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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

**BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
**

JUDUL:

υ

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

SESI PENGAJIAN: Saya

2006 / 2007

**CHAN CHEE HAN
**

(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/ Sarjana/ Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tandakan (3) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam (AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/ badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

3

TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

**Alamat Tetap: PETI SURAT 61162, 91021 TAWAU, SABAH.
**

Tarikh

CATATAN:

**PM DR. IR. MAHMOOD MD. TAHIR Nama Penyelia
**

Tarikh:

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

* ** Potong yang tidak berkenaan.

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

υ

Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/ organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

“I hereby declare that I have read this project report and in my opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure).”

Signature

:

Name of Supervisor : P.M. Dr. Ir. Mahmood Md. Tahir Date : 01 NOVEMBER 2006

i

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

CHAN CHEE HAN

A project report submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

NOVEMBER, 2006

ii I declare that this project report entitled “Comparison Between BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 & Eurocode 3 for The Design of Multi-Storey Braced Steel Frame” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree. Signature Name Date : : Chan Chee Han : 01 NOVEMBER 2006 .

iii To my beloved parents and siblings .

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Dr. this work would not have been possible. Ir. Mr. Without the contribution of all those mentioned above. Tan for their helpful guidance in the process of completing this study. patience and guidance during the duration of my study. I would like to express my appreciation to my thesis supervisor. Tahir of the Faculty of Civil Engineering. I am most thankful to my parents and family for their support and encouragement given to me unconditionally in completing this task. I would also like to express my thankful appreciation to Dr. Shek and Mr.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. . Finally. Mahmood’s research students. Mahmood Md. for his generous advice. PM.

structural column designed by Eurocode 3 has compression capacity of between 5.11% to 10. specifications to be followed.v ABSTRACT Reference to standard code is essential in the structural design of steel structures. design methods. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. loading values and etc. serviceability limit states check governs the design of Eurocode 3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. the percentage of difference had been reduced to the range of 0. Meanwhile. . These details include the basis and concept of design. However. Eurocode 3 also reduced the deflection value due to unfactored imposed load of up to 3.06% and moment capacity by up to 6. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. safety factors. Design worksheets are created for the design of structural beam and column. with the application of partial strength connections. Eurocode 3 produced braced steel frames which consume 1. Therefore. This paper presents comparisons of findings on a series of two-bay. This study intends to testify the claim.43%. four-storey braced steel frames with spans of 6m and 9m and with steel grade S275 (Fe 460) and S355 (Fe 510) by designed using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. The design method by Eurocode 3 has reduced beam shear capacity by up to 4.96% more steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.27% and 9.34% less than BS 5950: Part 1:2000 design.60% to 17.63% in comparison with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.95%. However.

43%. 4 tingkat yang terdiri daripada rentang rasuk 6m dan 9m serta gred keluli S275 (Fe 430) dan S355 (Fe 510). rujukan kepada kod piawai adalah penting. Selain itu. Namun begitu.96% lebih banyak daripada kerangka yang direkabentuk oleh BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. factor keselamatan. Justeru.vi ABSTRAK Dalam rekabentuk struktur keluli. .95%. Butiran-butiran ini mengandungi asas dan konsep rekabentuk. Kertas ini menunjukkan perbandingan keputusan kajian ke atas satu siri kerangka besi terembat 2 bay. cara rekabentuk. Rekebentuk menggunakan Eurocode 3 telah mengurangkan keupayaan ricih rasuk sehingga 4.27% – 9. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji pendapat ini. didapati bahawa keadaan had kebolehkhidmatan mengawal rekabentuk Eurocode 3 disebabkan beban mati tanpa faktor yang perlu diambilkira dalam pemeriksaan pesongan. Kandungan dalam kod piawai secara amnya mengandungi butiran rekabentuk yang komprehensif. dan sebagainya. Namun begitu.06% dan keupayaan momen rasuk sebanyak 6. Eurocode 3 juga mengurangkan nilai pesongan yang disebabkan oleh beban kenaan tanpa faktor sehingga 3. tiang keluli yang direkebentuk oleh Eurocode 3 mempunyai keupayaan mampatan 5. Eurocode 3 menghasilkan kerangka keluli dirembat yang menggunakan berat besi 1. Kertas kerja komputer ditulis untuk merekabentuk rasuk dan tiang keluli. nilai beban.11% – 10.63% berbanding BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.60% – 17. Institut Pembinaan Keluli (SCI) berpendapat bahawa rekabentuk struktur keluli menggunakan Eurocode 3 adalah 6 – 8% lebih menjimatkan daripada menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.34% kurang daripada rekabentuk menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. spesifikasi yang perlu diikuti. penggunaan sambungan kekuatan separa telah berjaya mengurangkan lingkungan berat besi kepada 0.

2 1.4 1.1 1.5 Introduction Background of Project Objectives Scope of Project Report Layout 1 3 4 4 5 .vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii xii xiii xiv xv THESIS TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES LISTOF NOTATIONS I INTRODUCTION 1.3 1.

1.2 Serviceability 2.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.1.2.4.2 Ultimate Limit State 2.5.4 Loading 2.1.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 2.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.2.3.viii II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.3 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.3.2 2.Rd 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 .2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.3.1.2.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2. Vpl.3.3.1.6 Deflection 2.2 2.3.2 2.3.4. Mc.3.2.2 BS 5950 2.1.4.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 2.4.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2.3.3 Serviceability Limit State 2.1 2.3 Background of BS 5950 Scope of BS 5950 Design Concept of BS 5950 2. Mc 2.2 Stiffened Web 2.1 Application Rules of EC3 2.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.3.1 Ultimate Limit States 2.1. Pv Moment Capacity.3.1 Unstiffened Web 2.1 2.Rd Moment Capacity.2.3 Shear Capacity.3 Cross-sectional Classification Shear Capacity.3.3.5.1 (EC3) Design Concept of EC3 2.4 Actions of EC3 2.3.4.2.1 Cross-sectional Classification 2.3.3.2 2.1 2.3.3.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.3.

Pc 2.1.6.Rd 2.4.6.4.3.1 Crushing Resistance.2 Structural Beam Structural Column 31 32 29 30 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 29 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 III METHODOLOGY 3.5.6.4 Buckling Resistance.6.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.2.4.ix 2.1 Buckling Length.5.5.1 Cross-section Capacity 2. λ 2.5.5 Deflection 2.5.4. Ra.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.Rd 2.2.Rd 2. LE 2.2 Slenderness.Rd 2.6.7 Conclusion 2.4.2 Slenderness.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.5.5.6.3 Compression Resistance.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2. λ 2.7.6.2. Nc.1.1.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.3 Buckling Resistance.Rd 2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.2.7.1.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces 2.1 Introduction 34 .1.6.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 2.2 Crippling Resistance. Nb.4.3 Compression Resistance.4.3. l 2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.4. Ry.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.4. Rb.1 Effective Length.1.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.4.1.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 2.1 2.

1 4.1 BS 5950 3.8.1 Load Combination 3.2 Shear Calculation 3.9.1 3.6 3.4.3 Moment Calculation 3.x 3.10.2 3.2 4.8.1.2 EC 3 IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Structural Capacity 4.3 Structural Beam Structural Column 66 66 70 73 75 Deflection Economy of Design V CONCLUSIONS 5.7 3.1.10.1 Structural Beam 81 81 .1 Structural Capacity 5.4.4 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Structural Layout & Specifications 3.1.2 4.8.5 3.2 3.9.9 Structural Beam Design 3.8 Structural Layout Specifications 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 42 43 44 46 47 51 57 57 61 35 36 Loadings Factor of Safety Categories Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3.10 Structural Column Design 3.1 3.2 BS 5950 EC 3 3.3 3.

3 5.2 5.xi 5.2 5.4 Structural Column 82 82 83 84 Deflection Values Economy Recommendation for Future Studies REFERENCES 85 APPENDIX A1 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 APPENDIX A2 APPENDIX B1 APPENDIX B2 APPENDIX C1 APPENDIX C2 APPENDIX D .1.

6 4.11 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.2 3.1 2.2 3.12 Criteria to be considered in structural beam design Criteria to be considered in structural column design Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) Shear capacity of structural beam Moment capacity of structural beam Compression resistance and percentage difference Moment resistance and percentage difference Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Total steel weight of the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) 31 32 43 44 45 67 68 71 71 73 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) 46 .2 4.10 4.3 4.1 3.1 4.9 4. TITLE PAGE 2.xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.8 4.7 4.3 3.

1 3.1(a) 4. TITLE PAGE 3.1(c) Schematic diagram of research methodology Floor plan view of the steel frame building Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame Bending moment of beam for rigid construction Bending moment of beam for semi-rigid construction Bending moment of beam for simple construction 37 38 39 80 80 80 .xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.3 4.2 3.1(b) 4.

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D Frame Analysis Based on BS 5950 Frame Analysis Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 Structural Column Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Column Design Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 (Revised) 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 .

Rd Mpl.Rd h A Aeff Av .Rd Mc.y.Minor axis Depth between fillets Compressive strength Flexural strength Design strength Slenderness Web crippling resistance Web buckling resistance Web crushing resistance Buckling moment resistance Moment resistance at major axis Shear resistance Depth Section area Effective section area Shear area F Fv M γ NSd VSd MSd γM0 γM1 rx ry d pc pb py λ Pcrip Pw Mbx Mcx Pv D Ag Aeff Av iy iz d fc fb fy λ Ra.Rd Ry.Major axis .y.Rd Rb.xv LIST OF NOTATIONS BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 EUROCODE 3 Axial load Shear force Bending moment Partial safety factor Radius of gyration .Rd Mb.Rd Vpl.y.y.

z .xvi Plastic modulus .Minor axis Elastic modulus .Major axis .z c/tf d/tw b l tf tw Sx Sy Wpl.Major axis .y Wpl.y Wel.Minor axis Flange Web Width of section Effective length Flange thickness Web thickness Zx Zy b/T d/t B LE T t Wel.

specifications to be followed. as well as the trading volume and diplomatic ties between these countries. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. In the structural design of steel structures. Several factors govern the type of code to be adopted. These details include the basis and concept of design. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science. climate and national preferences. These codes were a product of constant research and development. safety factors. and past experiences of experts at respective fields. reference to standard code is essential.1 Introduction Structural design is a process of selecting the material type and conducting indepth calculation of a structure to fulfill its construction requirements. economic and functional building. many countries have published their own standard codes. In present days. Meanwhile. .CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. countries or nations that do not publish their own standard codes will adopt a set of readily available code as the national reference. namely suitability of application of the code set in a country with respect to its culture. The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe. loading values and etc. design methods.

The earliest documents seeking to harmonize design rules between European countries were the various recommendations published by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. operators and users. Standardization of design code for structural steel in Malaysia is primarily based on the practice in Britain. Buckling resistance and shear resistance are two major elements of structural steel design. Eurocodes will be used in public procurement specifications and to assess products for ‘CE’ (Conformité Européen) mark. the initial draft Eurocode 3. amended in the light of any comments arising out of its use before being reissued as the EuroNorm standards (EN). Codes of practice provide detailed guidance and recommendations on design of structural elements. ENV1993 (ENV stands for EuroNorm Vornorm) issued by Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) – the European standardisation committee. The establishment of Eurocode 3 will provide a common understanding regarding the structural steel design between owners. It is believed that Eurocode 3 is more comprehensive and better developed compared to national codes. . The study on Eurocode 3 in this project will focus on the subject of moment and shear design.2 Like most of the other structural Eurocodes. Eurocode 3 has developed in stages. As with other Europeans standards. the move to withdraw BS 5950 and replace with Eurocode 3 will be taking place in the country as soon as all the preparation has completed. From these. designers. were developed. Therefore. provision for these topics is covered in certain sections of the codes. Therefore. These preliminary standards of ENV will be revised. This was followed by the various parts of a pre-standard code. published by the European Commission. contractors and manufacturers of construction products among the European member countries. ECCS.

2005). causing safety issues.3 1. in its publication of “eurocodesnews” magazine has claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950. There are new formulae and new complications to master. . such as the tables of buckling stresses in existing BS codes. Design can be complex. this project is intended to testify the claim. even though there seems to be no benefit to the designer for the majority of his regular workload. Many designers feel depressed when new codes are introduced (Charles. earlier design practice under-estimated strength in various circumstances affecting economy. The increasing complexity of codes arises due to several reasons. namely earlier design over-estimated strength in a few particular circumstances. this can be achieved if the designer is not too greedy in the pursuit of the least steel weight from the strength calculations. Finally. simple design is possible if the code requirements are presented in an easy-to-use format. Besides. but it can be simplified for those pursuing speed and clarity. Lacking analytical and calculative proof. and new forms of structure evolve and codes are expanded to include them. simple design is possible if a scope of application is defined to avoid the circumstances and the forms of construction in which strength is over-estimated by simple procedures. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI).2 Background of Project The arrival of Eurocode 3 calls for reconsideration of the approach to design. for those who pursue economy of material. However.

All the beam-column connections are to be assumed simple. A study on the basis and design concept of EC3 will be carried out. . 1. Comparison to other steel structural design code is made.3 Objectives The objectives of this project are: 1) To compare the difference in the concept of the design using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3.4 1. The comparison will be made between the EC3 with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Next. This structure is intended to serve as an office building.4 Scope of Project The project focuses mainly on the moment and shear design on structural steel members of a series four-storey. design spreadsheets will be created to calculate and design the structural members. The standard code used here will be Eurocode 3. hereafter referred to as EC3. The multi-storey steel frame will be first analyzed by using Microsoft Excel worksheets to obtain the shear and moment values. 3) To compare the economy aspect between the designs of both BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. hereafter referred to as BS 5950. 2) To study on the effect of changing the steel grade from S275 to S355 in Eurocode 3. 2 bay braced frames.

Chapter I presents an introduction to the study. . conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter V. Chapter III will be a summary of research methodology. Results and discussions are presented in Chapter IV.5 1. Meanwhile.5 Report Layout The report will be divided into five main chapters. Chapter II presents the literature review that discusses the design procedures and recommendations for steel frame design of the codes EC3 and BS 5950.

Eurocode is separated by the use of different construction materials. EC3 stresses the need for durability. while Eurocode 4 covers for composite construction. “Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. Eurocode 1 covers loading situations. It was intended to smooth the trading activities among the European countries.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2. 2. Eurocode covers concrete construction. Application rules must be written in italic style. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. It also covers specific rules for building structures.2 Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.1 (EC3) EC3.1. The use of local application rules are allowed only if they have similar principles as EC3 .1 General rules and rules for buildings” covers the general rules for designing all types of structural steel. Principles and application rules are also clearly stated. or better known as Eurocode. serviceability and resistance of a structure.1.CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Principles should be typed in Roman wordings.1 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) European Code. Eurocode 3 covers steel construction. was initiated by the Commission of European Communities as a standard structural design guide.

1 Application Rules of EC3 A structure should be designed and constructed in such a way that: with acceptable probability. EC3 covers two limit states.1. EC3 stresses the need for durability. Every European country using EC3 has different loading and material standard to accommodate safety limit that is set by respective countries.1. 2001). it will remain fit for the use for which it is required. 2. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. Partial safety factor is applied to loadings and design for durability. it will sustain all actions and other influences likely to occur during execution and use and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs. Safety factor values are recommended in EC3. selecting a structural form which has low sensitivity to the hazards considered. which are ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. impact or consequences of human errors. 2. . serviceability and resistance of structure (Taylor. eliminating or reducing the hazards which the structure is to sustain. Potential damage should be limited or avoided by appropriate choice of one or more of the following criteria: Avoiding. to an extent disproportionate to the original cause.3 Design Concept of EC3 All designs are based on limit state design.7 and their resistance. selecting a structural form and design that can survive adequately the accidental removal of an individual element.3. and tying the structure together. It should also be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like explosions. durability and serviceability design does not differ too much. and with appropriate degrees of reliability. having due regard to its intended life and its cost.

4 Actions of EC3 An action (F) is a force (load) applied to the structure in direct action. e. explosions or impact from vehicles. snow loads. actions are defined as fixed actions. Meanwhile.1.1. or an imposed deformation in indirect action.1. . 2. damage to the building or its contents. e. variable actions (Q). 2. e. fittings. Partial or whole of structure will suffer from failure. in spatial variation classification.g. ancillaries and fixed equipment. which result in different arrangements of actions. temperature effects or settlement. and free actions. This failure may be caused by excessive deformation.2 Ultimate Limit State Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse. and accidental loads (A). for example. e. It may require certain consideration. or which limits its functional effectiveness. and vibration. movable imposed loads.3 Serviceability Limit State Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met.8 2.3. imposed loads. Actions are classified by variation in time and by their spatial variation. rupture. e. which causes discomfort to people. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people.3. including supports and foundations.g.g.g. wind loads. or loss of stability of the structure or any part of it. actions can be grouped into permanent actions (G).g. and loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it. considered as a rigid body. In time variation classification. self-weight. wind loads or snow loads. including: deformations or deflections which adversely affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (including the proper functioning of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-structural elements. self-weight of structures.

members subject to combined axial force and bending moment. BS 5950 comprises of nine parts. shear resistance. flats.1 Background of BS 5950 BS 5950 was prepared to supersede BS 5950: Part 1: 1990. local buckling. avoidance of disproportionate collapse. Part 2 and 7 deal with specification for materials.2 Scope of BS 5950 Part 1 of BS 5950 provides recommendations for the design of structural steelwork using hot rolled steel sections.2. fabrication and erected for rolled. sheeting respectively. but offsetting potential reductions in economy was also one of the reasons. and Part 9 covers the code of practice for stressed skin design. hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed structural hollow sections. plates. Changes were due to structural safety. Part 8 comprises of code of practice for fire resistance design. .9 2.2 BS 5950 2. welded sections and cold formed sections. lateral-torsional buckling. Several clauses were technically updated for topics such as sway stability. etc. Part 6 covers design for light gauge profiled steel sheeting. Part 3 and Part 4 focus mainly on composite design and construction. They are being used in buildings and allied structures not specifically covered by other standards.2. 2. which was withdrawn. Part 5 concerns design of cold formed thin gauge sections. Part 1 covers the code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections.

stability against overturning and sway sensitivity.2 Serviceability Limit States There are several elements to be considered in serviceability limit states – Deflection.2. The fundamental of the methods are different joints for different methods. wind induced oscillation. Meanwhile. inclusive of general yielding. the specified loads should be multiplied by the relevant partial factors γf given in Table 2. 2.3. BS 5950 covers two types of states – ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. . The load carrying capacity of each member should be such that the factored loads will not cause failure. and durability. only 80% of the full specified values need to be considered when checking for serviceability. and experimental verification. semi-continuous design.2. only the greater effect needs to be considered when checking for serviceability. vibration.2. 2.3.10 2.1 Ultimate Limit States Several elements are considered in ultimate limit states. Generally. and brittle fracture. In the case of combined imposed load and wind load. In the case of combined horizontal crane loads and wind load. They are: strength. rupture. Generally. fracture due to fatigue. in checking. in the design for limiting states. namely simple design.3 Design Concept of BS 5950 There are several methods of design. serviceability loads should be taken as the unfactored specified values. buckling and mechanism formation. continuous design.

Loading conditions during erection should be given particular attention.3. All relevant loads should be separately considered and combined realistically as to compromise the most critical effects on the elements and the structure as a whole.11 2. . Where necessary.4 Loading BS 5950 had identified and classified several loads that act on the structure.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. The elements of a cross-section are generally of constant thickness. The classification of each element of a cross-section subject to compression (due to a bending moment or an axial force) should be based on its width-to-thickness ratio. without calculating their local buckling resistance. earth and groundwater loading. the settlement of supports should be taken into account as well.1 Cross-sectional Classification Cross-sections should be classified to determine whether local buckling influences their capacity. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling Bearing capacity of web Deflection 2. 2.2. There are dead. overhead traveling cranes. imposed and wind loading.

a crosssection may be classified with its compression flange and its web in different classes.2 Shear Capacity. Fv. Alternatively. It is cross-section with plastic hinge rotation capacity. the complete cross-section should be classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression elements. However. It enables plastic moment to take place. Class 1 is known as plastic section. Shear capacity is normally checked at section part that sustains the maximum shear force. Clause 4. the stress at the extreme compression fiber can reach design strength. 2.12 Generally.2. given by: Pv = 0. Class 4 is known as slender section.3. Sections that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi-compact sections should be classified as class 4 slender. Class 2 is known as compact section. However.3 of BS 5950 states the shear force Fv should not be greater than the shear capacity Pv.6pyAv . local buckling will bar any rotation at constant moment. When this section is applied. Pv The web of a section will sustain the shear in a structure. Class 1 section is used for plastic design as the plastic hinge rotation capacity enables moment redistribution within the structure. the plastic moment capacity cannot be reached. Cross-sections at this category should be given explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling. Class 3 is known as semi-compact section.

13 in which Av is the shear area.5.3. 2.2 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = pyS for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections.3. There are two situations to be verified in the checking of moment capacity – low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity. BS 5950 provides various formulas for different type of sections. py is the design strength of steel and it depends on the thickness of the web. Seff is the effective plastic modulus.2.3. . Z is the section modulus. Mc = pyZ or alternatively Mc = pySeff for class 3 semi-compact sections. Clause 4. moment capacity of the section needs to be verified. and Zeff is the effective section modulus. Mc At sectional parts that suffer from maximum moment. and Mc = pyZeff for class 4 slender cross-sections where S is the plastic modulus.3 Moment Capacity.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv does not exceed 60% of the shear capacity Pv. 2.

14 2.3 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = py(S – ρSv) < 1. in which Sf is the plastic modulus of the effective section excluding the shear area Av. Clause 4.5.2pyZ for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections. and Mc = py(Zeff – ρSv/1.5) or alternatively Mc = py(Seff – ρSv) for class 3 semi-compact sections. - Otherwise: Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av. Mc = py(Z – ρSv/1.5) for class 4 slender cross-sections in which Sv is obtained from the following: - For sections with unequal flanges: Sv = S – Sf.3.2.3. and ρ is given by ρ = [2(Fv/Pv) – 1]2 .2 High Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv exceeds 60% of the shear capacity Pv.

1 of BS 5950 states that.6Vw. obtained from Table 21 BS 5950 t = web thickness b) High shear – “flanges only” method If the applied shear Fv > 0.4.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4. it should be assumed not to be susceptible to shear buckling and the moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined using 2.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2. provided that the flanges are not class 4 slender. qw = shear buckling strength of the web. The moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined taking account of the interaction of shear and moment using the following methods: a) Low shear Provided that the applied shear Fv ≤ 0.4. 2.2 states that.4. but the web is designed for shear only. where Vw is the simple shear buckling resistance.3.4. a conservative value Mf for . Vw = dtqw where d = depth of the web.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4.3.4. if the web depth-to-thickness d/t ≤ 62ε. it should be assumed to be susceptible to shear buckling.3.3. or 62ε for a welded section. if the web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 70ε for a rolled section.6Vw.4.3.15 2.

5. .1 Unstiffened Web Clause 4.3.3 for the applied shear combined with any additional moment beyond the “flanges-only” moment capacity Mf given by b).5.2. where pyf is the design strength of the compression flange.at the end of a member: n = 2 + 0. provided that the applied moment does not exceed the “low-shear” moment capacity given in a). 2.16 the moment capacity may be obtained by assuming that the moment is resisted by the flanges alone.6be/k but n ≤ 5 and k is obtained as follows: .3. It is given by: Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw in which.1 states that bearing stiffeners should be provided where the local compressive force Fx applied through a flange by loads or reactions exceeds the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web at the web-to-flange connection.except at the end of a member: n = 5 .or H-section: .6Vw.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2. c) High shear – General method If the applied shear Fv > 0. the web should be designed using Annex H.for a rolled I.for a welded I.or H-section: k=T+r k=T . with each flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf.

pyw is the design strength of the web.3. r is the root radius. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 8 of BS 5950. be is the distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing. allowing for cope holes for welding.net is the net cross-sectional area of the stiffener.netpy in which As. the smaller value should be used to calculate both the web capacity Pbw and the stiffener capacity Ps. and t is the web thickness. The capacity Ps of the stiffener should be obtained from: Ps = As. .17 where b1 is the stiff bearing length.5. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load. T is the flange thickness. 2. 2.2 Stiffened Web Bearing stiffeners should be designed for the applied force Fx minus the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web.3.6 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. If the web and the stiffener have different design strengths.

4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below.1 Cross-sectional Classification A beam section should firstly be classified to determine whether the chosen section will possibly suffer from initial local buckling. This section can develop plastic moment resistance. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Bearing capacity of web a) b) c) Crushing resistance Crippling resistance Buckling resistance (v) Deflection 2. plastic hinge is disallowed because local buckling will occur first. This limit allows the formation of a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. It is applicable for plastic design. To avoid this. Class 2 is also known as compact section.18 2. Clause 5. It has limited rotation capacity. . the beam will buckle during pre-mature stage.3 of EC3 provided limits on the outstand-to-thickness (c/tf) for flange and depth-tothickness (d/tw) in Table 5. However.4.1. When the flange of the beam is relatively too thin. It can also achieve rectangular stress block. Beam sections are classified into 4 classes.3. Class 1 is known as plastic section.

fy is the steel yield strength and γMO is partial safety factor as stated in Clause 5. 2.5 .Rd = Av (fy / √3) / γMO Av is the shear area. and ε = [235/fy]0. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance. Shear buckling resistance should be verified when for an unstiffened web. Shear capacity will normally be checked at section that takes the maximum shear force. The stress block will be of triangle shape.1. The member will fail before it reaches design stress.Rd where Vpl. It is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression resistance.1. Calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength.4.2 Shear Capacity. the ratios of c/tf and d/tw will be the highest among all four classes. At each crosssection. Apart from that. Pre-mature buckling will occur before yield strength is achieved.19 Class 3 is also known as semi-compact section. kγ is the buckling factor for shear. Vsd. Class 4 is known as slender section. the inequality should be satisfied: Vsd ≤ Vpl. the ratio of d/tw > 69ε or d/tw > 30ε √kγ for a stiffened web. Vpl.Rd The web of a section will sustain shear from the structure.

when maximum shear force.2 High Shear Moment Capacity Clause 5. Vsd is equal or less than the design resistance Vpl.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity When maximum shear force.4.3.4.Rd. as stated in Clause 5.3 Moment Capacity.Rd may be determined as follows: Class 1 or 2 cross-sections: Mc.Rd Moment capacity should be verified at sections sustaining maximum moment.7 states that.3.4.Rd = Wpl fy / γMO Class 3 cross-sections: Mc.Rd = Wel fy / γMO Class 4 cross-sections: Mc.3.5. Vsd exceeds 50% of the design resistance Vpl. the design moment resistance of a cross-section Mc. the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear .Rd. the design moment resistance of a cross-section should be reduced to MV. Weff is the elastic modulus at effective shear area.4. Mc. There are two situations to verify when checking moment capacity – that is. low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity.20 2. For class 4 cross-sections. γMO and γM1 are partial safety factors.Rd.Rd = Weff fy / γM1 where Wpl and Wel the plastic modulus and elastic modulus respectively. 2. 2.

Rd Situation becomes critical when a point load is applied to the web. is governed by one of the three modes of failure – Crushing of the web close to the flange. if shear force acts directly at web without acting through flange in the first place.1 Crushing Resistance.4.3 provides that the design crushing resistance.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces The resistance of an unstiffened web to transverse forces applied through a flange. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange.Rd – 1)2 2.21 force. This checking is intended to prevent the web from buckling under excessive compressive force. crippling of the web in the form of localized buckling and crushing of the web close to the flange. For cross-sections with equal flanges. Clause 5.Rd = (Wpl – ρAv2/4tw) fy / γMO but MV.Rd ≤ Mc. However. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange. it is obtained as follows: MV. H or U section should be obtained from: Ry.Ed / fyf)2]0.5 (fyf / fyw)0. and buckling of the web over most of the depth of the member.7.Rd of the web of an I.5 [1 – (σf. Ry. Ry.Rd where ρ = (2Vsd / Vpl. checking should be done at section subject to maximum shear force. 2. this checking is unnecessary. Thus.Rd = (ss + sγ) tw fγw / γM1 in which sγ is given by sγ = 2tf (bf / tw)0.5 .4. bending about the major axis.4.

Ed is the longitudinal stress in the flange.Rd + Msd / Mc. For member subject to bending moments.5tw2(Efyw)0.Rd = (χ βA fy A) / γM1 .Rd The design buckling resistance Rb.4.Sd = 0.2. σf.Rd of the web of an I. H or U section should be obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with an effective beff. Ra.4.3 Buckling Resistance.Rd of the web of an I. the following criteria should be satisfied: Fsd ≤ Ra.Rd Msd ≤ Mc.4.5 + 3(tw / tf)(ss / d)] / γM1 where ss is the length of stiff bearing.5 [(tf / tw)0.22 but bf should not be taken as more than 25tf. 2.5. obtained from beff = [h2 + ss2]0.4.Rd The design crippling resistance Ra.Rd and Fsd / Ra.5 2. and ss / d < 0. fyf and fyw are yield strength of steel at flange and web respectively.2 Crippling Resistance. H or U section is given by: Ra. Rb. Rb.Rd ≤ 1.

the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) Effective length Slenderness Compression resistance . This. 2.1 of EC3. however. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 4. Therefore.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 The design of structural steel column is relatively easier than the design of structural steel beam. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only. 2. applies only to non-moment sustaining column.23 where βA = 1 and buckling curve c is used at Table 5.5. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load.5 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam. Column is a compressive member and it generally supports compressive point loads.2.4.5.5. 2.1 and Table 5. checking is normally conducted for capacity of steel column to compression only.

2 Slenderness.5. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its effective length LE divided by its radius of gyration r about the relevant axis. directional restraint is based on connection stiffness and member stiffness. LE The effective length LE of a compression member is determined from the segment length L centre-to-centre of restraints or intersections with restraining members in the relevant plane. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross-sections) .24 2. 2.4.1. T-section struts. in accordance of Table 22. column members that carry more than 90% of their reduced plastic moment capacity Mr in the presence of axial force is assumed to be incapable of providing directional restraint.1 Effective Length.7. angle. channel.3 Compression Resistance.5.1. depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plane. For continuous columns in multi-storey buildings of simple design.1. the compression resistance Pc of a member is given by: Pc = Ag pc (for class 1 plastic. Depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plate. and back-to-back struts. λ = LE / r 2. This concept is not applicable for battened struts. Pc According to Clause 4.5.

in which λ is based on the radius of gyration r of the gross cross-section.5. Mcx is the moment capacity about major axis. . Ag is the gross cross-sectional area.5. py is the design steel strength. for class 1 plastic. the checking of cross-section capacity is as follows: My Fc M + x + ≤1 Ag p y M cx M cy where Fc is the axial compression. pc the compressive strength obtained from Table 23 and Table 24. and pcs is the value of pc from Table 23 and Table 24 for a reduced slenderness of λ(Aeff/Ag)0.25 Pc = Aeff pcs (for class 4 slender cross-section) where Aeff is the effective cross-sectional area. 2. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. My is the moment about minor axis. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area.2.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. 2. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections. and Mcy is the moment capacity about minor axis. Mx is the moment about major axis.5.

6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 The design of steel column according to EC3 is quite similar to the design of steel column according to BS 5950. Mx the maximum end moment on x-axis. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Buckling length Slenderness Compression resistance Buckling resistance . Pc the compression resistance of column. the following stability check needs to be satisfied: My F Mx + + ≤ 1 . py the steel design strength.5. and Zy the elastic modulus.2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam. 2.2 Member Buckling Resistance In simple construction. 2.26 2. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only.6. Mb the buckling resistance moment.0 Pc M bs p y Z y where F is the axial force in column.

2. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact crosssections) .4. the buckling length l may be determined using informative of Annex E provided in EC3. the value of λ should not exceed 250.1. Alternatively. l The buckling length l of a compression member is dependant on the restraint condition at both ends.6. provided that both ends of a column are effectively held in position laterally.6.1.Rd = A fy / γM0 (for class 1 plastic. the value of λ should not exceed 180. determined using the properties of the gross cross-section.Rd of a member is given by: Nc. λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its buckling length l divided by its radius of gyration i about the relevant axis.6.4.2 Slenderness.3 Compression Resistance. λ=l/i For column resisting loads other than wind loads.27 2. Nc.1. 2. the compression resistance Nc.1 Buckling Length.5 states that.5. whereas for column resisting self-weight and wind loads only. the buckling length l may be conservatively be taken as equal to its system length L. Clause 5.1.Rd According to Clause 5.

28 Nc.1. For hot rolled steel members with the types of cross-section commonly used for compression members. Nb.Rd = χ βA A fy / γM1 where βA = 1 for Class 1.Rd For compression members. the relevant buckling mode is generally “flexural” buckling. 2 or 3 cross-sections.6.5.Rd .Rd 2. and Aeff / A for Class 4 cross-sections.4 Buckling Resistance. The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nb. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.Rd = Aeff fy / γM1 (for class 4 slender cross-section) The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nc. Clause 5.1.1 states that the design buckling resistance of a compression member should be taken as: Nc.

8.Sd + N Sd e Nz N Sd + + ≤1 Aeff f yd Weff .Sd ⎤ ⎡ M z . y f yd Wel . z f yd for Class 4 cross-sections where fyd = fy/γM1.Sd N Sd M z .Sd ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ≤1 ⎢ M Ny . Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject . z f yd for Class 3 cross-sections M y . β = 5n but β ≥ 1.Sd + N Sd e Ny M z . in which n = Nsd / Npl.2.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. for bi-axial bending the following approximate criterion may be used: ⎡ M y . Rd M pl . Rd ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ α β for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections M y . y f yd Weff . cross-section capacity depends on the types of cross-section and applied moment.1 states that. y . Rd for a conservative approximation where. z .29 2. 2. Rd M pl .Sd + + ≤1 N pl .Sd + + ≤1 Af yd Wel . α = 2. Rd ⎥ ⎣ M Nz . M y . for I and H sections.6.4. Clause 5.Rd.Sd N Sd M z .2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section when subject to uniform compression.6.

30 only to moment about the relevant axis; and eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross-section is subject to uniform compression.

However, for high shear (VSd ≥ 0.5 Vpl.Rd), Clause 5.4.9 states that the design resistance of the cross-section to combinations of moment and axial force should be calculated using a reduced yield strength of (1 – ρ)fy for the shear area, where ρ = (2VSd / Vpl.Rd – 1)2.

2.6.2.2 Member Buckling Resistance

A column, subject to buckling moment, may buckle about major axis or minor axis or both. All members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.Sd must satisfy the following condition:

k y M y.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1,0 N b. y . Rd ηM c. y . Rd

where Nb.y.Rd is the design buckling resistance for major axis; Mc.y.Rd is the design moment resistance for major-axis bending, ky is the conservative value and taken as 1,5; and η = γM0 / γM1 for Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-sections, but 1,0 for Class 4.

2.7

Conclusion

This section summarizes the general steps to be taken when designing a structural member in simple construction.

31 2.7.1 Structural Beam

Table 2.1 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.1 : Criteria to be considered in structural beam design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 80ε 100ε 120ε ε = (275 / py)0.5 2.0 Shear Capacity Pv = 0.6pyAv Av = Dt Vpl.Rd = fyAv / (√3 x γM0) γM0 = 1,05 Av from section table 3.0 Moment Capacity Mc = pyS Mc = pyZ Mc = pyZeff Class 1, 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1,05 γM1 = 1,05 4.0 Bearing Capacity Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 72ε 83ε 124ε ε = (235 / fy)0,5 EC3

32

Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw Smaller of Ry.Rd = (ss + sy) tw fyw / γM1 Ra.Rd = 0,5tw2(Efyw)0,5 [(tf/tw)0,5 + 3(tw/tf)(ss/d)]/γM1 Rb.Rd = χβAfyA / γM1 5.0 Shear Buckling Resistance d/t ≤ 70ε Ratio 6.0 Deflection L / 360 Limit (Beam carrying plaster or other brittle finish) N/A Limit (Total deflection) L / 250 L / 350 d/tw ≤ 69ε

2.7.2

Structural Column

Table 2.2 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.2 : Criteria to be considered in structural column design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 80ε / 1 + r1 100ε / 1 + 1.5r1 Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 396ε / (13α – 1) 456ε / (13α – 1) EC3

3 Class 4 Nc.0 Pc M bs p y Z y k y M y.5 2. Rd .Rd = Afy / γM0 γM0 = 1. y .Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1.eff Class 1. 2.0 N b. 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.67 + 0.33 120ε / 1 + 2r2 r1 = Fc / dtpyw.05 4.5(1 + γM0σw / fy) σw = NSd / dtw ε = (235 / fy)0.0 Stability Check My F Mx + + ≤ 1 .0 Compression Resistance Pc = Agpc Pc = Aeffpcs Class 1.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1.Rd = Aefffy / γM1 3.5 Class 3 Semi-compact 42ε / (0.33ψ) ψ = 2γM0σa / fy – 1 σa = NSd / A α = 0.05 Nc. Rd ηM c.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.0 Moment Resistance Mb = pbSx Mb = pbZx Mb = pbZx. -1 < r1 ≤ 1 r2 = Fc / Agpyw ε = (275 / py) 0.05 γM1 = 1. y .

analyzing the tables provided and the purpose of each clause stated in the code. buckling capacity and deflection is carried out. Analysis. analysis on the difference between the results using two codes is done. The first step is to study and understand the cross-section classification for steel members as given in EC. Checking on several elements. .1 for the flowchart of the methodology of this study. At the same time. moment capacity. Eventually. Please refer to Figure 3. an understanding on the cross-section classification for BS 5950 is also carried out. such as shear capacity. it is necessary to study and understand the concept of design methods in EC3 and compare the results with the results of BS 5950 design.1 Introduction As EC3 will eventually replace BS 5950 as the new code of practice. comparison of the results will lead to recognizing the difference in design approach for each code. Beams and columns are designed for the maximum moment and shear force obtained from computer software analysis. bearing capacity. Next.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3. design and comparison works will follow subsequently.

End moments are zero. Please refer to Appendices A1 and A2 for the analysis worksheets created for the purpose of calculating shear force and bending moment values based on the requirements of different safety factors of both codes. Therefore. Simple construction allows the connection of beam-to-column to be pinned jointed.4 to 3. M and shear force. that is M = wL2 / 8 V = wL / 2 where w is the uniform distributed load and L the beam span. As the scope of this study is limited at simple construction. Calculation of bending moment. only beam shear forces will be transferred to the structural column. .8 discuss in detail all the specifications and necessary data for the analysis of the multi-storey braced frame. Different factors of safety with reference to BS 5950 and EC3 are defined respectively.2 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The structural analysis of the building frame will be carried out by using Microsoft Excel worksheets. the use of advanced structural analysis software is not needed.35 3. Sections 3. V are based on simply-supported condition.

The method of design using BS 5950 will be based on the work example drawn by Heywood (2003).36 3. Meanwhile.3 Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The design of beam and column is calculated with Microsoft Excel software. the method of design using EC3 will be based on the work example drawn by Narayanan et. . al. The Microsoft Excel software is used for its features that allow continual and repeated calculations using values calculated in every cell of the worksheet. Microsoft Excel worksheets will show the calculation steps in a clear and fair manner. (1995). Several trial and error calculations can be used to cut down on the calculation time needed as well as prevent calculation error. Furthermore. Please refer to Appendices B1 to C2 for the calculation worksheets created for the purpose of the design of structural beam and column of both design codes.

M=wL2/8) Design worksheet development using Microsoft Excel Beams and columns design Fail Checking (Shear.1: Schematic diagram of research methodology .37 Determine Research Objective and Scope Phase 1 Literature Review Determination of building and frame dimension Specify loadings & other specifications Phase 2 Frame analysis using Microsoft Excel (V=wL/2. Combined) Pass Comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 Phase 3 END Figure 3. Moment.

6m 6m 6/9m 6/9m Figure 3. Each of the frame’s longitudinal length is 6m. The number of storey of the frame is set at four (4).4 Structural Layout & Specifications 3. there will be three (3) numbers of 4-storey frames. a parametric study for the design of multi-storey braced frames is carried out. The intermediate frame will be used as the one to be analysed and designed. the 4-storey frame consists of four (4) bays.1 Structural Layout In order to make comparisons of the design of braced steel frame between BS 5950-1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. 2nd to 3rd.2 : Floor plan view of the steel frame building. in total. Please refer to Figure 3. the storey height will be 4m.4. 3rd to roof). whereas for other floors (1st to 2nd. Two (2) lengths of bay width will be used in the analysis – 6m and 9m respectively. 4th storey is roof while the rest will serve as normal floors. In plan view.38 3.2 and Figure 3.3 for the illustrations of building plan view and elevation view respectively. The storey height will be 5m from ground floor to first floor. .

Meanwhile. .3 : Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame. 3. All the roof bays will be used for general purposes. All the bays will be serving the same function. all the beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pinned. As this is a simple construction.2 Specifications The designed steel frame structure is meant for office for general use. The main steel frame will consist of solely universal beam (UB) and universal column (UC). Meanwhile. Top flange of beams are effectively restraint against lateral torsional buckling.4. Web cleats will be used as the connection method to create pinned connection.39 4m 4m 4m 5m Figure 3. flat roof system will be introduced to cater for some activities on roof top. all the column-to-column connections are to be rigid.

2.5kN/m2. Consequently. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. For imposed roof load. for a flat roof with access available for cleaning. Therefore. all floors will be of one-way slab. Table 8 (Offices occupancy class) states that the intensity of distributed load of offices for general use will be 2. 3. . the intensity of slab selfweight will be 2. Therefore. this value will be adopted. all the values of imposed loads of both BS 5950 and EC3 design will be based on BS 6399. precast solid floor panel of 100mm thick was selected for flat roof. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. Meanwhile. This value will be used as this frame model is meant for a general office usage. repair and other general purposes. For precast floor selfweight. Meanwhile. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in 9kN/m and 15kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively.40 Precast concrete flooring system will be introduced to this project. section 6.3 of Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) states that the characteristic values of imposed floor load and imposed roof load must be obtained from Part 1 and Part 3 of BS 6399 respectively. Weight of concrete is given by 24kN/m3.5 Loadings Section 2. a uniform load intensity of 1. The type of precast flooring system to be used will be solid precast floor panel.5kN/m2 is appropriate. Therefore. each bay will contribute half of the load intensity to the intermediate frame. In this design. Multiplying the thickness of the slabs.4kN/m2 and 3.0kN/m2 respectively. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project.2 (Flat roofs) states that. 125mm think floor panel will be used for other floors.

For other floors. γG is given by 1. 3. The .41 The finishes on the flat roof will be waterproofing membrane and decorative screed. variable actions Q include live loads such as imposed load. is given by 1.5. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 4 cross-section. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 1. for imposed floor load. partial safety factors.4. γM0. in the design of buildings not subject to loads from cranes. In EC3.35. The factor γM0 is used where the failure mode is plasticity or yielding. γM1. the principal combination of loads that should be taken into account will be load combination 1 – Dead load and imposed gravity loads.4kN/m2 and 4kN/m2 respectively. a selection of floor carpets and ceramic tiles will be used. γF for dead load. finishes and fittings. A general load intensity of 1.05.6 Factor of Safety Section 2.05 as well.0kN/m2 for finishes (superimposed dead load) on all floors will be assumed. γf should be taken as 1. γQ is given by 1.4 for dead load.1. Meanwhile. From Table 2. and 1. Meanwhile.1. the total dead load intensity for roof and floor slabs are 3. Partial safety factors for loads. Combining the superimposed dead load with selfweight. 2 or 3 cross-section. for normal design situations. depending on the interior designer’s intention.6 for imposed load. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in kN/m and 24kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively.2 “Buildings without cranes” of BS 5950 states that. is given by 1. permanent actions G include dead loads such as self-weight of structure.

3.1 Load Combination This section describes the structural analysis of the steel frame. design strength py is decided by the thickness of the thickest element of the cross-section (for rolled sections).42 factor γM1 is used where the failure mode is buckling – including local buckling.4 times total dead load plus 1. which governs the resistance of a Class 4 (slender) cross-section. two (2) types of steel grade will be used. According to BS 5950. For steel grade S 275. In BS 5950. 3.8 Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3.8. Meanwhile. For steel grade S 355.6 times total imposed .7 Categories In this project. py is 275N/mm2 for thickness less than or equal to 16mm and 265N/mm2 for thickness larger but less than or equal to 40mm. fy is 355N/mm2 and 335N/mm2 respectively for the same thickness limits.1. in order to justify the effect of design strength of a steel member on the strength of a steel member. py is 355N/mm2 and 345N/mm2 respectively for the same limits of thickness. for Fe 510. namely S 275 (or Fe 430 as identified in EC3) and S 355 (or Fe 510 as identified in EC3). 3. in the meantime.2 “Material properties for hot rolled steel” (C-EC3) limits thickness of flange to less than or equal to 40mm for nominal yield strength fy of 275N/mm2 and larger but less than or equal to 100mm for fy of 255N/mm2. the load combination will be 1.

2 Shear Calculation This steel frame is pinned jointed at all beam-to-column supports.4DL + 1.28 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 206. will be 45. the resultant load combination. the resultant load combination. will be 48kN/m.64kN/m.55 268. BS 5950 results in higher value of shear. the shear. For all other floors. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula. the w will be 59.7 179.6LL). the w will be 62.88 6m 137.92 From Table 4.5 times total imposed load (1.2 will present the accumulating axial loads acting on the structural columns of the steel frame. For simple construction.9kN/m.43 load (1. there is a difference of approximately 4.76kN/m. This is done by summating the resultant shear .35DL + 1. V at end connections is given by V = wl/2. For the roof.1 Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 144 187. Clearly. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width. w.1 below: Table 3. the load combination will be 1. The next table. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors.1.92 Bay Width 9m 216 281.5LL). w. According to EC3. the resulting shear values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3. For all other floors.35 times total dead load plus 1. Table 3.8. For the roof. 3.5% between the analyses of both codes.

68 1415.84 707. Table 3. 432 995.98 496. M. similar with the beam shear.96 992.3 Moment Calculation For simple construction.8.92 519.55 475.1 950.2 Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) BS 5950 Floor Int.39 1013.94 1488. 137.88 779. structural beam moment.64 6m Ext.Ground 288 663.08 Int. Internal columns will sustain axial load two times higher than external columns of same floor level as they are connected to two beams.78 2026.84 1039. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula.26 675. 413.54 Int.52 2123. = Internal column Ext.3: .31 Int.28 Int.76 1061. the resulting moment values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3.4 633. 216 497. Roof – 3rd 3rd – 2nd 2nd – 1st 1st . 144 331. can be calculated by using the formula M=wl2/8.5%. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width. since all the beam-to-column connections are pinned jointed.44 force from beam of each floor.52 EC 3 9m 6m Ext.7 316.76 9m Ext. 3.62 Ext.47 744. 275. = External column The accumulating axial loads based on the two codes vary approximately 4. 206.52 1351.76 1559.

the depth (D for BS 5950 and h for EC 3) of a structural column is assumed to be 400mm. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors.74 605. BS 5950 results in higher value of moment.6% between the analyses of both codes. However. the depth of the column has not been decided yet.3 Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 216 281. initially.45 Table 3. the eccentricity of the resultant shear from the face of the structural column will be 100mm. there will be a moment due to eccentricity of the resultant shear from the beams. there is a difference of approximately 4.4% to 4. the higher the difference percentage will be. D or h is the depth of column section (m). the higher the load combination of a floor. In this project. Subsequently. the eccentricity moment.92 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 464.23 6m 206. in this case.88 Bay Width 9m 486 634. For the moments of the structural columns. Since this is only preliminary analysis as well.55 268. since this is simple construction. e is the eccentricity of resultant shear from the face of column (m). can be determined from the following formula: Me = V (e + D/2) = V (e + h/2) where V is resultant shear of structural beam (kN).3. Therefore. Regardless of the width of the bay.07 From Table 3. Me. . Clearly. there will be no end moments being transferred from the structural beams.

32.6 63.38 9m Ext. In simple construction. for internal column.66 57. 3.78 Int.4 84. V should be obtained by deducting the factored combination of floor dead (DL) and imposed load (LL) with unfactored floor dead load.46 V for external column can be easily obtained from shear calculation. The moments for floor columns will be evenly distributed as the ratio of EI1/L1 and EI2/L2 is less than 1. Table 3.5LL) – 1.08 EC 3 9m 6m Ext. However. two major checks that need to be done is shear and moment resistance at ultimate limit state.98 80.4 below summarizes the moment values due to eccentricity.6LL) – 1. 20. For BS 5950.0DL. 21.9 Structural Beam Design Structural beam design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. For EC 3. Roof Other Floors 21.84 Ext. . 30. 30.98 86.4 94.35DL + 1.6 56.68 These values of eccentricity moments will be useful for the estimation of initial size of a column member during structural design in later stage. Table 3. V can be expressed as V = (1.4 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) BS 5950 Floor Int. V can be expressed as V = (1.56 6m Ext.5.0DL.66 53.6 Int.88 Int. 32. serviceability check in the form of deflection check will need to be done.4DL + 1. 20. Next.

necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. Depth between fillets. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. Sx = 1290cm3. shear capacity. d/t = 50. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 187.88kNm.9. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). From the section table for universal beam. 3.92kN and 281.88 x 103 / 275 = 1025cm3 From the rearranged table.99. D = 454. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Sx = M / py = 281. Depth.3. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. T = 13. Elastic modulus. Flange thickness.47 The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the floor beam of length 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).1mm. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. From the section table.1 BS 5950 In simple construction. ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) .6mm. Plastic modulus.6mm. UB section 457x152x60 is chosen. t = 8. B = 152. Zx = 1120cm3. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 59. Web thickness. Width.3mm.8kg/m. d = 407. moment capacity and web bearing capacity.9mm. b/T = 6.

3 “Shear capacity” is checked. For class 1 plastic cross-section. shear buckling resistance should be checked.0.0 in this design. After clause 4. For web of I-section.57kN > Fv = 187. Actual b/T = 5. Mc = pySx. Meanwhile.0. section 4.6 x 607.26 x 10-3 = 607.0.75. Therefore. 0.92kN Therefore.6 = 3682.26mm2 Pv = 0.2. clause 4. Since both flange and web are plastic. section 4. flange is Class 1 plastic section.5 is checked. Mc = 275 x 1290 x 10-3 .57 = 364.6pyAv.2. where Av = tD for a rolled I-section. it is low shear. where neutral axis is at mid-depth. Actual d/t did not exceed 80.1 x 454.6 x 275 x 3682.5 states that if the d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for a rolled section. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section. Since actually d/t < 70.6Pv = 0.3. actual d/t = 50. this section is Class 1 plastic section.4. Mc” is checked. shear capacity is adequate. Shear capacity. Next.48 = 1.54kN > Fv Therefore. web is Class 1 plastic section. Therefore. Av = 8. which is smaller than 9ε = 9. the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε = 80. shear buckling needs not be checked.5 “Moment capacity.4. Pv = 0. Next. therefore.0 Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950.

n = 2 b1 + nk = 98.1 x 275 x 10-3 = 218.92kN .2 “Bearing capacity of web” is checked.02 x 8.2 = 23. Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw r = 10.6 x 10.88kNm from analysis < Mc = 354. section 4.2pyZx = 1. therefore.2 x 275 x 1120 x 10-3 = 369.75kNm Therefore. M = 281. To prevent crushing of the web due to forces applied through a flange. If Fv exceeds Pbw. bearing capacity of web. OK.6be/k. 1.2 + 2 x 13. Mc should be limited to 1.49 = 354.3 = 51.34kN > Fv = 187.1 + 1. moment capacity is adequate.6kNm > Mc.2pyZx. n = 2 + 0. be = 0.6r + 2T (Figure 13) = 8.02mm k=T+r = 13.5.02mm Pbw = 98.75kNm To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads.2mm b1 = t + 1. bearing stiffener should be provided.3 + 10.5mm At support.

the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value. Therefore. the serviceability limit state check (Section 2.0m E = 205kN/mm2 I = 25500cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done. the vertical deflection limit should be L/360. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check. However. This is done in the form of deflection check. the bearing capacity at support is adequate. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length.5) should be conducted. w = 15kN/m for floors. δ. The section is adequate. Generally.67mm >δ Therefore. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4. only unfactored imposed load shall be used to calculate the deflection. In this case. δlim = 6000 / 360 = 16.50 Therefore. L = 6.84mm Table 8 (Suggested limits for calculated deflections) suggests that for “beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish). . the deflection is satisfactory.

Wpl. b = 177. UB section 406x178x54 is chosen.9mm. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl. Shear area.92kNm. From the section table.92 x 103 / 275 = 977. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. Plastic modulus. From the section table for universal beam.6mm. Web thickness.4mm. Depth. Av = 32. Wpl. tf = 10.28kN and 268. 3. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 54kg/m.6mm. crippling and buckling. tw = 7. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. d = 360. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.y = 1051cm3. Wel. Therefore. Width. Depth between fillets. lateral torsional buckling. Area of .6mm.9cm2. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 179.51 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.y = 927cm3.9. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. moment capacity.2 EC 3 In simple construction.y (cm3). it is adequate to be used.9cm3 From the rearranged table. resistance of web to crushing.y = M / py = 268. Elastic modulus. h = 402. Flange thickness. shear capacity.

9 x 100 x 275) / (√3 x 1.15 ≤ 9. VSd from analysis at each cross-section should not exceed the design plastic shear resistance Vpl.05 Vpl. VSd = 179. limiting c/tf ratio (c is half of b) is 9. Based on Table 3.9mm.6cm2. fu = 430N/mm2.Rd. limiting d/tw ratio is 66. Second moment of area.Rd = (32. for “outstand element of compression flange.28kN .28kN γM0 = 1.48 = 298.5.49kN > VSd = 179. These values must be adopted as characteristic values in calculations.2.1.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0. A = 68. The design value of shear force. fy = 275N/mm2 and ultimate tensile strength. For “web subject to bending. Iy = 18670cm4. section 5. Web is Class 1 element. 0. c/tf = 8. For S275 (Fe 430). From Table 5. tf ≤ 40mm. Therefore. Flange is Class 1 element.15. yield strength.4 ≤ 66. flange subject to compression only”. iLT = 4. d/tw = 47.6.48kN > 179.6 for Class 1 elements. UB section 406x178x54 is Class 1 section.36cm. aLT = 131cm. Next.1 “Shear resistance of cross-section” of beam is checked. shear resistance is sufficient. Before checks are done for ultimate limit states. Actual c/tf = 8.52 section. that is Vpl.2 for Class 1 elements.28kN Therefore.05) = 497.6(a). neutral axis at mid depth”.5 x 497. tf = 10.4.5Vpl.Rd = 0. Actual d/tw = 47. section classification is a must.

Ra.5[fyf/fyw]0. Ry. The beam is fully restrained.6 “Resistance of webs to transverse forces” requires transverse stiffeners to be provided in any case that the design value VSd applied through a flange to a web exceeds the smallest of the following – Crushing resistance.Ed/fyf)2]0.53 Therefore.Rd = Wpl. not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling.6 “Shear buckling” requires that webs must have transverse stiffeners at the supports if d/tw is greater than 63.5 .Rd and buckling resistance.5.4 < 63.y fy / γM0 for Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section. shear buckling check is not required.5 [1 – (γM0 σf.8 and 56. Ry. the moment capacity is sufficient.92kNm Mc. low shear. Actual d/tw = 47. Therefore. section 5. For low shear.5 “Lateral-torsional buckling” needs not be checked.8. crippling resistance.5.05 = 275. For crushing resistance.Rd = 1051 x 275 x 10-3 / 1. sy = tf(bf/tw)0. Rb.Rd = (ss + sy) twfyw / γM1 where at support.2 “Moment resistance of cross-section with low shear” the design value of moment MSd must not exceed the design moment resistance of the cross-section Mc.1 for steel grade Fe 430 and Fe 510 respectively. Therefore. MSd = 268. Section 5. Section 5. section 5.5.26kNm > MSd Therefore.Rd.Rd.

4kN For crippling resistance.8 x 7.05 = 204.5 [402.5 [(10.5 + 0 + 50/2 = 227.8kN For buckling resistance.Ed = 0.8mm beff should be less than [h2 + ss2]0.5 + 3(7.6)0.05 E = 210kN/mm2 Ra.69mm Ry.62 (210000 x 275)0.14)] / 1.4 = 0.69) x 7.6 / 7.Rd = 0.6/10. A = 227.5 x 7.5 = 405.5 [(tf/tw)0.05.28mm2 .Rd = (50 + 52. bending moment is zero.7mm.5[h2 + ss2]0.5 + a + ss/2 = 0. Rb. Ra. OK γM1 = 1.54 At support.62 + 502]0. fyf = 275N/mm2.9 (177.5tw2 (Efyw)0.05 = 307. OK.5 = 52.14 ≤ 0.Rd = 0. sy = 10.6)0.2.6 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.Rd = βA fc A / γM1 A = beff x tw beff = 0. γM0 = 1.9)(0.5 + 3(tw/tf) (ss/d)] / γM1 ss/d = 50 / 360.6 = 1731. σf.9/7. ss = 50mm at support.

Rd = 307. fc = 121N/mm2 λ√βA = 120.6 = 118. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done.5 d/t = 2.55 βA = 1 γM1 = 1.13 (rolled I-section).2) should be conducted. fc = 117N/mm2 By interpolation. which is larger than VSd = 179.05 = 197. λ = 2.5kN Ra. From Figure 4.05 For ends restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement (Table 5. the web of the section can resist transverse forces.6 From Table 5. the serviceability limit state check (Section 4. buckling about y-y axis. curve (a) is used.6kN/m for floors.8N/mm2 Rb. δmax = δ1 + δ2 – δ0 (hogging δ0 = 0 at unloaded state) w1 = 27. Therefore. fc = 119. deflection should take into account deflection due to both permanent loads and imposed loads.4kN Minimum of the 3 values are 197. OK.29). (Permanent load) . λ√βA = 118. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value.28kN.Rd = 204.8kN Ry.6 λ√βA = 118.5kN.8 x 1731.28 x 10-3 / 1. This is done in the form of deflection check.1.Rd = 1 x 119. Generally.5 x 360.4 / 7.

(Imposed load) L = 6.88mm δ2 = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 6. δ. 2 = 6000 / 350 = 17.0m E = 210kN/mm2 Iy = 18670cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection.1 (Recommended limiting values for vertical deflections) suggests that for “floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-flexible partitions”.56 w2 = 15kN/m for floors. However. In this case.34mm Therefore. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length.46mm Table 4. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check. the deflection is satisfactory.6 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 11. the vertical deflection limit should be L/350 for δ2 and L/250 for δmax. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI δ1 = 5 x 27. . The section is adequate. δlim.14mm > δ2 δlim. max = 6000 / 250 = 24mm > δ1 + δ2 = 18.

57 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. Therefore, it is adequate to be used.

3.10

Structural Column Design

Structural column design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. In simple construction, apart from section classification, two major checks that need to be done is compression and combined axial and bending at ultimate limit state.

The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the internal column “ground floor to 1st floor” (length 5m) of the steel frame with bay width 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).

3.10.1 BS 5950

In simple construction, apart from section classification, necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be compression resistance and combined axial force and moment. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1415.52kN and 63.08kNm respectively.

From the section table for universal column, the sections are rearranged in ascending form, first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.

Sx = M / py

58 = 63.08 x 103 / 275 = 229.4cm3

From the rearranged table, UC section 203x203x60 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.

From the section table, the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 60kg/m; Depth, D = 209.6mm; Width, B = 205.2mm; Web thickness, t = 9.3mm; Flange thickness, T = 14.2mm; Depth between fillets, d = 160.8mm; Plastic modulus, Sx = 652cm3; Elastic modulus, Zx = 581.1cm3; Radius of gyration, rx = 8.96cm, ry = 5.19cm; Gross area, Ag = 75.8cm2; b/T = 7.23 (b = 0.5B); d/t = 17.3.

T < 16mm, therefore, py = 275N/mm2 ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) = 1.0

Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950. Actual b/T = 7.23, which is smaller than 9ε = 9.0. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section (Outstand element of compression flange). Therefore, flange is Class 1 plastic section. Meanwhile, actual d/t = 17.3. For web of I-section under axial compression and bending, the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε / 1 + r1, where r1 is given by r1 = Fc / dtpy. r1 = 1415.52 x 103 / 160.8 x 9.3 x 275 = 3.44 but -1 < r1 ≤ 1, therefore, r1 = 1 Limiting d/t value = 80 x 1 / 1 + 1 = 40

59 > Actual d/t = 17.3 Therefore, the web is Class 1 plastic section. Since both flange and web are plastic, this section is Class 1 plastic section.

Next, based on section 4.7.2 “Slenderness” and section 4.7.3 “Effective lengths”, and from Table 22 (Restrained in direction at one end), the effective length, LE = 0.85L = 0.85 x 5000 = 4250mm. λx = LEx / rx = 4250 / 8.96 x 10 = 47.4

Next, based on section 4.7.4 “Compression resistance”, for class 1 plastic section, compression resistance, Pc = Agpc. pc is the compressive strength determined from Table 24. For buckling about x-x axis, T < 40mm, strut curve (b) is used. λx = 46, pc = 242N/mm2 λx = 48, pc = 239N/mm2 From interpolation, λx = 47.4, pc = 239.9N/mm2 Pc = Agpc = 75.8 x 100 x 239.9 x 10-3 = 1818.44kN > Fc = 1415.52kN Therefore, compressive resistance is adequate.

78N/mm2 Mb = pbSx = 260. From frame analysis. For EI / L1st-2nd : EI / Lground-1st < 1. Mi = 63. for columns in simple construction. therefore. R. My / pyZy = 0 Equivalent slenderness λLT of column is given by λLT = 0. λLT = 48.60 Next.03kNm .7.54kNm. when only nominal moments are applied.17. λLT = 45. pb = 250N/mm2 λLT = 50.5 x 5000 / 5. is assumed to be acting 100mm from the face of the column.17 From Table 16 (Bending strength pb for rolled sections). Section 4. the beam reaction.19 x 10 = 48.5. the moment will be equally divided. the column should satisfy the relationship (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) + (My / pyZy) ≤ 1 My = 0. M = 31.5L / ry = 0. The moment is distributed between the column lengths above and below 1st floor.7 “Columns in simple structures”. Therefore.08kNm. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length. pb = 260. pb = 233N/mm2 From interpolation.78 x 652 x 10-3 = 170.

The moment will then be divided by the design strength fy to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.y = MSd / fy = 57.88 x 103 / 275 = 210.54 / 170.y (cm3).44 + 31.52 / 1818. From the section table for universal column. Wpl. This section satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.03 = 0. 3. it is adequate to be used.0 Therefore. the combined resistance against axial force and eccentricity moment is adequate. .10.96 < 1.5cm3 From the rearranged table.2 EC 3 In simple construction.88kNm respectively. Therefore. UC section 254x254x73 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. apart from section classification. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1351.61 (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) = 1415. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be cross-section resistance (in the form of moment resistance) and in-plane failure about major axis (which is a combination of axial force and eccentricity moment).08kN and 57.

6 = 784. flange is Class 1 element. Therefore. Elastic modulus.2 and 10.5cm.46cm. iy = 11. h = 254mm. b = 254mm. Depth between fillets.94.08 x 103 / 200.1cm. Flange thickness. From Table 5. Since both flange and web are plastic.8. Wpl. the web is Class 1. this section is Class 1 section.3. iz = 6.y = 990cm3. Plastic modulus. for outstand element of compression flange (flange subject to compression only).y = 895cm3. For web subject to bending and compression. from.8 gives the limiting values of stress σw for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections. Shear area. .6cm2. with d/tw = 23. Depth.3. Radius of gyration.5b).2 respectively.6 “Axially loaded members with moments” will be checked. tw = 8. c/tf = 8.86cm.2mm. Av = 25. section 5.6mm. Area of section. section 5. For symmetric I-section of Class 1 or 2. Width.6(a) of C-EC3 for Class 1 elements. Beforehand. therefore. tf = 14.2 x 8.2.2mm. Next. tf = 14. Actual c/tf = 8. Actual c/tf = 8.94 (c = 0. d = 200. From this table. Iy = 11370cm4.62 From the section table.1. Wel.9cm2. fy = 275N/mm2. σw. iLT = 6. the limiting values of c/tf for Class 1 and 2 are 9.94 < 9. aLT = 98.5.73N/mm2 Table 5. Second moment of area.2mm < 40mm. A = 92. σw = NSd / dtw = 1351. the classification depends on the mean web stress. fu = 430N/mm2 Sectional classification is based on Table 5. the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 73kg/m. d/tw = 23. Web thickness.

1 : MNy.Rd is such that n < 0.y.y.11 Mpl.555) . the section is subject to a low shear.9 x 102 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.Rd n ≥ 0.Rd = A fy / γM0 = 92.11 x 259.Rd Reduced design plastic moment.58kN 0.y.1kN Maximum applied shear load (at top of column) is Vmax.05) = 387.y.88 x 103 / 5000 = 11.3 x (1 – 0. n = NSd / Npl.08 / 2433.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0 = (25.3kNm MNy.27.1kN n = 1351.05 = 259.Rd = Mpl.63 Vpl.y fy / γM0 = 990 x 10-3 x 275 / 1.1 : MNy. From Table 5.6 x 102 x 275) x 10-3 / (√3 x 1.1 = 0.Rd > Vmax.Rd = Wpl.Rd = 1.Sd / L = 57.5Vpl.1 Therefore.Rd (1 – n) Npl.Sd = My.Rd = 1.555 ≥ 0. MNy. MN.11 Mpl. allowing for axial force.Rd = 1.05 = 2433.Sd Therefore.Rd (1 – n) Mpl.

3.85L = 0.3 Based on Table 5. section 5. for buckling about y-y axis.7N/mm2 .94kNm Therefore.13 “Selection of buckling curve for fc”. fc = 248N/mm2 From interpolation. βA = 1 λy√βA = 38. λy√βA = 38.Sd must satisfy the expression (NSd / Nb.1kNm > MSd = 28.3.Rd) ≤ 1.6.y.3 tf ≤ 40mm λy√βA = 38. fc = 249.Sd / ηMc. Lastly. fc = 250N/mm2 λy√βA = 40.64 = 128. the moment resistance is sufficient.1 x 10 = 38. buckling curve (b) is used.85 x 5000 = 4250mm Slenderness ratio λy = Ly / iy = 4250 / 11.0 Ly = 0.y.Rd) + (kyMy.2 “Axial compression and major axis bending” states that all members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.

05 = 2209.94 / 1 x 128. γM1 = 1.0 Therefore.05 = 1 x 249. Therefore. it is adequate to be used.y.3kN ky = interaction factor about yy axis = 1.08 / 2209.Rd) + (kyMy.1) = 0.65 Nb. This section 254x254x73 UC satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.95 < 1. .9 x 102 x 10-3 / 1.Sd / ηMc. the resistance against in-plane failure against major axis is sufficient.y.3) + (1.y.7 x 92.5 (Conservative value) η = γM0 / γM1 =1 (NSd / Nb.Rd) = (1351.Rd = βA fc A / γM1.5 x 28.

4. Shear capacity and moment capacity of each section are being calculated separately.1 for shear capacity and Table 5.1. namely structural capacity. Here.1 Structural Capacity Structural capacity deals with shear and moment resistance of a particular section chosen. The results are arranged accordingly. The results based on BS 5950 and EC3 calculation are compiled together to show the difference between each other.1 Structural Beam UB sections ranging from 305x102x25 to 533x210x122 are being tabulated in ascending form. structural capacity is sub-divided into beam and column. based on steel grade S275 and S355. deflection.2 for moment capacity. 4.CHAPTER IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The results of the structural design of the braced steel frame (beam and column) are tabulated and compiled in the next sections. . The results are shown in Table 4. and weight of steel.

39 511.85 517.64 0.36 11.81 -3.14 18.94 2.58 34.78 456.65 420.13 705.38 811.47 341.98 305.5 1.67 Table 4.38 1.79 398.23 -9.84 300.81 -3.22 2.56 S275 Difference (kN) 7.95 404.46 -3.28 8.28 303.2 447.26 2.06 1.4 -10.57 13.55 3.1 -2.4 -0.5 1.65 846.55 1.81 -2.1 493.32 783.64 0.74 -0.5 S355 Difference (kN) 9.37 399.5 -0.51 18.79 2.78 -20.4 0.66 24.83 0.33 862.5 1.77 728.79 2.93 1.44 471.82 2.2 1102.72 % Diff.73 -2.15 3.74 594.24 3.27 14.7 9.88 876.74 2.92 394.7 -0.75 -13.15 3.33 577.86 -0.2 777.17 8.68 6.93 11.77 6.03 4.56 400.55 1.51 1.99 589.67 644.79 11.53 356.21 15.4 0.64 5.85 767.02 6.18 8.96 666.26 -8.31 446.91 1011.78 15.34 44.19 1.99 918.35 793.29 452.45 623.38 20.05 607.21 441.5 642.32 10.51 384.96 6.19 4.16 4.47 545.78 942.32 EC 3 (kN) 366.53 564.46 2.2 -2.27 0.78 -25.48 517.84 727.55 617.38 1.85 854.97 392.65 0.11 1218.32 860.46 478.27 819.5 529.09 -2.57 680.79 12.41 925.86 1204.95 2.56 15.83 938. BS 5950 (kN) 376.66 704.81 1024.33 409.56 -5.94 2.61 345.62 1.13 19.32 877.16 1057.74 0.87 -0.69 -1.92 588.02 496.55 583.74 393.39 462.04 % Diff.3 683.92 2.68 1007.78 541.55 712.5 1102.47 596.11 -1.59 460.86 619.6 405.99 660.09 1012.21 -24.87 433.56 878.15 343.35 -1.52 443.93 11.56 3.02 12.55 522.91 -19.29 5.15 507.52 439.26 888.09 773.18 358.37 338.57 -2.09 -2.27 0.42 820.93 334.72 -12.81 523.21 667.6 14.25 382.06 1.89 678.38 542.6 10.8 800.77 1146.37 609.62 515.58 308.53 943.93 1.66 5.13 1091.31 2.58 753.02 698.99 15.34 523.14 .19 1.66 497.5 461.85 405.74 2.24 0.35 730.69 4.65 0.08 2.09 16.83 0.3 14.39 1.16 551.07 942.19 387.5 -0.77 -3.81 528. 2.06 EC 3 (kN) 284.15 -16.71 429.88 -18.27 13.44 2.7 -0.73 -3.28 554.35 431.82 2.6 1.7 1.98 1134.65 724.63 12.6 1.14 784.94 559.79 2.21 668.27 845.75 437.47 831.48 759.45 -1.14 583.11 -2 2.51 -4.65 635.1 Shear capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 291.61 340.

13 -0.21 -1.94 -12.03 1440.07 170.05 3.43 3.91 % Diff.3% less than 0.68 533x210x109 533x210x122 995. 6.97 6. the difference percentage ranges from -3.2 Moment capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 94.07 .76 191.6 as suggested by BS 5950.8 8.14 8.81 5. The shear capacity of a structural beam is given by Pv = 0.97 EC 3 (kNm) 113.56 S355 Difference (kNm) 7.6 py Av Av = Dt Vpl.35 217.62 182.58 -9.07 6.49 1295.98 141.6 137.05 110. This value. Also.13 8.41 143.69% to 4. Most of the values given are lesser than Dt value.51 1007.58 4.3 6. the difference percentage ranges from -2. Table 4.06%.59 5.44 1300.01 -16.35 -0.Rd = (Av x fy) / (γM0 x √3) … (EC3) … (BS 5950) Av is obtained from section table.78 11. There are a few explanations to the variations.77 4.59 4. 1 / (γM0 x √3) ≈ 0.76 4.59 5.06 1115. meanwhile.28 148. varies with Av = Dt as suggested by BS 5950. Therefore.45 1431.57 -4.83 132.94 162.23 168.43 -1.06 % Diff. however.43 3. BS 5950 (kNm) 121.06%. For steel grade S275.29 S275 Difference (kNm) 6. which is approximately 8. For steel grade S355.57% to 4.55.57 206.64 The difference is based on deduction of shear capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.85 EC 3 (kNm) 88 106.86 125.05 1099.43 160. Negative value indicates that the shear capacity calculated from EC3 is higher than that from BS 5950. these facts explain the reason why shear capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.

63 4.63 7.55 433.9 11.48 5.5 354.37 16.28 5.4 264.25 497.58% to 6.32 10.41% to 6.5 302.43 4.5 15.91 The difference is based on deduction of moment capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.43%.31 4.69 188.83 275.88 10.67 20.8 799.12 5.55 4.44 14.5 44.17 27.34 404.71 9. the difference percentage ranges from 0.6 300.94 10.61 4.06 11.52 395.75 631.63 4.08 6. the difference percentage ranges from 1.95 189.53 171.02 377.33 192.33 221.95 275.11 242.32 0.95 385.13 246.4 277.33 471.04 1. For steel grade S275.66 2.93 740.45 521.02 315.98 24.11 5.24 1.53 1.86 4.38 8.53 5.41 5.5 34.66 5.67 685.49 5.05 336.23 213.24 1.49 15.52 434.85 27.1 5.3 426 479.31 19.95 755.7 211.95 532.57 5.17 24.25 5.39 682.41 221.73 19.9 619.98 352.45 976.55 21.11 261.45 234.53 549.22 13.29 202.67 425.55 257. .85 5. For steel grade S355.03%.75 300.8 1082.46 5.83 5.17 255.75 562.72 9.5 330 371.95 566.45 769.5 654.1 220.47 955.93 885.17 171.35 624.58 5.4 838.5 479.55 429.5 5.65 404.08 358.24 17.02 18.75 484.5 691.36 2.92 13.27 1.1 539 619.16 5.24 376.16 5.57 5.02 455.06 0.32 1.29 1.86 4.68 560.85 5.41 19.89 1.51 1.5 390.3 844.14 410.25 397.87 4.52 11.96 10.01 182.95 514.55 9.05 35.79 141.86 8.14 3.84 13.05 585.35 693.65 5.16 9. meanwhile.33 198 232.33 181.55 4.26 317.65 749.73 2.07 609.2 24.57 355.2 291.62 7.75 431.5 457.25 453.08 510.85 585.5 14.87 4.25 517.65 244.35 302.85 11.99 4.65 590.9 900.45 18.83 4.11 5.65 149.19 370.29 15.95 479.42 5.83 1.29 2.68 0.28 15.97 14.6 341.48 17.96 21.44 12.35 1104 238.95 848 184.78 487.08 252.21 287.35 731.75 332.17 7.13 318.9 163.1 1.78 15.01 4.3 4.08 5.95 24.05 232.43 4.3 695.6 5.28 5.1 285.27 14.7 18.81 529.1 5.26 312.1 244.75 398. Positive value indicates that the moment capacity calculated from EC3 is lower than that from BS 5950.01 4.68 12 13.44 4.49 5.98 20.73 21.05 11.53 5.75 199.69 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 195.05 0.77 233.

There is a variation of approximately 0. BS 5950 only provides a clearer guideline to the classification of Class 3 semi-compact section.3. EC3 provides better guidelines to classify a section web.1.y) are 1060cm3 and 1051cm3 respectively. For example. 4. plastic modulus based on BS 5950 (Sx) and EC3 (Wpl.2 Structural Column In determining the structural capacity of a column. Class 2 or Class 3 element.70 There are a few explanations to the variations. whether it is Class 1. For a column web subject to bending and compression. A study is conducted to determine independently compression and bending moment capacity of structural column with actual length of 5m. This is approximately 5% less than 1. for a UB section 406x178x54.Rd = Wpl. 1 / γM0 ≈ 0. . The moment capacity of a structural beam is given by Mc = py Sx Mc.95. Table 4. Meanwhile. there are some variations between plastic modulus specified by BS 5950 section table and EC3 section table. these facts explain the reason why moment capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.0 as suggested by BS 5950.4 shows the result and percentage difference of moment resistance.1 of BS 5950 and EC3 respectively. Besides that. Therefore.y fy / γM0 … (BS 5950) … (EC3) From EC3 equation.3 shows the result and percentage difference of compression resistance while Table 4.85%. sectional classification tables – Table 11 and Table 5. are revised.

**71 Table 4.3 Compression resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 1027.63 1403.56 1588.95 1818.44 2199.15 2667.72 2341.45 2878.73 3454.34 4291.41 5419.6 3205.31 3901.39 4553.57 5256.95 6612.78 8028.11 9489.33 EC 3 (kN) 956.1 1323.8 1500 1721.2 2067.3 2508.5 2209.3 2715.9 3269.7 4057.6 5117.3 3025.8 3695.7 4292 4965.7 6242.4 7572.7 8958.9 S275 Difference (kN) 71.53 79.76 88.95 97.24 131.85 159.22 132.15 162.83 184.64 233.81 302.3 179.51 205.69 261.57 291.25 370.38 455.41 530.43 S355 Difference (kN) 117.66 142.41 158.24 170.26 213.57 255.76 209.85 256.99 295.49 375.39 486.02 271.11 310.04 385.76 426.68 530.78 641.15 735.89

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kN) 1259.66 1773.41 2007.94 2298.26 2780.37 3373.46 2982.65 3668.29 4402.89 5474.39 6918.72 4097.01 4987.14 5821.16 6720.88 8455.58 10267.55 12138.99

EC 3 (kN) 1142 1631 1849.7 2128 2566.8 3117.7 2772.8 3411.3 4107.4 5099 6432.7

% Diff.

6.96 5.68 5.6 5.35 6 5.97 5.64 5.66 5.35 5.45 5.58 5.6 5.27 5.74 5.54 5.6 5.67 5.59

9.34 8.03 7.88 7.41 7.68 7.58 7.04 7.01 6.71 6.86 7.02 6.62 6.22 6.63 6.35 6.28 6.24 6.06

3825.9 4677.1 5435.4 6294.2 7924.8 9626.4 11403.1

**Table 4.4 Moment resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 69.47 129.03 146.73 167.96 205.13 249.38 277.94 344.27 413.51 EC 3 (kNm) 80.9 130.2 148.5 171.3 209.8 256.4 259.3 320.8 388.7 S275 Difference (kNm) -11.43 -1.17 -1.77 -3.34 -4.67 -7.02 18.64 23.47 24.81 S355 Difference (kNm) -30.81 -7.67 -9.49 -12.6 -16.45 -21.92 14.12 17.68 16.48

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kNm) 73.69 160.33 182.21 208.5 254.35 309.08 348.82 431.88 518.18

EC 3 (kNm) 104.5 168 191.7 221.1 270.8 331 334.7 414.2 501.7

% Diff.

-16.45 -0.91 -1.21 -1.99 -2.28 -2.81 6.71 6.82 6

-41.81 -4.78 -5.21 -6.04 -6.47 -7.09 4.05 4.09 3.18

72

254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 521.91 669.51 438.6 538.83 633.77 738.82 946.51 1168.56 1403.39 490.3 633.3 416.2 511.2 600.5 700.6 900.4 1111.3 1287.4 31.61 36.21 22.4 27.63 33.27 38.22 46.11 57.26 115.99 6.06 5.41 5.11 5.13 5.25 5.17 4.87 4.9 8.26 653.96 838.26 575.44 705.68 828.47 964.08 1231.05 1515.42 1815.14 632.9 817.5 537.2 660 775.3 904.4 1162.4 1434.5 1676 21.06 20.76 38.24 45.68 53.17 59.68 68.65 80.92 139.14 3.22 2.48 6.65 6.47 6.42 6.19 5.58 5.34 7.67

Shear capacity designed by BS 5950 is overall higher than EC3 design by the range of 5.27 – 6.96% and 6.22 – 9.34% for steel grade S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) respectively. This is mainly due to the partial safety factor γM1 of 1,05 imposed by EC3 in the design. Also, the compression strength fc determined from Table 5.14(a) of EC3 is less than the compression strength pc determined from Table 24 of BS 5950.

Meanwhile, as the size of section increases, the difference percentage changes from -16.45% to 8.26% for S275 (Fe 460) and -41.81% to 7.67% for S355 (Fe 510). This means that smaller sizes designed by EC3 have higher moment capacity than BS 5950 design. From the moment capacity formula of BS 5950,

Mb = pbSx

pb depends on equivalent slenderness λLT, which is also dependant on the member length. The bigger the member size, the higher the radius of gyration, ry is. Therefore, pb increases with the increase in member size.

However, moment capacity based on EC3 design,

Mpl.y.Rd = Wpl.y fy / γM0

73 The moment capacity is not dependant on equivalent slenderness. Therefore, when member sizes increase, eventually, the moment capacity based on EC3 is overtaken by BS 5950 design.

4.2

Deflection

Table 4.5 shows the deflection values due to floor imposed load. In BS 5950, this is symbolized as δ while for EC3, this is symbolized as δ2.

**Table 4.5 Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load
**

UB SECTION BS 5950 (δ, mm) 27.56 22.99 19 17.22 15.06 12.89 14.53 12.47 10.55 14.97 12.11 10.2 8.76 7.72 6.33 9.88 7.86 6.6 5.72 5.08 4.52 L = 6.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 27.62 22.16 18.54 16.83 14.77 12.68 14.1 12.13 10.31 14.71 11.93 9.98 8.51 7.51 6.17 9.71 7.69 6.46 5.6 4.95 4.39 Difference (mm) -0.06 0.83 0.46 0.39 0.29 0.21 0.43 0.34 0.24 0.26 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.13 % Diff. -0.22 3.61 2.42 2.26 1.93 1.63 2.96 2.73 2.27 1.74 1.49 2.16 2.85 2.72 2.53 1.72 2.16 2.12 2.1 2.56 2.88 BS 5950 (δ, mm) 139.53 116.41 96.17 87.18 76.23 65.25 73.54 63.14 53.43 75.77 61.28 51.66 44.33 39.07 32.06 50.01 39.81 33.43 28.94 25.72 22.9 L = 9.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 139.83 112.19 93.86 85.2 74.79 64.19 71.36 61.42 52.2 74.49 60.42 50.51 43.09 38 31.23 49.17 38.94 32.68 28.33 25.08 22.25 Difference (mm) -0.3 4.22 2.31 1.98 1.44 1.06 2.18 1.72 1.23 1.28 0.86 1.15 1.24 1.07 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.75 0.61 0.64 0.65 % Diff. -0.22 3.63 2.4 2.27 1.89 1.62 2.96 2.72 2.3 1.69 1.4 2.23 2.8 2.74 2.59 1.68 2.19 2.24 2.11 2.49 2.84

305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74

7 2.84 4.1.56 2.05 0.16 11.33 4.06 0.08 0. This is basically same as the range of beam length 6m. Section 3.71 3.22% to 3.66 0.23 0.85 1.45 14.77 4.74 4.79 16. The first explanation for this difference is the modulus of elasticity value.01 0.77 2.55 From Table 4. subject to 15kN/m of unfactored imposed floor load.56 2.68 2.63 2.25 16.85 1.22 28. For example. for a section 356x171x57.78 3.21 2.04 0. there is also slight difference between second moment of area in both codes.03 9.21 24.9 9.63%.12 17.25 13.1 3.37 4.26 0.83 20.53 0.07 1.5 above.93 2.85 15.83 13.84 11.63 19.08 21.1 0.42 0. However. δmax.01 2. section 3.66 2.04 2.61%.47 29.16 9.22% to 3.41 1.54 2.01 1. The minor differences had created differences between the deflection values.74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 5.34 18.21 3.25 2.3 “Other properties” of BS 5950 states that E = 205kN/mm2.32 0. the difference percentage ranges from -0.35 0. Meanwhile.2 3. Iy = 16060cm4 from EC3 section table.33 12.05 0.27 3.1.25 0.43 2.33 0.33 3. for a floor beam of 9m long. Meanwhile. It also indicates that deflection value calculated from BS 5950 is normally higher than that from EC3.71 3.49 2.75 2. Meanwhile.19 2.36 8.16 1.58 0.73 1.55 23.24 2.29 0.46 2.1 0. for a floor beam of 6m long.08 0.29 0. E.46 2.06 0.34 1.75 18.07 0.38 2.62 5. Different from BS 5950.18 1.51 21. the major difference between the deflection designs of these two codes is the total deflection.52 0.06 0.6 2.4 2.32 10. Apart from that.1 0. as required by EC3. EC3 requires deflection due to permanent dead load to be included in the final design.51 0.7 2.13 8.25 2.96 1. .59 2. Ix = 16000cm4 from BS 5950 section table.07 0.68 13. the difference percentage ranges from -0.64 4.26 2.98 21.26 18.4 0.13 0.37 2.4 “Design values of material coefficients” of C-EC3 states that E = 210kN/mm2.8 1.56 2.77 16.7 2.4 2.61 3.31 2.

122 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x60 4.4th Storey 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 7. Table 4.6 and Table 4. external columns and internal columns have been designed for the most optimum size. floor beams.889 152x152x23 152x152x37 152x152x37 203x203x52 3.750 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x152x60 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x52 203x203x86 9.7 for BS 5950 and EC3 design respectively.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .6 Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 1 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 2 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 3 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 4 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x191x67 406x140x46 406x140x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . the results of the design (size of structural members) are tabulated in Table 4.75 4. To compare the economy of the design. the weight of steel will be used as a gauge.744 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) .3 Economy of Design After all the roof beams.

313 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.889 9.9.571 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd . is tabulated in Table 4.7 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 356x171x45 To 2nd Storey 2nd . Table 4.750 4.571 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.76 Table 4.8. meanwhile.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.821 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) Summary of the total steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.645 3.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.8 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Types of Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 9.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .744 EC3 4.122 9. The saving percentage.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .821 .313 9.

Semi-continuous .889 EC3 4. all frame types. Regardless of bay width. This time. This is because deeper. the connections of beam-to-column were assumed to be “partial strength connection”.29 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) As shown in Table 4. This resulted in higher percentage difference. larger hot-rolled section is required to provide adequate moment capacity and also stiffness against deflection. The percentage of saving offered by BS 5950 design ranges from 1.744 3. Further check on the effect of deflection was done.96%.60 17.571 9. depending on the steel grade. Meanwhile.313 % 1.60% to 17.645 9.9.96 5.750 9.77 Table 4. beam spans and steel grade designed by using BS 5950 offer weight savings as compared with EC3.122 7.42 15. This is because overall deflection was considered in EC3 design.821 4. the percentage savings by using BS 5950 are higher than EC3 for S355 steel grade with respect to S275 steel grade.9 EC3 design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4. The percentage savings for braced steel frame with 9m span is higher than that one with 6m span. BS 5950 design allowed lighter section. unaffected by the effect of imposed load deflection.

503 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.211 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x178x52 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd . Please refer to Appendix D for a redesign work after the β value had been revised and the section redesigned to withstand bending moment from analysis process. This is different from pinned joint in simple construction. The renewed beam sections are tabulated in Table 4. which was used in the beam design. the deflection value is given as: δ = βwL4 / 384EI For a span with connections having a partial strength less than 45%.0. β is treated as β = 3.10 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x151x67 406x140x46 356x127x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd .10 shown.5.645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4. where zero “support” stiffness corresponds to a value of β = 5.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd . the deflection coefficient.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 8. Table 4.749 Roof Section Designation (Semi-continous) Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.78 frame is achieved in this condition. Columns remained the same as there was no change in the value of eccentricity moment and axial force. For uniformly distributed loading.

645 5.211 10.749 % 0.79 Summary of the total revised steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.889 8.744 EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4. is tabulated in Table 4.211 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.645 3.11 . Table 4.889 8.22 9.95 BS 5950 4.750 4.122 9.503 9.744 Total Steel Weight (ton) EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.750 4. meanwhile.11 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Types of Frame Bay Width (m) 2Bay 4Storey 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.12.11.503 7.42 3.12 Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.122 9.749 Table 4. The saving percentage.

The ability of partial strength connection had enabled moment at mid span to be partially transferred to the supports (Figure 4.1 Bending moment of beam for: (a) rigid construction. Eventually.11% to 10. as the connection stiffness becomes higher.1(a) for the illustration of rigid connection. Therefore. the percentage of difference had been significantly reduced to the range of 0. with deflection coefficient set as β = 1. Please refer to Figure 4. if rigid connection is introduced.12. The greater difference for steel grade S355 indicated that deflection still plays a deciding role in EC3 design. if it is built semi-continuously. The moment capacity will be the deciding factor. Even though EC3 design still consumed higher steel weight. .80 From Table 4. wL2/8 MR wL2/8 MR wL2/8 (a) Design moment. (c) simple construction.1(b)).1(c)). However. MD = wL /8 – MR 2 (b) (c) Figure 4. (b) semi-rigid construction. The effect of dead load on the deflection of beam had been gradually reduced. it can be seen that there is an obvious reduction of steel weight required for the braced steel frame.0. the effect of deflection on the design will be eliminated.95%. the gap reduces. the sagging moment at mid span became less than that of simple construction (Figure 4.

5. Meanwhile. a summary on the results of the objectives is categorically discussed.43%. In review to the research objectives.1 Structural Capacity 5.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents the summary for the study on the comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 for the design of multi-storey braced frame. the difference between the approaches to obtain shear area. γM0 of 1.1. This is mainly due to the application of partial safety factor.06% with regard to BS 5950 due to the variance between constant values of the shear capacity formula specified by both codes. Suggestions of further research work are also included in this chapter. calculation based on EC3 had effectively reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 6. for the moment capacity of structural beam.05 in the moment capacity . Av value also caused the difference.1 Structural Beam For the shear capacity of a structural beam. Apart from that. calculation based on EC3 had reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 4. The application of different steel grade did not contribute greater percentage of difference between the shear capacities calculated by both codes.

γM of 1. Therefore. as compared to the partial safety factor. only moments due to eccentricity will be transferred to structural column.1. From interpolation. 5. it was found that for a same value of λ. only compressive resistance comparison of structural column was made. Therefore. This comparison is based on a structural column of 5. axial compression is much more critical. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. A reduction in the range of 5. fc and pc respectively.24% of column compressive resistance was achieved when designing by EC3. With the inclusion of partial safety factor.05 as required by EC3 design.0m long. 5. The design of structural beam proposed by EC3 is concluded to be safer than that by BS 5950. For the same value of unfactored imposed load.2 Deflection Values When subject to an unfactored imposed load. compared with BS 5950. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced.82 calculation required by EC3. Meanwhile. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. it is obvious that EC3 stresses on the safety of a structural beam.2 Structural Column In simple construction. a structural beam will be subject to deflection. EC3 design created majority . fc is smaller than pc. In comparison. γM0 of 1. This is due to the implication of partial safety factor.0 as suggested by BS 5950. of both codes. there is also a deviation in between the compressive strength.27% to 9.

83 lower deflection values with respect to BS 5950 design. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 4. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 9. it was found that EC3 design produced braced steel frames that require higher steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950. 5. and 9.2. E. I will have to be chosen. the total deflection was greater. For a 2-bay. Therefore.3 Economy Economy aspect in this study focused on the minimum steel weight that is needed in the construction of the braced steel frame. serviceability limit states check governs the design of EC3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. The difference ranges from 0.122 tons and 7.313 tons for EC3 design. The total steel weight of structural beams and columns was accumulated for comparison.889 tons for BS 5950 design.63%.821 tons and 4. 4-storey.645 tons and 9.750 tons for BS 5950 design. However.744 tons and 3. thus can sustain higher load without deforming too much. In this study. For a 2-bay. BS 5950 specifies 205kN/mm2 while EC3 specifies 210kN/mm2. Cross-section with higher second moment of area value. 9m bay width steel frame. Higher E means the elasticity of a member is higher. compared with the section chosen for BS 5950 design.571 tons for EC3 design.22% to 3. and 4. taking into account deflection due to permanent loads. The main reason for the deviation is the difference in the specification of modulus of elasticity. 4-storey. 6m bay width steel frame. .1 of EC3 provided proof to this. Section 4.

The reduction in deflection coefficient from 5. S275 (Fe 430): 0.0 to 3.84 The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. S275 (Fe 430): 1.29% Further study was extended for the application of partial strength connection for beam-to-column connections in EC3 design.42% 2-bay. The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. 4-storey. 9m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 7. structural design and economic aspect based on both of the design codes.4 Recommendation for Future Studies For future studies. 6m bay width. it is recommended that further studies to be conducted to focus on the economy aspect of EC3 with respect to BS 5950. S275 (Fe 430): 5. S355 (Fe 510): 10.5 had successfully reduced the percentage of difference between the steel weights designed by both codes. 6m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 17. it is suggested that an unbraced steel frame design is conducted to study the behavior. 4-storey. 4-storey.42% 2-bay. 4-storey.11% 2-bay. S275 (Fe 430): 5. 4-storey. . 4-storey. However.95% 2-bay. since the results of the third objective contradicted with the background of the study (claim by Steel Construction Institute).60% 2-bay.96% 2-bay. 6m bay width.22% 5. S355 (Fe 510): 15. 9m bay width. 9m bay width. 4-storey. This study showed that steel weight did not contribute to cost saving of EC3 design. 4-storey. 6m bay width. 9m bay width.

November 2005. “Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000 Volume 2: Worked examples. British Standards Institution (2001). 4. (2001). “EN 1993 Eurocode 3 – Steel.” London: British Standards Institution. . 29-32.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. & Lim J B (2003). Narayanan R et. “Steel Design Can be Simple Using EC3. “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. European Committee for Standardization (1992). “Introduction to Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) – with Worked Examples.85 REFERENCES Charles King (2005). “EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. (1995).” New Steel Construction. Vol 13 No 4. “British Standard – Structural Use of Steelwork in Building: Part 1: Code of Practice for Design – Rolled and Welded Sections.” ICE Journal. Issue 3.1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Taylor J.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. Steel Construction Institute (SCI) (2005).C. Heywood M. al. D. 24-27.” London: European Committee for Standardization.” Eurocodenews. Paper 2658.

86 APPENDIX A1 .

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.6 + 1.6LL Roof w = 1.4 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m = = 1. LL = = 4 1.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.64 kN/m . DL Live Load. of Bay No. LL LOAD FACTORS Dead Load.4 x 24 + 1. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load.6 x 15 = 62.0 DATA No. DL Live Load. MAHMOOD 1.6 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. DL Live Load.6 x 9 = 48 kN/m Floors w = 1.87 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.4DL + 1.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4.4 x 27.6 FACTORED LOAD w = 1. LL Floors Dead Load.

MAHMOOD 2.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.88 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2.0 2.

64 kN/m 62.89 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.64 kN/m 62.0 LOAD LAYOUT 48 kN/m 6m 48 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3. MAHMOOD 2. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.64 kN/m .

88 kNm 4.68 1415. Shear.92 kN M = 62. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4. Roof beams. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. V = 62. MAHMOOD 4.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other. .90 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.52 144 331.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 288 663.84 1039. contributed by beam shear.1 Beam Moment.76 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.64 x 6^2 / 8 = 281.84 707. V = 48 x 6 / 2 = 144 kN M = 48 x 6^2 / 8 = 216 kNm Floor beams.64 x 6 / 2 = 187. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.92 519.

88 Shear (kN) (144) (144) 144 (187.92) 1039.92) 288 (187.88 281. MAHMOOD 5.92) 519. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.76 1415.92) 144 [1] 331.92 (187.0 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 216 216 281.92) 331.88 281.88 281.68 (187.91 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.88 281.92) 663.84 [3] [4] 707.84 (187.92 [2] 519.88 281.84 (187. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.76 .52 707.

19 31. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.6 [1] 21.6LL) .19 28.54 31.54 28.6 31.54 28.19 28.19 31.0DL Most critical condition .4DL+1.19 Moments are calculated from (1.6 21.19 28.6 28.54 28.19 28.19 [3] 28.19 [4] 28.19 21.6 21.1.54 28.6 [2] 28.19 21.92 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.19 31. MAHMOOD Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 21.54 31.

93 APPENDIX A2 .

of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load.5 x 15 = 59.35 x 24 + 1. LL = = 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m LOAD FACTORS Dead Load. LL = = 4 1.35DL + 1. DL Live Load.6 + 1. of Bay No. DL Live Load.5 x 9 = 45.0 DATA No.35 x 27.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4.9 kN/m Floors w = 1. DL Live Load.35 1.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27.6 2.5LL Roof w = 1. LL Floors Dead Load.76 kN/m .5 FACTORED LOAD w = 1.94 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame .0 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2. MAHMOOD 2.95 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

76 kN/m 59. MAHMOOD 2.96 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 LOAD LAYOUT 45.76 kN/m . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 kN/m 6m 45.9 kN/m 59.

76 x 6^2 / 8 = 268.26 675. V = 59. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column. Roof beams. MAHMOOD 4.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 275. Shear.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column .55 kNm Floor beams.54 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment. V = 45.98 496. . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.7 kN M = 45.28 kN M = 59.1 Beam Moment.7 316. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4.9 x 6 / 2 = 137.96 992. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.4 633.08 137.92 kNm 4.9 x 6^2 / 8 = 206.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.52 1351.97 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. contributed by beam shear.76 x 6 / 2 = 179.

28) 275.92 268.4 (179.52 (179.1 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 206.98 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.92 268.7) (137.54 1351.7) 137.92 268.28) 992.7 [1] 316.55 268.26 [3] [4] 675.92 268.08 675.92 268.26 (179.96 (179.28) 496. MAHMOOD 5.7 (179.92 5. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.55 206.98 (179.28) 137.98 [2] 496. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.28) 316.54 .0 5.28) 633.2 Shear (kN) (137.

94 26.35DL+1.0DL Most critical condition .66 20.89 26.94 26.89 Moments are calculated from (1.99 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.94 26.89 26.89 28. MAHMOOD 5.71 20.94 28.94 28.89 26.3 Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 20.66 26.89 28.66 19.89 19.89 26. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5LL) .89 28.66 26.89 20.71 28.1.94 26.89 26. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.89 26.

100 APPENDIX B1 .

MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23.3 30 31.2 28.1 67.1 51 52.9 149.9 43 45 46 46.1 98. L = 6. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 1025 cm Try UB 457x152x60 .2 74.1 40.3 101 101.8 60.1 24.1 67.8 25.2 74.3 41.101 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 67.3 54 54.2 179 238.3 82 82.3 92.8 33.1 Sx (cm3) 1010 1290 1200 1210 1350 1470 1450 1500 1630 1650 1830 1810 2060 2010 2380 2230 2610 2880 2830 3280 3200 3680 4140 4590 5550 7490 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 305x102x25 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x28 254x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 406x140x39 356x127x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 406x140x46 305x165x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 457x152x60 406x178x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x191x67 457x152x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x152x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 281.2 89.88 kNm Sx = M / fy = 281.2 109 113 122 125.1 Sx (cm3) 171 259 234 342 258 306 403 353 314 393 481 543 483 539 724 659 623 614 566 775 888 720 711 896 1100 846 1060 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 59.1 48.2 28.1 82.1 37 37 39 39.2 74.1 67.1 32.1 25. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0m) STC.1 139.

6 152. subject to pure bending. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.3 < 80 Web is plastic Class 1 Section is : Class 1 plastic section .3 407. neutral axis at mid-depth.0m) STC.0 1.102 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD 1.3 Therefore. Section chosen = 457x152x60 UB 1.75 50.75 = < 9 9 Flange is plastic Class 1 Section is symmetrical.6 1290 1120 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm 3 b/T = d/t = 5.3 2.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = 59.8 454.9 8.1 13. L = 6. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 DATA Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. Limiting d/t = 80ε = 80 Actual d/t = 50. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. py = = mm 275 S275 < N/mm 2 16mm ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 Outstand element of compression flange. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 5.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 13.

103

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

3.0

SHEAR BUCKLING If d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for rolled section, shear buckling resistance should be checked. d/t = 50.3 < 70ε = 70 Therefore, shear buckling needs not be checked

4.0

SHEAR CAPACITY Fv = 187.92 kN

Pv = 0.6pyAv py = 275 N/mm Av = tD = 8.1 x 454.6 2 = 3682.26 mm

2

Pv = 0.6 x 275 x 3682.26 x 0.001 = 607.57 kN Fv Pv < Therefore, the shear capacity is adequate

5.0

MOMENT CAPACITY M= 281.88 kNm

0.6Pv = 0.6 x 607.57 = 364.542 kN Fv 0.6Pv < Therefore, it is low shear Mc = pySx = 275 x 1290 x 0.001 = 354.75 kNm 1.2pyZ = 1.2 x 275 x 1120 x 0.001 = 369.6 kNm Mc M < < 1.2pyZ Mc OK Moment capacity is adequate

104

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

6.0 6.1

WEB BEARING & BUCKLING Bearing Capacity Pbw = (b1 + nk) tpyw r= 10.2 mm (Unstiffened web)

b1 = t + 1.6r + 2T = 8.1 + 1.6 x 10.2 + 2 x 13.3 = 51.02 mm k= T+r = 13.3 + 10.2 = 23.5 mm At the end of a member (support), n = 2 + 0.6be/k = 2 b1 + nk = = = = = < but n ≤ 5 be = 0

51.02 + 2 x 23.5 98.02 mm 98.02 x 8.1 x 275 x 0.001 218.34 kN 187.92 Pbw kN

Pbw

Fv Fv

Bearing capacity at support is ADEQUATE

105

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

7.0

**SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION CHECK Unfactored imposed loads: w= = E= I= δ= 9 15 205 25500
**

4

kN/m kN/m kN/mm cm

4 2

for roofs for floors

L=

6

m

5wL 384EI = 5 x 15 x 6^4 x 10^5 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4.84 mm

Beam condition Carrying plaster or other brittle finish Deflection limit = Span / 360 = 6 x 1000 / 360 = 16.67 mm 4.84mm < 16.67mm

The deflection is satisfactory!

106 APPENDIX B2 .

92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.0m) STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.92 kNm W pl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.107 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.y = M / fy = 268. L = 6.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl.9 cm3 Try 406x178x54 UB .

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 68.15 47. MAHMOOD 1.6 18670 4.6 7.4 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section. Section chosen 1.6 10.6 177.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 54 402. cm 4 cm cm cm 2. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.108 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.9 360.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10.0 1. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 . Second moment of area.4 1051 927 32.y = W el.9 Therefore. L = 6. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. = 406x178x54 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.36 131 8.0m) STC.

9 x 100 275 1.5Vpl.5Vpl. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.5 x 497.49 kN VSd 0.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .05 = 275.48 = 298.15 <= 9.48 kN VSd < Vpl.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4. it is low shear Mc.Rd < Therefore.001 / 1.05 √3 = 497.Rd = 0.7 3.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.92 kNm 0.26 kNm MSd Mc. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8. L = 6.109 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.28 kN V pl. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 47.05 = 32.y fy / γMO = 1051 x 275 x 0. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.0m) STC.Rd = W pl. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.001 γMO = 1.2 (b) Web.4 > 46.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.7 Web is Class 2 element 406x178x54 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.

8 < 63. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 47.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430).4 63. not susceptible to LTB 6.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.5 σf.4 kN = VSd = 179. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.28 kN < Ry.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.Rd = γM1 At support. L = 6. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.69) x 7.6 x 275 x 0.05 204. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0. MAHMOOD 5.110 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.001 / 1. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.5 Ry.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.69 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .Rd = (50 + 52.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 52.0m) STC.

5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support. MSd Mc. Ra. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.Rd 268.2 0.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.92 275.0m) STC.Rd = > 0.3 ≤ = 1.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.8 VSd = kN/mm kN 179. L = 6.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.6 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0. h= a= 402.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span.5 ] .111 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.4 = γM1 = E= Ra. MAHMOOD At midspan. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.5 0.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 360. Rd = 0.26 7.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.98 <= 1.05 205 307.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.14 1.

0m) STC.6 .8 x 7.05 A = beff x tw = 227.6 l = 0.(118. Rb.6 2 = 1731.Rd = 1 x 119. buckling about y-y axis. L = 6.8 x 1731.6^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 227.5 x SQRT(402.001 / 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.8 N/mm 2 Rb.7 mm Buckling resistance of web.5 kN > At mid span.28 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .118) x (121 .75d Rolled I-section.05 = 197.5 = 405. MAHMOOD beff = 0.5 x 360. λ = 2.5 d/t = 2.28 x 0.4 / 7.6 = 118.6 fc 121 117 fc = 121 .117) / (120 .118) = 119. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.8 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.112 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 118 120 118.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.

88 + 6.46 = 18.34 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.0m) STC. L = 6.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 18670 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 11. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.46 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0 1.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.113 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.14 mm OK δmax = 11. MAHMOOD 8. . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 .88 6.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.

114 APPENDIX C1 .

MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Sx (cm3) 184.08 kNm M= Sx = M / fy = 63.08 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 229.4 988. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.4 cm Try 203x203x60 UC . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.8 1228 1589 1485 1953 2482 1875 2298 2964 2680 2417 3457 3436 3977 4689 4245 5101 5818 6994 8229 10009 12078 14247 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 63.1 652 802.4 568.3 247.6 978.1 497.115 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 310.0m) STC. L = 5.

2 9.0 DATA Fc = 1415.96 5.6 205. MAHMOOD 1.0m) STC.8 652 581. Gross area.3 14.3 2.2 160. py = 275 ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 .2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.23 17. Section chosen = 203x203x60 UC 1.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 14. Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = rx = ry = Ag = 60 209.52 kN L= 5 m 1.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.8 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 2 3 b/T = d/t = 7.116 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. L = 5.2 = mm S275 < < < N/mm 2 16mm 40mm 63mm Therefore.19 75.1 8.

Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 7.117 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.1 SLENDERNESS Effective Length About the x-x axis.4 4.23 < < = < 10ε = 15ε = 9 9 10 15 Flange is plastic Class 1 Web of I.85L = 0. MAHMOOD Outstand element of compression flange.0 3. "Restrained in direction at one end" LEX = 0.8 N/mm cm 2 2 Buckling about x-x axis .3 x 275) -1 < r1 ≤ 1 = 3.5r1 = 40 All ≥ 40ε < Section is : = 40 Web is plastic Class 1 Class 1 plastic section 3.0 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE Fc = 1415.or H-section under axial compression and bending ("generally" case) r1 = Fc dtpy = 1415.44 r1 = 1 Actual d/t = < 17.0m) STC. L = 5.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm λx = LEX / rx = 4250 / (8.96 x 10) = 47.52 kN Pc = pcAg py = Ag = 275 75.52 x 1000 / (160.3 80ε 1+r1 100ε 1+1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.8 x 9. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.

54 kNm . the moment will be equally divided. For EI/L1 : EI/L2 < 1.239) 2 = 239. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column. the compressive resistance is adequate 5.118 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.4 .4 pc 242 239 Therefore.46) x (242 .5. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 NOMINAL MOMENT DUE TO ECCENTRICITY For columns in simple construction.46) / (48 . R From frame analysis sheets.08 kNm 100 mm Moments are distributed between the column lengths above and below level 2. beam reaction. L = 5. M= 31.0m) STC. R is assumed to act 100mm off the face of the column. MAHMOOD Use strut curve (b) λx = λ 46 48 Interpolation: pcx = 242 .44 kN Fc < Pc 47. Mi = 63.(47.001 = 1818.8 x 100 x 0. Therefore.9 N/mm Pc = pcAg = 239. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length.9 x 75.

17 py = λLT 45 50 275 pb 250 233 N/mm 2 pb = 250 .17 .0 COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND MOMENT CHECK The column should satisfy the relationship My Fc Mx + + ≤1 Pc M bs pyZ y λLT = 0.54 170.001 = 170.(48. L = 5.45) / (50 .0 4.0 6.52 1818.119 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 L/ry = (0.44 + 31. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.45) x (233 .5 x 5 x 1000) / (5.78 N/mm Mb = pbSx = 260.0 CONCLUSION Compression Resistance = Combined Axial Force and Moment Check = Use of the section is adequate Use : 203x203x60 UC OK OK .03 = < 0.96 1. MAHMOOD 6.00 The combined resistance against axial force and moment is adequate.78 x 652 x 0.19 x 10) = 48. 7.250) 2 = 260.0m) STC.03 kNm 1415. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.

120 APPENDIX C2 .

88 kNm M= W pl.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 210.y = M / fy = 57. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Wpl. L = 5. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.0m) STC.5 cm Try 254x254x73 UC .y (cm3) 184 248 309 497 567 654 801 990 979 1225 1589 1484 1952 2485 1872 2293 2970 2675 2418 3455 3438 3978 4691 4243 5101 5814 6997 8225 10010 12080 14240 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 57.121 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

y = iy = iz = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 73 254 254 8. L = 5.1 6. Section chosen = 254x254x73 UC 1.6 14.9 11370 6. = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel tf = 14. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.2 Therefore.0 DATA NSd = 1351. MAHMOOD 1.86 98.0m) STC.122 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 200.94 23. Second moment of area. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.08 kN Msd = 28.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.3 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 4 cm cm cm 2 3 2.5 8. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .y = W el.2 990 895 11.94 kNm L= 5 m 1. Area of section.46 92.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.

1 kN n = 1351.05 Npl.5 Limit d/tw Class 2 = 35.Rd = 0.001 / 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.2 Limit c/tf Class 2 = 10.1 28. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.Rd = γMO γMO = 1.1 Class 3 = 38.08 / 2433.8 3.94 <= 9.05 = 259.1 = 0.555 >= n < 0.0 CROSS-SECTION RESISTANCE n= NSd Npl.Rd = Mpl.9 (b) Web.Rd A fy Npl.Rd = 92.Rd = > MSd = 128.11 Mpl.y.1 Mpl.3 <= 30.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.3 kNm Mny. it is Class 1 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 30.Rd Mny.5 Web is Class 1 element Therefore.Rd = 1.001 / 1. subject to bending and compression : Classify web as subject to compression and bending d/tw = 23. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 n ≥ 0.123 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. L = 5.05 = 2433.y.2 Class 3 = 13.94 kNm kNm Sufficient moment resistance .y fy γMO = 990 x 275 x 0.1 Mny.9 x 100 x 275 x 0.y.Rd(1-n) W pl.0m) STC.

y.Rd = = 1351.y.38) x (40 .38) / (250 .5 x 28. Rd Nb. MAHMOOD 4.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm Slenderness ratio λy = l y / iy = 4250 / (11.7 x 92. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. sufficient resistance against in-plane failure against major axis .3 Buckling about y-y axis (Curve b) βA = λy√βA = tf λ√βA 38 40 1 38.7 N/mm Nb. y .1 x 10) = 38.1 1 η= = + < γMO / γM1 1 Therefore. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.3 kN ky = 1.9 x 100 x 0.001 / 1.248) 2 = 249. Sd N Sd + ≤ 1 .Sd ηMc.Rd 1.0 IN-PLANE FAILURE ABOUT MAJOR AXIS Members subject to axial compression and major axis bending must satisfy k y M y .95 (Conservative value) + kyMy.5 NSd Nb.(38.3 0.0 N b . L = 5.0m) STC.Rd = 1 x 249.08 2209.Rd = βA f c A γM1 l y = 0.94 1 x 128. y .y.05 = 2209.85 L (Restrained about both axes) = 0.124 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Rd η M c .y.3 .3 <= fc 250 248 40mm fc = 250 .

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 3. L = 5.0 4. Use : 254x254x73 UC OK OK . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.125 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD 5.0 CONCLUSION Cross Section Resistance In-plane Failure About Major Axis Use of the section is adequate.0m) STC.

126 APPENDIX D .

y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977.92 kNm W pl.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.y = M / fy = 268.9 cm3 Try 457x152x52 UB .0m) Rev 1 STC.127 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. L = 6.

9 Therefore.6 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.5 66.8 152. Second moment of area. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10. MAHMOOD 1.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.59 121 6.y = W el. L = 6.128 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.6 10.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 52 449.4 7. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.6 1096 950 36. Section chosen 1.6 21370 3. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .0m) Rev 1 STC.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.0 1.99 53. = 457x152x52 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.9 407. cm 4 cm cm cm 2.

it is low shear Mc.5Vpl.Rd < Therefore.6 > 46. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 53.Rd = W pl.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate . MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.05 √3 = 551.y fy / γMO = 1096 x 275 x 0.92 kN VSd < Vpl.5 x 100 275 1.001 γMO = 1.05 = 287.15 kN VSd 0.2 (b) Web.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.Rd = 0.0m) Rev 1 STC. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 6.001 / 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.99 <= 9.5Vpl.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.05 = 36.5 x 551.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.05 kNm MSd Mc.28 kN V pl.7 Web is Class 2 element 457x152x52 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.7 3.92 = 331.129 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.92 kNm 0. L = 6. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.

not susceptible to LTB 6.5 σf.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 48. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 53.8 < 63. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7. MAHMOOD 5.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430). ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.68 kN VSd = 179.001 / 1.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance. L = 6.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.Rd = (50 + 48.6 63.5 Ry.05 = 196.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.6 x 275 x 0.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.130 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.28 kN < Ry.81 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .Rd = γM1 At support.81) x 7. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.0m) Rev 1 STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .

5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.131 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.05 205 299.94 <= 1.16 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.92 287.6 = γM1 = E= Ra.Rd 268.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.Rd = > 0. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 407.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. L = 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.05 7.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. Ra.2 0.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.5 ] .8 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0. h= a= 449. MSd Mc. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. Rd = 0.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.5 0.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span.12 1.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.3 ≤ = 1.0m) Rev 1 STC. MAHMOOD At midspan.

88 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.1 l = 0.Rd = 1 x 98.9 N/mm 2 Rb. λ = 2.3 x 7.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.(134. L = 6. buckling about y-y axis.6 / 7.8^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 251.9 kN > At mid span.130) x (103 .0m) Rev 1 STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. Rb.5 x SQRT(449.1 fc 103 98 fc = 103 .88 x 0.6 2 = 1909.3 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.1 .5 d/t = 2.5 = 452.130) = 98.6 mm Buckling resistance of web.9 x 1909.75d Rolled I-section.98) / (135 .05 A = beff x tw = 251. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 130 135 134. MAHMOOD beff = 0.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.6 = 134.132 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.05 = 179.5 x 407.001 / 1.

26 3. L = 6.21 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 .95 = 11. .14 mm OK δmax = 7.0 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.95 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 7.133 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0m) Rev 1 STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 21370 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 3. MAHMOOD 8. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.26 + 3.

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