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1/97)

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

**BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
**

JUDUL:

υ

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

SESI PENGAJIAN: Saya

2006 / 2007

**CHAN CHEE HAN
**

(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/ Sarjana/ Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tandakan (3) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam (AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/ badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

3

TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

**Alamat Tetap: PETI SURAT 61162, 91021 TAWAU, SABAH.
**

Tarikh

CATATAN:

**PM DR. IR. MAHMOOD MD. TAHIR Nama Penyelia
**

Tarikh:

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

* ** Potong yang tidak berkenaan.

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

υ

Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/ organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

“I hereby declare that I have read this project report and in my opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure).”

Signature

:

Name of Supervisor : P.M. Dr. Ir. Mahmood Md. Tahir Date : 01 NOVEMBER 2006

i

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

CHAN CHEE HAN

A project report submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

NOVEMBER, 2006

Signature Name Date : : Chan Chee Han : 01 NOVEMBER 2006 . The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.ii I declare that this project report entitled “Comparison Between BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 & Eurocode 3 for The Design of Multi-Storey Braced Steel Frame” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references.

iii To my beloved parents and siblings .

patience and guidance during the duration of my study. I would like to express my appreciation to my thesis supervisor. Tan for their helpful guidance in the process of completing this study. Mahmood’s research students. Dr. Shek and Mr. Without the contribution of all those mentioned above. Mahmood Md. Finally.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. I would also like to express my thankful appreciation to Dr. this work would not have been possible. I am most thankful to my parents and family for their support and encouragement given to me unconditionally in completing this task. Mr. Tahir of the Faculty of Civil Engineering. Ir. . PM. for his generous advice. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Design worksheets are created for the design of structural beam and column. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. . However. specifications to be followed. with the application of partial strength connections. Meanwhile. safety factors. design methods. However.34% less than BS 5950: Part 1:2000 design. These details include the basis and concept of design. serviceability limit states check governs the design of Eurocode 3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. structural column designed by Eurocode 3 has compression capacity of between 5.27% and 9.11% to 10. This paper presents comparisons of findings on a series of two-bay.60% to 17.43%. loading values and etc. the percentage of difference had been reduced to the range of 0.95%.06% and moment capacity by up to 6.96% more steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. This study intends to testify the claim.63% in comparison with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. four-storey braced steel frames with spans of 6m and 9m and with steel grade S275 (Fe 460) and S355 (Fe 510) by designed using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. Eurocode 3 produced braced steel frames which consume 1. The design method by Eurocode 3 has reduced beam shear capacity by up to 4. Eurocode 3 also reduced the deflection value due to unfactored imposed load of up to 3.v ABSTRACT Reference to standard code is essential in the structural design of steel structures. Therefore.

tiang keluli yang direkebentuk oleh Eurocode 3 mempunyai keupayaan mampatan 5.11% – 10. cara rekabentuk. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji pendapat ini.60% – 17. Butiran-butiran ini mengandungi asas dan konsep rekabentuk. factor keselamatan. Institut Pembinaan Keluli (SCI) berpendapat bahawa rekabentuk struktur keluli menggunakan Eurocode 3 adalah 6 – 8% lebih menjimatkan daripada menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Eurocode 3 menghasilkan kerangka keluli dirembat yang menggunakan berat besi 1. didapati bahawa keadaan had kebolehkhidmatan mengawal rekabentuk Eurocode 3 disebabkan beban mati tanpa faktor yang perlu diambilkira dalam pemeriksaan pesongan.96% lebih banyak daripada kerangka yang direkabentuk oleh BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. spesifikasi yang perlu diikuti. Namun begitu. Selain itu.27% – 9.43%. nilai beban.63% berbanding BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Eurocode 3 juga mengurangkan nilai pesongan yang disebabkan oleh beban kenaan tanpa faktor sehingga 3.06% dan keupayaan momen rasuk sebanyak 6. Kertas ini menunjukkan perbandingan keputusan kajian ke atas satu siri kerangka besi terembat 2 bay. Rekebentuk menggunakan Eurocode 3 telah mengurangkan keupayaan ricih rasuk sehingga 4. Kertas kerja komputer ditulis untuk merekabentuk rasuk dan tiang keluli. penggunaan sambungan kekuatan separa telah berjaya mengurangkan lingkungan berat besi kepada 0.vi ABSTRAK Dalam rekabentuk struktur keluli. . Kandungan dalam kod piawai secara amnya mengandungi butiran rekabentuk yang komprehensif. Namun begitu. Justeru.34% kurang daripada rekabentuk menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. dan sebagainya.95%. rujukan kepada kod piawai adalah penting. 4 tingkat yang terdiri daripada rentang rasuk 6m dan 9m serta gred keluli S275 (Fe 430) dan S355 (Fe 510).

1 1.5 Introduction Background of Project Objectives Scope of Project Report Layout 1 3 4 4 5 .3 1.vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii xii xiii xiv xv THESIS TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES LISTOF NOTATIONS I INTRODUCTION 1.4 1.2 1.

4. Mc.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.2 2.3.3.1 2.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 2.1.Rd Moment Capacity.2 2.3 Serviceability Limit State 2.2 Ultimate Limit State 2.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 2.3 Shear Capacity.3.3.4.4 Loading 2.4 Actions of EC3 2.2.1 Cross-sectional Classification 2.2.2 2.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.1 Ultimate Limit States 2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2. Pv Moment Capacity.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.1 Unstiffened Web 2.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.2 BS 5950 2.5.3.1.2 Stiffened Web 2.4.3.1 Application Rules of EC3 2.3.3. Mc 2.3.3 Cross-sectional Classification Shear Capacity.3.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2.3.3.3.1.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.3.2.1.3.3.5.3.1.3.2.2.3 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.2 2.1 2.3.2.2 Serviceability 2.6 Deflection 2. Vpl.3 Background of BS 5950 Scope of BS 5950 Design Concept of BS 5950 2.4.4.1 (EC3) Design Concept of EC3 2.1 2.viii II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.Rd 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 .1.1.

1 Cross-section Capacity 2. Pc 2.5.2 Slenderness. LE 2.1 Introduction 34 .5.6. l 2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2. Ry.4.1 Crushing Resistance.2 Crippling Resistance.1.2 Slenderness.3 Compression Resistance.2 Structural Beam Structural Column 31 32 29 30 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 29 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 III METHODOLOGY 3.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces 2.5.6.1 Effective Length.6.4.1. λ 2.1 2.4.1.7.Rd 2.4. λ 2.3 Compression Resistance.3.7 Conclusion 2.6.5.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.Rd 2.1.2.1.6. Ra.4.Rd 2.1 Buckling Length.2.6.4.4.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2. Nb.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.2.2.5. Rb.Rd 2.Rd 2.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.5.5.ix 2.4.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.4 Buckling Resistance.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 2.7.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 2.4.6.1. Nc.3 Buckling Resistance.1.5 Deflection 2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.4.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.6.3.

6 3.1 3.2 4.10.4.2 3.1 Structural Capacity 4.3 Structural Beam Structural Column 66 66 70 73 75 Deflection Economy of Design V CONCLUSIONS 5.4 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Structural Layout & Specifications 3.1 4.1 BS 5950 3.2 4.10 Structural Column Design 3.1 Structural Capacity 5.2 EC 3 IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 4.x 3.1.7 3.1 Structural Beam 81 81 .2 3.5 3.9.10.8 Structural Layout Specifications 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 42 43 44 46 47 51 57 57 61 35 36 Loadings Factor of Safety Categories Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3.1.2 BS 5950 EC 3 3.1 3.2 Shear Calculation 3.3 Moment Calculation 3.9.8.3 3.8.9 Structural Beam Design 3.8.1 Load Combination 3.4.1.

1.2 5.3 5.4 Structural Column 82 82 83 84 Deflection Values Economy Recommendation for Future Studies REFERENCES 85 APPENDIX A1 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 APPENDIX A2 APPENDIX B1 APPENDIX B2 APPENDIX C1 APPENDIX C2 APPENDIX D .xi 5.2 5.

TITLE PAGE 2.2 3.6 4.3 3.5 4.10 4.1 2.2 4.4 4.9 4.12 Criteria to be considered in structural beam design Criteria to be considered in structural column design Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) Shear capacity of structural beam Moment capacity of structural beam Compression resistance and percentage difference Moment resistance and percentage difference Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Total steel weight of the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) 31 32 43 44 45 67 68 71 71 73 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) 46 .8 4.3 4.1 4.2 3.xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.4 4.1 3.11 4.7 4.

1(c) Schematic diagram of research methodology Floor plan view of the steel frame building Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame Bending moment of beam for rigid construction Bending moment of beam for semi-rigid construction Bending moment of beam for simple construction 37 38 39 80 80 80 .1(a) 4. TITLE PAGE 3.3 4.2 3.xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.1(b) 4.1 3.

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D Frame Analysis Based on BS 5950 Frame Analysis Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 Structural Column Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Column Design Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 (Revised) 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 .

Rd Rb.Rd Vpl.y.Rd Ry.Rd Mc.Rd Mpl.y.Rd Mb.y.xv LIST OF NOTATIONS BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 EUROCODE 3 Axial load Shear force Bending moment Partial safety factor Radius of gyration .Major axis .y.Rd h A Aeff Av .Minor axis Depth between fillets Compressive strength Flexural strength Design strength Slenderness Web crippling resistance Web buckling resistance Web crushing resistance Buckling moment resistance Moment resistance at major axis Shear resistance Depth Section area Effective section area Shear area F Fv M γ NSd VSd MSd γM0 γM1 rx ry d pc pb py λ Pcrip Pw Mbx Mcx Pv D Ag Aeff Av iy iz d fc fb fy λ Ra.

y Wel.z c/tf d/tw b l tf tw Sx Sy Wpl.Minor axis Flange Web Width of section Effective length Flange thickness Web thickness Zx Zy b/T d/t B LE T t Wel.Major axis .Major axis .z .Minor axis Elastic modulus .xvi Plastic modulus .y Wpl.

These details include the basis and concept of design.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Structural design is a process of selecting the material type and conducting indepth calculation of a structure to fulfill its construction requirements. as well as the trading volume and diplomatic ties between these countries. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site. safety factors. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. . countries or nations that do not publish their own standard codes will adopt a set of readily available code as the national reference. economic and functional building. These codes were a product of constant research and development. design methods. loading values and etc. Several factors govern the type of code to be adopted. and past experiences of experts at respective fields. namely suitability of application of the code set in a country with respect to its culture. The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe. climate and national preferences. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science. specifications to be followed. In the structural design of steel structures. In present days. Meanwhile. reference to standard code is essential. many countries have published their own standard codes.

The establishment of Eurocode 3 will provide a common understanding regarding the structural steel design between owners. . were developed. Therefore. the move to withdraw BS 5950 and replace with Eurocode 3 will be taking place in the country as soon as all the preparation has completed. operators and users. the initial draft Eurocode 3. Eurocodes will be used in public procurement specifications and to assess products for ‘CE’ (Conformité Européen) mark. Buckling resistance and shear resistance are two major elements of structural steel design. These preliminary standards of ENV will be revised. Standardization of design code for structural steel in Malaysia is primarily based on the practice in Britain. ENV1993 (ENV stands for EuroNorm Vornorm) issued by Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) – the European standardisation committee. It is believed that Eurocode 3 is more comprehensive and better developed compared to national codes. From these. As with other Europeans standards. amended in the light of any comments arising out of its use before being reissued as the EuroNorm standards (EN). The earliest documents seeking to harmonize design rules between European countries were the various recommendations published by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. The study on Eurocode 3 in this project will focus on the subject of moment and shear design. Therefore.2 Like most of the other structural Eurocodes. provision for these topics is covered in certain sections of the codes. ECCS. published by the European Commission. Codes of practice provide detailed guidance and recommendations on design of structural elements. This was followed by the various parts of a pre-standard code. Eurocode 3 has developed in stages. contractors and manufacturers of construction products among the European member countries. designers.

The Steel Construction Institute (SCI). simple design is possible if a scope of application is defined to avoid the circumstances and the forms of construction in which strength is over-estimated by simple procedures. such as the tables of buckling stresses in existing BS codes. Design can be complex. causing safety issues. for those who pursue economy of material. but it can be simplified for those pursuing speed and clarity. even though there seems to be no benefit to the designer for the majority of his regular workload. this project is intended to testify the claim. 2005). Finally. There are new formulae and new complications to master. . However.2 Background of Project The arrival of Eurocode 3 calls for reconsideration of the approach to design. The increasing complexity of codes arises due to several reasons. simple design is possible if the code requirements are presented in an easy-to-use format. this can be achieved if the designer is not too greedy in the pursuit of the least steel weight from the strength calculations. in its publication of “eurocodesnews” magazine has claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950. namely earlier design over-estimated strength in a few particular circumstances.3 1. Lacking analytical and calculative proof. and new forms of structure evolve and codes are expanded to include them. earlier design practice under-estimated strength in various circumstances affecting economy. Many designers feel depressed when new codes are introduced (Charles. Besides.

4 1. 2 bay braced frames. hereafter referred to as EC3.3 Objectives The objectives of this project are: 1) To compare the difference in the concept of the design using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. 3) To compare the economy aspect between the designs of both BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3.4 Scope of Project The project focuses mainly on the moment and shear design on structural steel members of a series four-storey. All the beam-column connections are to be assumed simple. 1. . Comparison to other steel structural design code is made. 2) To study on the effect of changing the steel grade from S275 to S355 in Eurocode 3. design spreadsheets will be created to calculate and design the structural members. Next. This structure is intended to serve as an office building. The multi-storey steel frame will be first analyzed by using Microsoft Excel worksheets to obtain the shear and moment values. The standard code used here will be Eurocode 3. A study on the basis and design concept of EC3 will be carried out. The comparison will be made between the EC3 with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. hereafter referred to as BS 5950.

Chapter III will be a summary of research methodology. Results and discussions are presented in Chapter IV. conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter V.5 Report Layout The report will be divided into five main chapters. Meanwhile. Chapter II presents the literature review that discusses the design procedures and recommendations for steel frame design of the codes EC3 and BS 5950. .5 1. Chapter I presents an introduction to the study.

was initiated by the Commission of European Communities as a standard structural design guide. Eurocode is separated by the use of different construction materials. while Eurocode 4 covers for composite construction. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. Eurocode covers concrete construction.1 (EC3) EC3. Eurocode 3 covers steel construction. Eurocode 1 covers loading situations. or better known as Eurocode. Principles and application rules are also clearly stated.1 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) European Code. serviceability and resistance of a structure. It was intended to smooth the trading activities among the European countries.1 General rules and rules for buildings” covers the general rules for designing all types of structural steel.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2. EC3 stresses the need for durability. 2. The use of local application rules are allowed only if they have similar principles as EC3 .CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2. “Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. It also covers specific rules for building structures.1. Principles should be typed in Roman wordings. Application rules must be written in italic style.2 Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.1.

durability and serviceability design does not differ too much.1 Application Rules of EC3 A structure should be designed and constructed in such a way that: with acceptable probability. Every European country using EC3 has different loading and material standard to accommodate safety limit that is set by respective countries. selecting a structural form which has low sensitivity to the hazards considered. and tying the structure together. which are ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. Partial safety factor is applied to loadings and design for durability. 2. serviceability and resistance of structure (Taylor. and with appropriate degrees of reliability. having due regard to its intended life and its cost. Safety factor values are recommended in EC3. it will remain fit for the use for which it is required. impact or consequences of human errors.3 Design Concept of EC3 All designs are based on limit state design.1. EC3 covers two limit states. eliminating or reducing the hazards which the structure is to sustain. it will sustain all actions and other influences likely to occur during execution and use and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs. to an extent disproportionate to the original cause. .3. 2. It should also be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like explosions. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. EC3 stresses the need for durability. 2001). selecting a structural form and design that can survive adequately the accidental removal of an individual element. Potential damage should be limited or avoided by appropriate choice of one or more of the following criteria: Avoiding.1.7 and their resistance.

Actions are classified by variation in time and by their spatial variation.g. snow loads. or which limits its functional effectiveness. self-weight. and vibration. fittings.3. actions can be grouped into permanent actions (G).4 Actions of EC3 An action (F) is a force (load) applied to the structure in direct action. .1.2 Ultimate Limit State Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse. actions are defined as fixed actions. wind loads. In time variation classification. 2. which result in different arrangements of actions.3. and loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it. Partial or whole of structure will suffer from failure. including supports and foundations. or loss of stability of the structure or any part of it. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people.3 Serviceability Limit State Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met. explosions or impact from vehicles. self-weight of structures. for example. considered as a rigid body. rupture. e.g.g. e. and free actions. movable imposed loads. including: deformations or deflections which adversely affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (including the proper functioning of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-structural elements. wind loads or snow loads. which causes discomfort to people. ancillaries and fixed equipment. variable actions (Q).1.g. temperature effects or settlement. damage to the building or its contents.8 2. or an imposed deformation in indirect action.1. e. It may require certain consideration. imposed loads.g. 2. Meanwhile. e. This failure may be caused by excessive deformation. e. in spatial variation classification. and accidental loads (A).

They are being used in buildings and allied structures not specifically covered by other standards. etc. Part 1 covers the code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections. Part 3 and Part 4 focus mainly on composite design and construction. but offsetting potential reductions in economy was also one of the reasons. sheeting respectively. Part 8 comprises of code of practice for fire resistance design. Part 2 and 7 deal with specification for materials. plates.2.1 Background of BS 5950 BS 5950 was prepared to supersede BS 5950: Part 1: 1990. Part 6 covers design for light gauge profiled steel sheeting. local buckling. which was withdrawn. lateral-torsional buckling.2 BS 5950 2. avoidance of disproportionate collapse. and Part 9 covers the code of practice for stressed skin design. welded sections and cold formed sections. Several clauses were technically updated for topics such as sway stability. fabrication and erected for rolled.2.2 Scope of BS 5950 Part 1 of BS 5950 provides recommendations for the design of structural steelwork using hot rolled steel sections. . BS 5950 comprises of nine parts. hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed structural hollow sections. flats. Part 5 concerns design of cold formed thin gauge sections. members subject to combined axial force and bending moment. shear resistance. Changes were due to structural safety. 2.9 2.

semi-continuous design.3 Design Concept of BS 5950 There are several methods of design. the specified loads should be multiplied by the relevant partial factors γf given in Table 2. serviceability loads should be taken as the unfactored specified values. wind induced oscillation. only 80% of the full specified values need to be considered when checking for serviceability. 2. The fundamental of the methods are different joints for different methods. in checking. BS 5950 covers two types of states – ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states.3. Generally. and experimental verification. inclusive of general yielding. in the design for limiting states. 2.1 Ultimate Limit States Several elements are considered in ultimate limit states. They are: strength.2. and brittle fracture.2. rupture. In the case of combined imposed load and wind load. Meanwhile. vibration. In the case of combined horizontal crane loads and wind load.3. stability against overturning and sway sensitivity. The load carrying capacity of each member should be such that the factored loads will not cause failure. and durability. only the greater effect needs to be considered when checking for serviceability. fracture due to fatigue. namely simple design. continuous design. .2. Generally.2 Serviceability Limit States There are several elements to be considered in serviceability limit states – Deflection. buckling and mechanism formation.10 2.

2. overhead traveling cranes. Loading conditions during erection should be given particular attention.1 Cross-sectional Classification Cross-sections should be classified to determine whether local buckling influences their capacity. earth and groundwater loading.11 2. Where necessary. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling Bearing capacity of web Deflection 2.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. the settlement of supports should be taken into account as well.3.2. There are dead. The elements of a cross-section are generally of constant thickness. All relevant loads should be separately considered and combined realistically as to compromise the most critical effects on the elements and the structure as a whole. The classification of each element of a cross-section subject to compression (due to a bending moment or an axial force) should be based on its width-to-thickness ratio.4 Loading BS 5950 had identified and classified several loads that act on the structure. imposed and wind loading. . without calculating their local buckling resistance.

However. It is cross-section with plastic hinge rotation capacity. the stress at the extreme compression fiber can reach design strength.2. Class 2 is known as compact section. Class 3 is known as semi-compact section. given by: Pv = 0. local buckling will bar any rotation at constant moment.6pyAv . However.2 Shear Capacity. the complete cross-section should be classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression elements. Sections that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi-compact sections should be classified as class 4 slender. the plastic moment capacity cannot be reached.3 of BS 5950 states the shear force Fv should not be greater than the shear capacity Pv. Class 1 section is used for plastic design as the plastic hinge rotation capacity enables moment redistribution within the structure. a crosssection may be classified with its compression flange and its web in different classes. Class 1 is known as plastic section. 2. Class 4 is known as slender section. Cross-sections at this category should be given explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling.12 Generally.3. Alternatively. Shear capacity is normally checked at section part that sustains the maximum shear force. When this section is applied. Fv. It enables plastic moment to take place. Pv The web of a section will sustain the shear in a structure. Clause 4.

3. There are two situations to be verified in the checking of moment capacity – low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity. and Zeff is the effective section modulus.13 in which Av is the shear area. 2. Seff is the effective plastic modulus. Mc = pyZ or alternatively Mc = pySeff for class 3 semi-compact sections.3. moment capacity of the section needs to be verified. . Mc At sectional parts that suffer from maximum moment.5.2. Clause 4. Z is the section modulus.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv does not exceed 60% of the shear capacity Pv. 2.3.2 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = pyS for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections.3 Moment Capacity. BS 5950 provides various formulas for different type of sections. and Mc = pyZeff for class 4 slender cross-sections where S is the plastic modulus. py is the design strength of steel and it depends on the thickness of the web.

Clause 4. and ρ is given by ρ = [2(Fv/Pv) – 1]2 .3 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = py(S – ρSv) < 1.5) or alternatively Mc = py(Seff – ρSv) for class 3 semi-compact sections.14 2.5) for class 4 slender cross-sections in which Sv is obtained from the following: - For sections with unequal flanges: Sv = S – Sf.3. - Otherwise: Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av.2pyZ for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections.3. in which Sf is the plastic modulus of the effective section excluding the shear area Av.2.5. and Mc = py(Zeff – ρSv/1. Mc = py(Z – ρSv/1.2 High Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv exceeds 60% of the shear capacity Pv.

it should be assumed not to be susceptible to shear buckling and the moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined using 2. The moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined taking account of the interaction of shear and moment using the following methods: a) Low shear Provided that the applied shear Fv ≤ 0. provided that the flanges are not class 4 slender.2 states that. if the web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 70ε for a rolled section.4. obtained from Table 21 BS 5950 t = web thickness b) High shear – “flanges only” method If the applied shear Fv > 0.4. a conservative value Mf for .4.1 of BS 5950 states that.3. Vw = dtqw where d = depth of the web.3. qw = shear buckling strength of the web.15 2. if the web depth-to-thickness d/t ≤ 62ε. but the web is designed for shear only.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.4.3.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4. or 62ε for a welded section. it should be assumed to be susceptible to shear buckling. 2.6Vw.4.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4.3.6Vw. where Vw is the simple shear buckling resistance.4.3.

for a rolled I.or H-section: . where pyf is the design strength of the compression flange.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.1 states that bearing stiffeners should be provided where the local compressive force Fx applied through a flange by loads or reactions exceeds the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web at the web-to-flange connection.6be/k but n ≤ 5 and k is obtained as follows: . provided that the applied moment does not exceed the “low-shear” moment capacity given in a).5.3.1 Unstiffened Web Clause 4.3 for the applied shear combined with any additional moment beyond the “flanges-only” moment capacity Mf given by b).or H-section: k=T+r k=T .16 the moment capacity may be obtained by assuming that the moment is resisted by the flanges alone. .except at the end of a member: n = 5 . It is given by: Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw in which. c) High shear – General method If the applied shear Fv > 0.5.2.at the end of a member: n = 2 + 0. 2.3. with each flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf.for a welded I. the web should be designed using Annex H.6Vw.

The capacity Ps of the stiffener should be obtained from: Ps = As.6 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard.3.net is the net cross-sectional area of the stiffener. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load. r is the root radius. . allowing for cope holes for welding. and t is the web thickness.2 Stiffened Web Bearing stiffeners should be designed for the applied force Fx minus the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web.netpy in which As. 2.17 where b1 is the stiff bearing length. the smaller value should be used to calculate both the web capacity Pbw and the stiffener capacity Ps.5. If the web and the stiffener have different design strengths. 2. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 8 of BS 5950.3. pyw is the design strength of the web. be is the distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing. T is the flange thickness.

. the beam will buckle during pre-mature stage.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below.3 of EC3 provided limits on the outstand-to-thickness (c/tf) for flange and depth-tothickness (d/tw) in Table 5. This limit allows the formation of a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. It can also achieve rectangular stress block. When the flange of the beam is relatively too thin.4. To avoid this.3. Beam sections are classified into 4 classes.1. It is applicable for plastic design. Class 1 is known as plastic section.1 Cross-sectional Classification A beam section should firstly be classified to determine whether the chosen section will possibly suffer from initial local buckling. plastic hinge is disallowed because local buckling will occur first. It has limited rotation capacity. Clause 5. However. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Bearing capacity of web a) b) c) Crushing resistance Crippling resistance Buckling resistance (v) Deflection 2. Class 2 is also known as compact section.18 2. This section can develop plastic moment resistance.

Class 4 is known as slender section. The stress block will be of triangle shape. Vpl.1.4. the inequality should be satisfied: Vsd ≤ Vpl. Apart from that. Calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength. The member will fail before it reaches design stress. Vsd.Rd where Vpl. At each crosssection.Rd The web of a section will sustain shear from the structure. It is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression resistance.Rd = Av (fy / √3) / γMO Av is the shear area. and ε = [235/fy]0.5 . 2. Shear capacity will normally be checked at section that takes the maximum shear force. kγ is the buckling factor for shear. fy is the steel yield strength and γMO is partial safety factor as stated in Clause 5. Shear buckling resistance should be verified when for an unstiffened web. Pre-mature buckling will occur before yield strength is achieved.19 Class 3 is also known as semi-compact section. the ratios of c/tf and d/tw will be the highest among all four classes.1.2 Shear Capacity. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. the ratio of d/tw > 69ε or d/tw > 30ε √kγ for a stiffened web.

1 Low Shear Moment Capacity When maximum shear force.4.Rd may be determined as follows: Class 1 or 2 cross-sections: Mc. For class 4 cross-sections.4. γMO and γM1 are partial safety factors. the design moment resistance of a cross-section should be reduced to MV.2 High Shear Moment Capacity Clause 5.3 Moment Capacity.3.Rd.Rd. low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity.Rd Moment capacity should be verified at sections sustaining maximum moment. 2.Rd = Wel fy / γMO Class 4 cross-sections: Mc.3.4. 2. There are two situations to verify when checking moment capacity – that is.Rd. the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear . when maximum shear force.7 states that. the design moment resistance of a cross-section Mc.Rd = Wpl fy / γMO Class 3 cross-sections: Mc.3. Vsd is equal or less than the design resistance Vpl. Weff is the elastic modulus at effective shear area. Mc.5.Rd = Weff fy / γM1 where Wpl and Wel the plastic modulus and elastic modulus respectively.20 2. as stated in Clause 5. Vsd exceeds 50% of the design resistance Vpl.4.

is governed by one of the three modes of failure – Crushing of the web close to the flange.Rd = (ss + sγ) tw fγw / γM1 in which sγ is given by sγ = 2tf (bf / tw)0.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces The resistance of an unstiffened web to transverse forces applied through a flange. bending about the major axis. crippling of the web in the form of localized buckling and crushing of the web close to the flange. if shear force acts directly at web without acting through flange in the first place. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange. For cross-sections with equal flanges.5 . this checking is unnecessary.4.4.21 force.4. Ry. Ry. 2.Ed / fyf)2]0. However. This checking is intended to prevent the web from buckling under excessive compressive force.Rd where ρ = (2Vsd / Vpl.Rd of the web of an I.5 [1 – (σf.1 Crushing Resistance. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange. Thus. it is obtained as follows: MV. H or U section should be obtained from: Ry. checking should be done at section subject to maximum shear force.7. Clause 5.Rd Situation becomes critical when a point load is applied to the web.Rd – 1)2 2. and buckling of the web over most of the depth of the member.5 (fyf / fyw)0.Rd = (Wpl – ρAv2/4tw) fy / γMO but MV.Rd ≤ Mc.3 provides that the design crushing resistance.

4. σf. H or U section is given by: Ra.Rd and Fsd / Ra.Rd = (χ βA fy A) / γM1 .Rd + Msd / Mc.22 but bf should not be taken as more than 25tf.4.3 Buckling Resistance.5tw2(Efyw)0. obtained from beff = [h2 + ss2]0.Rd Msd ≤ Mc. Ra.Sd = 0.Rd of the web of an I.Rd The design crippling resistance Ra. and ss / d < 0. Rb. fyf and fyw are yield strength of steel at flange and web respectively. 2.5.2. the following criteria should be satisfied: Fsd ≤ Ra.2 Crippling Resistance. For member subject to bending moments.Ed is the longitudinal stress in the flange. Rb. H or U section should be obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with an effective beff.Rd ≤ 1.5 2.4.Rd of the web of an I.Rd The design buckling resistance Rb.4.5 [(tf / tw)0.5 + 3(tw / tf)(ss / d)] / γM1 where ss is the length of stiff bearing.

This.5.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam.5.4. Column is a compressive member and it generally supports compressive point loads.1 and Table 5. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) Effective length Slenderness Compression resistance . 2. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load. checking is normally conducted for capacity of steel column to compression only. however.5. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 4.23 where βA = 1 and buckling curve c is used at Table 5.1 of EC3. 2. 2. applies only to non-moment sustaining column.2. Therefore.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 The design of structural steel column is relatively easier than the design of structural steel beam.5 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only.

1. For continuous columns in multi-storey buildings of simple design. This concept is not applicable for battened struts. in accordance of Table 22. angle. channel.24 2. Depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plate.1. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its effective length LE divided by its radius of gyration r about the relevant axis.5. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross-sections) . and back-to-back struts.7. 2. T-section struts.1 Effective Length.2 Slenderness.5.4. Pc According to Clause 4. directional restraint is based on connection stiffness and member stiffness.1. column members that carry more than 90% of their reduced plastic moment capacity Mr in the presence of axial force is assumed to be incapable of providing directional restraint.3 Compression Resistance.5. depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plane. λ = LE / r 2. the compression resistance Pc of a member is given by: Pc = Ag pc (for class 1 plastic. LE The effective length LE of a compression member is determined from the segment length L centre-to-centre of restraints or intersections with restraining members in the relevant plane.

5. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. and Mcy is the moment capacity about minor axis. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally.5. for class 1 plastic. My is the moment about minor axis. .2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. 2. in which λ is based on the radius of gyration r of the gross cross-section.25 Pc = Aeff pcs (for class 4 slender cross-section) where Aeff is the effective cross-sectional area. Mcx is the moment capacity about major axis.2.5. Mx is the moment about major axis. the checking of cross-section capacity is as follows: My Fc M + x + ≤1 Ag p y M cx M cy where Fc is the axial compression. and pcs is the value of pc from Table 23 and Table 24 for a reduced slenderness of λ(Aeff/Ag)0. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area. py is the design steel strength. pc the compressive strength obtained from Table 23 and Table 24. 2. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections.

Mx the maximum end moment on x-axis. Pc the compression resistance of column. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Buckling length Slenderness Compression resistance Buckling resistance . py the steel design strength. Mb the buckling resistance moment.26 2. the following stability check needs to be satisfied: My F Mx + + ≤ 1 .1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 The design of steel column according to EC3 is quite similar to the design of steel column according to BS 5950. and Zy the elastic modulus.5.0 Pc M bs p y Z y where F is the axial force in column. 2.2 Member Buckling Resistance In simple construction.6. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only. 2.2.

2 Slenderness.1.4. the buckling length l may be conservatively be taken as equal to its system length L. the buckling length l may be determined using informative of Annex E provided in EC3. the value of λ should not exceed 250.1.5 states that.5. determined using the properties of the gross cross-section.6. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its buckling length l divided by its radius of gyration i about the relevant axis.6. Clause 5. the value of λ should not exceed 180.Rd of a member is given by: Nc. whereas for column resisting self-weight and wind loads only.6. 2.Rd According to Clause 5. Alternatively. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact crosssections) .1 Buckling Length. l The buckling length l of a compression member is dependant on the restraint condition at both ends.3 Compression Resistance. Nc.1. 2. λ=l/i For column resisting loads other than wind loads. provided that both ends of a column are effectively held in position laterally.Rd = A fy / γM0 (for class 1 plastic.1. the compression resistance Nc.27 2.4.

The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nb.1. Nb.1 states that the design buckling resistance of a compression member should be taken as: Nc.28 Nc.Rd = Aeff fy / γM1 (for class 4 slender cross-section) The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nc. Clause 5.Rd = χ βA A fy / γM1 where βA = 1 for Class 1. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.Rd For compression members. For hot rolled steel members with the types of cross-section commonly used for compression members. 2 or 3 cross-sections.5.Rd 2.4 Buckling Resistance.Rd .6. and Aeff / A for Class 4 cross-sections. the relevant buckling mode is generally “flexural” buckling.1.

Sd ⎤ ⎡ M z .1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. Clause 5. z . 2.6. y . z f yd for Class 4 cross-sections where fyd = fy/γM1. Rd M pl . Rd M pl . M y . Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject . for I and H sections.Sd + + ≤1 Af yd Wel .1 states that.29 2.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force.Sd N Sd M z . Rd ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ α β for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections M y . in which n = Nsd / Npl. for bi-axial bending the following approximate criterion may be used: ⎡ M y .Sd N Sd M z . cross-section capacity depends on the types of cross-section and applied moment. y f yd Weff .6. Rd ⎥ ⎣ M Nz .Rd.8.Sd ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ≤1 ⎢ M Ny . β = 5n but β ≥ 1. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. z f yd for Class 3 cross-sections M y . y f yd Wel . Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section when subject to uniform compression.Sd + + ≤1 N pl .4. α = 2.Sd + N Sd e Ny M z . Rd for a conservative approximation where.2.Sd + N Sd e Nz N Sd + + ≤1 Aeff f yd Weff .

30 only to moment about the relevant axis; and eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross-section is subject to uniform compression.

However, for high shear (VSd ≥ 0.5 Vpl.Rd), Clause 5.4.9 states that the design resistance of the cross-section to combinations of moment and axial force should be calculated using a reduced yield strength of (1 – ρ)fy for the shear area, where ρ = (2VSd / Vpl.Rd – 1)2.

2.6.2.2 Member Buckling Resistance

A column, subject to buckling moment, may buckle about major axis or minor axis or both. All members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.Sd must satisfy the following condition:

k y M y.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1,0 N b. y . Rd ηM c. y . Rd

where Nb.y.Rd is the design buckling resistance for major axis; Mc.y.Rd is the design moment resistance for major-axis bending, ky is the conservative value and taken as 1,5; and η = γM0 / γM1 for Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-sections, but 1,0 for Class 4.

2.7

Conclusion

This section summarizes the general steps to be taken when designing a structural member in simple construction.

31 2.7.1 Structural Beam

Table 2.1 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.1 : Criteria to be considered in structural beam design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 80ε 100ε 120ε ε = (275 / py)0.5 2.0 Shear Capacity Pv = 0.6pyAv Av = Dt Vpl.Rd = fyAv / (√3 x γM0) γM0 = 1,05 Av from section table 3.0 Moment Capacity Mc = pyS Mc = pyZ Mc = pyZeff Class 1, 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1,05 γM1 = 1,05 4.0 Bearing Capacity Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 72ε 83ε 124ε ε = (235 / fy)0,5 EC3

32

Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw Smaller of Ry.Rd = (ss + sy) tw fyw / γM1 Ra.Rd = 0,5tw2(Efyw)0,5 [(tf/tw)0,5 + 3(tw/tf)(ss/d)]/γM1 Rb.Rd = χβAfyA / γM1 5.0 Shear Buckling Resistance d/t ≤ 70ε Ratio 6.0 Deflection L / 360 Limit (Beam carrying plaster or other brittle finish) N/A Limit (Total deflection) L / 250 L / 350 d/tw ≤ 69ε

2.7.2

Structural Column

Table 2.2 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.2 : Criteria to be considered in structural column design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 80ε / 1 + r1 100ε / 1 + 1.5r1 Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 396ε / (13α – 1) 456ε / (13α – 1) EC3

y .05 γM1 = 1.0 Pc M bs p y Z y k y M y.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1.Rd = Afy / γM0 γM0 = 1.5 2.33 120ε / 1 + 2r2 r1 = Fc / dtpyw.0 Moment Resistance Mb = pbSx Mb = pbZx Mb = pbZx.05 Nc. 3 Class 4 Nc.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc. -1 < r1 ≤ 1 r2 = Fc / Agpyw ε = (275 / py) 0.05 4. 2.33ψ) ψ = 2γM0σa / fy – 1 σa = NSd / A α = 0.5(1 + γM0σw / fy) σw = NSd / dtw ε = (235 / fy)0.Rd = Aefffy / γM1 3. Rd .Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.67 + 0. Rd ηM c.eff Class 1.0 N b.0 Stability Check My F Mx + + ≤ 1 . 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.0 Compression Resistance Pc = Agpc Pc = Aeffpcs Class 1.5 Class 3 Semi-compact 42ε / (0. y .

Checking on several elements.1 for the flowchart of the methodology of this study. analyzing the tables provided and the purpose of each clause stated in the code. . design and comparison works will follow subsequently. comparison of the results will lead to recognizing the difference in design approach for each code. At the same time. Please refer to Figure 3. buckling capacity and deflection is carried out. an understanding on the cross-section classification for BS 5950 is also carried out. bearing capacity. Eventually. analysis on the difference between the results using two codes is done. Next.1 Introduction As EC3 will eventually replace BS 5950 as the new code of practice. The first step is to study and understand the cross-section classification for steel members as given in EC. moment capacity. it is necessary to study and understand the concept of design methods in EC3 and compare the results with the results of BS 5950 design.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3. such as shear capacity. Analysis. Beams and columns are designed for the maximum moment and shear force obtained from computer software analysis.

Sections 3. As the scope of this study is limited at simple construction. Please refer to Appendices A1 and A2 for the analysis worksheets created for the purpose of calculating shear force and bending moment values based on the requirements of different safety factors of both codes. that is M = wL2 / 8 V = wL / 2 where w is the uniform distributed load and L the beam span. Therefore. M and shear force.8 discuss in detail all the specifications and necessary data for the analysis of the multi-storey braced frame. Different factors of safety with reference to BS 5950 and EC3 are defined respectively. End moments are zero.35 3. Calculation of bending moment.2 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The structural analysis of the building frame will be carried out by using Microsoft Excel worksheets. Simple construction allows the connection of beam-to-column to be pinned jointed. only beam shear forces will be transferred to the structural column.4 to 3. the use of advanced structural analysis software is not needed. . V are based on simply-supported condition.

Microsoft Excel worksheets will show the calculation steps in a clear and fair manner.3 Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The design of beam and column is calculated with Microsoft Excel software. Meanwhile. Please refer to Appendices B1 to C2 for the calculation worksheets created for the purpose of the design of structural beam and column of both design codes. The method of design using BS 5950 will be based on the work example drawn by Heywood (2003). (1995). al. Furthermore. The Microsoft Excel software is used for its features that allow continual and repeated calculations using values calculated in every cell of the worksheet. . Several trial and error calculations can be used to cut down on the calculation time needed as well as prevent calculation error.36 3. the method of design using EC3 will be based on the work example drawn by Narayanan et.

1: Schematic diagram of research methodology . Moment. Combined) Pass Comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 Phase 3 END Figure 3. M=wL2/8) Design worksheet development using Microsoft Excel Beams and columns design Fail Checking (Shear.37 Determine Research Objective and Scope Phase 1 Literature Review Determination of building and frame dimension Specify loadings & other specifications Phase 2 Frame analysis using Microsoft Excel (V=wL/2.

4 Structural Layout & Specifications 3. whereas for other floors (1st to 2nd. . Two (2) lengths of bay width will be used in the analysis – 6m and 9m respectively. Each of the frame’s longitudinal length is 6m. The storey height will be 5m from ground floor to first floor. the 4-storey frame consists of four (4) bays. the storey height will be 4m. in total.38 3. a parametric study for the design of multi-storey braced frames is carried out. 6m 6m 6/9m 6/9m Figure 3. Please refer to Figure 3. 3rd to roof). there will be three (3) numbers of 4-storey frames. In plan view.2 : Floor plan view of the steel frame building.2 and Figure 3. The number of storey of the frame is set at four (4).3 for the illustrations of building plan view and elevation view respectively. 2nd to 3rd. The intermediate frame will be used as the one to be analysed and designed.1 Structural Layout In order to make comparisons of the design of braced steel frame between BS 5950-1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. 4th storey is roof while the rest will serve as normal floors.4.

2 Specifications The designed steel frame structure is meant for office for general use. As this is a simple construction. all the column-to-column connections are to be rigid.4.3 : Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame.39 4m 4m 4m 5m Figure 3. Top flange of beams are effectively restraint against lateral torsional buckling. all the beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pinned. flat roof system will be introduced to cater for some activities on roof top. Web cleats will be used as the connection method to create pinned connection. All the bays will be serving the same function. . Meanwhile. The main steel frame will consist of solely universal beam (UB) and universal column (UC). Meanwhile. All the roof bays will be used for general purposes. 3.

Therefore. Meanwhile. Therefore. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. all the values of imposed loads of both BS 5950 and EC3 design will be based on BS 6399.2 (Flat roofs) states that. 3.4kN/m2 and 3. 125mm think floor panel will be used for other floors. In this design. Therefore. a uniform load intensity of 1. For imposed roof load. Weight of concrete is given by 24kN/m3. for a flat roof with access available for cleaning.2.5 Loadings Section 2. . Table 8 (Offices occupancy class) states that the intensity of distributed load of offices for general use will be 2.3 of Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) states that the characteristic values of imposed floor load and imposed roof load must be obtained from Part 1 and Part 3 of BS 6399 respectively. repair and other general purposes.40 Precast concrete flooring system will be introduced to this project. this value will be adopted.5kN/m2 is appropriate. For precast floor selfweight. precast solid floor panel of 100mm thick was selected for flat roof. Consequently. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. all floors will be of one-way slab. Meanwhile.5kN/m2. section 6. Multiplying the thickness of the slabs. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in 9kN/m and 15kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively. the intensity of slab selfweight will be 2. The type of precast flooring system to be used will be solid precast floor panel. This value will be used as this frame model is meant for a general office usage.0kN/m2 respectively. each bay will contribute half of the load intensity to the intermediate frame.

Meanwhile. Combining the superimposed dead load with selfweight. 3. The factor γM0 is used where the failure mode is plasticity or yielding.05.2 “Buildings without cranes” of BS 5950 states that. the total dead load intensity for roof and floor slabs are 3.1. γM1. variable actions Q include live loads such as imposed load. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 4 cross-section.4. the principal combination of loads that should be taken into account will be load combination 1 – Dead load and imposed gravity loads.35. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in kN/m and 24kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively.0kN/m2 for finishes (superimposed dead load) on all floors will be assumed. permanent actions G include dead loads such as self-weight of structure. The . for imposed floor load. partial safety factors. is given by 1.1.05 as well. For other floors. 2 or 3 cross-section. and 1. in the design of buildings not subject to loads from cranes.6 for imposed load. γG is given by 1.4kN/m2 and 4kN/m2 respectively. A general load intensity of 1. γM0. a selection of floor carpets and ceramic tiles will be used.41 The finishes on the flat roof will be waterproofing membrane and decorative screed. γQ is given by 1. finishes and fittings.4 for dead load.6 Factor of Safety Section 2. In EC3. γf should be taken as 1. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 1. depending on the interior designer’s intention. γF for dead load. Meanwhile. is given by 1. for normal design situations.5. From Table 2. Partial safety factors for loads.

1. For steel grade S 355.2 “Material properties for hot rolled steel” (C-EC3) limits thickness of flange to less than or equal to 40mm for nominal yield strength fy of 275N/mm2 and larger but less than or equal to 100mm for fy of 255N/mm2. py is 275N/mm2 for thickness less than or equal to 16mm and 265N/mm2 for thickness larger but less than or equal to 40mm. 3.8.42 factor γM1 is used where the failure mode is buckling – including local buckling.4 times total dead load plus 1.6 times total imposed . fy is 355N/mm2 and 335N/mm2 respectively for the same thickness limits. 3. Meanwhile. which governs the resistance of a Class 4 (slender) cross-section. two (2) types of steel grade will be used. in the meantime. In BS 5950. design strength py is decided by the thickness of the thickest element of the cross-section (for rolled sections). According to BS 5950.7 Categories In this project. py is 355N/mm2 and 345N/mm2 respectively for the same limits of thickness. the load combination will be 1. 3.8 Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3. for Fe 510. namely S 275 (or Fe 430 as identified in EC3) and S 355 (or Fe 510 as identified in EC3).1 Load Combination This section describes the structural analysis of the steel frame. in order to justify the effect of design strength of a steel member on the strength of a steel member. For steel grade S 275.

35DL + 1.1 Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 144 187. the load combination will be 1. Table 3. The next table. V at end connections is given by V = wl/2. For all other floors.43 load (1.92 From Table 4.64kN/m. there is a difference of approximately 4. BS 5950 results in higher value of shear. For simple construction.8.7 179.2 will present the accumulating axial loads acting on the structural columns of the steel frame. the w will be 62. For the roof. the resultant load combination. Clearly.55 268. the w will be 59.4DL + 1. w. For all other floors.35 times total dead load plus 1.1.2 Shear Calculation This steel frame is pinned jointed at all beam-to-column supports. w. According to EC3.92 Bay Width 9m 216 281.5LL). the resultant load combination. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula. For the roof. the shear. will be 45.5 times total imposed load (1. will be 48kN/m. the resulting shear values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3.28 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 206.9kN/m. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width. 3.88 6m 137. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors.76kN/m.6LL).5% between the analyses of both codes. This is done by summating the resultant shear .1 below: Table 3.

4 633. 206.52 EC 3 9m 6m Ext. the resulting moment values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3.76 1061.44 force from beam of each floor. M. = External column The accumulating axial loads based on the two codes vary approximately 4.98 496.3 Moment Calculation For simple construction. structural beam moment.54 Int.2 Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) BS 5950 Floor Int. 144 331. 216 497. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula.8.68 1415.31 Int.84 707. 413.26 675.62 Ext. 3.55 475. similar with the beam shear. Table 3. Internal columns will sustain axial load two times higher than external columns of same floor level as they are connected to two beams.08 Int. 137.76 1559.Ground 288 663.94 1488.1 950.52 2123. 432 995.39 1013. Roof – 3rd 3rd – 2nd 2nd – 1st 1st .3: . can be calculated by using the formula M=wl2/8. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width.92 519.7 316.78 2026.5%.96 992. = Internal column Ext. 275.84 1039.64 6m Ext.28 Int.47 744.88 779.76 9m Ext. since all the beam-to-column connections are pinned jointed.52 1351.

6% between the analyses of both codes.92 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 464. Therefore. Me.3. there will be a moment due to eccentricity of the resultant shear from the beams. the eccentricity of the resultant shear from the face of the structural column will be 100mm.4% to 4. Subsequently. the higher the difference percentage will be.45 Table 3.55 268. the higher the load combination of a floor.23 6m 206. Since this is only preliminary analysis as well. in this case.88 Bay Width 9m 486 634. For the moments of the structural columns. there is a difference of approximately 4.3 Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 216 281. there will be no end moments being transferred from the structural beams. the depth (D for BS 5950 and h for EC 3) of a structural column is assumed to be 400mm. initially. In this project.74 605. the eccentricity moment. Regardless of the width of the bay. BS 5950 results in higher value of moment. e is the eccentricity of resultant shear from the face of column (m). . Clearly. D or h is the depth of column section (m). since this is simple construction. the depth of the column has not been decided yet. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors. However. can be determined from the following formula: Me = V (e + D/2) = V (e + h/2) where V is resultant shear of structural beam (kN).07 From Table 3.

21.4 84.4DL + 1. In simple construction. Table 3. 20.4 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) BS 5950 Floor Int.98 80. V can be expressed as V = (1. However.66 57.4 94. for internal column.78 Int.98 86.88 Int. For BS 5950. 32. 30.0DL. 20.68 These values of eccentricity moments will be useful for the estimation of initial size of a column member during structural design in later stage. The moments for floor columns will be evenly distributed as the ratio of EI1/L1 and EI2/L2 is less than 1. V can be expressed as V = (1.5.6 Int. 3.46 V for external column can be easily obtained from shear calculation. .9 Structural Beam Design Structural beam design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. serviceability check in the form of deflection check will need to be done. Next.66 53.38 9m Ext. Table 3.6LL) – 1. 32.56 6m Ext. two major checks that need to be done is shear and moment resistance at ultimate limit state. 30. For EC 3. Roof Other Floors 21.84 Ext.0DL.6 56.4 below summarizes the moment values due to eccentricity.5LL) – 1.08 EC 3 9m 6m Ext. V should be obtained by deducting the factored combination of floor dead (DL) and imposed load (LL) with unfactored floor dead load.6 63.35DL + 1.

From the section table. d/t = 50. D = 454. T = 13. 3. moment capacity and web bearing capacity. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). Depth between fillets.6mm. UB section 457x152x60 is chosen. shear capacity. Width. Sx = M / py = 281. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.47 The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the floor beam of length 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).99. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. Web thickness.3.6mm. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. Zx = 1120cm3. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 59.1mm.88kNm. Depth.3mm. b/T = 6.9mm. Sx = 1290cm3. t = 8. Plastic modulus. d = 407.92kN and 281. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. From the section table for universal beam. B = 152. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 187. Elastic modulus. ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) .9. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.1 BS 5950 In simple construction.88 x 103 / 275 = 1025cm3 From the rearranged table.8kg/m. Flange thickness.

This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section. Actual d/t did not exceed 80.1 x 454. Meanwhile.6pyAv. where neutral axis is at mid-depth. which is smaller than 9ε = 9.6Pv = 0.3 “Shear capacity” is checked. actual d/t = 50. section 4. Mc = pySx.92kN Therefore.4.0.5 states that if the d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for a rolled section. therefore. Next. Av = 8.26 x 10-3 = 607.2. where Av = tD for a rolled I-section.57 = 364. Pv = 0. clause 4. section 4. Shear capacity. shear buckling resistance should be checked.6 x 607. 0. Therefore.4. web is Class 1 plastic section.3. flange is Class 1 plastic section. For class 1 plastic cross-section.57kN > Fv = 187.26mm2 Pv = 0. Next.6 x 275 x 3682.5 “Moment capacity.0 Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950.48 = 1.75. Mc = 275 x 1290 x 10-3 . this section is Class 1 plastic section. Since actually d/t < 70.0 in this design.2. Actual b/T = 5. Since both flange and web are plastic. it is low shear. For web of I-section. Mc” is checked. Therefore.5 is checked.54kN > Fv Therefore.6 = 3682.0.0. shear capacity is adequate. shear buckling needs not be checked. the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε = 80. After clause 4.

2 = 23.6kNm > Mc.1 + 1.6be/k. Mc should be limited to 1.3 = 51.2pyZx.1 x 275 x 10-3 = 218. Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw r = 10. n = 2 + 0.6r + 2T (Figure 13) = 8. moment capacity is adequate.3 + 10.2 x 275 x 1120 x 10-3 = 369.02mm Pbw = 98.2 “Bearing capacity of web” is checked. bearing capacity of web.2 + 2 x 13.34kN > Fv = 187. section 4.02 x 8. M = 281. 1. be = 0.2mm b1 = t + 1. bearing stiffener should be provided.49 = 354.92kN .5mm At support.5.75kNm Therefore.75kNm To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads.6 x 10. If Fv exceeds Pbw.02mm k=T+r = 13.2pyZx = 1.88kNm from analysis < Mc = 354. To prevent crushing of the web due to forces applied through a flange. OK. therefore. n = 2 b1 + nk = 98.

the serviceability limit state check (Section 2. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check.5) should be conducted. only unfactored imposed load shall be used to calculate the deflection. Therefore. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length.0m E = 205kN/mm2 I = 25500cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. L = 6. Generally.84mm Table 8 (Suggested limits for calculated deflections) suggests that for “beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish).67mm >δ Therefore. the vertical deflection limit should be L/360. the deflection is satisfactory. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value. the bearing capacity at support is adequate. This is done in the form of deflection check. The section is adequate. . w = 15kN/m for floors. δlim = 6000 / 360 = 16. However.50 Therefore. δ. In this case. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done.

d = 360. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.9mm.y (cm3). it is adequate to be used. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. Wpl.92kNm. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. Flange thickness.9cm3 From the rearranged table. Av = 32. Depth between fillets. tf = 10.y = 1051cm3.6mm.y = M / py = 268.9cm2. moment capacity.2 EC 3 In simple construction. Therefore.92 x 103 / 275 = 977.4mm. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.y = 927cm3. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl. Area of . Width.28kN and 268. b = 177. 3. Elastic modulus.6mm. Wel. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 54kg/m. Web thickness. crippling and buckling.51 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. Plastic modulus.9. Wpl. UB section 406x178x54 is chosen. Depth. resistance of web to crushing. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. From the section table. h = 402. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 179. lateral torsional buckling. tw = 7. shear capacity.6mm. From the section table for universal beam. Shear area.

Therefore.4. Iy = 18670cm4.1. 0.9mm.1 “Shear resistance of cross-section” of beam is checked. tf ≤ 40mm. yield strength. These values must be adopted as characteristic values in calculations.6cm2. fy = 275N/mm2 and ultimate tensile strength. VSd = 179.5Vpl.6 for Class 1 elements.36cm.52 section. From Table 5.5.Rd = (32. UB section 406x178x54 is Class 1 section. A = 68. limiting c/tf ratio (c is half of b) is 9. flange subject to compression only”.2.9 x 100 x 275) / (√3 x 1.6. Actual c/tf = 8.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0.15. d/tw = 47.5 x 497. for “outstand element of compression flange. Actual d/tw = 47.28kN . fu = 430N/mm2. aLT = 131cm.49kN > VSd = 179.6(a).28kN Therefore. Based on Table 3. shear resistance is sufficient.28kN γM0 = 1. Second moment of area. iLT = 4. For “web subject to bending. c/tf = 8.Rd.48 = 298. The design value of shear force.15 ≤ 9.Rd = 0. VSd from analysis at each cross-section should not exceed the design plastic shear resistance Vpl. Before checks are done for ultimate limit states. Flange is Class 1 element.2 for Class 1 elements.48kN > 179. tf = 10. Next.05 Vpl. Web is Class 1 element. that is Vpl.4 ≤ 66. For S275 (Fe 430). neutral axis at mid depth”. section classification is a must. section 5.05) = 497. limiting d/tw ratio is 66.

For low shear. sy = tf(bf/tw)0. section 5. Therefore.1 for steel grade Fe 430 and Fe 510 respectively.y fy / γM0 for Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section.5 .6 “Resistance of webs to transverse forces” requires transverse stiffeners to be provided in any case that the design value VSd applied through a flange to a web exceeds the smallest of the following – Crushing resistance.Rd and buckling resistance.5.Rd = (ss + sy) twfyw / γM1 where at support. Section 5.53 Therefore. Ra. Ry. Actual d/tw = 47. shear buckling check is not required.92kNm Mc.2 “Moment resistance of cross-section with low shear” the design value of moment MSd must not exceed the design moment resistance of the cross-section Mc. low shear.Rd. Rb. section 5.5 [1 – (γM0 σf.8.26kNm > MSd Therefore. The beam is fully restrained. Section 5.5.5[fyf/fyw]0. Ry.4 < 63.8 and 56. not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling.5. the moment capacity is sufficient. MSd = 268. crippling resistance.6 “Shear buckling” requires that webs must have transverse stiffeners at the supports if d/tw is greater than 63.Rd.05 = 275. For crushing resistance.Ed/fyf)2]0.Rd = Wpl. Therefore.5 “Lateral-torsional buckling” needs not be checked.Rd = 1051 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.

A = 227. bending moment is zero.5 [402.5 = 52.05 = 307.5 [(10.5 + a + ss/2 = 0. sy = 10.5 [(tf/tw)0.5 + 3(tw/tf) (ss/d)] / γM1 ss/d = 50 / 360. ss = 50mm at support.8 x 7.5tw2 (Efyw)0. OK.62 + 502]0. Ra.Rd = 0.14 ≤ 0.5[h2 + ss2]0.6 / 7.7mm. γM0 = 1.9)(0.5 x 7.54 At support.5 + 3(7.Rd = 0.Ed = 0.4kN For crippling resistance.05.9 (177.6/10.14)] / 1. Rb. OK γM1 = 1.69mm Ry.28mm2 .9/7.05 E = 210kN/mm2 Ra.5 + 0 + 50/2 = 227.Rd = (50 + 52.6)0.8kN For buckling resistance.8mm beff should be less than [h2 + ss2]0.6 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.4 = 0.6)0.62 (210000 x 275)0.Rd = βA fc A / γM1 A = beff x tw beff = 0. σf.2.05 = 204.6 = 1731.5 = 405. fyf = 275N/mm2.69) x 7.

2) should be conducted.4 / 7. buckling about y-y axis. (Permanent load) .Rd = 204. fc = 119. δmax = δ1 + δ2 – δ0 (hogging δ0 = 0 at unloaded state) w1 = 27. From Figure 4. OK.55 βA = 1 γM1 = 1.8N/mm2 Rb. which is larger than VSd = 179. λ√βA = 118. curve (a) is used.6 From Table 5.28 x 10-3 / 1. λ = 2.Rd = 307.8 x 1731.1. This is done in the form of deflection check.8kN Ry.13 (rolled I-section).5kN Ra.4kN Minimum of the 3 values are 197.05 For ends restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement (Table 5. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value.5 d/t = 2. the serviceability limit state check (Section 4.6 λ√βA = 118.Rd = 1 x 119. Therefore.28kN. Generally. deflection should take into account deflection due to both permanent loads and imposed loads. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done. the web of the section can resist transverse forces.5kN.05 = 197.29).6kN/m for floors. fc = 117N/mm2 By interpolation.5 x 360.6 = 118. fc = 121N/mm2 λ√βA = 120.

δ.6 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 11. the deflection is satisfactory.0m E = 210kN/mm2 Iy = 18670cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection.34mm Therefore. (Imposed load) L = 6. δlim. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI δ1 = 5 x 27. The section is adequate. However. In this case. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length.1 (Recommended limiting values for vertical deflections) suggests that for “floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-flexible partitions”.88mm δ2 = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 6. the vertical deflection limit should be L/350 for δ2 and L/250 for δmax.14mm > δ2 δlim. 2 = 6000 / 350 = 17. .46mm Table 4.56 w2 = 15kN/m for floors. max = 6000 / 250 = 24mm > δ1 + δ2 = 18.

57 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. Therefore, it is adequate to be used.

3.10

Structural Column Design

Structural column design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. In simple construction, apart from section classification, two major checks that need to be done is compression and combined axial and bending at ultimate limit state.

The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the internal column “ground floor to 1st floor” (length 5m) of the steel frame with bay width 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).

3.10.1 BS 5950

In simple construction, apart from section classification, necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be compression resistance and combined axial force and moment. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1415.52kN and 63.08kNm respectively.

From the section table for universal column, the sections are rearranged in ascending form, first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.

Sx = M / py

58 = 63.08 x 103 / 275 = 229.4cm3

From the rearranged table, UC section 203x203x60 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.

From the section table, the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 60kg/m; Depth, D = 209.6mm; Width, B = 205.2mm; Web thickness, t = 9.3mm; Flange thickness, T = 14.2mm; Depth between fillets, d = 160.8mm; Plastic modulus, Sx = 652cm3; Elastic modulus, Zx = 581.1cm3; Radius of gyration, rx = 8.96cm, ry = 5.19cm; Gross area, Ag = 75.8cm2; b/T = 7.23 (b = 0.5B); d/t = 17.3.

T < 16mm, therefore, py = 275N/mm2 ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) = 1.0

Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950. Actual b/T = 7.23, which is smaller than 9ε = 9.0. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section (Outstand element of compression flange). Therefore, flange is Class 1 plastic section. Meanwhile, actual d/t = 17.3. For web of I-section under axial compression and bending, the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε / 1 + r1, where r1 is given by r1 = Fc / dtpy. r1 = 1415.52 x 103 / 160.8 x 9.3 x 275 = 3.44 but -1 < r1 ≤ 1, therefore, r1 = 1 Limiting d/t value = 80 x 1 / 1 + 1 = 40

59 > Actual d/t = 17.3 Therefore, the web is Class 1 plastic section. Since both flange and web are plastic, this section is Class 1 plastic section.

Next, based on section 4.7.2 “Slenderness” and section 4.7.3 “Effective lengths”, and from Table 22 (Restrained in direction at one end), the effective length, LE = 0.85L = 0.85 x 5000 = 4250mm. λx = LEx / rx = 4250 / 8.96 x 10 = 47.4

Next, based on section 4.7.4 “Compression resistance”, for class 1 plastic section, compression resistance, Pc = Agpc. pc is the compressive strength determined from Table 24. For buckling about x-x axis, T < 40mm, strut curve (b) is used. λx = 46, pc = 242N/mm2 λx = 48, pc = 239N/mm2 From interpolation, λx = 47.4, pc = 239.9N/mm2 Pc = Agpc = 75.8 x 100 x 239.9 x 10-3 = 1818.44kN > Fc = 1415.52kN Therefore, compressive resistance is adequate.

pb = 260. when only nominal moments are applied.78 x 652 x 10-3 = 170.03kNm .78N/mm2 Mb = pbSx = 260. λLT = 45. From frame analysis.17.5. The moment is distributed between the column lengths above and below 1st floor. the moment will be equally divided.54kNm. for columns in simple construction. is assumed to be acting 100mm from the face of the column. My / pyZy = 0 Equivalent slenderness λLT of column is given by λLT = 0. For EI / L1st-2nd : EI / Lground-1st < 1.08kNm. M = 31.60 Next. the beam reaction. pb = 250N/mm2 λLT = 50.19 x 10 = 48. therefore. Section 4.5 x 5000 / 5.5L / ry = 0. Therefore. R.17 From Table 16 (Bending strength pb for rolled sections). in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length. the column should satisfy the relationship (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) + (My / pyZy) ≤ 1 My = 0. Mi = 63.7 “Columns in simple structures”. pb = 233N/mm2 From interpolation.7. λLT = 48.

necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be cross-section resistance (in the form of moment resistance) and in-plane failure about major axis (which is a combination of axial force and eccentricity moment).2 EC 3 In simple construction.54 / 170.52 / 1818. 3. UC section 254x254x73 is chosen. the combined resistance against axial force and eccentricity moment is adequate. apart from section classification. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Therefore.5cm3 From the rearranged table. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1351.y (cm3). it is adequate to be used. The moment will then be divided by the design strength fy to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.03 = 0.08kN and 57. This section satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.96 < 1. Wpl. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.10. .y = MSd / fy = 57. From the section table for universal column.0 Therefore.88kNm respectively.61 (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) = 1415.88 x 103 / 275 = 210.44 + 31. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl.

3.46cm.6 = 784. fu = 430N/mm2 Sectional classification is based on Table 5. Av = 25. the web is Class 1. section 5.5. Web thickness. Wpl.6mm.2. Actual c/tf = 8. c/tf = 8. the limiting values of c/tf for Class 1 and 2 are 9. For web subject to bending and compression.3.5b).62 From the section table.94 < 9. with d/tw = 23. Therefore.2 and 10. Width.2mm. Depth. Shear area. iLT = 6. Actual c/tf = 8.8 gives the limiting values of stress σw for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections.2 x 8.2mm < 40mm. For symmetric I-section of Class 1 or 2.y = 895cm3. flange is Class 1 element.08 x 103 / 200. Second moment of area. the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 73kg/m. iz = 6. From this table.2mm. Next. this section is Class 1 section. d/tw = 23. .2 respectively.73N/mm2 Table 5. Wel. tf = 14. for outstand element of compression flange (flange subject to compression only). Beforehand. Depth between fillets. σw.6(a) of C-EC3 for Class 1 elements. from. h = 254mm.86cm.94 (c = 0.6cm2.9cm2. Since both flange and web are plastic. b = 254mm. Area of section. the classification depends on the mean web stress.8. Elastic modulus. therefore. Flange thickness. tw = 8.y = 990cm3. A = 92. fy = 275N/mm2.6 “Axially loaded members with moments” will be checked. Iy = 11370cm4.1. d = 200. section 5. Radius of gyration. tf = 14. iy = 11. σw = NSd / dtw = 1351.94. Plastic modulus.1cm. aLT = 98. From Table 5.5cm.

63 Vpl.3kNm MNy.1 = 0.1 : MNy.11 Mpl.555) . n = NSd / Npl.Sd / L = 57.05) = 387.1 : MNy.y fy / γM0 = 990 x 10-3 x 275 / 1.y.6 x 102 x 275) x 10-3 / (√3 x 1.Rd = 1.5Vpl.Rd = Wpl.y. From Table 5.Sd Therefore.11 x 259.27.Rd n ≥ 0.3 x (1 – 0.Rd is such that n < 0.555 ≥ 0.Rd Reduced design plastic moment.Rd (1 – n) Npl.88 x 103 / 5000 = 11.58kN 0.08 / 2433.1kN n = 1351.y. allowing for axial force.05 = 259.Rd = Mpl.9 x 102 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.Rd = 1.1 Therefore.1kN Maximum applied shear load (at top of column) is Vmax.Rd > Vmax.Rd (1 – n) Mpl.y.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0 = (25. MN.Sd = My.11 Mpl.Rd = A fy / γM0 = 92. MNy.05 = 2433.Rd = 1. the section is subject to a low shear.

y.2 “Axial compression and major axis bending” states that all members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.Sd must satisfy the expression (NSd / Nb. Lastly.85 x 5000 = 4250mm Slenderness ratio λy = Ly / iy = 4250 / 11.85L = 0.1kNm > MSd = 28. λy√βA = 38. section 5. fc = 249.3 Based on Table 5.1 x 10 = 38.3.13 “Selection of buckling curve for fc”. βA = 1 λy√βA = 38.64 = 128.Rd) + (kyMy.0 Ly = 0.Sd / ηMc. the moment resistance is sufficient.7N/mm2 . for buckling about y-y axis.6. fc = 248N/mm2 From interpolation.94kNm Therefore.y. fc = 250N/mm2 λy√βA = 40.3.3 tf ≤ 40mm λy√βA = 38. buckling curve (b) is used.Rd) ≤ 1.

This section 254x254x73 UC satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.5 (Conservative value) η = γM0 / γM1 =1 (NSd / Nb.94 / 1 x 128.5 x 28.y.05 = 2209. .Rd) + (kyMy.05 = 1 x 249. γM1 = 1. Therefore. the resistance against in-plane failure against major axis is sufficient.7 x 92.0 Therefore.y.08 / 2209.Rd) = (1351.3kN ky = interaction factor about yy axis = 1.1) = 0.65 Nb.95 < 1.y. it is adequate to be used.3) + (1.Sd / ηMc.Rd = βA fc A / γM1.9 x 102 x 10-3 / 1.

CHAPTER IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The results of the structural design of the braced steel frame (beam and column) are tabulated and compiled in the next sections. and weight of steel.1 for shear capacity and Table 5. based on steel grade S275 and S355. Here. The results are arranged accordingly. structural capacity is sub-divided into beam and column.1 Structural Beam UB sections ranging from 305x102x25 to 533x210x122 are being tabulated in ascending form. . 4.2 for moment capacity. 4.1 Structural Capacity Structural capacity deals with shear and moment resistance of a particular section chosen. namely structural capacity. deflection. The results based on BS 5950 and EC3 calculation are compiled together to show the difference between each other.1. Shear capacity and moment capacity of each section are being calculated separately. The results are shown in Table 4.

56 -5.78 456.09 -2.7 -0.13 1091.72 -12.91 -19.74 2.56 3.35 793.13 19.74 0.53 564.79 12.7 9.28 8.47 831.51 384.15 3.19 4.81 -2.02 12.62 515.95 2.32 877.56 400.79 2.5 1.5 -0.96 666.47 596.27 0.27 0.66 497.98 1134.51 -4.94 2.93 11.32 860.78 -20.74 2.74 594.74 -0.11 -2 2.94 2.19 387.26 2.81 -3.6 1.99 15.71 429.15 507.5 1.85 854.33 409.41 925.28 554.06 1.35 730.99 918.4 -0.55 712.77 1146.55 583.09 773.92 2.13 705.97 392.53 943.81 523.26 888.14 .05 607.82 2.85 767.92 394.27 819.2 777.3 14.32 EC 3 (kN) 366.52 443.08 2.21 15.92 588.65 0.66 24.38 20.36 11.56 878.61 345.67 Table 4.99 589.88 -18.83 0.4 0.78 942.83 938.45 -1.48 759.86 1204.63 12.4 0.48 517.79 2.31 2.47 545.55 1.33 577.55 522.29 5.09 1012.65 420.56 S275 Difference (kN) 7.11 1218.68 1007.45 623.6 405.03 4.14 18.84 727.86 -0.7 -0.6 10.6 14.27 13.02 496.77 6.1 -2.94 559.66 704.68 6.32 10.81 -3.32 783.14 784.16 4.46 2.28 303.79 2.56 15.06 EC 3 (kN) 284.64 5.95 404.47 341.96 6.26 -8.24 0.74 393.57 680.81 528.51 1.77 728.15 -16.19 1.21 -24.5 642.57 13.18 8.73 -2.04 % Diff.93 334.5 1.5 -0.85 517.16 1057.35 -1.14 583.64 0.81 1024.82 2.44 2.42 820.65 635.66 5.2 447.39 1.78 15.22 2.35 431.38 811.69 4.37 609.16 551.52 439.02 698.39 511.2 -2.93 1.37 399.24 3.31 446.55 3.44 471.17 8. BS 5950 (kN) 376.58 34.7 1.87 -0.33 862.51 18.07 942.4 -10.69 -1.34 523.64 0.79 11.21 441.23 -9.53 356.77 -3.5 461.37 338.46 -3.61 340.98 305.02 6.65 724.09 -2.55 1.15 3.62 1.88 876.99 660.75 437.15 343.27 845. 2.6 1.55 617.5 1102.89 678.73 -3.72 % Diff.18 358.21 668.29 452.38 1.93 11.38 1.85 405.91 1011.93 1.5 S355 Difference (kN) 9.21 667.09 16.58 753.87 433.19 1.58 308.59 460.25 382.75 -13.86 619.65 0.34 44.1 493.2 1102.27 14.65 846.39 462.8 800.78 541.06 1.3 683.78 -25.1 Shear capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 291.57 -2.11 -1.38 542.79 398.83 0.84 300.46 478.67 644.5 529.

For steel grade S275.6 as suggested by BS 5950.85 EC 3 (kNm) 88 106.35 -0.05 1099.83 132.94 162.01 -16.77 4.Rd = (Av x fy) / (γM0 x √3) … (EC3) … (BS 5950) Av is obtained from section table.69% to 4.64 The difference is based on deduction of shear capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.21 -1.57 -4.35 217.86 125.41 143.76 4.68 533x210x109 533x210x122 995.98 141.28 148.06 % Diff.44 1300.06%.59 5.8 8.3% less than 0. which is approximately 8.57% to 4. these facts explain the reason why shear capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.62 182. This value.43 -1.58 4. BS 5950 (kNm) 121.03 1440.51 1007.94 -12. varies with Av = Dt as suggested by BS 5950.58 -9.49 1295.43 160. 6.59 5.56 S355 Difference (kNm) 7.2 Moment capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 94.06%. 1 / (γM0 x √3) ≈ 0.59 4.45 1431.57 206.78 11.97 EC 3 (kNm) 113. Most of the values given are lesser than Dt value.76 191. meanwhile.23 168.43 3.07 170.43 3.3 6.55.06 1115.05 3. the difference percentage ranges from -2.13 -0.97 6. Therefore.6 137. the difference percentage ranges from -3. For steel grade S355. There are a few explanations to the variations.05 110.07 . however.29 S275 Difference (kNm) 6.6 py Av Av = Dt Vpl. Table 4.07 6.91 % Diff.81 5. Negative value indicates that the shear capacity calculated from EC3 is higher than that from BS 5950.13 8.14 8. The shear capacity of a structural beam is given by Pv = 0. Also.

02 377.43 4.46 5.48 5.65 590.95 385.73 2.5 14.12 5. For steel grade S275.29 2.33 192.14 3.83 5.65 749.41% to 6. the difference percentage ranges from 0.98 20.43%.33 221.52 11.75 484.26 317.95 566.1 539 619.41 19.9 900.8 1082.43 4.13 246.5 354.13 318.49 15.75 332.52 434.07 609.11 261.97 14.02 315.49 5.32 0.85 5.4 264.29 1.14 410.73 19.27 14.32 1.24 1.3 426 479.17 24.3 695.7 18. For steel grade S355.17 171.5 390.83 4.45 234.88 10.1 285.29 202.58% to 6.55 257.99 4.05 585.22 13.81 529. .05 11.25 5.35 302.95 514.95 479.69 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 195.16 9.45 769.58 5.96 10.6 5.5 457.25 497.93 885.24 17.06 11.75 631.83 275.01 4.66 5.1 220.44 14.29 15.75 398.28 5.39 682.08 6.08 5.34 404.55 9.38 8.9 11.31 4.41 221.35 693.65 404.5 5.1 1.5 44.53 549.45 521.98 24.2 291.86 8.37 16.08 252.71 9.55 4.62 7.67 20.11 5.67 425.23 213.44 12.48 17.28 5. Positive value indicates that the moment capacity calculated from EC3 is lower than that from BS 5950.35 1104 238.05 336.87 4.7 211.63 4.85 11.98 352.65 244.1 244.78 487.83 1.55 433.67 685.08 510.68 560.31 19.5 34.75 300.84 13.95 189.17 7.53 1.51 1.86 4.75 199. meanwhile.36 2.75 431.95 848 184.35 624.3 4.11 5.95 755.55 21.16 5.57 5.53 5.33 181.85 585.5 654.85 27.01 4.53 171.01 182.93 740.75 562.28 15.55 429.8 799.5 330 371.1 5.85 5.26 312.77 233.21 287.06 0.19 370.4 838.94 10.16 5.87 4.72 9.53 5.42 5.33 471.27 1.96 21.05 0.69 188.47 955.68 0.24 1.25 453.57 5.6 300.5 691.05 232.86 4.65 149.5 302.4 277.45 18.49 5.57 355.65 5.9 619.52 395.3 844.5 15.66 2.9 163.25 397.03%.68 12 13.33 198 232.89 1.02 18.92 13.6 341. the difference percentage ranges from 1.95 532.55 4.24 376.04 1.25 517.32 10.79 141.63 7.91 The difference is based on deduction of moment capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.45 976.1 5.44 4.11 242.05 35.61 4.95 24.17 255.2 24.41 5.17 27.08 358.95 275.02 455.78 15.63 4.35 731.5 479.73 21.

A study is conducted to determine independently compression and bending moment capacity of structural column with actual length of 5m. 4.y fy / γM0 … (BS 5950) … (EC3) From EC3 equation.95. whether it is Class 1.3. are revised. Besides that. for a UB section 406x178x54. sectional classification tables – Table 11 and Table 5. there are some variations between plastic modulus specified by BS 5950 section table and EC3 section table.70 There are a few explanations to the variations.2 Structural Column In determining the structural capacity of a column.3 shows the result and percentage difference of compression resistance while Table 4.y) are 1060cm3 and 1051cm3 respectively. these facts explain the reason why moment capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950. Class 2 or Class 3 element.0 as suggested by BS 5950. Therefore. The moment capacity of a structural beam is given by Mc = py Sx Mc.1 of BS 5950 and EC3 respectively.1. 1 / γM0 ≈ 0. BS 5950 only provides a clearer guideline to the classification of Class 3 semi-compact section. Table 4.85%. Meanwhile. This is approximately 5% less than 1. For example. plastic modulus based on BS 5950 (Sx) and EC3 (Wpl.Rd = Wpl. EC3 provides better guidelines to classify a section web. For a column web subject to bending and compression. .4 shows the result and percentage difference of moment resistance. There is a variation of approximately 0.

**71 Table 4.3 Compression resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 1027.63 1403.56 1588.95 1818.44 2199.15 2667.72 2341.45 2878.73 3454.34 4291.41 5419.6 3205.31 3901.39 4553.57 5256.95 6612.78 8028.11 9489.33 EC 3 (kN) 956.1 1323.8 1500 1721.2 2067.3 2508.5 2209.3 2715.9 3269.7 4057.6 5117.3 3025.8 3695.7 4292 4965.7 6242.4 7572.7 8958.9 S275 Difference (kN) 71.53 79.76 88.95 97.24 131.85 159.22 132.15 162.83 184.64 233.81 302.3 179.51 205.69 261.57 291.25 370.38 455.41 530.43 S355 Difference (kN) 117.66 142.41 158.24 170.26 213.57 255.76 209.85 256.99 295.49 375.39 486.02 271.11 310.04 385.76 426.68 530.78 641.15 735.89

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kN) 1259.66 1773.41 2007.94 2298.26 2780.37 3373.46 2982.65 3668.29 4402.89 5474.39 6918.72 4097.01 4987.14 5821.16 6720.88 8455.58 10267.55 12138.99

EC 3 (kN) 1142 1631 1849.7 2128 2566.8 3117.7 2772.8 3411.3 4107.4 5099 6432.7

% Diff.

6.96 5.68 5.6 5.35 6 5.97 5.64 5.66 5.35 5.45 5.58 5.6 5.27 5.74 5.54 5.6 5.67 5.59

9.34 8.03 7.88 7.41 7.68 7.58 7.04 7.01 6.71 6.86 7.02 6.62 6.22 6.63 6.35 6.28 6.24 6.06

3825.9 4677.1 5435.4 6294.2 7924.8 9626.4 11403.1

**Table 4.4 Moment resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 69.47 129.03 146.73 167.96 205.13 249.38 277.94 344.27 413.51 EC 3 (kNm) 80.9 130.2 148.5 171.3 209.8 256.4 259.3 320.8 388.7 S275 Difference (kNm) -11.43 -1.17 -1.77 -3.34 -4.67 -7.02 18.64 23.47 24.81 S355 Difference (kNm) -30.81 -7.67 -9.49 -12.6 -16.45 -21.92 14.12 17.68 16.48

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kNm) 73.69 160.33 182.21 208.5 254.35 309.08 348.82 431.88 518.18

EC 3 (kNm) 104.5 168 191.7 221.1 270.8 331 334.7 414.2 501.7

% Diff.

-16.45 -0.91 -1.21 -1.99 -2.28 -2.81 6.71 6.82 6

-41.81 -4.78 -5.21 -6.04 -6.47 -7.09 4.05 4.09 3.18

72

254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 521.91 669.51 438.6 538.83 633.77 738.82 946.51 1168.56 1403.39 490.3 633.3 416.2 511.2 600.5 700.6 900.4 1111.3 1287.4 31.61 36.21 22.4 27.63 33.27 38.22 46.11 57.26 115.99 6.06 5.41 5.11 5.13 5.25 5.17 4.87 4.9 8.26 653.96 838.26 575.44 705.68 828.47 964.08 1231.05 1515.42 1815.14 632.9 817.5 537.2 660 775.3 904.4 1162.4 1434.5 1676 21.06 20.76 38.24 45.68 53.17 59.68 68.65 80.92 139.14 3.22 2.48 6.65 6.47 6.42 6.19 5.58 5.34 7.67

Shear capacity designed by BS 5950 is overall higher than EC3 design by the range of 5.27 – 6.96% and 6.22 – 9.34% for steel grade S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) respectively. This is mainly due to the partial safety factor γM1 of 1,05 imposed by EC3 in the design. Also, the compression strength fc determined from Table 5.14(a) of EC3 is less than the compression strength pc determined from Table 24 of BS 5950.

Meanwhile, as the size of section increases, the difference percentage changes from -16.45% to 8.26% for S275 (Fe 460) and -41.81% to 7.67% for S355 (Fe 510). This means that smaller sizes designed by EC3 have higher moment capacity than BS 5950 design. From the moment capacity formula of BS 5950,

Mb = pbSx

pb depends on equivalent slenderness λLT, which is also dependant on the member length. The bigger the member size, the higher the radius of gyration, ry is. Therefore, pb increases with the increase in member size.

However, moment capacity based on EC3 design,

Mpl.y.Rd = Wpl.y fy / γM0

73 The moment capacity is not dependant on equivalent slenderness. Therefore, when member sizes increase, eventually, the moment capacity based on EC3 is overtaken by BS 5950 design.

4.2

Deflection

Table 4.5 shows the deflection values due to floor imposed load. In BS 5950, this is symbolized as δ while for EC3, this is symbolized as δ2.

**Table 4.5 Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load
**

UB SECTION BS 5950 (δ, mm) 27.56 22.99 19 17.22 15.06 12.89 14.53 12.47 10.55 14.97 12.11 10.2 8.76 7.72 6.33 9.88 7.86 6.6 5.72 5.08 4.52 L = 6.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 27.62 22.16 18.54 16.83 14.77 12.68 14.1 12.13 10.31 14.71 11.93 9.98 8.51 7.51 6.17 9.71 7.69 6.46 5.6 4.95 4.39 Difference (mm) -0.06 0.83 0.46 0.39 0.29 0.21 0.43 0.34 0.24 0.26 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.13 % Diff. -0.22 3.61 2.42 2.26 1.93 1.63 2.96 2.73 2.27 1.74 1.49 2.16 2.85 2.72 2.53 1.72 2.16 2.12 2.1 2.56 2.88 BS 5950 (δ, mm) 139.53 116.41 96.17 87.18 76.23 65.25 73.54 63.14 53.43 75.77 61.28 51.66 44.33 39.07 32.06 50.01 39.81 33.43 28.94 25.72 22.9 L = 9.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 139.83 112.19 93.86 85.2 74.79 64.19 71.36 61.42 52.2 74.49 60.42 50.51 43.09 38 31.23 49.17 38.94 32.68 28.33 25.08 22.25 Difference (mm) -0.3 4.22 2.31 1.98 1.44 1.06 2.18 1.72 1.23 1.28 0.86 1.15 1.24 1.07 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.75 0.61 0.64 0.65 % Diff. -0.22 3.63 2.4 2.27 1.89 1.62 2.96 2.72 2.3 1.69 1.4 2.23 2.8 2.74 2.59 1.68 2.19 2.24 2.11 2.49 2.84

305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74

68 2.43 2.74 4.05 0. for a floor beam of 6m long.22% to 3.04 0.54 2.83 13.16 11.55 From Table 4.66 2.07 0.29 0.7 2.8 1. It also indicates that deflection value calculated from BS 5950 is normally higher than that from EC3.25 13.22 28.16 9.98 21.75 2.1 0. Section 3.03 9.37 2.77 16.13 0.93 2. However.35 0.23 0.26 2.59 2.38 2.34 1. the major difference between the deflection designs of these two codes is the total deflection.3 “Other properties” of BS 5950 states that E = 205kN/mm2.73 1.53 0.5 above.1.63 2.08 0.33 12.1 0.64 4.33 0.51 0. the difference percentage ranges from -0.1 0.29 0.41 1.4 2. Meanwhile. for a floor beam of 9m long. there is also slight difference between second moment of area in both codes.26 0.25 0. This is basically same as the range of beam length 6m.51 21. Meanwhile.75 18.33 4.56 2.1.46 2.08 21.58 0. Meanwhile. .85 1.42 0.63 19.55 23. subject to 15kN/m of unfactored imposed floor load.06 0.85 1.77 2.47 29.34 18.61 3.74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 5.25 2. δmax.4 0.13 8. the difference percentage ranges from -0.25 16.27 3. For example.71 3.33 3.25 2.83 20.7 2.08 0.01 0.9 9. Ix = 16000cm4 from BS 5950 section table.96 1.24 2.26 18.06 0. EC3 requires deflection due to permanent dead load to be included in the final design. as required by EC3.52 0.79 16. E.46 2. Apart from that. for a section 356x171x57. Iy = 16060cm4 from EC3 section table.21 2.37 4.2 3.7 2.66 0. The minor differences had created differences between the deflection values.19 2.56 2.32 10.32 0. Different from BS 5950.07 1.04 2.21 3.61%.22% to 3.45 14.56 2. The first explanation for this difference is the modulus of elasticity value.85 15.68 13.4 2. section 3.4 “Design values of material coefficients” of C-EC3 states that E = 210kN/mm2.06 0.84 4.01 1.01 2.36 8.63%.12 17.31 2.78 3.84 11.6 2.05 0.49 2.71 3.77 4.1 3.62 5.07 0.18 1.21 24.16 1.

external columns and internal columns have been designed for the most optimum size.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x52 203x203x86 9. the results of the design (size of structural members) are tabulated in Table 4.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .122 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x60 4.3 Economy of Design After all the roof beams.7 for BS 5950 and EC3 design respectively.6 and Table 4.75 4. the weight of steel will be used as a gauge. floor beams.889 152x152x23 152x152x37 152x152x37 203x203x52 3. To compare the economy of the design.744 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 7. Table 4.6 Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 1 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 2 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 3 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 4 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x191x67 406x140x46 406x140x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd .750 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x152x60 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .

4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .889 9.8 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Types of Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.7 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 356x171x45 To 2nd Storey 2nd .313 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 9.313 9.821 .750 4.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.8.744 EC3 4.571 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.76 Table 4.821 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) Summary of the total steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.645 3. is tabulated in Table 4.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .122 9.9. meanwhile.571 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd . Table 4.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9. The saving percentage.

unaffected by the effect of imposed load deflection. Regardless of bay width. This is because deeper. larger hot-rolled section is required to provide adequate moment capacity and also stiffness against deflection.750 9.60 17. beam spans and steel grade designed by using BS 5950 offer weight savings as compared with EC3.571 9.96%.42 15. The percentage savings for braced steel frame with 9m span is higher than that one with 6m span.29 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) As shown in Table 4. This time.889 EC3 4.821 4.96 5. BS 5950 design allowed lighter section. This is because overall deflection was considered in EC3 design. the percentage savings by using BS 5950 are higher than EC3 for S355 steel grade with respect to S275 steel grade.60% to 17. Meanwhile. The percentage of saving offered by BS 5950 design ranges from 1.744 3. depending on the steel grade. the connections of beam-to-column were assumed to be “partial strength connection”. Further check on the effect of deflection was done. Semi-continuous .77 Table 4. This resulted in higher percentage difference.313 % 1.9 EC3 design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.122 7.645 9. all frame types.9.

4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .5. Columns remained the same as there was no change in the value of eccentricity moment and axial force.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4. β is treated as β = 3.0. This is different from pinned joint in simple construction.10 shown.503 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4. For uniformly distributed loading.78 frame is achieved in this condition.749 Roof Section Designation (Semi-continous) Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) .211 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x178x52 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd . The renewed beam sections are tabulated in Table 4. Table 4.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . the deflection value is given as: δ = βwL4 / 384EI For a span with connections having a partial strength less than 45%.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 8. where zero “support” stiffness corresponds to a value of β = 5. the deflection coefficient. Please refer to Appendix D for a redesign work after the β value had been revised and the section redesigned to withstand bending moment from analysis process.10 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x151x67 406x140x46 356x127x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd . which was used in the beam design.

744 Total Steel Weight (ton) EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.42 3. The saving percentage.645 3.122 9.744 EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.503 9.22 9.11 .750 4.95 BS 5950 4.750 4.889 8.503 7.211 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4. Table 4.12 Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.889 8.749 Table 4.79 Summary of the total revised steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.12. is tabulated in Table 4. meanwhile.645 5.211 10.11.122 9.11 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Types of Frame Bay Width (m) 2Bay 4Storey 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.749 % 0.

Even though EC3 design still consumed higher steel weight. MD = wL /8 – MR 2 (b) (c) Figure 4. with deflection coefficient set as β = 1. Please refer to Figure 4. the sagging moment at mid span became less than that of simple construction (Figure 4. if it is built semi-continuously.11% to 10. The effect of dead load on the deflection of beam had been gradually reduced. wL2/8 MR wL2/8 MR wL2/8 (a) Design moment. Eventually. if rigid connection is introduced. the percentage of difference had been significantly reduced to the range of 0.1(c)).1(b)).1 Bending moment of beam for: (a) rigid construction.95%. (b) semi-rigid construction. as the connection stiffness becomes higher. The ability of partial strength connection had enabled moment at mid span to be partially transferred to the supports (Figure 4.80 From Table 4.1(a) for the illustration of rigid connection.0. The moment capacity will be the deciding factor. The greater difference for steel grade S355 indicated that deflection still plays a deciding role in EC3 design. . the effect of deflection on the design will be eliminated. the gap reduces. it can be seen that there is an obvious reduction of steel weight required for the braced steel frame. However. (c) simple construction. Therefore.12.

for the moment capacity of structural beam. calculation based on EC3 had effectively reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 6. Suggestions of further research work are also included in this chapter.05 in the moment capacity . the difference between the approaches to obtain shear area. The application of different steel grade did not contribute greater percentage of difference between the shear capacities calculated by both codes.1 Structural Beam For the shear capacity of a structural beam.43%.1 Structural Capacity 5. This is mainly due to the application of partial safety factor. Av value also caused the difference. a summary on the results of the objectives is categorically discussed. In review to the research objectives. calculation based on EC3 had reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 4. Apart from that. 5. Meanwhile.1.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents the summary for the study on the comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 for the design of multi-storey braced frame. γM0 of 1.06% with regard to BS 5950 due to the variance between constant values of the shear capacity formula specified by both codes.

With the inclusion of partial safety factor. only compressive resistance comparison of structural column was made.27% to 9. axial compression is much more critical. 5. it was found that for a same value of λ. a structural beam will be subject to deflection.82 calculation required by EC3. From interpolation. γM0 of 1. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. Therefore. Therefore. For the same value of unfactored imposed load. 5. compared with BS 5950. EC3 design created majority . fc is smaller than pc. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. fc and pc respectively.2 Structural Column In simple construction.0m long.2 Deflection Values When subject to an unfactored imposed load. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. of both codes.24% of column compressive resistance was achieved when designing by EC3. In comparison. This comparison is based on a structural column of 5. A reduction in the range of 5. Meanwhile. This is due to the implication of partial safety factor. there is also a deviation in between the compressive strength.05 as required by EC3 design.0 as suggested by BS 5950. as compared to the partial safety factor.1. γM of 1. The design of structural beam proposed by EC3 is concluded to be safer than that by BS 5950. only moments due to eccentricity will be transferred to structural column. it is obvious that EC3 stresses on the safety of a structural beam.

63%. The total steel weight of structural beams and columns was accumulated for comparison. E. The main reason for the deviation is the difference in the specification of modulus of elasticity.744 tons and 3. taking into account deflection due to permanent loads.83 lower deflection values with respect to BS 5950 design. and 9.122 tons and 7. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 9.821 tons and 4.22% to 3. For a 2-bay. For a 2-bay. Higher E means the elasticity of a member is higher.313 tons for EC3 design. serviceability limit states check governs the design of EC3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check.3 Economy Economy aspect in this study focused on the minimum steel weight that is needed in the construction of the braced steel frame. 5. Cross-section with higher second moment of area value.889 tons for BS 5950 design.2.1 of EC3 provided proof to this. Section 4. 6m bay width steel frame. BS 5950 specifies 205kN/mm2 while EC3 specifies 210kN/mm2. 4-storey. compared with the section chosen for BS 5950 design. the total deflection was greater. and 4. 4-storey. Therefore. 9m bay width steel frame. I will have to be chosen.571 tons for EC3 design. However. In this study. .750 tons for BS 5950 design.645 tons and 9. it was found that EC3 design produced braced steel frames that require higher steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 4. The difference ranges from 0. thus can sustain higher load without deforming too much.

4-storey. 6m bay width. S275 (Fe 430): 5. 4-storey. S355 (Fe 510): 15. it is suggested that an unbraced steel frame design is conducted to study the behavior.0 to 3.4 Recommendation for Future Studies For future studies. 6m bay width. 9m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 10. The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. since the results of the third objective contradicted with the background of the study (claim by Steel Construction Institute). The reduction in deflection coefficient from 5.60% 2-bay. 9m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 7. S275 (Fe 430): 1. 6m bay width.84 The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. 4-storey. 4-storey.11% 2-bay. 9m bay width. 4-storey. 4-storey.42% 2-bay.5 had successfully reduced the percentage of difference between the steel weights designed by both codes. 4-storey. structural design and economic aspect based on both of the design codes.42% 2-bay.22% 5. .29% Further study was extended for the application of partial strength connection for beam-to-column connections in EC3 design.96% 2-bay. S355 (Fe 510): 17. it is recommended that further studies to be conducted to focus on the economy aspect of EC3 with respect to BS 5950. This study showed that steel weight did not contribute to cost saving of EC3 design. 9m bay width. S275 (Fe 430): 5. 6m bay width.95% 2-bay. 4-storey. However. S275 (Fe 430): 0.

” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. (2001).” Eurocodenews.” ICE Journal. “Steel Design Can be Simple Using EC3.C. “EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures.” London: British Standards Institution. . “Introduction to Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) – with Worked Examples. Narayanan R et. “British Standard – Structural Use of Steelwork in Building: Part 1: Code of Practice for Design – Rolled and Welded Sections. & Lim J B (2003). (1995). Vol 13 No 4. “Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000 Volume 2: Worked examples. 4. Taylor J. British Standards Institution (2001). “EN 1993 Eurocode 3 – Steel. D. “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. 29-32. Issue 3. November 2005. al. Heywood M. Paper 2658.85 REFERENCES Charles King (2005). 24-27.” London: European Committee for Standardization.1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings. European Committee for Standardization (1992).” New Steel Construction. Steel Construction Institute (SCI) (2005).” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute.

86 APPENDIX A1 .

4 x 27. LL Floors Dead Load.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.6 x 15 = 62. MAHMOOD 1. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load. of Bay No. LL LOAD FACTORS Dead Load. DL Live Load.4 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.64 kN/m .6 + 1.6 2.87 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.4 x 24 + 1.6 FACTORED LOAD w = 1. DL Live Load.6 x 9 = 48 kN/m Floors w = 1.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.6 15 kN/m kN/m = = 1.0 DATA No.4DL + 1. LL = = 4 1.6LL Roof w = 1. DL Live Load. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame . MAHMOOD 2.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2.0 2. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.88 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

MAHMOOD 2.64 kN/m 62.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.64 kN/m 62.89 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m .64 kN/m 62. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.64 kN/m 62.0 LOAD LAYOUT 48 kN/m 6m 48 kN/m 62.

84 1039. MAHMOOD 4. Shear.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column . V = 62.84 707.92 519. .88 kNm 4. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.52 144 331. contributed by beam shear. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced.92 kN M = 62.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 288 663. V = 48 x 6 / 2 = 144 kN M = 48 x 6^2 / 8 = 216 kNm Floor beams. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 Beam Moment. Roof beams.76 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.90 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.64 x 6 / 2 = 187.68 1415.64 x 6^2 / 8 = 281.

68 (187.92) 519.92) 1039.88 281.52 707.88 281.92) 331.84 (187.91 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.92 (187. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.76 1415.92) 663.88 281.0 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 216 216 281. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.84 (187. MAHMOOD 5.92 [2] 519.92) 144 [1] 331.88 281.88 Shear (kN) (144) (144) 144 (187.88 281.92) 288 (187.76 .84 [3] [4] 707.

19 28.6LL) .19 31.19 [4] 28.19 31.4DL+1.6 21.54 28.0DL Most critical condition . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.19 28.6 31.19 21.1.19 21. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.19 28.19 Moments are calculated from (1. MAHMOOD Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 21.92 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.54 28.19 28.54 28.6 28.19 31.19 [3] 28.54 31.6 [2] 28.54 31.6 21.6 [1] 21.54 28.

93 APPENDIX A2 .

76 kN/m . MAHMOOD 1. LL Floors Dead Load.0 DATA No. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.35 x 27.94 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.35DL + 1.6 2. DL Live Load. DL Live Load. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. of Bay No.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load.35 1.5 FACTORED LOAD w = 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m LOAD FACTORS Dead Load. DL Live Load. LL = = 4 1.6 + 1.5 x 9 = 45.5 x 15 = 59.9 kN/m Floors w = 1.5LL Roof w = 1.35 x 24 + 1. LL = = 1.

95 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC. MAHMOOD 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2.0 2.

9 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.0 LOAD LAYOUT 45.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.96 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.9 kN/m 6m 45.76 kN/m 59. MAHMOOD 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m .3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.

97 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.28 kN M = 59. Roof beams. MAHMOOD 4. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.98 496. V = 45.54 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.76 x 6^2 / 8 = 268. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column .9 x 6 / 2 = 137.26 675. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced.76 x 6 / 2 = 179.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 275. V = 59.55 kNm Floor beams.92 kNm 4. contributed by beam shear. .9 x 6^2 / 8 = 206.08 137.7 kN M = 45.96 992.52 1351.4 633. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4. Shear.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.1 Beam Moment.7 316.

98 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.4 (179.98 [2] 496.92 268.28) 992.55 268.28) 496.92 5.92 268.7) 137.7) (137. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.7 (179.28) 275.28) 316.96 (179. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.54 1351.26 [3] [4] 675.7 [1] 316.08 675.92 268.52 (179.28) 633.1 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 206.2 Shear (kN) (137.0 5.92 268.28) 137. MAHMOOD 5.92 268.98 (179.26 (179.54 .55 206.

89 26.66 26.71 20.66 19.35DL+1.89 26.66 20. MAHMOOD 5.5LL) .89 20. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.3 Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 20.99 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.89 26.94 26.0DL Most critical condition .89 28.89 Moments are calculated from (1.1.66 26.94 28. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.89 19.94 26.94 26.89 26.89 28.89 26.94 28.71 28.89 26.89 28.94 26.

100 APPENDIX B1 .

101 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.3 41.1 67.1 51 52.1 24.1 67.9 149.1 139.1 82.1 32.1 98. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23.2 74.8 60. L = 6.8 33. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 43 45 46 46.2 109 113 122 125.1 37 37 39 39.2 28.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 1025 cm Try UB 457x152x60 .3 101 101.2 74.1 25.1 Sx (cm3) 171 259 234 342 258 306 403 353 314 393 481 543 483 539 724 659 623 614 566 775 888 720 711 896 1100 846 1060 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 59.1 Sx (cm3) 1010 1290 1200 1210 1350 1470 1450 1500 1630 1650 1830 1810 2060 2010 2380 2230 2610 2880 2830 3280 3200 3680 4140 4590 5550 7490 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 305x102x25 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x28 254x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 406x140x39 356x127x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 406x140x46 305x165x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 457x152x60 406x178x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x191x67 457x152x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x152x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 281.2 74.1 40.88 kNm Sx = M / fy = 281. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.1 48.1 67.8 25.3 82 82.3 54 54.0m) STC.3 92.2 89.3 30 31.1 67.2 179 238.2 28.

py = = mm 275 S275 < N/mm 2 16mm ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 Outstand element of compression flange.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = 59. MAHMOOD 1.3 2.102 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.9 8. neutral axis at mid-depth. Limiting d/t = 80ε = 80 Actual d/t = 50.0m) STC.1 DATA Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.3 Therefore. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 13.1 13.8 454. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 5.3 407. subject to pure bending. Section chosen = 457x152x60 UB 1.6 152.75 = < 9 9 Flange is plastic Class 1 Section is symmetrical.0 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.75 50.6 1290 1120 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm 3 b/T = d/t = 5. L = 6.3 < 80 Web is plastic Class 1 Section is : Class 1 plastic section .

103

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

3.0

SHEAR BUCKLING If d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for rolled section, shear buckling resistance should be checked. d/t = 50.3 < 70ε = 70 Therefore, shear buckling needs not be checked

4.0

SHEAR CAPACITY Fv = 187.92 kN

Pv = 0.6pyAv py = 275 N/mm Av = tD = 8.1 x 454.6 2 = 3682.26 mm

2

Pv = 0.6 x 275 x 3682.26 x 0.001 = 607.57 kN Fv Pv < Therefore, the shear capacity is adequate

5.0

MOMENT CAPACITY M= 281.88 kNm

0.6Pv = 0.6 x 607.57 = 364.542 kN Fv 0.6Pv < Therefore, it is low shear Mc = pySx = 275 x 1290 x 0.001 = 354.75 kNm 1.2pyZ = 1.2 x 275 x 1120 x 0.001 = 369.6 kNm Mc M < < 1.2pyZ Mc OK Moment capacity is adequate

104

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

6.0 6.1

WEB BEARING & BUCKLING Bearing Capacity Pbw = (b1 + nk) tpyw r= 10.2 mm (Unstiffened web)

b1 = t + 1.6r + 2T = 8.1 + 1.6 x 10.2 + 2 x 13.3 = 51.02 mm k= T+r = 13.3 + 10.2 = 23.5 mm At the end of a member (support), n = 2 + 0.6be/k = 2 b1 + nk = = = = = < but n ≤ 5 be = 0

51.02 + 2 x 23.5 98.02 mm 98.02 x 8.1 x 275 x 0.001 218.34 kN 187.92 Pbw kN

Pbw

Fv Fv

Bearing capacity at support is ADEQUATE

105

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

7.0

**SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION CHECK Unfactored imposed loads: w= = E= I= δ= 9 15 205 25500
**

4

kN/m kN/m kN/mm cm

4 2

for roofs for floors

L=

6

m

5wL 384EI = 5 x 15 x 6^4 x 10^5 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4.84 mm

Beam condition Carrying plaster or other brittle finish Deflection limit = Span / 360 = 6 x 1000 / 360 = 16.67 mm 4.84mm < 16.67mm

The deflection is satisfactory!

106 APPENDIX B2 .

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.y = M / fy = 268. L = 6.92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl.107 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.92 kNm W pl.0m) STC. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.9 cm3 Try 406x178x54 UB .

36 131 8.0m) STC.6 10.9 Therefore.9 360.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.0 1.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.15 47. = 406x178x54 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.6 18670 4.y = W el. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.4 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Section chosen 1. MAHMOOD 1.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 54 402.9 68.6 7.6 177. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 . Second moment of area. L = 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10.4 1051 927 32. cm 4 cm cm cm 2.108 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

L = 6.001 / 1.49 kN VSd 0.4 > 46.15 <= 9. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5Vpl.9 x 100 275 1.Rd = 0. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.48 = 298.001 γMO = 1.5Vpl.Rd < Therefore. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.7 3.5 x 497.05 √3 = 497.2 (b) Web.28 kN V pl.y fy / γMO = 1051 x 275 x 0.48 kN VSd < Vpl.109 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0m) STC.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.Rd = W pl.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate . Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.7 Web is Class 2 element 406x178x54 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.92 kNm 0.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.05 = 32. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 47.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.05 = 275. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.26 kNm MSd Mc. it is low shear Mc.

5 σf.0m) STC.Rd = (50 + 52.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 52.4 63. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.5 Ry.69) x 7. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.4 kN = VSd = 179. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .8 < 63. MAHMOOD 5.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.001 / 1. not susceptible to LTB 6. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance.Rd = γM1 At support.05 204.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430). shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 47.110 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7.28 kN < Ry.69 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1. L = 6.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.6 x 275 x 0.

5 0. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.0m) STC.98 <= 1. MSd Mc. L = 6.92 275.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.111 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.6 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0. Ra.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .4 = γM1 = E= Ra. h= a= 402. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. Rd = 0.05 205 307.14 1.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 360.8 VSd = kN/mm kN 179. MAHMOOD At midspan.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.5 ] .Rd 268.2 0.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.Rd = > 0.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.3 ≤ = 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.26 7.

28 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.112 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.8 x 1731. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.5 kN > At mid span.117) / (120 .28 x 0.6 2 = 1731.8 x 7.05 A = beff x tw = 227.5 x 360. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.118) x (121 . buckling about y-y axis.5 = 405.4 / 7.6 .6 = 118. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.8 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0. L = 6.118) = 119.5 x SQRT(402.6^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 227.001 / 1.8 N/mm 2 Rb.(118. Rb. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 118 120 118. MAHMOOD beff = 0.7 mm Buckling resistance of web.6 l = 0.5 d/t = 2.Rd = 1 x 119.05 = 197.6 fc 121 117 fc = 121 . λ = 2.0m) STC.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .75d Rolled I-section.

88 6.46 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0 1.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 .0m) STC. .46 = 18. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1. MAHMOOD 8.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 18670 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 11.113 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.34 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory. L = 6.14 mm OK δmax = 11.88 + 6.

114 APPENDIX C1 .

0m) STC.1 652 802.8 1228 1589 1485 1953 2482 1875 2298 2964 2680 2417 3457 3436 3977 4689 4245 5101 5818 6994 8229 10009 12078 14247 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 63. L = 5. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.4 cm Try 203x203x60 UC .4 988.115 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Sx (cm3) 184.4 568. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.1 310.6 978.08 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 229.1 497.3 247.08 kNm M= Sx = M / fy = 63.

The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 14. Gross area. L = 5.8 652 581.0m) STC.0 DATA Fc = 1415. Section chosen = 203x203x60 UC 1.2 9. py = 275 ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 . MAHMOOD 1.96 5.116 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration. Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = rx = ry = Ag = 60 209.3 2.52 kN L= 5 m 1.8 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 2 3 b/T = d/t = 7.2 160.2 = mm S275 < < < N/mm 2 16mm 40mm 63mm Therefore.1 8. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.6 205.3 14.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.23 17.19 75.

117 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 SLENDERNESS Effective Length About the x-x axis.96 x 10) = 47. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column. L = 5.3 x 275) -1 < r1 ≤ 1 = 3.44 r1 = 1 Actual d/t = < 17.23 < < = < 10ε = 15ε = 9 9 10 15 Flange is plastic Class 1 Web of I. "Restrained in direction at one end" LEX = 0.3 80ε 1+r1 100ε 1+1. MAHMOOD Outstand element of compression flange.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm λx = LEX / rx = 4250 / (8. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.or H-section under axial compression and bending ("generally" case) r1 = Fc dtpy = 1415.5r1 = 40 All ≥ 40ε < Section is : = 40 Web is plastic Class 1 Class 1 plastic section 3.85L = 0.0 3. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 7.52 x 1000 / (160.8 x 9.8 N/mm cm 2 2 Buckling about x-x axis .0m) STC.4 4.0 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE Fc = 1415.52 kN Pc = pcAg py = Ag = 275 75.

8 x 100 x 0.239) 2 = 239.4 . MAHMOOD Use strut curve (b) λx = λ 46 48 Interpolation: pcx = 242 . the moment will be equally divided.54 kNm .9 N/mm Pc = pcAg = 239. Mi = 63. R From frame analysis sheets. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.46) / (48 . M= 31. R is assumed to act 100mm off the face of the column.46) x (242 .001 = 1818. For EI/L1 : EI/L2 < 1.4 pc 242 239 Therefore. beam reaction.44 kN Fc < Pc 47. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length.118 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. the compressive resistance is adequate 5.5. L = 5.0m) STC. Therefore.(47.9 x 75.0 NOMINAL MOMENT DUE TO ECCENTRICITY For columns in simple construction. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.08 kNm 100 mm Moments are distributed between the column lengths above and below level 2.

52 1818.17 .(48.03 = < 0.45) x (233 .0 4.00 The combined resistance against axial force and moment is adequate.0 COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND MOMENT CHECK The column should satisfy the relationship My Fc Mx + + ≤1 Pc M bs pyZ y λLT = 0.17 py = λLT 45 50 275 pb 250 233 N/mm 2 pb = 250 .44 + 31.0m) STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.5 L/ry = (0.250) 2 = 260.78 N/mm Mb = pbSx = 260.78 x 652 x 0.54 170.96 1.001 = 170. 7.119 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 x 5 x 1000) / (5. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 6.0 CONCLUSION Compression Resistance = Combined Axial Force and Moment Check = Use of the section is adequate Use : 203x203x60 UC OK OK .19 x 10) = 48.03 kNm 1415. MAHMOOD 6.45) / (50 . L = 5.

120 APPENDIX C2 .

5 cm Try 254x254x73 UC .88 kNm M= W pl.y (cm3) 184 248 309 497 567 654 801 990 979 1225 1589 1484 1952 2485 1872 2293 2970 2675 2418 3455 3438 3978 4691 4243 5101 5814 6997 8225 10010 12080 14240 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 57.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 210. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. L = 5.0m) STC.y = M / fy = 57. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Wpl.121 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

0m) STC.y = iy = iz = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 73 254 254 8. MAHMOOD 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.2 990 895 11.08 kN Msd = 28.9 11370 6. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.6 14. Area of section.5 8.94 kNm L= 5 m 1.2 Therefore.122 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.3 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 4 cm cm cm 2 3 2.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel tf = 14.2 200. = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.0 DATA NSd = 1351.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.y = W el. Section chosen = 254x254x73 UC 1. L = 5. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .86 98.46 92.94 23. Second moment of area.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.

94 kNm kNm Sufficient moment resistance .5 Web is Class 1 element Therefore.05 = 2433. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.y.11 Mpl.Rd = 0.1 kN n = 1351. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange. it is Class 1 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 30.3 kNm Mny.555 >= n < 0.Rd = γMO γMO = 1.1 Class 3 = 38.Rd Mny. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8. L = 5.8 3.9 x 100 x 275 x 0.2 Class 3 = 13.y fy γMO = 990 x 275 x 0.Rd A fy Npl.Rd = 92.05 Npl.y.1 28.Rd = Mpl.0 CROSS-SECTION RESISTANCE n= NSd Npl.5 Limit d/tw Class 2 = 35.1 n ≥ 0.05 = 259.Rd = > MSd = 128.1 Mny.123 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.001 / 1.001 / 1.1 Mpl.94 <= 9. subject to bending and compression : Classify web as subject to compression and bending d/tw = 23.0m) STC.9 (b) Web.Rd = 1.2 Limit c/tf Class 2 = 10.1 = 0.Rd(1-n) W pl.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.08 / 2433.3 <= 30.y.

L = 5.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm Slenderness ratio λy = l y / iy = 4250 / (11.85 L (Restrained about both axes) = 0.95 (Conservative value) + kyMy.Rd 1.7 N/mm Nb.9 x 100 x 0.248) 2 = 249.1 x 10) = 38.Rd = 1 x 249.38) x (40 . Rd η M c .0m) STC.(38.3 Buckling about y-y axis (Curve b) βA = λy√βA = tf λ√βA 38 40 1 38. y .3 kN ky = 1.0 N b .08 2209.0 IN-PLANE FAILURE ABOUT MAJOR AXIS Members subject to axial compression and major axis bending must satisfy k y M y . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.001 / 1. y .5 NSd Nb.94 1 x 128.Sd ηMc. Rd Nb.05 = 2209.y. MAHMOOD 4.y.3 0.3 <= fc 250 248 40mm fc = 250 .y.3 .y.5 x 28.Rd = = 1351.7 x 92.1 1 η= = + < γMO / γM1 1 Therefore.38) / (250 .Rd = βA f c A γM1 l y = 0. Sd N Sd + ≤ 1 .124 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. sufficient resistance against in-plane failure against major axis . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.

0 3.0 4. Use : 254x254x73 UC OK OK .0m) STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 5.125 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.0 CONCLUSION Cross Section Resistance In-plane Failure About Major Axis Use of the section is adequate. MAHMOOD 5.

126 APPENDIX D .

92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.9 cm3 Try 457x152x52 UB .y = M / fy = 268.92 kNm W pl. L = 6.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.127 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0m) Rev 1 STC.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.

6 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.9 Therefore.128 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 . Second moment of area.4 7. L = 6.5 66.99 53.6 10.0m) Rev 1 STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.9 407. = 457x152x52 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl. Section chosen 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.6 1096 950 36.y = W el.0 1. cm 4 cm cm cm 2.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 52 449.6 21370 3. MAHMOOD 1. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.8 152.59 121 6.

15 kN VSd 0. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.05 kNm MSd Mc. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 53. L = 6.5 x 551.92 = 331.99 <= 9.5 x 100 275 1.0m) Rev 1 STC.7 Web is Class 2 element 457x152x52 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 6.Rd < Therefore.001 / 1.5Vpl.05 = 36.001 γMO = 1. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.92 kN VSd < Vpl.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .y fy / γMO = 1096 x 275 x 0.28 kN V pl.Rd = W pl.05 = 287. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.129 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.Rd = 0.6 > 46.92 kNm 0.5Vpl.7 3.2 (b) Web. it is low shear Mc.05 √3 = 551.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.

tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 48.130 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .05 = 196. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 53. not susceptible to LTB 6. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.81 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f . MAHMOOD 5.001 / 1.Rd = γM1 At support.5 σf. L = 6.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.8 < 63.68 kN VSd = 179. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.28 kN < Ry.6 x 275 x 0. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 Ry. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.81) x 7.0m) Rev 1 STC.6 63.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.Rd = (50 + 48.

28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.12 1.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.Rd 268. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support. h= a= 449.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.8 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0.05 205 299.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .5 ] .16 VSd = kN/mm kN 179. Rd = 0.92 287.6 = γM1 = E= Ra.05 7.94 <= 1. MAHMOOD At midspan.Rd = > 0.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7. Ra.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 407.131 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.3 ≤ = 1.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.0m) Rev 1 STC.2 0. L = 6.5 0. MSd Mc. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.

1 fc 103 98 fc = 103 .05 = 179.9 x 1909.132 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.8^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 251. buckling about y-y axis.0m) Rev 1 STC.1 l = 0. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.6 = 134. L = 6.88 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.5 x SQRT(449. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 130 135 134.5 d/t = 2.75d Rolled I-section.130) = 98.98) / (135 .05 A = beff x tw = 251. Rb. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.1 .Rd = 1 x 98. MAHMOOD beff = 0.9 N/mm 2 Rb.9 kN > At mid span.3 x 7.(134.88 x 0. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.6 mm Buckling resistance of web. λ = 2.6 / 7.130) x (103 .3 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .6 2 = 1909.5 = 452.5 x 407.001 / 1.

MAHMOOD 8.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 7.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 21370 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 3.26 + 3.0m) Rev 1 STC.0 1. L = 6.95 = 11.26 3. .0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.21 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.95 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.14 mm OK δmax = 7.133 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

BS5950-Vs-EC3

BS5950-Vs-EC3

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