. design spreadsheets will be created to calculate and design the structural members. 2) To study on the effect of changing the steel grade from S275 to S355 in Eurocode 3.3 Objectives The objectives of this project are: 1) To compare the difference in the concept of the design using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3.

5 1. Chapter I presents an introduction to the study. . conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter V.5 Report Layout The report will be divided into five main chapters. Chapter II presents the literature review that discusses the design procedures and recommendations for steel frame design of the codes EC3 and BS 5950. Chapter III will be a summary of research methodology. Results and discussions are presented in Chapter IV. Meanwhile.

Principles and application rules are also clearly stated. was initiated by the Commission of European Communities as a standard structural design guide. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design.1 General rules and rules for buildings” covers the general rules for designing all types of structural steel. or better known as Eurocode. 2.1. Eurocode is separated by the use of different construction materials.CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2. while Eurocode 4 covers for composite construction.1 (EC3) EC3. EC3 stresses the need for durability. Eurocode 1 covers loading situations. serviceability and resistance of a structure.1. Application rules must be written in italic style.2 Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1. It also covers specific rules for building structures. Eurocode 3 covers steel construction.1 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) European Code. Eurocode covers concrete construction. Principles should be typed in Roman wordings.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2. It was intended to smooth the trading activities among the European countries. The use of local application rules are allowed only if they have similar principles as EC3 . “Design of Steel Structures: Part 1.

1. 2. Partial safety factor is applied to loadings and design for durability. and tying the structure together.7 and their resistance. which are ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. It should also be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like explosions. to an extent disproportionate to the original cause. eliminating or reducing the hazards which the structure is to sustain.3. EC3 stresses the need for durability. it will sustain all actions and other influences likely to occur during execution and use and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs. .1. 2. impact or consequences of human errors. durability and serviceability design does not differ too much. Potential damage should be limited or avoided by appropriate choice of one or more of the following criteria: Avoiding. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. and with appropriate degrees of reliability.1 Application Rules of EC3 A structure should be designed and constructed in such a way that: with acceptable probability. 2001). serviceability and resistance of structure (Taylor. EC3 covers two limit states. it will remain fit for the use for which it is required. having due regard to its intended life and its cost. Safety factor values are recommended in EC3. Every European country using EC3 has different loading and material standard to accommodate safety limit that is set by respective countries. selecting a structural form which has low sensitivity to the hazards considered.3 Design Concept of EC3 All designs are based on limit state design. selecting a structural form and design that can survive adequately the accidental removal of an individual element.

movable imposed loads. or which limits its functional effectiveness. .2 Ultimate Limit State Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse. 2.g. Partial or whole of structure will suffer from failure. Meanwhile. temperature effects or settlement. actions are defined as fixed actions. fittings.g. variable actions (Q). snow loads. and accidental loads (A).3. including supports and foundations.1.1. in spatial variation classification.3. or an imposed deformation in indirect action. explosions or impact from vehicles. for example. self-weight of structures. including: deformations or deflections which adversely affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (including the proper functioning of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-structural elements. wind loads or snow loads. self-weight. It may require certain consideration. In time variation classification. e.3 Serviceability Limit State Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met.g. e. e. e. which result in different arrangements of actions. 2. and free actions. Actions are classified by variation in time and by their spatial variation. or loss of stability of the structure or any part of it. damage to the building or its contents. considered as a rigid body. which causes discomfort to people. wind loads. imposed loads.4 Actions of EC3 An action (F) is a force (load) applied to the structure in direct action.1.g.g.8 2. ancillaries and fixed equipment. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people. actions can be grouped into permanent actions (G). rupture. This failure may be caused by excessive deformation. e. and vibration. and loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it.

2. Part 8 comprises of code of practice for fire resistance design. shear resistance. hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed structural hollow sections.1 Background of BS 5950 BS 5950 was prepared to supersede BS 5950: Part 1: 1990. Several clauses were technically updated for topics such as sway stability. but offsetting potential reductions in economy was also one of the reasons. fabrication and erected for rolled. . 2. etc. sheeting respectively. local buckling. lateral-torsional buckling.2. flats. welded sections and cold formed sections.2 BS 5950 2. plates. which was withdrawn.9 2. Part 5 concerns design of cold formed thin gauge sections. Part 6 covers design for light gauge profiled steel sheeting. and Part 9 covers the code of practice for stressed skin design. avoidance of disproportionate collapse. Part 1 covers the code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections. Changes were due to structural safety. They are being used in buildings and allied structures not specifically covered by other standards. members subject to combined axial force and bending moment. Part 3 and Part 4 focus mainly on composite design and construction. Part 2 and 7 deal with specification for materials. BS 5950 comprises of nine parts.2 Scope of BS 5950 Part 1 of BS 5950 provides recommendations for the design of structural steelwork using hot rolled steel sections.

3. namely simple design. In the case of combined horizontal crane loads and wind load. The fundamental of the methods are different joints for different methods. BS 5950 covers two types of states – ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states.2 Serviceability Limit States There are several elements to be considered in serviceability limit states – Deflection. In the case of combined imposed load and wind load. and experimental verification. Generally. only 80% of the full specified values need to be considered when checking for serviceability.2. Meanwhile. in checking. 2. and brittle fracture. rupture. in the design for limiting states.3. wind induced oscillation. serviceability loads should be taken as the unfactored specified values. They are: strength. buckling and mechanism formation. semi-continuous design. 2. only the greater effect needs to be considered when checking for serviceability.10 2.2.1 Ultimate Limit States Several elements are considered in ultimate limit states. inclusive of general yielding. Generally. stability against overturning and sway sensitivity. and durability.3 Design Concept of BS 5950 There are several methods of design.2. . fracture due to fatigue. The load carrying capacity of each member should be such that the factored loads will not cause failure. continuous design. vibration. the specified loads should be multiplied by the relevant partial factors γf given in Table 2.

3. The elements of a cross-section are generally of constant thickness.11 2. Loading conditions during erection should be given particular attention. the settlement of supports should be taken into account as well. overhead traveling cranes.4 Loading BS 5950 had identified and classified several loads that act on the structure. All relevant loads should be separately considered and combined realistically as to compromise the most critical effects on the elements and the structure as a whole. earth and groundwater loading. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling Bearing capacity of web Deflection 2. imposed and wind loading. . The classification of each element of a cross-section subject to compression (due to a bending moment or an axial force) should be based on its width-to-thickness ratio. 2.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below.1 Cross-sectional Classification Cross-sections should be classified to determine whether local buckling influences their capacity. Where necessary. without calculating their local buckling resistance.2. There are dead.

However. the plastic moment capacity cannot be reached. Pv The web of a section will sustain the shear in a structure. It is cross-section with plastic hinge rotation capacity. Sections that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi-compact sections should be classified as class 4 slender. When this section is applied. Class 2 is known as compact section.2 Shear Capacity.6pyAv .2. a crosssection may be classified with its compression flange and its web in different classes. Class 1 section is used for plastic design as the plastic hinge rotation capacity enables moment redistribution within the structure.12 Generally. the stress at the extreme compression fiber can reach design strength. Alternatively. Clause 4. local buckling will bar any rotation at constant moment. Shear capacity is normally checked at section part that sustains the maximum shear force. Fv.3 of BS 5950 states the shear force Fv should not be greater than the shear capacity Pv. However. given by: Pv = 0. Class 1 is known as plastic section. Class 4 is known as slender section.3. Cross-sections at this category should be given explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling. Class 3 is known as semi-compact section. the complete cross-section should be classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression elements. 2. It enables plastic moment to take place.

There are two situations to be verified in the checking of moment capacity – low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity.13 in which Av is the shear area. Clause 4. and Mc = pyZeff for class 4 slender cross-sections where S is the plastic modulus. Mc = pyZ or alternatively Mc = pySeff for class 3 semi-compact sections. moment capacity of the section needs to be verified.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv does not exceed 60% of the shear capacity Pv. .2 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = pyS for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections. Mc At sectional parts that suffer from maximum moment. BS 5950 provides various formulas for different type of sections. and Zeff is the effective section modulus. 2.5.3. 2. Seff is the effective plastic modulus.2.3.3 Moment Capacity. py is the design strength of steel and it depends on the thickness of the web. Z is the section modulus.3.

3. and Mc = py(Zeff – ρSv/1.3 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = py(S – ρSv) < 1. and ρ is given by ρ = [2(Fv/Pv) – 1]2 . Clause 4.2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv exceeds 60% of the shear capacity Pv.3. in which Sf is the plastic modulus of the effective section excluding the shear area Av. Mc = py(Z – ρSv/1.5) or alternatively Mc = py(Seff – ρSv) for class 3 semi-compact sections.5. - Otherwise: Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av.2pyZ for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections.14 2.5) for class 4 slender cross-sections in which Sv is obtained from the following: - For sections with unequal flanges: Sv = S – Sf.

if the web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 70ε for a rolled section. but the web is designed for shear only.2 states that.3. or 62ε for a welded section.6Vw.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4. it should be assumed not to be susceptible to shear buckling and the moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined using 2. where Vw is the simple shear buckling resistance.4.6Vw.4.4. a conservative value Mf for . qw = shear buckling strength of the web. Vw = dtqw where d = depth of the web.3.3.15 2.3.3. if the web depth-to-thickness d/t ≤ 62ε.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.1 of BS 5950 states that. provided that the flanges are not class 4 slender.4.4. it should be assumed to be susceptible to shear buckling.4. The moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined taking account of the interaction of shear and moment using the following methods: a) Low shear Provided that the applied shear Fv ≤ 0.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4. 2. obtained from Table 21 BS 5950 t = web thickness b) High shear – “flanges only” method If the applied shear Fv > 0.

5. 2.for a welded I. It is given by: Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw in which. provided that the applied moment does not exceed the “low-shear” moment capacity given in a).at the end of a member: n = 2 + 0. with each flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.or H-section: k=T+r k=T .1 Unstiffened Web Clause 4.1 states that bearing stiffeners should be provided where the local compressive force Fx applied through a flange by loads or reactions exceeds the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web at the web-to-flange connection.for a rolled I. where pyf is the design strength of the compression flange.except at the end of a member: n = 5 .2. c) High shear – General method If the applied shear Fv > 0.3.or H-section: .5.3.6be/k but n ≤ 5 and k is obtained as follows: .16 the moment capacity may be obtained by assuming that the moment is resisted by the flanges alone. the web should be designed using Annex H.6Vw.3 for the applied shear combined with any additional moment beyond the “flanges-only” moment capacity Mf given by b). .

2.2 Stiffened Web Bearing stiffeners should be designed for the applied force Fx minus the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web.net is the net cross-sectional area of the stiffener.5. the smaller value should be used to calculate both the web capacity Pbw and the stiffener capacity Ps. and t is the web thickness. pyw is the design strength of the web.6 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. T is the flange thickness. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 8 of BS 5950. r is the root radius.3. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load. .3. The capacity Ps of the stiffener should be obtained from: Ps = As. If the web and the stiffener have different design strengths. allowing for cope holes for welding. be is the distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing.netpy in which As.17 where b1 is the stiff bearing length. 2.

4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. This section can develop plastic moment resistance.3 of EC3 provided limits on the outstand-to-thickness (c/tf) for flange and depth-tothickness (d/tw) in Table 5. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Bearing capacity of web a) b) c) Crushing resistance Crippling resistance Buckling resistance (v) Deflection 2.1 Cross-sectional Classification A beam section should firstly be classified to determine whether the chosen section will possibly suffer from initial local buckling.3. It is applicable for plastic design.1. .18 2. the beam will buckle during pre-mature stage. However. It has limited rotation capacity. This limit allows the formation of a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. plastic hinge is disallowed because local buckling will occur first. It can also achieve rectangular stress block. Class 1 is known as plastic section. Clause 5. Beam sections are classified into 4 classes. Class 2 is also known as compact section. To avoid this. When the flange of the beam is relatively too thin.4.

2.Rd = Av (fy / √3) / γMO Av is the shear area. Vsd. kγ is the buckling factor for shear.5 .4. fy is the steel yield strength and γMO is partial safety factor as stated in Clause 5. It is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression resistance. Vpl. the ratio of d/tw > 69ε or d/tw > 30ε √kγ for a stiffened web.1. Apart from that.2 Shear Capacity. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. At each crosssection. The stress block will be of triangle shape.Rd where Vpl.1. the inequality should be satisfied: Vsd ≤ Vpl.Rd The web of a section will sustain shear from the structure. the ratios of c/tf and d/tw will be the highest among all four classes. Shear capacity will normally be checked at section that takes the maximum shear force.19 Class 3 is also known as semi-compact section. Pre-mature buckling will occur before yield strength is achieved. Shear buckling resistance should be verified when for an unstiffened web. Calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength. and ε = [235/fy]0. The member will fail before it reaches design stress. Class 4 is known as slender section.

5.4.3 Moment Capacity. Weff is the elastic modulus at effective shear area.Rd = Wel fy / γMO Class 4 cross-sections: Mc.3.4.Rd. the design moment resistance of a cross-section Mc.20 2. Mc. Vsd exceeds 50% of the design resistance Vpl.Rd may be determined as follows: Class 1 or 2 cross-sections: Mc. as stated in Clause 5. For class 4 cross-sections. There are two situations to verify when checking moment capacity – that is. the design moment resistance of a cross-section should be reduced to MV.Rd = Weff fy / γM1 where Wpl and Wel the plastic modulus and elastic modulus respectively. when maximum shear force. 2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity Clause 5.Rd. γMO and γM1 are partial safety factors. the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear .4.7 states that. low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity. 2.3.4.Rd Moment capacity should be verified at sections sustaining maximum moment.Rd = Wpl fy / γMO Class 3 cross-sections: Mc. Vsd is equal or less than the design resistance Vpl.3.Rd.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity When maximum shear force.

Rd ≤ Mc. However.Ed / fyf)2]0.3 provides that the design crushing resistance.4. Clause 5. bending about the major axis.5 . checking should be done at section subject to maximum shear force. this checking is unnecessary. is governed by one of the three modes of failure – Crushing of the web close to the flange.4. 2.Rd = (ss + sγ) tw fγw / γM1 in which sγ is given by sγ = 2tf (bf / tw)0.Rd = (Wpl – ρAv2/4tw) fy / γMO but MV. H or U section should be obtained from: Ry. if shear force acts directly at web without acting through flange in the first place. crippling of the web in the form of localized buckling and crushing of the web close to the flange. Ry.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces The resistance of an unstiffened web to transverse forces applied through a flange. and buckling of the web over most of the depth of the member.Rd Situation becomes critical when a point load is applied to the web. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange.5 [1 – (σf. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange. Thus.1 Crushing Resistance.5 (fyf / fyw)0.7. This checking is intended to prevent the web from buckling under excessive compressive force.Rd where ρ = (2Vsd / Vpl.Rd of the web of an I.Rd – 1)2 2.21 force. For cross-sections with equal flanges. it is obtained as follows: MV.4. Ry.

Rd = (χ βA fy A) / γM1 . σf. Rb.4.Sd = 0. H or U section should be obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with an effective beff. obtained from beff = [h2 + ss2]0.3 Buckling Resistance.4.5 2.4.5 [(tf / tw)0.5 + 3(tw / tf)(ss / d)] / γM1 where ss is the length of stiff bearing. and ss / d < 0.Rd ≤ 1.Rd The design buckling resistance Rb.Rd Msd ≤ Mc.Rd of the web of an I. H or U section is given by: Ra. Ra.5tw2(Efyw)0. fyf and fyw are yield strength of steel at flange and web respectively.Rd and Fsd / Ra.2 Crippling Resistance.Rd of the web of an I. 2.2.Rd The design crippling resistance Ra. the following criteria should be satisfied: Fsd ≤ Ra. For member subject to bending moments.5.22 but bf should not be taken as more than 25tf.4.Rd + Msd / Mc. Rb.Ed is the longitudinal stress in the flange.

For a structural steel column subject to compression load only. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) Effective length Slenderness Compression resistance . checking is normally conducted for capacity of steel column to compression only.1 and Table 5. 2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 4. Column is a compressive member and it generally supports compressive point loads. This. applies only to non-moment sustaining column. 2. Therefore.5. however. 2.1 of EC3.5.5.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 The design of structural steel column is relatively easier than the design of structural steel beam.23 where βA = 1 and buckling curve c is used at Table 5.5 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load.4.2.

in accordance of Table 22.7.1. directional restraint is based on connection stiffness and member stiffness. This concept is not applicable for battened struts. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross-sections) .5. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its effective length LE divided by its radius of gyration r about the relevant axis. the compression resistance Pc of a member is given by: Pc = Ag pc (for class 1 plastic.1 Effective Length. 2.2 Slenderness. column members that carry more than 90% of their reduced plastic moment capacity Mr in the presence of axial force is assumed to be incapable of providing directional restraint.24 2.5.1. angle. T-section struts. channel. For continuous columns in multi-storey buildings of simple design.5.1.3 Compression Resistance. Depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plate. LE The effective length LE of a compression member is determined from the segment length L centre-to-centre of restraints or intersections with restraining members in the relevant plane.4. Pc According to Clause 4. depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plane. and back-to-back struts. λ = LE / r 2.

2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area.25 Pc = Aeff pcs (for class 4 slender cross-section) where Aeff is the effective cross-sectional area. . in which λ is based on the radius of gyration r of the gross cross-section. 2.2. 2.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. py is the design steel strength. and pcs is the value of pc from Table 23 and Table 24 for a reduced slenderness of λ(Aeff/Ag)0. the checking of cross-section capacity is as follows: My Fc M + x + ≤1 Ag p y M cx M cy where Fc is the axial compression. for class 1 plastic. pc the compressive strength obtained from Table 23 and Table 24. and Mcy is the moment capacity about minor axis. My is the moment about minor axis.5. Mcx is the moment capacity about major axis. Mx is the moment about major axis. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections.5.5. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area.

the following stability check needs to be satisfied: My F Mx + + ≤ 1 . py the steel design strength.26 2. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only.6.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 The design of steel column according to EC3 is quite similar to the design of steel column according to BS 5950.5.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam. 2.2. Mx the maximum end moment on x-axis. Mb the buckling resistance moment. 2. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Buckling length Slenderness Compression resistance Buckling resistance . and Zy the elastic modulus.2 Member Buckling Resistance In simple construction. Pc the compression resistance of column.0 Pc M bs p y Z y where F is the axial force in column.

λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its buckling length l divided by its radius of gyration i about the relevant axis.3 Compression Resistance.5.Rd = A fy / γM0 (for class 1 plastic.4.1. Nc. Alternatively.6. provided that both ends of a column are effectively held in position laterally. whereas for column resisting self-weight and wind loads only.1. l The buckling length l of a compression member is dependant on the restraint condition at both ends.Rd According to Clause 5.1. 2.5 states that. determined using the properties of the gross cross-section. Clause 5. the value of λ should not exceed 180. the compression resistance Nc.4.2 Slenderness. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact crosssections) . the value of λ should not exceed 250.1. the buckling length l may be conservatively be taken as equal to its system length L.Rd of a member is given by: Nc.27 2. 2. λ=l/i For column resisting loads other than wind loads.6.6. the buckling length l may be determined using informative of Annex E provided in EC3.1 Buckling Length.

Rd 2.Rd = χ βA A fy / γM1 where βA = 1 for Class 1.Rd .1. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.Rd For compression members. 2 or 3 cross-sections. The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nb.28 Nc. and Aeff / A for Class 4 cross-sections.Rd = Aeff fy / γM1 (for class 4 slender cross-section) The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nc. the relevant buckling mode is generally “flexural” buckling.5.1 states that the design buckling resistance of a compression member should be taken as: Nc. For hot rolled steel members with the types of cross-section commonly used for compression members. Clause 5.1.6. Nb.4 Buckling Resistance.

for I and H sections.Sd + N Sd e Nz N Sd + + ≤1 Aeff f yd Weff . Rd M pl .4. for bi-axial bending the following approximate criterion may be used: ⎡ M y . Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject .Sd + N Sd e Ny M z .Sd N Sd M z . Rd for a conservative approximation where.Rd. Rd ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ α β for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections M y . y f yd Weff . Rd M pl . Clause 5. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. z f yd for Class 3 cross-sections M y . y . cross-section capacity depends on the types of cross-section and applied moment. z f yd for Class 4 cross-sections where fyd = fy/γM1. 2.1 states that.2.Sd + + ≤1 N pl .2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force.Sd ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ≤1 ⎢ M Ny . y f yd Wel .Sd ⎤ ⎡ M z .Sd + + ≤1 Af yd Wel .29 2.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. M y . α = 2.Sd N Sd M z .8. Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section when subject to uniform compression.6. z . Rd ⎥ ⎣ M Nz . in which n = Nsd / Npl. β = 5n but β ≥ 1.6.

30 only to moment about the relevant axis; and eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross-section is subject to uniform compression.

However, for high shear (VSd ≥ 0.5 Vpl.Rd), Clause 5.4.9 states that the design resistance of the cross-section to combinations of moment and axial force should be calculated using a reduced yield strength of (1 – ρ)fy for the shear area, where ρ = (2VSd / Vpl.Rd – 1)2.

2.6.2.2 Member Buckling Resistance

A column, subject to buckling moment, may buckle about major axis or minor axis or both. All members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.Sd must satisfy the following condition:

k y M y.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1,0 N b. y . Rd ηM c. y . Rd

where Nb.y.Rd is the design buckling resistance for major axis; Mc.y.Rd is the design moment resistance for major-axis bending, ky is the conservative value and taken as 1,5; and η = γM0 / γM1 for Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-sections, but 1,0 for Class 4.

2.7

Conclusion

This section summarizes the general steps to be taken when designing a structural member in simple construction.

31 2.7.1 Structural Beam

Table 2.1 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.1 : Criteria to be considered in structural beam design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 80ε 100ε 120ε ε = (275 / py)0.5 2.0 Shear Capacity Pv = 0.6pyAv Av = Dt Vpl.Rd = fyAv / (√3 x γM0) γM0 = 1,05 Av from section table 3.0 Moment Capacity Mc = pyS Mc = pyZ Mc = pyZeff Class 1, 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1,05 γM1 = 1,05 4.0 Bearing Capacity Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 72ε 83ε 124ε ε = (235 / fy)0,5 EC3

32

Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw Smaller of Ry.Rd = (ss + sy) tw fyw / γM1 Ra.Rd = 0,5tw2(Efyw)0,5 [(tf/tw)0,5 + 3(tw/tf)(ss/d)]/γM1 Rb.Rd = χβAfyA / γM1 5.0 Shear Buckling Resistance d/t ≤ 70ε Ratio 6.0 Deflection L / 360 Limit (Beam carrying plaster or other brittle finish) N/A Limit (Total deflection) L / 250 L / 350 d/tw ≤ 69ε

2.7.2

Structural Column

Table 2.2 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.2 : Criteria to be considered in structural column design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 80ε / 1 + r1 100ε / 1 + 1.5r1 Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 396ε / (13α – 1) 456ε / (13α – 1) EC3

0 Moment Resistance Mb = pbSx Mb = pbZx Mb = pbZx.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1. Rd ηM c.33ψ) ψ = 2γM0σa / fy – 1 σa = NSd / A α = 0. 2.67 + 0.05 4.eff Class 1.05 γM1 = 1.5 Class 3 Semi-compact 42ε / (0.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Afy / γM0 γM0 = 1.0 Stability Check My F Mx + + ≤ 1 .0 Compression Resistance Pc = Agpc Pc = Aeffpcs Class 1. y .Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1. y . -1 < r1 ≤ 1 r2 = Fc / Agpyw ε = (275 / py) 0.5 2. 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.33 120ε / 1 + 2r2 r1 = Fc / dtpyw. Rd .0 Pc M bs p y Z y k y M y.5(1 + γM0σw / fy) σw = NSd / dtw ε = (235 / fy)0.Rd = Aefffy / γM1 3. 3 Class 4 Nc.05 Nc.0 N b.

Please refer to Figure 3. analyzing the tables provided and the purpose of each clause stated in the code. Checking on several elements. moment capacity. Eventually. an understanding on the cross-section classification for BS 5950 is also carried out. comparison of the results will lead to recognizing the difference in design approach for each code. buckling capacity and deflection is carried out. such as shear capacity. The first step is to study and understand the cross-section classification for steel members as given in EC. Next. bearing capacity. Beams and columns are designed for the maximum moment and shear force obtained from computer software analysis. At the same time. analysis on the difference between the results using two codes is done.1 Introduction As EC3 will eventually replace BS 5950 as the new code of practice.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3. . it is necessary to study and understand the concept of design methods in EC3 and compare the results with the results of BS 5950 design. Analysis. design and comparison works will follow subsequently.1 for the flowchart of the methodology of this study.

35 3. Calculation of bending moment. As the scope of this study is limited at simple construction. only beam shear forces will be transferred to the structural column. Simple construction allows the connection of beam-to-column to be pinned jointed.8 discuss in detail all the specifications and necessary data for the analysis of the multi-storey braced frame. Therefore. the use of advanced structural analysis software is not needed. M and shear force. Please refer to Appendices A1 and A2 for the analysis worksheets created for the purpose of calculating shear force and bending moment values based on the requirements of different safety factors of both codes. V are based on simply-supported condition. Sections 3.2 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The structural analysis of the building frame will be carried out by using Microsoft Excel worksheets. that is M = wL2 / 8 V = wL / 2 where w is the uniform distributed load and L the beam span. Different factors of safety with reference to BS 5950 and EC3 are defined respectively. . End moments are zero.4 to 3.

the method of design using EC3 will be based on the work example drawn by Narayanan et. The Microsoft Excel software is used for its features that allow continual and repeated calculations using values calculated in every cell of the worksheet. al. Microsoft Excel worksheets will show the calculation steps in a clear and fair manner. Furthermore.36 3. Meanwhile. The method of design using BS 5950 will be based on the work example drawn by Heywood (2003). . Several trial and error calculations can be used to cut down on the calculation time needed as well as prevent calculation error.3 Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The design of beam and column is calculated with Microsoft Excel software. (1995). Please refer to Appendices B1 to C2 for the calculation worksheets created for the purpose of the design of structural beam and column of both design codes.

1: Schematic diagram of research methodology . M=wL2/8) Design worksheet development using Microsoft Excel Beams and columns design Fail Checking (Shear. Moment.37 Determine Research Objective and Scope Phase 1 Literature Review Determination of building and frame dimension Specify loadings & other specifications Phase 2 Frame analysis using Microsoft Excel (V=wL/2. Combined) Pass Comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 Phase 3 END Figure 3.

2 and Figure 3. the 4-storey frame consists of four (4) bays. 3rd to roof).1 Structural Layout In order to make comparisons of the design of braced steel frame between BS 5950-1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. whereas for other floors (1st to 2nd. 4th storey is roof while the rest will serve as normal floors. The number of storey of the frame is set at four (4). a parametric study for the design of multi-storey braced frames is carried out. Each of the frame’s longitudinal length is 6m. in total.4 Structural Layout & Specifications 3.2 : Floor plan view of the steel frame building. The storey height will be 5m from ground floor to first floor. The intermediate frame will be used as the one to be analysed and designed. Two (2) lengths of bay width will be used in the analysis – 6m and 9m respectively.3 for the illustrations of building plan view and elevation view respectively. 2nd to 3rd. In plan view. there will be three (3) numbers of 4-storey frames. the storey height will be 4m. 6m 6m 6/9m 6/9m Figure 3.38 3. Please refer to Figure 3. .4.

The main steel frame will consist of solely universal beam (UB) and universal column (UC). All the roof bays will be used for general purposes.4. 3. all the column-to-column connections are to be rigid. As this is a simple construction.3 : Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame.2 Specifications The designed steel frame structure is meant for office for general use. Meanwhile. All the bays will be serving the same function. all the beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pinned. Top flange of beams are effectively restraint against lateral torsional buckling. Web cleats will be used as the connection method to create pinned connection. Meanwhile.39 4m 4m 4m 5m Figure 3. flat roof system will be introduced to cater for some activities on roof top. .

Therefore. all the values of imposed loads of both BS 5950 and EC3 design will be based on BS 6399. 3.2. Weight of concrete is given by 24kN/m3.4kN/m2 and 3. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in 9kN/m and 15kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design.0kN/m2 respectively. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced.2 (Flat roofs) states that. Therefore. This value will be used as this frame model is meant for a general office usage.40 Precast concrete flooring system will be introduced to this project.5kN/m2. Table 8 (Offices occupancy class) states that the intensity of distributed load of offices for general use will be 2. Consequently. Therefore. Meanwhile.5 Loadings Section 2. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. this value will be adopted. . all floors will be of one-way slab. In this design. The type of precast flooring system to be used will be solid precast floor panel. a uniform load intensity of 1. Meanwhile. precast solid floor panel of 100mm thick was selected for flat roof. repair and other general purposes. section 6. the intensity of slab selfweight will be 2. 125mm think floor panel will be used for other floors. For precast floor selfweight. for a flat roof with access available for cleaning.3 of Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) states that the characteristic values of imposed floor load and imposed roof load must be obtained from Part 1 and Part 3 of BS 6399 respectively. Multiplying the thickness of the slabs. each bay will contribute half of the load intensity to the intermediate frame. For imposed roof load.5kN/m2 is appropriate.

Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 4 cross-section. γf should be taken as 1. is given by 1.1. The .0kN/m2 for finishes (superimposed dead load) on all floors will be assumed.1. Combining the superimposed dead load with selfweight. partial safety factors. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in kN/m and 24kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively. the principal combination of loads that should be taken into account will be load combination 1 – Dead load and imposed gravity loads. Meanwhile. in the design of buildings not subject to loads from cranes.05. depending on the interior designer’s intention. finishes and fittings.6 Factor of Safety Section 2. γQ is given by 1. In EC3. the total dead load intensity for roof and floor slabs are 3. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 1. variable actions Q include live loads such as imposed load. 2 or 3 cross-section.5.35.05 as well. permanent actions G include dead loads such as self-weight of structure.4kN/m2 and 4kN/m2 respectively. γF for dead load. and 1. for imposed floor load. γM0. for normal design situations. The factor γM0 is used where the failure mode is plasticity or yielding.4 for dead load.6 for imposed load.41 The finishes on the flat roof will be waterproofing membrane and decorative screed. For other floors.4.2 “Buildings without cranes” of BS 5950 states that. γM1. γG is given by 1. From Table 2. is given by 1. A general load intensity of 1. Partial safety factors for loads. 3. a selection of floor carpets and ceramic tiles will be used. Meanwhile.

the load combination will be 1. For steel grade S 275. in order to justify the effect of design strength of a steel member on the strength of a steel member.42 factor γM1 is used where the failure mode is buckling – including local buckling.8. 3. Meanwhile. py is 275N/mm2 for thickness less than or equal to 16mm and 265N/mm2 for thickness larger but less than or equal to 40mm.1. namely S 275 (or Fe 430 as identified in EC3) and S 355 (or Fe 510 as identified in EC3).8 Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3. fy is 355N/mm2 and 335N/mm2 respectively for the same thickness limits.4 times total dead load plus 1.1 Load Combination This section describes the structural analysis of the steel frame. For steel grade S 355. According to BS 5950. 3.6 times total imposed .7 Categories In this project. for Fe 510.2 “Material properties for hot rolled steel” (C-EC3) limits thickness of flange to less than or equal to 40mm for nominal yield strength fy of 275N/mm2 and larger but less than or equal to 100mm for fy of 255N/mm2. which governs the resistance of a Class 4 (slender) cross-section. 3. py is 355N/mm2 and 345N/mm2 respectively for the same limits of thickness. design strength py is decided by the thickness of the thickest element of the cross-section (for rolled sections). two (2) types of steel grade will be used. in the meantime. In BS 5950.

the w will be 59.1 Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 144 187.35 times total dead load plus 1.76kN/m. the shear.6LL).55 268. the w will be 62. V at end connections is given by V = wl/2. there is a difference of approximately 4. For the roof. According to EC3.7 179.5LL).8.64kN/m.2 will present the accumulating axial loads acting on the structural columns of the steel frame. w. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula.28 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 206.1 below: Table 3. For all other floors. Clearly. The next table. w.9kN/m. This is done by summating the resultant shear .1.92 From Table 4. For simple construction. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors.2 Shear Calculation This steel frame is pinned jointed at all beam-to-column supports.35DL + 1. will be 48kN/m. the resultant load combination. For the roof. the resulting shear values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3. the resultant load combination. BS 5950 results in higher value of shear. 3.5% between the analyses of both codes. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width. will be 45. Table 3.5 times total imposed load (1.43 load (1. For all other floors.88 6m 137. the load combination will be 1.4DL + 1.92 Bay Width 9m 216 281.

216 497. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula.84 707.8.68 1415.3 Moment Calculation For simple construction. since all the beam-to-column connections are pinned jointed.52 2123.76 1559.98 496.92 519.78 2026. structural beam moment.52 1351. 137.62 Ext.76 1061.26 675.84 1039.76 9m Ext.3: .44 force from beam of each floor.Ground 288 663.47 744. Roof – 3rd 3rd – 2nd 2nd – 1st 1st .39 1013. 144 331. 432 995. = External column The accumulating axial loads based on the two codes vary approximately 4. = Internal column Ext.31 Int.64 6m Ext.88 779. M. similar with the beam shear. 413.52 EC 3 9m 6m Ext.96 992. can be calculated by using the formula M=wl2/8. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width.54 Int.4 633.55 475.28 Int.2 Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) BS 5950 Floor Int. Table 3.7 316.1 950.5%. the resulting moment values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3. 3. Internal columns will sustain axial load two times higher than external columns of same floor level as they are connected to two beams. 275.94 1488.08 Int. 206.

since this is simple construction. D or h is the depth of column section (m). there will be a moment due to eccentricity of the resultant shear from the beams.92 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 464. BS 5950 results in higher value of moment.3.55 268. e is the eccentricity of resultant shear from the face of column (m). This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors. Clearly.88 Bay Width 9m 486 634.23 6m 206. the depth (D for BS 5950 and h for EC 3) of a structural column is assumed to be 400mm. .4% to 4.6% between the analyses of both codes. the eccentricity moment. However. Regardless of the width of the bay.74 605.07 From Table 3. Subsequently. the higher the load combination of a floor. the eccentricity of the resultant shear from the face of the structural column will be 100mm. the higher the difference percentage will be. the depth of the column has not been decided yet.45 Table 3. there will be no end moments being transferred from the structural beams. Therefore. Me. there is a difference of approximately 4.3 Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 216 281. can be determined from the following formula: Me = V (e + D/2) = V (e + h/2) where V is resultant shear of structural beam (kN). in this case. In this project. initially. For the moments of the structural columns. Since this is only preliminary analysis as well.

V can be expressed as V = (1. Next.4 94.46 V for external column can be easily obtained from shear calculation. Table 3.08 EC 3 9m 6m Ext. V can be expressed as V = (1. 3. For EC 3. 30.0DL.66 57.66 53. 30. Table 3. 20.6 Int.56 6m Ext.84 Ext.98 80. For BS 5950.38 9m Ext.4DL + 1. for internal column. 20. .6 56.78 Int.88 Int. 32. The moments for floor columns will be evenly distributed as the ratio of EI1/L1 and EI2/L2 is less than 1.5.4 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) BS 5950 Floor Int.4 below summarizes the moment values due to eccentricity. 32.9 Structural Beam Design Structural beam design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. 21. In simple construction. However.6LL) – 1. Roof Other Floors 21.4 84. serviceability check in the form of deflection check will need to be done.0DL. two major checks that need to be done is shear and moment resistance at ultimate limit state.98 86. V should be obtained by deducting the factored combination of floor dead (DL) and imposed load (LL) with unfactored floor dead load.35DL + 1.68 These values of eccentricity moments will be useful for the estimation of initial size of a column member during structural design in later stage.6 63.5LL) – 1.

1 BS 5950 In simple construction.9. Depth between fillets. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Elastic modulus. ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) . first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). t = 8. T = 13. Zx = 1120cm3.47 The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the floor beam of length 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430). Web thickness. 3.92kN and 281. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. Plastic modulus. Depth.3mm.6mm. From the section table. Sx = 1290cm3. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. Width. b/T = 6. D = 454. Sx = M / py = 281.88 x 103 / 275 = 1025cm3 From the rearranged table.9mm.3.88kNm. d = 407. moment capacity and web bearing capacity. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 187. d/t = 50.6mm. B = 152.8kg/m. UB section 457x152x60 is chosen. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 59.1mm. From the section table for universal beam. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling.99. shear capacity. Flange thickness.

54kN > Fv Therefore. Actual d/t did not exceed 80.6Pv = 0. it is low shear.6 x 275 x 3682.0.5 is checked. the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε = 80. where neutral axis is at mid-depth. shear buckling resistance should be checked.6pyAv. Shear capacity. flange is Class 1 plastic section.26mm2 Pv = 0. shear buckling needs not be checked. Since both flange and web are plastic.57kN > Fv = 187.0 Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section.4.4. shear capacity is adequate.2. Therefore. Actual b/T = 5. Mc = 275 x 1290 x 10-3 .5 “Moment capacity. For web of I-section. this section is Class 1 plastic section. therefore.57 = 364.6 = 3682. actual d/t = 50. Mc” is checked.48 = 1. which is smaller than 9ε = 9. Pv = 0. After clause 4.92kN Therefore.3 “Shear capacity” is checked.0. Therefore. Next. 0.2. section 4. For class 1 plastic cross-section.6 x 607.75. web is Class 1 plastic section.3.0. Next. Since actually d/t < 70.0 in this design. section 4.26 x 10-3 = 607. Mc = pySx. Av = 8. Meanwhile. where Av = tD for a rolled I-section.5 states that if the d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for a rolled section.1 x 454. clause 4.

OK. section 4.5mm At support. M = 281.2pyZx = 1.2 “Bearing capacity of web” is checked. therefore. n = 2 + 0. If Fv exceeds Pbw.5. bearing stiffener should be provided.75kNm To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads.02 x 8. Mc should be limited to 1.2 = 23.49 = 354.2pyZx.3 + 10.6be/k. Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw r = 10.2 x 275 x 1120 x 10-3 = 369.6 x 10.2 + 2 x 13.02mm Pbw = 98. moment capacity is adequate. n = 2 b1 + nk = 98. bearing capacity of web.34kN > Fv = 187.3 = 51. 1.1 + 1. To prevent crushing of the web due to forces applied through a flange.75kNm Therefore.92kN .1 x 275 x 10-3 = 218.2mm b1 = t + 1.02mm k=T+r = 13.6kNm > Mc.88kNm from analysis < Mc = 354.6r + 2T (Figure 13) = 8. be = 0.

50 Therefore. However.0m E = 205kN/mm2 I = 25500cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value. L = 6. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length. the bearing capacity at support is adequate. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check.5) should be conducted.67mm >δ Therefore. In this case. δ. Therefore. the deflection is satisfactory. the vertical deflection limit should be L/360. Generally. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done. The section is adequate. .84mm Table 8 (Suggested limits for calculated deflections) suggests that for “beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish). δlim = 6000 / 360 = 16. only unfactored imposed load shall be used to calculate the deflection. the serviceability limit state check (Section 2. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4. This is done in the form of deflection check. w = 15kN/m for floors.

the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 54kg/m. Shear area. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. crippling and buckling.6mm. moment capacity.y = M / py = 268. UB section 406x178x54 is chosen.y (cm3). d = 360. Width. tf = 10. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Wpl.6mm. Depth between fillets.28kN and 268.9cm2.92 x 103 / 275 = 977. 3.y = 1051cm3. Therefore. Flange thickness. Area of . From the section table for universal beam. Web thickness.9cm3 From the rearranged table. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. Av = 32.9.9mm. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. shear capacity.2 EC 3 In simple construction. From the section table. b = 177. Elastic modulus. Plastic modulus. tw = 7. resistance of web to crushing. lateral torsional buckling.51 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl.92kNm. it is adequate to be used. Wpl. h = 402.4mm. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 179.6mm. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. Wel.y = 927cm3. Depth.

48kN > 179. for “outstand element of compression flange.4 ≤ 66. section classification is a must. For “web subject to bending.9 x 100 x 275) / (√3 x 1. Therefore. VSd from analysis at each cross-section should not exceed the design plastic shear resistance Vpl.05 Vpl.5.Rd = 0. UB section 406x178x54 is Class 1 section.05) = 497.1. These values must be adopted as characteristic values in calculations. Flange is Class 1 element. section 5.49kN > VSd = 179. Second moment of area. c/tf = 8. Actual d/tw = 47. limiting c/tf ratio (c is half of b) is 9. tf ≤ 40mm.4. d/tw = 47.36cm.6 for Class 1 elements. Next. iLT = 4.6(a).15 ≤ 9. aLT = 131cm.48 = 298.2.15. The design value of shear force.2 for Class 1 elements. that is Vpl. limiting d/tw ratio is 66. From Table 5. A = 68. Actual c/tf = 8.28kN Therefore.28kN γM0 = 1. For S275 (Fe 430). VSd = 179.1 “Shear resistance of cross-section” of beam is checked. fu = 430N/mm2.28kN . Before checks are done for ultimate limit states.5Vpl. yield strength. Based on Table 3.5 x 497.9mm. Web is Class 1 element. 0.Rd.6. tf = 10.6cm2. Iy = 18670cm4.52 section. shear resistance is sufficient. flange subject to compression only”.Rd = (32.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0. fy = 275N/mm2 and ultimate tensile strength. neutral axis at mid depth”.

Ed/fyf)2]0.Rd = Wpl. low shear. Therefore. not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling.5 .8 and 56.Rd.Rd = 1051 x 275 x 10-3 / 1. Ry. For crushing resistance.8.6 “Shear buckling” requires that webs must have transverse stiffeners at the supports if d/tw is greater than 63.53 Therefore.5. The beam is fully restrained.6 “Resistance of webs to transverse forces” requires transverse stiffeners to be provided in any case that the design value VSd applied through a flange to a web exceeds the smallest of the following – Crushing resistance.4 < 63.Rd = (ss + sy) twfyw / γM1 where at support. For low shear. Section 5.05 = 275. shear buckling check is not required. sy = tf(bf/tw)0. Section 5. Ry. Rb. the moment capacity is sufficient.Rd.2 “Moment resistance of cross-section with low shear” the design value of moment MSd must not exceed the design moment resistance of the cross-section Mc.1 for steel grade Fe 430 and Fe 510 respectively. Ra.92kNm Mc. Therefore. section 5.5. crippling resistance.Rd and buckling resistance.5[fyf/fyw]0.26kNm > MSd Therefore.5 [1 – (γM0 σf. section 5. Actual d/tw = 47.5 “Lateral-torsional buckling” needs not be checked. MSd = 268.y fy / γM0 for Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section.5.

6)0. bending moment is zero. γM0 = 1. ss = 50mm at support.5 [402.62 + 502]0.6)0.4 = 0.8mm beff should be less than [h2 + ss2]0.5 [(tf/tw)0.14)] / 1.8 x 7.6 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.5 + 3(tw/tf) (ss/d)] / γM1 ss/d = 50 / 360.62 (210000 x 275)0. Rb. Ra.9/7. σf.Rd = βA fc A / γM1 A = beff x tw beff = 0. OK.2. sy = 10.5 x 7.5 = 52.28mm2 .69) x 7.5tw2 (Efyw)0.6/10.5 = 405.7mm.05 = 204.5 + 0 + 50/2 = 227.9)(0.Rd = 0.9 (177.6 = 1731.05 E = 210kN/mm2 Ra. A = 227.Rd = (50 + 52.05 = 307.54 At support.14 ≤ 0.4kN For crippling resistance.6 / 7.69mm Ry.5 + 3(7.Ed = 0.5[h2 + ss2]0.Rd = 0. fyf = 275N/mm2. OK γM1 = 1.05.8kN For buckling resistance.5 [(10.5 + a + ss/2 = 0.

the serviceability limit state check (Section 4.05 = 197.8N/mm2 Rb. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value.5 d/t = 2. Therefore.28kN.4kN Minimum of the 3 values are 197.2) should be conducted.Rd = 1 x 119.05 For ends restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement (Table 5. the web of the section can resist transverse forces.6 λ√βA = 118.8kN Ry. which is larger than VSd = 179. fc = 121N/mm2 λ√βA = 120. From Figure 4.8 x 1731. curve (a) is used.55 βA = 1 γM1 = 1.1.4 / 7.6 = 118.28 x 10-3 / 1. Generally. buckling about y-y axis.13 (rolled I-section).29). (Permanent load) .6kN/m for floors. This is done in the form of deflection check. fc = 117N/mm2 By interpolation.6 From Table 5. δmax = δ1 + δ2 – δ0 (hogging δ0 = 0 at unloaded state) w1 = 27.5kN Ra. λ√βA = 118.Rd = 307.Rd = 204.5kN. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done. OK. λ = 2.5 x 360. deflection should take into account deflection due to both permanent loads and imposed loads. fc = 119.

max = 6000 / 250 = 24mm > δ1 + δ2 = 18. In this case.46mm Table 4. δlim.56 w2 = 15kN/m for floors. δ. the vertical deflection limit should be L/350 for δ2 and L/250 for δmax.0m E = 210kN/mm2 Iy = 18670cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI δ1 = 5 x 27. the deflection is satisfactory.88mm δ2 = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 6.14mm > δ2 δlim. The section is adequate.6 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 11. However. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check.1 (Recommended limiting values for vertical deflections) suggests that for “floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-flexible partitions”. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length.34mm Therefore. (Imposed load) L = 6. 2 = 6000 / 350 = 17. .

57 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. Therefore, it is adequate to be used.

3.10

Structural Column Design

Structural column design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. In simple construction, apart from section classification, two major checks that need to be done is compression and combined axial and bending at ultimate limit state.

The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the internal column “ground floor to 1st floor” (length 5m) of the steel frame with bay width 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).

3.10.1 BS 5950

In simple construction, apart from section classification, necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be compression resistance and combined axial force and moment. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1415.52kN and 63.08kNm respectively.

From the section table for universal column, the sections are rearranged in ascending form, first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.

Sx = M / py

58 = 63.08 x 103 / 275 = 229.4cm3

From the rearranged table, UC section 203x203x60 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.

From the section table, the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 60kg/m; Depth, D = 209.6mm; Width, B = 205.2mm; Web thickness, t = 9.3mm; Flange thickness, T = 14.2mm; Depth between fillets, d = 160.8mm; Plastic modulus, Sx = 652cm3; Elastic modulus, Zx = 581.1cm3; Radius of gyration, rx = 8.96cm, ry = 5.19cm; Gross area, Ag = 75.8cm2; b/T = 7.23 (b = 0.5B); d/t = 17.3.

T < 16mm, therefore, py = 275N/mm2 ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) = 1.0

Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950. Actual b/T = 7.23, which is smaller than 9ε = 9.0. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section (Outstand element of compression flange). Therefore, flange is Class 1 plastic section. Meanwhile, actual d/t = 17.3. For web of I-section under axial compression and bending, the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε / 1 + r1, where r1 is given by r1 = Fc / dtpy. r1 = 1415.52 x 103 / 160.8 x 9.3 x 275 = 3.44 but -1 < r1 ≤ 1, therefore, r1 = 1 Limiting d/t value = 80 x 1 / 1 + 1 = 40

59 > Actual d/t = 17.3 Therefore, the web is Class 1 plastic section. Since both flange and web are plastic, this section is Class 1 plastic section.

Next, based on section 4.7.2 “Slenderness” and section 4.7.3 “Effective lengths”, and from Table 22 (Restrained in direction at one end), the effective length, LE = 0.85L = 0.85 x 5000 = 4250mm. λx = LEx / rx = 4250 / 8.96 x 10 = 47.4

Next, based on section 4.7.4 “Compression resistance”, for class 1 plastic section, compression resistance, Pc = Agpc. pc is the compressive strength determined from Table 24. For buckling about x-x axis, T < 40mm, strut curve (b) is used. λx = 46, pc = 242N/mm2 λx = 48, pc = 239N/mm2 From interpolation, λx = 47.4, pc = 239.9N/mm2 Pc = Agpc = 75.8 x 100 x 239.9 x 10-3 = 1818.44kN > Fc = 1415.52kN Therefore, compressive resistance is adequate.

60 Next. R.5. is assumed to be acting 100mm from the face of the column. Mi = 63.17 From Table 16 (Bending strength pb for rolled sections). the beam reaction. when only nominal moments are applied.19 x 10 = 48.7 “Columns in simple structures”. The moment is distributed between the column lengths above and below 1st floor. From frame analysis. For EI / L1st-2nd : EI / Lground-1st < 1.5 x 5000 / 5.54kNm.78 x 652 x 10-3 = 170. My / pyZy = 0 Equivalent slenderness λLT of column is given by λLT = 0. λLT = 48. the moment will be equally divided. Therefore. the column should satisfy the relationship (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) + (My / pyZy) ≤ 1 My = 0. Section 4.08kNm. for columns in simple construction. pb = 260. λLT = 45. pb = 233N/mm2 From interpolation.5L / ry = 0.78N/mm2 Mb = pbSx = 260.03kNm . therefore.17. M = 31.7. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length. pb = 250N/mm2 λLT = 50.

03 = 0. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl.5cm3 From the rearranged table. This section satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check. 3. it is adequate to be used.88 x 103 / 275 = 210. The moment will then be divided by the design strength fy to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. apart from section classification.10. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be cross-section resistance (in the form of moment resistance) and in-plane failure about major axis (which is a combination of axial force and eccentricity moment).y (cm3). Therefore. UC section 254x254x73 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.0 Therefore.88kNm respectively. . The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Wpl.44 + 31. the combined resistance against axial force and eccentricity moment is adequate.54 / 170.y = MSd / fy = 57.96 < 1.2 EC 3 In simple construction. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.52 / 1818.08kN and 57.61 (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) = 1415. From the section table for universal column. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1351.

Wpl.6(a) of C-EC3 for Class 1 elements. Flange thickness. Depth.9cm2.5. b = 254mm. therefore. flange is Class 1 element. iz = 6.1cm.94.2mm < 40mm. From Table 5. A = 92.2 and 10. Elastic modulus. Actual c/tf = 8. the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 73kg/m. Beforehand. the web is Class 1. from. tw = 8.2mm. Web thickness. Area of section. tf = 14. For web subject to bending and compression.5cm.2. Radius of gyration. with d/tw = 23. For symmetric I-section of Class 1 or 2.2 respectively.y = 895cm3. Actual c/tf = 8.94 (c = 0. c/tf = 8.86cm. Since both flange and web are plastic.2 x 8.6mm.46cm. Therefore. for outstand element of compression flange (flange subject to compression only). From this table.08 x 103 / 200. section 5. the limiting values of c/tf for Class 1 and 2 are 9.6cm2. the classification depends on the mean web stress. Depth between fillets. iy = 11.8 gives the limiting values of stress σw for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections. Next. Width.1.94 < 9. aLT = 98. iLT = 6. . section 5.73N/mm2 Table 5. tf = 14. h = 254mm.3. fu = 430N/mm2 Sectional classification is based on Table 5. this section is Class 1 section. fy = 275N/mm2.y = 990cm3. Shear area.8. Av = 25.3. σw = NSd / dtw = 1351.2mm. Wel. Second moment of area. Plastic modulus.6 = 784. σw.62 From the section table.6 “Axially loaded members with moments” will be checked.5b). d/tw = 23. d = 200. Iy = 11370cm4.

Rd n ≥ 0.Rd = A fy / γM0 = 92.58kN 0.Rd is such that n < 0.1 = 0.1 : MNy.Rd (1 – n) Npl. n = NSd / Npl. MN.Rd = 1.3 x (1 – 0.11 x 259.y fy / γM0 = 990 x 10-3 x 275 / 1.9 x 102 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.63 Vpl.05) = 387.Rd = Wpl.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0 = (25.Rd Reduced design plastic moment.y.1kN Maximum applied shear load (at top of column) is Vmax.1 Therefore. MNy.Sd / L = 57.Rd > Vmax.27. allowing for axial force.1 : MNy.y.Rd = 1.Sd = My.05 = 259.Rd = Mpl.11 Mpl.y.11 Mpl.1kN n = 1351.555 ≥ 0.Sd Therefore.5Vpl.08 / 2433.05 = 2433. From Table 5. the section is subject to a low shear.555) .y.Rd (1 – n) Mpl.88 x 103 / 5000 = 11.6 x 102 x 275) x 10-3 / (√3 x 1.Rd = 1.3kNm MNy.

for buckling about y-y axis.Rd) + (kyMy. Lastly.y.Rd) ≤ 1.85L = 0. fc = 248N/mm2 From interpolation.3 Based on Table 5. fc = 250N/mm2 λy√βA = 40.3.94kNm Therefore.1kNm > MSd = 28.3.85 x 5000 = 4250mm Slenderness ratio λy = Ly / iy = 4250 / 11. the moment resistance is sufficient. section 5.0 Ly = 0.1 x 10 = 38. λy√βA = 38.7N/mm2 .2 “Axial compression and major axis bending” states that all members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.64 = 128. βA = 1 λy√βA = 38.y.Sd must satisfy the expression (NSd / Nb.13 “Selection of buckling curve for fc”.3 tf ≤ 40mm λy√βA = 38.6.Sd / ηMc. fc = 249. buckling curve (b) is used.

y. This section 254x254x73 UC satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check. the resistance against in-plane failure against major axis is sufficient.94 / 1 x 128. Therefore. γM1 = 1.Rd) = (1351.7 x 92.3) + (1.5 x 28.08 / 2209.Rd) + (kyMy.y.3kN ky = interaction factor about yy axis = 1.5 (Conservative value) η = γM0 / γM1 =1 (NSd / Nb.95 < 1.65 Nb.0 Therefore.1) = 0.Sd / ηMc. it is adequate to be used. .y.Rd = βA fc A / γM1.9 x 102 x 10-3 / 1.05 = 2209.05 = 1 x 249.

2 for moment capacity. The results are arranged accordingly.1. . The results are shown in Table 4. Shear capacity and moment capacity of each section are being calculated separately. namely structural capacity.1 Structural Beam UB sections ranging from 305x102x25 to 533x210x122 are being tabulated in ascending form.CHAPTER IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The results of the structural design of the braced steel frame (beam and column) are tabulated and compiled in the next sections. and weight of steel.1 for shear capacity and Table 5. Here. based on steel grade S275 and S355. 4. 4. structural capacity is sub-divided into beam and column. The results based on BS 5950 and EC3 calculation are compiled together to show the difference between each other. deflection.1 Structural Capacity Structural capacity deals with shear and moment resistance of a particular section chosen.

81 528.78 456.58 34.95 404.02 698.38 1.55 583.4 0.28 303.47 831.28 554.69 4.74 393.91 -19.45 623.5 1102.11 -2 2.65 635.33 409.41 925.74 0.23 -9.4 -0. BS 5950 (kN) 376.65 0.63 12.99 660.06 1.32 860.57 -2.91 1011.39 462.16 551.15 343.27 845.73 -2.13 705.24 3.79 2.7 -0.6 405.94 2.21 -24.15 507.34 44.46 -3.14 784.26 2.74 2.09 -2.88 876.51 -4.55 1.85 854.65 0.74 -0.1 Shear capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 291.87 -0.7 9.55 1.59 460.03 4.83 0.35 431.8 800.5 529.99 589.79 2.55 522.18 358.4 0.58 753.36 11.85 767.09 16.81 -2.65 724.99 15.53 943.47 545.21 667.35 730.72 -12.47 596.58 308.37 399.83 0.73 -3.14 .61 340.46 478.1 -2.15 3.81 -3.48 759.56 S275 Difference (kN) 7.21 441.61 345.86 619.93 334.56 878.44 2.31 2.98 305.6 10.02 6.13 1091.27 819.7 1.88 -18.2 1102.17 8.62 515.7 -0.57 13.77 -3.27 0.51 1.27 0.27 14.57 680.19 1.81 1024.07 942.56 -5.19 1.25 382.28 8.18 8.34 523.79 12.97 392.21 15.48 517.56 400.52 439.78 -20.86 1204.68 6.81 -3.35 793.89 678.2 777.02 496.77 6.14 583.06 EC 3 (kN) 284.13 19.09 773.38 811.29 5.32 EC 3 (kN) 366.79 398.47 341.33 862.66 704.66 497.33 577.19 4.35 -1.95 2.98 1134.67 Table 4.64 0.93 1.08 2.38 542.78 -25.66 5.65 846.27 13.5 461.5 1.6 1.85 405.39 1.81 523.42 820.78 541.02 12.37 609.1 493.16 1057.94 559.67 644.26 888.96 666.93 11.71 429.05 607.75 437.84 300.56 3.32 783.5 642.66 24.86 -0.04 % Diff.11 1218.6 1.38 20.62 1.39 511.5 S355 Difference (kN) 9.93 1.77 728.64 0.37 338.55 617.78 942.53 356.74 594. 2.52 443.69 -1.85 517.32 877.82 2.64 5.14 18.26 -8.2 -2.3 14.09 -2.09 1012.83 938.79 11.51 18.65 420.15 -16.44 471.38 1.5 -0.94 2.06 1.19 387.32 10.46 2.22 2.82 2.93 11.15 3.68 1007.55 3.45 -1.79 2.5 1.75 -13.84 727.31 446.92 588.29 452.78 15.55 712.72 % Diff.74 2.21 668.56 15.92 2.2 447.4 -10.24 0.99 918.96 6.51 384.11 -1.53 564.6 14.87 433.16 4.92 394.5 1.77 1146.3 683.5 -0.

meanwhile.76 191.56 S355 Difference (kNm) 7.23 168.81 5.43 3.83 132.29 S275 Difference (kNm) 6.06 % Diff.91 % Diff.57% to 4.97 EC 3 (kNm) 113. these facts explain the reason why shear capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.35 217.77 4.58 -9.07 . varies with Av = Dt as suggested by BS 5950.05 3.97 6.62 182.85 EC 3 (kNm) 88 106.86 125.55.68 533x210x109 533x210x122 995.59 5.8 8. 1 / (γM0 x √3) ≈ 0.43 -1. the difference percentage ranges from -3.06 1115. BS 5950 (kNm) 121.13 8. This value.21 -1.28 148.03 1440.69% to 4.06%.59 5.13 -0.57 206.3 6.94 -12.94 162.05 110.57 -4.64 The difference is based on deduction of shear capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.6 py Av Av = Dt Vpl. Most of the values given are lesser than Dt value. however.45 1431.2 Moment capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 94.05 1099.43 3. For steel grade S275.41 143.44 1300.76 4.14 8.98 141.58 4. Table 4. 6. For steel grade S355.3% less than 0. The shear capacity of a structural beam is given by Pv = 0. There are a few explanations to the variations. Therefore.Rd = (Av x fy) / (γM0 x √3) … (EC3) … (BS 5950) Av is obtained from section table.6 137.35 -0. the difference percentage ranges from -2.6 as suggested by BS 5950.01 -16.78 11.07 170. Also.06%. Negative value indicates that the shear capacity calculated from EC3 is higher than that from BS 5950. which is approximately 8.07 6.43 160.49 1295.59 4.51 1007.

69 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 195.4 277.96 21.99 4.9 619.32 10.46 5.93 740.27 1.02 315.98 24.25 5.2 291.05 0.45 18.45 521.57 355.03%. Positive value indicates that the moment capacity calculated from EC3 is lower than that from BS 5950.05 336.55 4.44 4.43 4.25 453.66 2.61 4.67 685.08 510. For steel grade S355.95 385.13 246.16 5.01 4.1 5.31 19.14 410.65 590.75 300.53 171.24 1.05 11.4 838.95 24.95 566.47 955.33 198 232.55 433. the difference percentage ranges from 0.95 275.1 539 619.3 4.95 532.8 1082.08 252.02 377.79 141.75 631.41 19.17 27.85 5.98 352.55 4.78 487.68 12 13.17 7.29 2.26 312.37 16.83 275.44 14.3 426 479.83 1.5 14.11 242.89 1.91 The difference is based on deduction of moment capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.75 332.24 1.9 163.73 21.01 4.11 5.8 799.22 13.68 560.21 287.81 529.92 13.85 585.5 654.32 0.35 624.6 341.63 4.57 5.4 264.2 24.83 4.26 317.93 885.38 8.86 4.55 429.29 1.1 285.41 5.62 7.49 5.85 11.5 44.45 234.66 5.6 300.71 9.55 257.72 9.43%.5 354.45 769.02 18.69 188.58 5.5 479.86 4.65 149.01 182.48 17.34 404.29 15.77 233.42 5.52 11.73 19. .36 2.11 261.08 5.43 4.85 5.05 585.08 358.33 181.1 5.5 34.84 13.19 370.04 1.02 455. the difference percentage ranges from 1.95 479.1 220.75 431.24 17.28 5.78 15.52 395.88 10.12 5.9 11.16 9.65 404.5 15.5 390.28 5.51 1.1 244.95 514. For steel grade S275.41 221.9 900.35 731.97 14.57 5.5 457.33 192.49 5.28 15.13 318.32 1.87 4.44 12.85 27.7 18.63 4.35 302.14 3.3 695.6 5.7 211.96 10.75 199.25 497.5 330 371.95 848 184.65 244.55 9.48 5.25 397.17 171.17 24.05 232.53 549.75 398.53 5.31 4.24 376.06 0. meanwhile.29 202.35 693.67 425.52 434.53 1.33 471.25 517.17 255.41% to 6.75 562.33 221.08 6.27 14.63 7.11 5.5 5.45 976.95 189.58% to 6.5 691.83 5.05 35.1 1.07 609.67 20.16 5.35 1104 238.68 0.49 15.39 682.65 5.65 749.98 20.3 844.23 213.94 10.55 21.53 5.75 484.73 2.86 8.06 11.5 302.95 755.87 4.

. sectional classification tables – Table 11 and Table 5. plastic modulus based on BS 5950 (Sx) and EC3 (Wpl. A study is conducted to determine independently compression and bending moment capacity of structural column with actual length of 5m.1 of BS 5950 and EC3 respectively. This is approximately 5% less than 1.4 shows the result and percentage difference of moment resistance. Therefore.85%. Meanwhile.y) are 1060cm3 and 1051cm3 respectively.3 shows the result and percentage difference of compression resistance while Table 4. these facts explain the reason why moment capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.Rd = Wpl.0 as suggested by BS 5950. EC3 provides better guidelines to classify a section web. for a UB section 406x178x54. Besides that. BS 5950 only provides a clearer guideline to the classification of Class 3 semi-compact section. 4. 1 / γM0 ≈ 0.1. there are some variations between plastic modulus specified by BS 5950 section table and EC3 section table. There is a variation of approximately 0. whether it is Class 1. The moment capacity of a structural beam is given by Mc = py Sx Mc.70 There are a few explanations to the variations. Class 2 or Class 3 element. For example.95. For a column web subject to bending and compression. Table 4. are revised.y fy / γM0 … (BS 5950) … (EC3) From EC3 equation.2 Structural Column In determining the structural capacity of a column.3.

**71 Table 4.3 Compression resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 1027.63 1403.56 1588.95 1818.44 2199.15 2667.72 2341.45 2878.73 3454.34 4291.41 5419.6 3205.31 3901.39 4553.57 5256.95 6612.78 8028.11 9489.33 EC 3 (kN) 956.1 1323.8 1500 1721.2 2067.3 2508.5 2209.3 2715.9 3269.7 4057.6 5117.3 3025.8 3695.7 4292 4965.7 6242.4 7572.7 8958.9 S275 Difference (kN) 71.53 79.76 88.95 97.24 131.85 159.22 132.15 162.83 184.64 233.81 302.3 179.51 205.69 261.57 291.25 370.38 455.41 530.43 S355 Difference (kN) 117.66 142.41 158.24 170.26 213.57 255.76 209.85 256.99 295.49 375.39 486.02 271.11 310.04 385.76 426.68 530.78 641.15 735.89

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kN) 1259.66 1773.41 2007.94 2298.26 2780.37 3373.46 2982.65 3668.29 4402.89 5474.39 6918.72 4097.01 4987.14 5821.16 6720.88 8455.58 10267.55 12138.99

EC 3 (kN) 1142 1631 1849.7 2128 2566.8 3117.7 2772.8 3411.3 4107.4 5099 6432.7

% Diff.

6.96 5.68 5.6 5.35 6 5.97 5.64 5.66 5.35 5.45 5.58 5.6 5.27 5.74 5.54 5.6 5.67 5.59

9.34 8.03 7.88 7.41 7.68 7.58 7.04 7.01 6.71 6.86 7.02 6.62 6.22 6.63 6.35 6.28 6.24 6.06

3825.9 4677.1 5435.4 6294.2 7924.8 9626.4 11403.1

**Table 4.4 Moment resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 69.47 129.03 146.73 167.96 205.13 249.38 277.94 344.27 413.51 EC 3 (kNm) 80.9 130.2 148.5 171.3 209.8 256.4 259.3 320.8 388.7 S275 Difference (kNm) -11.43 -1.17 -1.77 -3.34 -4.67 -7.02 18.64 23.47 24.81 S355 Difference (kNm) -30.81 -7.67 -9.49 -12.6 -16.45 -21.92 14.12 17.68 16.48

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kNm) 73.69 160.33 182.21 208.5 254.35 309.08 348.82 431.88 518.18

EC 3 (kNm) 104.5 168 191.7 221.1 270.8 331 334.7 414.2 501.7

% Diff.

-16.45 -0.91 -1.21 -1.99 -2.28 -2.81 6.71 6.82 6

-41.81 -4.78 -5.21 -6.04 -6.47 -7.09 4.05 4.09 3.18

72

254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 521.91 669.51 438.6 538.83 633.77 738.82 946.51 1168.56 1403.39 490.3 633.3 416.2 511.2 600.5 700.6 900.4 1111.3 1287.4 31.61 36.21 22.4 27.63 33.27 38.22 46.11 57.26 115.99 6.06 5.41 5.11 5.13 5.25 5.17 4.87 4.9 8.26 653.96 838.26 575.44 705.68 828.47 964.08 1231.05 1515.42 1815.14 632.9 817.5 537.2 660 775.3 904.4 1162.4 1434.5 1676 21.06 20.76 38.24 45.68 53.17 59.68 68.65 80.92 139.14 3.22 2.48 6.65 6.47 6.42 6.19 5.58 5.34 7.67

Shear capacity designed by BS 5950 is overall higher than EC3 design by the range of 5.27 – 6.96% and 6.22 – 9.34% for steel grade S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) respectively. This is mainly due to the partial safety factor γM1 of 1,05 imposed by EC3 in the design. Also, the compression strength fc determined from Table 5.14(a) of EC3 is less than the compression strength pc determined from Table 24 of BS 5950.

Meanwhile, as the size of section increases, the difference percentage changes from -16.45% to 8.26% for S275 (Fe 460) and -41.81% to 7.67% for S355 (Fe 510). This means that smaller sizes designed by EC3 have higher moment capacity than BS 5950 design. From the moment capacity formula of BS 5950,

Mb = pbSx

pb depends on equivalent slenderness λLT, which is also dependant on the member length. The bigger the member size, the higher the radius of gyration, ry is. Therefore, pb increases with the increase in member size.

However, moment capacity based on EC3 design,

Mpl.y.Rd = Wpl.y fy / γM0

73 The moment capacity is not dependant on equivalent slenderness. Therefore, when member sizes increase, eventually, the moment capacity based on EC3 is overtaken by BS 5950 design.

4.2

Deflection

Table 4.5 shows the deflection values due to floor imposed load. In BS 5950, this is symbolized as δ while for EC3, this is symbolized as δ2.

**Table 4.5 Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load
**

UB SECTION BS 5950 (δ, mm) 27.56 22.99 19 17.22 15.06 12.89 14.53 12.47 10.55 14.97 12.11 10.2 8.76 7.72 6.33 9.88 7.86 6.6 5.72 5.08 4.52 L = 6.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 27.62 22.16 18.54 16.83 14.77 12.68 14.1 12.13 10.31 14.71 11.93 9.98 8.51 7.51 6.17 9.71 7.69 6.46 5.6 4.95 4.39 Difference (mm) -0.06 0.83 0.46 0.39 0.29 0.21 0.43 0.34 0.24 0.26 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.13 % Diff. -0.22 3.61 2.42 2.26 1.93 1.63 2.96 2.73 2.27 1.74 1.49 2.16 2.85 2.72 2.53 1.72 2.16 2.12 2.1 2.56 2.88 BS 5950 (δ, mm) 139.53 116.41 96.17 87.18 76.23 65.25 73.54 63.14 53.43 75.77 61.28 51.66 44.33 39.07 32.06 50.01 39.81 33.43 28.94 25.72 22.9 L = 9.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 139.83 112.19 93.86 85.2 74.79 64.19 71.36 61.42 52.2 74.49 60.42 50.51 43.09 38 31.23 49.17 38.94 32.68 28.33 25.08 22.25 Difference (mm) -0.3 4.22 2.31 1.98 1.44 1.06 2.18 1.72 1.23 1.28 0.86 1.15 1.24 1.07 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.75 0.61 0.64 0.65 % Diff. -0.22 3.63 2.4 2.27 1.89 1.62 2.96 2.72 2.3 1.69 1.4 2.23 2.8 2.74 2.59 1.68 2.19 2.24 2.11 2.49 2.84

305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74

03 9. Meanwhile.54 2. Meanwhile.49 2.07 1.55 23.07 0.98 21.58 0.25 16.74 4.1 0.22% to 3.27 3.45 14.56 2. For example.46 2.85 1.35 0.96 1.63 19.18 1.21 3.29 0.61%.06 0.16 1.7 2.61 3.77 2. Section 3.13 0.7 2.33 0.59 2.62 5.83 20. It also indicates that deflection value calculated from BS 5950 is normally higher than that from EC3.37 4.01 1. Ix = 16000cm4 from BS 5950 section table. as required by EC3. the difference percentage ranges from -0.1.66 2.34 18.38 2.32 0.07 0.2 3. The first explanation for this difference is the modulus of elasticity value. However.7 2.32 10.85 1.42 0.71 3.4 2.26 0.1 0.08 21.26 18.55 From Table 4.56 2.24 2.04 0.01 2.08 0.9 9.74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 5.08 0.05 0.29 0.1 0. The minor differences had created differences between the deflection values.04 2.16 9.19 2. subject to 15kN/m of unfactored imposed floor load.78 3.16 11.83 13.21 2.33 3.68 2.66 0.63 2. This is basically same as the range of beam length 6m.05 0.06 0.6 2.21 24. Apart from that.25 2.53 0.37 2.25 13.1 3.12 17. Meanwhile. there is also slight difference between second moment of area in both codes.13 8.51 0.01 0.73 1.06 0.25 0.51 21. the difference percentage ranges from -0.1.75 2. EC3 requires deflection due to permanent dead load to be included in the final design.79 16.56 2. Iy = 16060cm4 from EC3 section table.22 28.64 4.33 12.52 0.31 2.75 18.71 3.23 0.68 13.63%.33 4. for a floor beam of 6m long. .41 1.85 15.93 2.36 8. Different from BS 5950.4 0.3 “Other properties” of BS 5950 states that E = 205kN/mm2.43 2.84 11. E.77 16.47 29.4 “Design values of material coefficients” of C-EC3 states that E = 210kN/mm2. for a section 356x171x57.25 2.8 1.5 above.46 2. δmax.84 4.26 2.34 1. section 3.4 2.77 4. the major difference between the deflection designs of these two codes is the total deflection.22% to 3. for a floor beam of 9m long.

7 for BS 5950 and EC3 design respectively.122 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x60 4.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x52 203x203x86 9.75 4.6 Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 1 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 2 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 3 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 4 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x191x67 406x140x46 406x140x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd . the results of the design (size of structural members) are tabulated in Table 4. external columns and internal columns have been designed for the most optimum size.6 and Table 4.744 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 7.750 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x152x60 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd . the weight of steel will be used as a gauge.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . floor beams. Table 4.3 Economy of Design After all the roof beams.889 152x152x23 152x152x37 152x152x37 203x203x52 3. To compare the economy of the design.

4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9. The saving percentage.821 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) Summary of the total steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .889 9.744 EC3 4.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .645 3.313 9.9.8 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Types of Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7. is tabulated in Table 4.571 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .8.571 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.76 Table 4.821 .313 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.122 9.750 4. Table 4.7 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 356x171x45 To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 9. meanwhile.

larger hot-rolled section is required to provide adequate moment capacity and also stiffness against deflection.645 9.96%. all frame types. the connections of beam-to-column were assumed to be “partial strength connection”.122 7.60% to 17.313 % 1.96 5.42 15. depending on the steel grade. This resulted in higher percentage difference. Further check on the effect of deflection was done. Meanwhile. beam spans and steel grade designed by using BS 5950 offer weight savings as compared with EC3.9 EC3 design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4. unaffected by the effect of imposed load deflection. The percentage of saving offered by BS 5950 design ranges from 1. The percentage savings for braced steel frame with 9m span is higher than that one with 6m span. This is because deeper.821 4.60 17.744 3.889 EC3 4. BS 5950 design allowed lighter section. This is because overall deflection was considered in EC3 design. Semi-continuous .571 9.750 9. the percentage savings by using BS 5950 are higher than EC3 for S355 steel grade with respect to S275 steel grade.9.77 Table 4.29 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) As shown in Table 4. This time. Regardless of bay width.

4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . the deflection coefficient.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4. This is different from pinned joint in simple construction.211 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x178x52 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .10 shown. The renewed beam sections are tabulated in Table 4.749 Roof Section Designation (Semi-continous) Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) . where zero “support” stiffness corresponds to a value of β = 5. the deflection value is given as: δ = βwL4 / 384EI For a span with connections having a partial strength less than 45%. which was used in the beam design. For uniformly distributed loading.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 8. Table 4.78 frame is achieved in this condition. Columns remained the same as there was no change in the value of eccentricity moment and axial force. β is treated as β = 3. Please refer to Appendix D for a redesign work after the β value had been revised and the section redesigned to withstand bending moment from analysis process.0.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .503 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.10 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x151x67 406x140x46 356x127x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd .5.

889 8. is tabulated in Table 4.12.750 4.211 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.645 3.503 7.749 Table 4.11 .11 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Types of Frame Bay Width (m) 2Bay 4Storey 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.744 Total Steel Weight (ton) EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4. Table 4.42 3.79 Summary of the total revised steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.122 9. The saving percentage.744 EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.22 9.211 10.645 5.122 9.12 Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.749 % 0.503 9.889 8.11.95 BS 5950 4. meanwhile.750 4.

MD = wL /8 – MR 2 (b) (c) Figure 4. . The effect of dead load on the deflection of beam had been gradually reduced.1(b)). with deflection coefficient set as β = 1.12.11% to 10.1(c)). Eventually. the sagging moment at mid span became less than that of simple construction (Figure 4. (c) simple construction. The ability of partial strength connection had enabled moment at mid span to be partially transferred to the supports (Figure 4.1 Bending moment of beam for: (a) rigid construction. (b) semi-rigid construction.95%. The greater difference for steel grade S355 indicated that deflection still plays a deciding role in EC3 design.1(a) for the illustration of rigid connection. as the connection stiffness becomes higher. the percentage of difference had been significantly reduced to the range of 0.0. if it is built semi-continuously. Even though EC3 design still consumed higher steel weight. The moment capacity will be the deciding factor. wL2/8 MR wL2/8 MR wL2/8 (a) Design moment. the effect of deflection on the design will be eliminated. Please refer to Figure 4. Therefore.80 From Table 4. the gap reduces. However. it can be seen that there is an obvious reduction of steel weight required for the braced steel frame. if rigid connection is introduced.

1 Structural Beam For the shear capacity of a structural beam.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents the summary for the study on the comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 for the design of multi-storey braced frame. the difference between the approaches to obtain shear area.1 Structural Capacity 5. calculation based on EC3 had reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 4.06% with regard to BS 5950 due to the variance between constant values of the shear capacity formula specified by both codes.05 in the moment capacity .1. a summary on the results of the objectives is categorically discussed. The application of different steel grade did not contribute greater percentage of difference between the shear capacities calculated by both codes. Apart from that. 5. Meanwhile. Av value also caused the difference. calculation based on EC3 had effectively reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 6. for the moment capacity of structural beam. Suggestions of further research work are also included in this chapter. This is mainly due to the application of partial safety factor. In review to the research objectives. γM0 of 1.43%.

only moments due to eccentricity will be transferred to structural column.0 as suggested by BS 5950. γM0 of 1. compared with BS 5950. For the same value of unfactored imposed load. This comparison is based on a structural column of 5. The design of structural beam proposed by EC3 is concluded to be safer than that by BS 5950. it is obvious that EC3 stresses on the safety of a structural beam.24% of column compressive resistance was achieved when designing by EC3. EC3 design created majority . 5. there is also a deviation in between the compressive strength. γM of 1.27% to 9.05 as required by EC3 design. With the inclusion of partial safety factor. Therefore. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project.0m long. fc and pc respectively.82 calculation required by EC3. only compressive resistance comparison of structural column was made. In comparison. Meanwhile. From interpolation. it was found that for a same value of λ.1. as compared to the partial safety factor. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. This is due to the implication of partial safety factor. A reduction in the range of 5. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. 5. a structural beam will be subject to deflection. fc is smaller than pc.2 Deflection Values When subject to an unfactored imposed load. Therefore.2 Structural Column In simple construction. of both codes. axial compression is much more critical.

In this study. serviceability limit states check governs the design of EC3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. 6m bay width steel frame.3 Economy Economy aspect in this study focused on the minimum steel weight that is needed in the construction of the braced steel frame. I will have to be chosen. it was found that EC3 design produced braced steel frames that require higher steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950.821 tons and 4. 4-storey. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 4.744 tons and 3. and 4. Higher E means the elasticity of a member is higher.750 tons for BS 5950 design.22% to 3.63%. 9m bay width steel frame. For a 2-bay. compared with the section chosen for BS 5950 design. The main reason for the deviation is the difference in the specification of modulus of elasticity. E. 4-storey. Cross-section with higher second moment of area value. However. For a 2-bay. The total steel weight of structural beams and columns was accumulated for comparison. The difference ranges from 0. BS 5950 specifies 205kN/mm2 while EC3 specifies 210kN/mm2. the total deflection was greater. taking into account deflection due to permanent loads. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 9.1 of EC3 provided proof to this. and 9. . Therefore.889 tons for BS 5950 design.571 tons for EC3 design.83 lower deflection values with respect to BS 5950 design. thus can sustain higher load without deforming too much.122 tons and 7. 5. Section 4.313 tons for EC3 design.645 tons and 9.2.

22% 5. 4-storey. 4-storey. S275 (Fe 430): 0. S355 (Fe 510): 10. This study showed that steel weight did not contribute to cost saving of EC3 design. 4-storey. . 4-storey. 9m bay width.42% 2-bay.42% 2-bay.5 had successfully reduced the percentage of difference between the steel weights designed by both codes. 6m bay width. However. 9m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 15.84 The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. The reduction in deflection coefficient from 5. 4-storey.95% 2-bay.60% 2-bay.29% Further study was extended for the application of partial strength connection for beam-to-column connections in EC3 design. structural design and economic aspect based on both of the design codes.11% 2-bay. S355 (Fe 510): 17. 6m bay width. 4-storey. S275 (Fe 430): 5. S275 (Fe 430): 1. S275 (Fe 430): 5. S355 (Fe 510): 7. it is suggested that an unbraced steel frame design is conducted to study the behavior.4 Recommendation for Future Studies For future studies. it is recommended that further studies to be conducted to focus on the economy aspect of EC3 with respect to BS 5950. 9m bay width. 4-storey. 9m bay width. 4-storey.96% 2-bay. The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. 6m bay width. 6m bay width.0 to 3. since the results of the third objective contradicted with the background of the study (claim by Steel Construction Institute).

C.” ICE Journal. D. 4. Taylor J. Narayanan R et. .1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings. “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures: Part 1.” London: British Standards Institution. 24-27. “Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000 Volume 2: Worked examples.” New Steel Construction.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. British Standards Institution (2001). “EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. & Lim J B (2003). European Committee for Standardization (1992).” Eurocodenews. “Introduction to Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) – with Worked Examples. “British Standard – Structural Use of Steelwork in Building: Part 1: Code of Practice for Design – Rolled and Welded Sections.” London: European Committee for Standardization. (1995). Steel Construction Institute (SCI) (2005). Issue 3. “EN 1993 Eurocode 3 – Steel. Paper 2658. “Steel Design Can be Simple Using EC3. 29-32. November 2005. Vol 13 No 4.85 REFERENCES Charles King (2005). Heywood M.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. al. (2001).

86 APPENDIX A1 .

6 2. of Bay No. DL Live Load.0 DATA No.4 1. DL Live Load. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4. DL Live Load.4DL + 1.6 x 15 = 62.6 FACTORED LOAD w = 1. LL LOAD FACTORS Dead Load.6 15 kN/m kN/m = = 1. LL Floors Dead Load.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load.6 x 9 = 48 kN/m Floors w = 1.4 x 24 + 1.4 x 27. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. LL = = 4 1.6 + 1. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width. MAHMOOD 1.64 kN/m .6LL Roof w = 1.87 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

0 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. MAHMOOD 2.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame .88 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

64 kN/m 62.0 LOAD LAYOUT 48 kN/m 6m 48 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m .3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.89 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.64 kN/m 62. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD 2.

V = 48 x 6 / 2 = 144 kN M = 48 x 6^2 / 8 = 216 kNm Floor beams.1 Beam Moment. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.68 1415.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.64 x 6 / 2 = 187. V = 62.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4.92 519. MAHMOOD 4. Shear. contributed by beam shear.52 144 331. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.76 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment.90 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column .84 707. . Roof beams.88 kNm 4.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 288 663.64 x 6^2 / 8 = 281.92 kN M = 62. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.84 1039.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.92) 144 [1] 331.76 1415.88 Shear (kN) (144) (144) 144 (187.84 [3] [4] 707.92 [2] 519.92) 519.92 (187.52 707.88 281.0 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 216 216 281.88 281.92) 1039.92) 331. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.92) 288 (187.91 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.84 (187.88 281.68 (187.76 . MAHMOOD 5.88 281.88 281.84 (187.92) 663.

19 31.19 Moments are calculated from (1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.19 21.6 [2] 28.0DL Most critical condition .54 28. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.19 31.6 21.1.92 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.54 28.19 31.6LL) . MAHMOOD Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 21.19 28.54 28.19 [3] 28.54 31.19 28.19 28.6 21.19 28.19 21.6 31.6 28.54 28.19 [4] 28.54 31.4DL+1.6 [1] 21.

93 APPENDIX A2 .

35 x 24 + 1.76 kN/m . LL Floors Dead Load.9 kN/m Floors w = 1. LL = = 1.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.94 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.6 + 1. DL Live Load.5 x 9 = 45.6 15 kN/m kN/m LOAD FACTORS Dead Load. DL Live Load.5 FACTORED LOAD w = 1. DL Live Load.6 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. LL = = 4 1. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load. of Bay No. MAHMOOD 1.5 x 15 = 59.5LL Roof w = 1.35 1.35DL + 1.0 DATA No.35 x 27.

1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2.95 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame .0 2. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC. MAHMOOD 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.

MAHMOOD 2.76 kN/m 59.9 kN/m 6m 45.76 kN/m .3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.76 kN/m 59. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.0 LOAD LAYOUT 45.9 kN/m 59.96 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.76 kN/m 59.

horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4.28 kN M = 59.9 x 6^2 / 8 = 206.54 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment.9 x 6 / 2 = 137.1 Beam Moment.97 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.08 137. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column. contributed by beam shear.26 675. Shear.7 316.52 1351.92 kNm 4. MAHMOOD 4. V = 59.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 275.76 x 6 / 2 = 179. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced. . V = 45.4 633. Roof beams.55 kNm Floor beams.76 x 6^2 / 8 = 268. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.96 992. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column .7 kN M = 45.98 496.

08 675.55 268. MAHMOOD 5.28) 275.4 (179.2 Shear (kN) (137.28) 496.28) 633.92 268.26 [3] [4] 675. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.54 1351.55 206.92 268.52 (179.7 [1] 316.7) (137.92 5.7 (179. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.28) 137.28) 992.54 .98 (179.28) 316.92 268.7) 137.26 (179.92 268.0 5.98 [2] 496.1 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 206.96 (179.98 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.92 268.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.66 19.89 28. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.89 26.5LL) .71 20.89 28.94 26.89 26.89 26.94 28.99 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.66 26.71 28.89 20.94 26. MAHMOOD 5.94 28.1.89 26.35DL+1.89 28.66 20.89 26.66 26.89 19.0DL Most critical condition .94 26.94 26.89 Moments are calculated from (1.89 26.3 Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 20.

100 APPENDIX B1 .

1 40.2 74.1 Sx (cm3) 1010 1290 1200 1210 1350 1470 1450 1500 1630 1650 1830 1810 2060 2010 2380 2230 2610 2880 2830 3280 3200 3680 4140 4590 5550 7490 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 305x102x25 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x28 254x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 406x140x39 356x127x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 406x140x46 305x165x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 457x152x60 406x178x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x191x67 457x152x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x152x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 281. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 25.3 92.1 Sx (cm3) 171 259 234 342 258 306 403 353 314 393 481 543 483 539 724 659 623 614 566 775 888 720 711 896 1100 846 1060 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 59.8 33.2 89.2 74.1 37 37 39 39.0m) STC.2 74.2 109 113 122 125.3 82 82.1 24.101 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 139.8 60.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 1025 cm Try UB 457x152x60 .1 67.1 82.1 67. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23.3 101 101.1 32.2 179 238.1 67.3 30 31.1 98.2 28. L = 6.2 28.9 149.88 kNm Sx = M / fy = 281.9 43 45 46 46.1 67.1 48.8 25.3 54 54.1 51 52. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.3 41.

Limiting d/t = 80ε = 80 Actual d/t = 50.75 = < 9 9 Flange is plastic Class 1 Section is symmetrical. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 13. neutral axis at mid-depth. L = 6.0 1. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 5.6 152.3 2.8 454.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = 59.3 Therefore.3 < 80 Web is plastic Class 1 Section is : Class 1 plastic section .102 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD 1.1 DATA Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. subject to pure bending.9 8. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams. Section chosen = 457x152x60 UB 1.0m) STC.6 1290 1120 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm 3 b/T = d/t = 5.75 50.1 13. py = = mm 275 S275 < N/mm 2 16mm ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 Outstand element of compression flange.3 407. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.

103

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

3.0

SHEAR BUCKLING If d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for rolled section, shear buckling resistance should be checked. d/t = 50.3 < 70ε = 70 Therefore, shear buckling needs not be checked

4.0

SHEAR CAPACITY Fv = 187.92 kN

Pv = 0.6pyAv py = 275 N/mm Av = tD = 8.1 x 454.6 2 = 3682.26 mm

2

Pv = 0.6 x 275 x 3682.26 x 0.001 = 607.57 kN Fv Pv < Therefore, the shear capacity is adequate

5.0

MOMENT CAPACITY M= 281.88 kNm

0.6Pv = 0.6 x 607.57 = 364.542 kN Fv 0.6Pv < Therefore, it is low shear Mc = pySx = 275 x 1290 x 0.001 = 354.75 kNm 1.2pyZ = 1.2 x 275 x 1120 x 0.001 = 369.6 kNm Mc M < < 1.2pyZ Mc OK Moment capacity is adequate

104

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

6.0 6.1

WEB BEARING & BUCKLING Bearing Capacity Pbw = (b1 + nk) tpyw r= 10.2 mm (Unstiffened web)

b1 = t + 1.6r + 2T = 8.1 + 1.6 x 10.2 + 2 x 13.3 = 51.02 mm k= T+r = 13.3 + 10.2 = 23.5 mm At the end of a member (support), n = 2 + 0.6be/k = 2 b1 + nk = = = = = < but n ≤ 5 be = 0

51.02 + 2 x 23.5 98.02 mm 98.02 x 8.1 x 275 x 0.001 218.34 kN 187.92 Pbw kN

Pbw

Fv Fv

Bearing capacity at support is ADEQUATE

105

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

7.0

**SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION CHECK Unfactored imposed loads: w= = E= I= δ= 9 15 205 25500
**

4

kN/m kN/m kN/mm cm

4 2

for roofs for floors

L=

6

m

5wL 384EI = 5 x 15 x 6^4 x 10^5 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4.84 mm

Beam condition Carrying plaster or other brittle finish Deflection limit = Span / 360 = 6 x 1000 / 360 = 16.67 mm 4.84mm < 16.67mm

The deflection is satisfactory!

106 APPENDIX B2 .

y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268. L = 6.92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.9 cm3 Try 406x178x54 UB . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.107 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl.y = M / fy = 268. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.0m) STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.92 kNm W pl.

1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.6 177.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10. L = 6. MAHMOOD 1. Section chosen 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.y = W el.9 360.6 7.0m) STC.4 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.36 131 8.6 10. cm 4 cm cm cm 2. Second moment of area.9 Therefore.0 1.6 18670 4. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area. = 406x178x54 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.4 1051 927 32.15 47. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 . The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.9 68.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 54 402.108 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

7 Web is Class 2 element 406x178x54 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.2 (b) Web.y fy / γMO = 1051 x 275 x 0.109 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .05 √3 = 497. it is low shear Mc.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.48 = 298.0m) STC.05 = 275. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.9 x 100 275 1.49 kN VSd 0.05 = 32.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.001 / 1. L = 6.Rd = W pl.92 kNm 0.Rd < Therefore.7 3. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.001 γMO = 1.5Vpl.28 kN V pl.4 > 46.48 kN VSd < Vpl.5Vpl.15 <= 9.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.5 x 497. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 47.Rd = 0.26 kNm MSd Mc.

5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.5 Ry. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.110 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. L = 6.28 kN < Ry.5 σf.05 204.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 52. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7. not susceptible to LTB 6.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.4 kN = VSd = 179. MAHMOOD 5.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .001 / 1.Rd = γM1 At support.Rd = (50 + 52.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.6 x 275 x 0.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).4 63.0m) STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.69 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f . tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.8 < 63. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.69) x 7. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 47.

h= a= 402.4 = γM1 = E= Ra.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 360.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span.5 0. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.26 7. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 ] .8 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.111 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Ra.6 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0.2 0. MSd Mc.0m) STC.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0. Rd = 0.Rd = > 0.92 275.3 ≤ = 1.98 <= 1.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. L = 6.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.05 205 307. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.Rd 268.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.14 1.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. MAHMOOD At midspan.

use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 118 120 118. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1. Rb.(118.0m) STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 d/t = 2.6^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 227.6 . VSd = 0 VSd = 179.6 2 = 1731.4 / 7.75d Rolled I-section.05 = 197.7 mm Buckling resistance of web. λ = 2.6 = 118.05 A = beff x tw = 227.117) / (120 .8 x 1731.28 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.118) = 119.5 = 405. buckling about y-y axis.6 fc 121 117 fc = 121 .28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .5 x SQRT(402.Rd = 1 x 119.5 kN > At mid span.5 x 360. L = 6.8 x 7.001 / 1.28 x 0. MAHMOOD beff = 0.118) x (121 .8 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.112 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.6 l = 0.8 N/mm 2 Rb.

δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 18670 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 11. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.34 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.0 1.0m) STC. MAHMOOD 8.113 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.46 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 . .88 6. L = 6.14 mm OK δmax = 11.46 = 18.88 + 6.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.

114 APPENDIX C1 .

115 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 310.4 988. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Sx (cm3) 184.1 652 802.4 cm Try 203x203x60 UC .08 kNm M= Sx = M / fy = 63.8 1228 1589 1485 1953 2482 1875 2298 2964 2680 2417 3457 3436 3977 4689 4245 5101 5818 6994 8229 10009 12078 14247 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 63.3 247. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.6 978.08 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 229.1 497.4 568. L = 5.0m) STC.

1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.3 2.96 5.1 8. L = 5.23 17. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.3 14.19 75.8 652 581. Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = rx = ry = Ag = 60 209. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.2 160.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.52 kN L= 5 m 1.2 9.0m) STC. Section chosen = 203x203x60 UC 1.2 = mm S275 < < < N/mm 2 16mm 40mm 63mm Therefore.0 DATA Fc = 1415. MAHMOOD 1. Gross area. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.116 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 14.8 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 2 3 b/T = d/t = 7.6 205. py = 275 ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 .

85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm λx = LEX / rx = 4250 / (8.3 x 275) -1 < r1 ≤ 1 = 3. L = 5.85L = 0.1 SLENDERNESS Effective Length About the x-x axis.52 kN Pc = pcAg py = Ag = 275 75. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 7. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.52 x 1000 / (160.96 x 10) = 47.4 4.0m) STC.0 3. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. "Restrained in direction at one end" LEX = 0.8 N/mm cm 2 2 Buckling about x-x axis . MAHMOOD Outstand element of compression flange.5r1 = 40 All ≥ 40ε < Section is : = 40 Web is plastic Class 1 Class 1 plastic section 3.0 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE Fc = 1415.23 < < = < 10ε = 15ε = 9 9 10 15 Flange is plastic Class 1 Web of I.8 x 9.44 r1 = 1 Actual d/t = < 17.117 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.or H-section under axial compression and bending ("generally" case) r1 = Fc dtpy = 1415.3 80ε 1+r1 100ε 1+1.

the compressive resistance is adequate 5. L = 5. For EI/L1 : EI/L2 < 1.5. beam reaction. M= 31. R is assumed to act 100mm off the face of the column.46) x (242 .44 kN Fc < Pc 47.54 kNm . the moment will be equally divided.08 kNm 100 mm Moments are distributed between the column lengths above and below level 2. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length.4 pc 242 239 Therefore. MAHMOOD Use strut curve (b) λx = λ 46 48 Interpolation: pcx = 242 .8 x 100 x 0.0m) STC.(47. R From frame analysis sheets. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.239) 2 = 239.0 NOMINAL MOMENT DUE TO ECCENTRICITY For columns in simple construction.001 = 1818. Mi = 63.4 .9 N/mm Pc = pcAg = 239. Therefore. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.9 x 75.118 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.46) / (48 .

00 The combined resistance against axial force and moment is adequate.78 N/mm Mb = pbSx = 260.5 x 5 x 1000) / (5.0 CONCLUSION Compression Resistance = Combined Axial Force and Moment Check = Use of the section is adequate Use : 203x203x60 UC OK OK .0 6.17 py = λLT 45 50 275 pb 250 233 N/mm 2 pb = 250 . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.0 COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND MOMENT CHECK The column should satisfy the relationship My Fc Mx + + ≤1 Pc M bs pyZ y λLT = 0. L = 5.0m) STC.78 x 652 x 0.54 170.001 = 170.(48.45) x (233 .45) / (50 .250) 2 = 260.17 .119 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.03 kNm 1415.03 = < 0. 7.5 L/ry = (0.96 1.44 + 31.19 x 10) = 48. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.52 1818. MAHMOOD 6.0 4.

120 APPENDIX C2 .

y = M / fy = 57.5 cm Try 254x254x73 UC .y (cm3) 184 248 309 497 567 654 801 990 979 1225 1589 1484 1952 2485 1872 2293 2970 2675 2418 3455 3438 3978 4691 4243 5101 5814 6997 8225 10010 12080 14240 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 57. L = 5.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 210. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Wpl.121 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.88 kNm M= W pl.0m) STC.

5 8. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .122 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Section chosen = 254x254x73 UC 1.y = W el.2 200. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.46 92.6 14. Second moment of area.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.0 DATA NSd = 1351.08 kN Msd = 28.0m) STC.94 kNm L= 5 m 1.94 23. MAHMOOD 1.86 98.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration. L = 5. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.3 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 4 cm cm cm 2 3 2.y = iy = iz = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 73 254 254 8.2 990 895 11. Area of section.9 11370 6.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel tf = 14.1 6. = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.2 Therefore.

94 <= 9.3 kNm Mny.0m) STC. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.Rd = γMO γMO = 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.555 >= n < 0.Rd = 1.1 Mpl.05 Npl. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.08 / 2433. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.123 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.11 Mpl.1 n ≥ 0.5 Web is Class 1 element Therefore.1 28.9 (b) Web.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.1 Mny.001 / 1.Rd = 92.y.Rd = 0.05 = 259.3 <= 30.1 Class 3 = 38.0 CROSS-SECTION RESISTANCE n= NSd Npl.9 x 100 x 275 x 0. it is Class 1 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 30.05 = 2433.2 Class 3 = 13.1 kN n = 1351.y.94 kNm kNm Sufficient moment resistance .5 Limit d/tw Class 2 = 35.Rd A fy Npl.y.1 = 0.8 3.2 Limit c/tf Class 2 = 10.Rd(1-n) W pl.001 / 1. subject to bending and compression : Classify web as subject to compression and bending d/tw = 23.Rd Mny.y fy γMO = 990 x 275 x 0.Rd = Mpl. L = 5.Rd = > MSd = 128.

08 2209.85 L (Restrained about both axes) = 0.Rd 1.9 x 100 x 0.y.5 x 28. sufficient resistance against in-plane failure against major axis .1 1 η= = + < γMO / γM1 1 Therefore.y. Rd Nb. y . MAHMOOD 4.3 <= fc 250 248 40mm fc = 250 .Sd ηMc.3 0.3 Buckling about y-y axis (Curve b) βA = λy√βA = tf λ√βA 38 40 1 38.0 IN-PLANE FAILURE ABOUT MAJOR AXIS Members subject to axial compression and major axis bending must satisfy k y M y .05 = 2209.3 .Rd = = 1351.95 (Conservative value) + kyMy.3 kN ky = 1.7 x 92. Sd N Sd + ≤ 1 . L = 5.(38.0m) STC.124 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm Slenderness ratio λy = l y / iy = 4250 / (11.1 x 10) = 38.38) x (40 .5 NSd Nb.y.y. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.248) 2 = 249.94 1 x 128.7 N/mm Nb. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.38) / (250 .001 / 1.Rd = βA f c A γM1 l y = 0.Rd = 1 x 249.0 N b . Rd η M c . y .

0 CONCLUSION Cross Section Resistance In-plane Failure About Major Axis Use of the section is adequate.0m) STC. MAHMOOD 5. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.0 3. Use : 254x254x73 UC OK OK .0 4. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.125 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. L = 5.

126 APPENDIX D .

y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl. L = 6.127 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.y = M / fy = 268.92 kNm W pl.0m) Rev 1 STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 cm3 Try 457x152x52 UB .

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. Section chosen 1.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 52 449.6 21370 3.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.0m) Rev 1 STC.128 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. L = 6.y = W el.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10.6 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.9 407.9 Therefore.8 152. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. Second moment of area. cm 4 cm cm cm 2.4 7.0 1.5 66.59 121 6. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. = 457x152x52 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.6 1096 950 36.6 10. MAHMOOD 1. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .99 53.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.7 3.5Vpl.05 = 287.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.5 x 551.28 kN V pl.0m) Rev 1 STC. it is low shear Mc.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.001 / 1.y fy / γMO = 1096 x 275 x 0.99 <= 9.5Vpl.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .92 kNm 0. L = 6.05 kNm MSd Mc.Rd < Therefore.Rd = W pl.Rd = 0.6 > 46.001 γMO = 1.05 = 36.5 x 100 275 1.2 (b) Web. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.05 √3 = 551.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.129 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 6. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 53.92 kN VSd < Vpl.15 kN VSd 0.7 Web is Class 2 element 457x152x52 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.92 = 331.

ss = 50 75 mm mm 7.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).130 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.05 = 196.6 63. L = 6. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.Rd = γM1 At support.0m) Rev 1 STC.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.001 / 1. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .Rd = (50 + 48.5 Ry. MAHMOOD 5. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.68 kN VSd = 179. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 53.8 < 63.5 σf. not susceptible to LTB 6.81 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .6 x 275 x 0.81) x 7.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 48. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.28 kN < Ry.

12 1.16 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.Rd 268.8 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0. MAHMOOD At midspan. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.6 = γM1 = E= Ra.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.2 0.92 287.3 ≤ = 1. Ra. h= a= 449.94 <= 1.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 407.05 7.0m) Rev 1 STC.131 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 0.Rd = > 0. Rd = 0. L = 6.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support. MSd Mc.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.5 ] .5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.05 205 299.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .

3 x 7. MAHMOOD beff = 0.05 = 179. L = 6.9 x 1909.(134.6 = 134. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.75d Rolled I-section.9 N/mm 2 Rb. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.6 / 7.98) / (135 .05 A = beff x tw = 251.6 mm Buckling resistance of web.001 / 1.132 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 .0m) Rev 1 STC.5 x SQRT(449.9 kN > At mid span.130) = 98.5 x 407.88 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.3 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.6 2 = 1909. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 130 135 134.Rd = 1 x 98.130) x (103 .5 = 452.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan . λ = 2.8^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 251.1 l = 0. Rb.5 d/t = 2. buckling about y-y axis.1 fc 103 98 fc = 103 .88 x 0.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0m) Rev 1 STC.95 mm mm < L / 350 = 17. .26 + 3.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.21 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.95 = 11.0 1.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 21370 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 3.14 mm OK δmax = 7.133 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 .26 3. MAHMOOD 8.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 7. L = 6.