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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

**BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS
**

JUDUL:

υ

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

SESI PENGAJIAN: Saya

2006 / 2007

**CHAN CHEE HAN
**

(HURUF BESAR)

mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/ Sarjana/ Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. **Sila tandakan (3) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam (AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/ badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TERHAD

3

TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)

(TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

**Alamat Tetap: PETI SURAT 61162, 91021 TAWAU, SABAH.
**

Tarikh

CATATAN:

**PM DR. IR. MAHMOOD MD. TAHIR Nama Penyelia
**

Tarikh:

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

* ** Potong yang tidak berkenaan.

: 01 NOVEMBER 2006

υ

Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/ organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).

“I hereby declare that I have read this project report and in my opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure).”

Signature

:

Name of Supervisor : P.M. Dr. Ir. Mahmood Md. Tahir Date : 01 NOVEMBER 2006

i

COMPARISON BETWEEN BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 & EUROCODE 3 FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTI-STOREY BRACED STEEL FRAME

CHAN CHEE HAN

A project report submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

NOVEMBER, 2006

ii I declare that this project report entitled “Comparison Between BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 & Eurocode 3 for The Design of Multi-Storey Braced Steel Frame” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. Signature Name Date : : Chan Chee Han : 01 NOVEMBER 2006 . The report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

iii To my beloved parents and siblings .

patience and guidance during the duration of my study. . Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. for his generous advice. I am most thankful to my parents and family for their support and encouragement given to me unconditionally in completing this task.iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. Finally. Without the contribution of all those mentioned above. Mr. I would also like to express my thankful appreciation to Dr. Ir. I would like to express my appreciation to my thesis supervisor. Dr. PM. Shek and Mr. Tan for their helpful guidance in the process of completing this study. Mahmood’s research students. this work would not have been possible. Mahmood Md. Tahir of the Faculty of Civil Engineering.

four-storey braced steel frames with spans of 6m and 9m and with steel grade S275 (Fe 460) and S355 (Fe 510) by designed using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3.v ABSTRACT Reference to standard code is essential in the structural design of steel structures. This paper presents comparisons of findings on a series of two-bay. serviceability limit states check governs the design of Eurocode 3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. specifications to be followed.06% and moment capacity by up to 6. The design method by Eurocode 3 has reduced beam shear capacity by up to 4. Design worksheets are created for the design of structural beam and column.96% more steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. .63% in comparison with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Eurocode 3 also reduced the deflection value due to unfactored imposed load of up to 3. Meanwhile. structural column designed by Eurocode 3 has compression capacity of between 5. Therefore. However.95%.34% less than BS 5950: Part 1:2000 design. safety factors.60% to 17. with the application of partial strength connections.43%. Eurocode 3 produced braced steel frames which consume 1. This study intends to testify the claim. However. The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. loading values and etc. the percentage of difference had been reduced to the range of 0.27% and 9. design methods. These details include the basis and concept of design.11% to 10.

34% kurang daripada rekabentuk menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. 4 tingkat yang terdiri daripada rentang rasuk 6m dan 9m serta gred keluli S275 (Fe 430) dan S355 (Fe 510). didapati bahawa keadaan had kebolehkhidmatan mengawal rekabentuk Eurocode 3 disebabkan beban mati tanpa faktor yang perlu diambilkira dalam pemeriksaan pesongan. spesifikasi yang perlu diikuti. Eurocode 3 juga mengurangkan nilai pesongan yang disebabkan oleh beban kenaan tanpa faktor sehingga 3. Institut Pembinaan Keluli (SCI) berpendapat bahawa rekabentuk struktur keluli menggunakan Eurocode 3 adalah 6 – 8% lebih menjimatkan daripada menggunakan BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Kertas kerja komputer ditulis untuk merekabentuk rasuk dan tiang keluli. rujukan kepada kod piawai adalah penting. Butiran-butiran ini mengandungi asas dan konsep rekabentuk. Namun begitu. Rekebentuk menggunakan Eurocode 3 telah mengurangkan keupayaan ricih rasuk sehingga 4. penggunaan sambungan kekuatan separa telah berjaya mengurangkan lingkungan berat besi kepada 0. dan sebagainya.43%. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji pendapat ini. Selain itu.11% – 10.60% – 17.96% lebih banyak daripada kerangka yang direkabentuk oleh BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. Namun begitu.63% berbanding BS 5950: Part 1: 2000.27% – 9.vi ABSTRAK Dalam rekabentuk struktur keluli. nilai beban. Kertas ini menunjukkan perbandingan keputusan kajian ke atas satu siri kerangka besi terembat 2 bay. factor keselamatan. Kandungan dalam kod piawai secara amnya mengandungi butiran rekabentuk yang komprehensif. tiang keluli yang direkebentuk oleh Eurocode 3 mempunyai keupayaan mampatan 5.95%. Eurocode 3 menghasilkan kerangka keluli dirembat yang menggunakan berat besi 1. Justeru.06% dan keupayaan momen rasuk sebanyak 6. cara rekabentuk. .

5 Introduction Background of Project Objectives Scope of Project Report Layout 1 3 4 4 5 .2 1.vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE i ii iii iv v vi vii xii xiii xiv xv THESIS TITLE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES LISTOF NOTATIONS I INTRODUCTION 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.

3.2 Serviceability 2.3.1 Cross-sectional Classification 2.1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.2.2.3.2 2.3.2.1.Rd Moment Capacity. Mc 2.2 BS 5950 2.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling 2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.3.3.1 Ultimate Limit States 2.1 2.2 2.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2. Pv Moment Capacity.5.3.6 Deflection 2.3 Shear Capacity. Mc.2 2.1 Application Rules of EC3 2.2 Stiffened Web 2.1 2.3.3 Serviceability Limit State 2.1. Vpl.3.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.2.4 Actions of EC3 2.3.3.3.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 2.4.1 Unstiffened Web 2.3.4.4.3.4.2.Rd 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 .4.5.2 Ultimate Limit State 2.3.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 2.3.1 (EC3) Design Concept of EC3 2.3.1.3 Background of BS 5950 Scope of BS 5950 Design Concept of BS 5950 2.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.1.2 2.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2.3.2.3 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1.1.1 2.1.3 Cross-sectional Classification Shear Capacity.viii II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.4 Loading 2.3.

4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces 2.Rd 2.ix 2.4.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.2 Slenderness.2 Member Buckling Resistance 2.7.5.4 Buckling Resistance.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 2.4.7.6.1 Buckling Length. λ 2.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.2.1 Introduction 34 .2 Structural Beam Structural Column 31 32 29 30 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 29 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 III METHODOLOGY 3.Rd 2. Nc.6.6.5.4.1.Rd 2.3 Compression Resistance. l 2.6.4.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.4.5.1.6.6.4.3 Buckling Resistance. LE 2.Rd 2.4.5.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity 2.5.2.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2.1.1 Cross-section Capacity 2.1 2.1 Crushing Resistance.4.1.1.1 Column Subject to Compression Force 2.2.7 Conclusion 2.3.4.5.3.2 Crippling Resistance. Rb.5 Deflection 2. Ra.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force 2. Nb.3 Compression Resistance.1.6.5. Pc 2.Rd 2.6.2.1.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 2.2 High Shear Moment Capacity 2.1 Effective Length. λ 2.2 Slenderness. Ry.4.

10 Structural Column Design 3.1 Structural Capacity 5.2 EC 3 IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 4.1.9.3 Structural Beam Structural Column 66 66 70 73 75 Deflection Economy of Design V CONCLUSIONS 5.x 3.5 3.1 BS 5950 3.2 3.9.3 Moment Calculation 3.8.2 Shear Calculation 3.9 Structural Beam Design 3.1.10.2 4.2 3.2 4.1 3.7 3.1 Load Combination 3.6 3.1 Structural Capacity 4.10.1.1 3.3 3.1 4.8 Structural Layout Specifications 38 38 39 40 41 42 42 42 43 44 46 47 51 57 57 61 35 36 Loadings Factor of Safety Categories Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3.4.4 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets Structural Layout & Specifications 3.4.2 BS 5950 EC 3 3.1 Structural Beam 81 81 .8.8.

3 5.2 5.xi 5.2 5.1.4 Structural Column 82 82 83 84 Deflection Values Economy Recommendation for Future Studies REFERENCES 85 APPENDIX A1 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 APPENDIX A2 APPENDIX B1 APPENDIX B2 APPENDIX C1 APPENDIX C2 APPENDIX D .

xii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO.4 4.2 3.9 4.12 Criteria to be considered in structural beam design Criteria to be considered in structural column design Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) Shear capacity of structural beam Moment capacity of structural beam Compression resistance and percentage difference Moment resistance and percentage difference Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Total steel weight of the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) 31 32 43 44 45 67 68 71 71 73 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) 46 .6 4.4 4.10 4.3 3.7 4.1 3.8 4.3 4.2 3.11 4.2 4.1 2.1 4.5 4. TITLE PAGE 2.

xiii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.2 3.1(b) 4.1(c) Schematic diagram of research methodology Floor plan view of the steel frame building Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame Bending moment of beam for rigid construction Bending moment of beam for semi-rigid construction Bending moment of beam for simple construction 37 38 39 80 80 80 . TITLE PAGE 3.1(a) 4.3 4.1 3.

xiv LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 D Frame Analysis Based on BS 5950 Frame Analysis Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 Structural Column Design Based on BS 5950 Structural Column Design Based on EC3 Structural Beam Design Based on EC3 (Revised) 86 93 100 106 114 120 126 .

y.Minor axis Depth between fillets Compressive strength Flexural strength Design strength Slenderness Web crippling resistance Web buckling resistance Web crushing resistance Buckling moment resistance Moment resistance at major axis Shear resistance Depth Section area Effective section area Shear area F Fv M γ NSd VSd MSd γM0 γM1 rx ry d pc pb py λ Pcrip Pw Mbx Mcx Pv D Ag Aeff Av iy iz d fc fb fy λ Ra.Rd Ry.y.Rd Mpl.Rd Mb.y.Rd h A Aeff Av .Major axis .y.Rd Mc.Rd Rb.xv LIST OF NOTATIONS BS 5950: PART 1: 2000 EUROCODE 3 Axial load Shear force Bending moment Partial safety factor Radius of gyration .Rd Vpl.

z c/tf d/tw b l tf tw Sx Sy Wpl.Minor axis Flange Web Width of section Effective length Flange thickness Web thickness Zx Zy b/T d/t B LE T t Wel.y Wel.Minor axis Elastic modulus .xvi Plastic modulus .y Wpl.z .Major axis .Major axis .

namely suitability of application of the code set in a country with respect to its culture. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site.1 Introduction Structural design is a process of selecting the material type and conducting indepth calculation of a structure to fulfill its construction requirements.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. as well as the trading volume and diplomatic ties between these countries. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science. economic and functional building. design methods. The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. Several factors govern the type of code to be adopted. many countries have published their own standard codes. specifications to be followed. and past experiences of experts at respective fields. safety factors. loading values and etc. These details include the basis and concept of design. countries or nations that do not publish their own standard codes will adopt a set of readily available code as the national reference. . Meanwhile. reference to standard code is essential. In present days. In the structural design of steel structures. These codes were a product of constant research and development. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. climate and national preferences.

amended in the light of any comments arising out of its use before being reissued as the EuroNorm standards (EN). the move to withdraw BS 5950 and replace with Eurocode 3 will be taking place in the country as soon as all the preparation has completed. the initial draft Eurocode 3. published by the European Commission. ECCS. were developed. Therefore. ENV1993 (ENV stands for EuroNorm Vornorm) issued by Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) – the European standardisation committee. . This was followed by the various parts of a pre-standard code. It is believed that Eurocode 3 is more comprehensive and better developed compared to national codes. Eurocode 3 has developed in stages. designers. The earliest documents seeking to harmonize design rules between European countries were the various recommendations published by the European Convention for Constructional Steelwork. From these. Buckling resistance and shear resistance are two major elements of structural steel design. Eurocodes will be used in public procurement specifications and to assess products for ‘CE’ (Conformité Européen) mark. operators and users. Codes of practice provide detailed guidance and recommendations on design of structural elements.2 Like most of the other structural Eurocodes. These preliminary standards of ENV will be revised. Therefore. contractors and manufacturers of construction products among the European member countries. The study on Eurocode 3 in this project will focus on the subject of moment and shear design. Standardization of design code for structural steel in Malaysia is primarily based on the practice in Britain. provision for these topics is covered in certain sections of the codes. The establishment of Eurocode 3 will provide a common understanding regarding the structural steel design between owners. As with other Europeans standards.

The Steel Construction Institute (SCI). Finally.2 Background of Project The arrival of Eurocode 3 calls for reconsideration of the approach to design. but it can be simplified for those pursuing speed and clarity. However. Lacking analytical and calculative proof. such as the tables of buckling stresses in existing BS codes. There are new formulae and new complications to master. this project is intended to testify the claim. and new forms of structure evolve and codes are expanded to include them. in its publication of “eurocodesnews” magazine has claimed that a steel structural design by using Eurocode 3 is 6 – 8% more cost-saving than using BS 5950. this can be achieved if the designer is not too greedy in the pursuit of the least steel weight from the strength calculations. Many designers feel depressed when new codes are introduced (Charles. even though there seems to be no benefit to the designer for the majority of his regular workload. Design can be complex. simple design is possible if a scope of application is defined to avoid the circumstances and the forms of construction in which strength is over-estimated by simple procedures. The increasing complexity of codes arises due to several reasons. . namely earlier design over-estimated strength in a few particular circumstances. for those who pursue economy of material. Besides. simple design is possible if the code requirements are presented in an easy-to-use format.3 1. 2005). causing safety issues. earlier design practice under-estimated strength in various circumstances affecting economy.

The multi-storey steel frame will be first analyzed by using Microsoft Excel worksheets to obtain the shear and moment values. All the beam-column connections are to be assumed simple. 3) To compare the economy aspect between the designs of both BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. design spreadsheets will be created to calculate and design the structural members.4 1.4 Scope of Project The project focuses mainly on the moment and shear design on structural steel members of a series four-storey. The comparison will be made between the EC3 with BS 5950: Part 1: 2000. The standard code used here will be Eurocode 3. This structure is intended to serve as an office building.3 Objectives The objectives of this project are: 1) To compare the difference in the concept of the design using BS 5950: Part 1: 2000 and Eurocode 3. A study on the basis and design concept of EC3 will be carried out. 2) To study on the effect of changing the steel grade from S275 to S355 in Eurocode 3. hereafter referred to as EC3. Comparison to other steel structural design code is made. hereafter referred to as BS 5950. 1. Next. . 2 bay braced frames.

5 Report Layout The report will be divided into five main chapters. Results and discussions are presented in Chapter IV. Meanwhile. Chapter III will be a summary of research methodology. Chapter I presents an introduction to the study. . conclusions and recommendations are presented in Chapter V. Chapter II presents the literature review that discusses the design procedures and recommendations for steel frame design of the codes EC3 and BS 5950.5 1.

1 (EC3) EC3. while Eurocode 4 covers for composite construction. was initiated by the Commission of European Communities as a standard structural design guide. serviceability and resistance of a structure. The use of local application rules are allowed only if they have similar principles as EC3 . 2. Eurocode 3 covers steel construction. or better known as Eurocode.1 Eurocode 3 (EC3) 2. “Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. Eurocode 1 covers loading situations.1. Eurocode is separated by the use of different construction materials. Principles and application rules are also clearly stated.1 General rules and rules for buildings” covers the general rules for designing all types of structural steel. Principles should be typed in Roman wordings.2 Scope of Eurocode 3: Part 1. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. It was intended to smooth the trading activities among the European countries.1. Eurocode covers concrete construction. Application rules must be written in italic style. It also covers specific rules for building structures.1 Background of Eurocode 3 (EC3) European Code. EC3 stresses the need for durability.CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

and with appropriate degrees of reliability.1 Application Rules of EC3 A structure should be designed and constructed in such a way that: with acceptable probability.3.1. to an extent disproportionate to the original cause. EC3 covers two limit states. which are ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state.3 Design Concept of EC3 All designs are based on limit state design. durability and serviceability design does not differ too much. and tying the structure together. 2001). Every European country using EC3 has different loading and material standard to accommodate safety limit that is set by respective countries. impact or consequences of human errors. having due regard to its intended life and its cost. 2. it will sustain all actions and other influences likely to occur during execution and use and have adequate durability in relation to maintenance costs. 2. . selecting a structural form and design that can survive adequately the accidental removal of an individual element. serviceability and resistance of structure (Taylor. selecting a structural form which has low sensitivity to the hazards considered. eliminating or reducing the hazards which the structure is to sustain. It should also be designed in such a way that it will not be damaged by events like explosions. Safety factor values are recommended in EC3. It also covers other construction aspects only if they are necessary for design. Partial safety factor is applied to loadings and design for durability. it will remain fit for the use for which it is required. Potential damage should be limited or avoided by appropriate choice of one or more of the following criteria: Avoiding.7 and their resistance. EC3 stresses the need for durability.1.

2. or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people. It may require certain consideration. Actions are classified by variation in time and by their spatial variation. e. snow loads.3 Serviceability Limit State Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met. self-weight of structures. temperature effects or settlement. e. including: deformations or deflections which adversely affect the appearance or effective use of the structure (including the proper functioning of machines or services) or cause damage to finishes or non-structural elements. for example. and free actions. damage to the building or its contents. or loss of stability of the structure or any part of it. and accidental loads (A). fittings. This failure may be caused by excessive deformation. e. explosions or impact from vehicles.g. Partial or whole of structure will suffer from failure. movable imposed loads.1. In time variation classification. imposed loads. self-weight. including supports and foundations. wind loads or snow loads.g.1. or an imposed deformation in indirect action.g.8 2.4 Actions of EC3 An action (F) is a force (load) applied to the structure in direct action. actions are defined as fixed actions. which result in different arrangements of actions. e. variable actions (Q).1.3. and loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it. e. .2 Ultimate Limit State Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse. ancillaries and fixed equipment.g. rupture.3. actions can be grouped into permanent actions (G). in spatial variation classification.g. Meanwhile. wind loads. 2. and vibration. or which limits its functional effectiveness. considered as a rigid body. which causes discomfort to people.

1 Background of BS 5950 BS 5950 was prepared to supersede BS 5950: Part 1: 1990. members subject to combined axial force and bending moment. lateral-torsional buckling. BS 5950 comprises of nine parts. hot finished structural hollow sections and cold formed structural hollow sections. Part 8 comprises of code of practice for fire resistance design. Changes were due to structural safety. etc. local buckling. Part 1 covers the code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections.2 BS 5950 2. plates. Part 5 concerns design of cold formed thin gauge sections. 2. flats. welded sections and cold formed sections. fabrication and erected for rolled. . and Part 9 covers the code of practice for stressed skin design.9 2. but offsetting potential reductions in economy was also one of the reasons. Several clauses were technically updated for topics such as sway stability. Part 2 and 7 deal with specification for materials. They are being used in buildings and allied structures not specifically covered by other standards. which was withdrawn. Part 3 and Part 4 focus mainly on composite design and construction.2. sheeting respectively. shear resistance.2 Scope of BS 5950 Part 1 of BS 5950 provides recommendations for the design of structural steelwork using hot rolled steel sections. Part 6 covers design for light gauge profiled steel sheeting. avoidance of disproportionate collapse.2.

buckling and mechanism formation.10 2. namely simple design. The fundamental of the methods are different joints for different methods. stability against overturning and sway sensitivity. only the greater effect needs to be considered when checking for serviceability. fracture due to fatigue.2. inclusive of general yielding.1 Ultimate Limit States Several elements are considered in ultimate limit states. 2. vibration.3.2 Serviceability Limit States There are several elements to be considered in serviceability limit states – Deflection. serviceability loads should be taken as the unfactored specified values. rupture. and experimental verification. In the case of combined imposed load and wind load.2. in checking. In the case of combined horizontal crane loads and wind load. Generally. the specified loads should be multiplied by the relevant partial factors γf given in Table 2. They are: strength.3. and durability. Generally. in the design for limiting states. 2. wind induced oscillation. continuous design.3 Design Concept of BS 5950 There are several methods of design.2. The load carrying capacity of each member should be such that the factored loads will not cause failure. only 80% of the full specified values need to be considered when checking for serviceability. semi-continuous design. . Meanwhile. BS 5950 covers two types of states – ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. and brittle fracture.

2. imposed and wind loading. the settlement of supports should be taken into account as well. earth and groundwater loading. Loading conditions during erection should be given particular attention. There are dead. The elements of a cross-section are generally of constant thickness. without calculating their local buckling resistance.4 Loading BS 5950 had identified and classified several loads that act on the structure.11 2.1 Cross-sectional Classification Cross-sections should be classified to determine whether local buckling influences their capacity. 2.3. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling Bearing capacity of web Deflection 2.3 Design of Steel Beam According to BS 5950 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. The classification of each element of a cross-section subject to compression (due to a bending moment or an axial force) should be based on its width-to-thickness ratio. Where necessary. overhead traveling cranes. All relevant loads should be separately considered and combined realistically as to compromise the most critical effects on the elements and the structure as a whole. .

Alternatively. the stress at the extreme compression fiber can reach design strength. Shear capacity is normally checked at section part that sustains the maximum shear force. Clause 4.6pyAv . Sections that do not meet the limits for class 3 semi-compact sections should be classified as class 4 slender. It is cross-section with plastic hinge rotation capacity. However. the complete cross-section should be classified according to the highest (least favourable) class of its compression elements. When this section is applied. Cross-sections at this category should be given explicit allowance for the effects of local buckling. a crosssection may be classified with its compression flange and its web in different classes. the plastic moment capacity cannot be reached. Fv. It enables plastic moment to take place. Class 1 section is used for plastic design as the plastic hinge rotation capacity enables moment redistribution within the structure.3 of BS 5950 states the shear force Fv should not be greater than the shear capacity Pv.12 Generally. However. 2. given by: Pv = 0. Class 2 is known as compact section. Class 3 is known as semi-compact section. Class 4 is known as slender section. Pv The web of a section will sustain the shear in a structure.2 Shear Capacity. local buckling will bar any rotation at constant moment. Class 1 is known as plastic section.2.3.

BS 5950 provides various formulas for different type of sections. and Zeff is the effective section modulus.3. Mc = pyZ or alternatively Mc = pySeff for class 3 semi-compact sections. . 2. py is the design strength of steel and it depends on the thickness of the web.3 Moment Capacity.3. Clause 4. There are two situations to be verified in the checking of moment capacity – low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity. Mc At sectional parts that suffer from maximum moment.2. Seff is the effective plastic modulus. and Mc = pyZeff for class 4 slender cross-sections where S is the plastic modulus. moment capacity of the section needs to be verified.3. 2.5.13 in which Av is the shear area.2 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = pyS for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv does not exceed 60% of the shear capacity Pv. Z is the section modulus.

2pyZ for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross-sections. in which Sf is the plastic modulus of the effective section excluding the shear area Av.14 2. and ρ is given by ρ = [2(Fv/Pv) – 1]2 .5) or alternatively Mc = py(Seff – ρSv) for class 3 semi-compact sections. - Otherwise: Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av.3.5) for class 4 slender cross-sections in which Sv is obtained from the following: - For sections with unequal flanges: Sv = S – Sf. and Mc = py(Zeff – ρSv/1.5.2. Mc = py(Z – ρSv/1.3 of BS 5950 states that: Mc = py(S – ρSv) < 1.2 High Shear Moment Capacity This situation occurs when the maximum shear force Fv exceeds 60% of the shear capacity Pv.3. Clause 4.

1 Web not Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4. where Vw is the simple shear buckling resistance.2 states that. provided that the flanges are not class 4 slender.6Vw.3.4. 2. it should be assumed to be susceptible to shear buckling. a conservative value Mf for .6Vw. it should be assumed not to be susceptible to shear buckling and the moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined using 2.4.3. obtained from Table 21 BS 5950 t = web thickness b) High shear – “flanges only” method If the applied shear Fv > 0.4. if the web depth-to-thickness d/t ≤ 62ε.3. The moment capacity of the cross-section should be determined taking account of the interaction of shear and moment using the following methods: a) Low shear Provided that the applied shear Fv ≤ 0.4 Moment Capacity of Web against Shear Buckling 2.3.2 Web Susceptible to Shear Buckling Clause 4. if the web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 70ε for a rolled section. qw = shear buckling strength of the web.1 of BS 5950 states that. Vw = dtqw where d = depth of the web.4.15 2.3. or 62ε for a welded section. but the web is designed for shear only.4.4.

or H-section: k=T+r k=T . c) High shear – General method If the applied shear Fv > 0.6Vw. the web should be designed using Annex H.6be/k but n ≤ 5 and k is obtained as follows: . . 2.5. with each flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf.for a welded I. where pyf is the design strength of the compression flange. provided that the applied moment does not exceed the “low-shear” moment capacity given in a).2.5. It is given by: Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw in which.except at the end of a member: n = 5 .1 Unstiffened Web Clause 4.or H-section: .3.at the end of a member: n = 2 + 0.16 the moment capacity may be obtained by assuming that the moment is resisted by the flanges alone.1 states that bearing stiffeners should be provided where the local compressive force Fx applied through a flange by loads or reactions exceeds the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web at the web-to-flange connection.5 Bearing Capacity of Web 2.3.3 for the applied shear combined with any additional moment beyond the “flanges-only” moment capacity Mf given by b).for a rolled I.

5.2 Stiffened Web Bearing stiffeners should be designed for the applied force Fx minus the bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web. the smaller value should be used to calculate both the web capacity Pbw and the stiffener capacity Ps. If the web and the stiffener have different design strengths. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 8 of BS 5950. and t is the web thickness. pyw is the design strength of the web.3. r is the root radius. The capacity Ps of the stiffener should be obtained from: Ps = As.net is the net cross-sectional area of the stiffener.6 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load. T is the flange thickness.17 where b1 is the stiff bearing length. . 2. 2. allowing for cope holes for welding.netpy in which As. be is the distance to the nearer end of the member from the end of the stiff bearing.3.

Class 1 is known as plastic section. the beam will buckle during pre-mature stage. plastic hinge is disallowed because local buckling will occur first. It can also achieve rectangular stress block. However. It is applicable for plastic design. Beam sections are classified into 4 classes.1 Cross-sectional Classification A beam section should firstly be classified to determine whether the chosen section will possibly suffer from initial local buckling.3 of EC3 provided limits on the outstand-to-thickness (c/tf) for flange and depth-tothickness (d/tw) in Table 5. This limit allows the formation of a plastic hinge with the rotation capacity required for plastic analysis. Class 2 is also known as compact section. To avoid this. Sectional size chosen should satisfy the criteria as stated below: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Cross-sectional classification Shear capacity Moment capacity (Low shear or High shear) Bearing capacity of web a) b) c) Crushing resistance Crippling resistance Buckling resistance (v) Deflection 2. Clause 5.4 Design of Steel Beam According to EC3 The design of simply supported steel beam covers all the elements stated below. It has limited rotation capacity. This section can develop plastic moment resistance. .4.3. When the flange of the beam is relatively too thin.1.18 2.

the ratios of c/tf and d/tw will be the highest among all four classes. The member will fail before it reaches design stress.Rd = Av (fy / √3) / γMO Av is the shear area. It is necessary to make explicit allowances for the effects of local buckling when determining their moment resistance or compression resistance. Vsd. kγ is the buckling factor for shear. Class 4 is known as slender section.1. fy is the steel yield strength and γMO is partial safety factor as stated in Clause 5. The stress block will be of triangle shape. the inequality should be satisfied: Vsd ≤ Vpl. Shear capacity will normally be checked at section that takes the maximum shear force. and ε = [235/fy]0. Calculated stress in the extreme compression fibre of the steel member can reach its yield strength. Shear buckling resistance should be verified when for an unstiffened web.1. At each crosssection. Vpl. Pre-mature buckling will occur before yield strength is achieved. the ratio of d/tw > 69ε or d/tw > 30ε √kγ for a stiffened web.4. 2.Rd where Vpl.19 Class 3 is also known as semi-compact section.5 .Rd The web of a section will sustain shear from the structure. but local buckling is liable to prevent development of the plastic moment resistance.2 Shear Capacity. Apart from that.

5. the reduced design plastic resistance moment allowing for the shear . Vsd is equal or less than the design resistance Vpl.3.4.Rd.4.Rd Moment capacity should be verified at sections sustaining maximum moment.Rd = Wel fy / γMO Class 4 cross-sections: Mc.3 Moment Capacity. 2. Mc.Rd. Weff is the elastic modulus at effective shear area.Rd = Wpl fy / γMO Class 3 cross-sections: Mc.Rd = Weff fy / γM1 where Wpl and Wel the plastic modulus and elastic modulus respectively. the design moment resistance of a cross-section Mc. low shear moment capacity and high shear moment capacity. Vsd exceeds 50% of the design resistance Vpl.2 High Shear Moment Capacity Clause 5.Rd. γMO and γM1 are partial safety factors. the design moment resistance of a cross-section should be reduced to MV.4.3.3. 2. For class 4 cross-sections.4. as stated in Clause 5. There are two situations to verify when checking moment capacity – that is. when maximum shear force.1 Low Shear Moment Capacity When maximum shear force.Rd may be determined as follows: Class 1 or 2 cross-sections: Mc.7 states that.20 2.

However.Rd where ρ = (2Vsd / Vpl. checking should be done at section subject to maximum shear force.Rd Situation becomes critical when a point load is applied to the web.5 (fyf / fyw)0.Ed / fyf)2]0.Rd of the web of an I.5 . crippling of the web in the form of localized buckling and crushing of the web close to the flange. H or U section should be obtained from: Ry.21 force. For cross-sections with equal flanges.4.3 provides that the design crushing resistance. bending about the major axis.5 [1 – (σf.4. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange.Rd = (Wpl – ρAv2/4tw) fy / γMO but MV. is governed by one of the three modes of failure – Crushing of the web close to the flange. it is obtained as follows: MV.Rd – 1)2 2.Rd ≤ Mc. This checking is intended to prevent the web from buckling under excessive compressive force. accompanied by plastic deformation of the flange. Ry. this checking is unnecessary.7. if shear force acts directly at web without acting through flange in the first place.Rd = (ss + sγ) tw fγw / γM1 in which sγ is given by sγ = 2tf (bf / tw)0. Ry. Thus.1 Crushing Resistance. and buckling of the web over most of the depth of the member. 2.4.4 Resistance of Web to Transverse Forces The resistance of an unstiffened web to transverse forces applied through a flange. Clause 5.

Rd ≤ 1.5 + 3(tw / tf)(ss / d)] / γM1 where ss is the length of stiff bearing.22 but bf should not be taken as more than 25tf. For member subject to bending moments.4.4.Rd + Msd / Mc.Rd Msd ≤ Mc.Rd and Fsd / Ra.Sd = 0.Rd of the web of an I.2 Crippling Resistance.Ed is the longitudinal stress in the flange.5 [(tf / tw)0.Rd = (χ βA fy A) / γM1 .4. H or U section is given by: Ra.2. σf.5 2.4. and ss / d < 0. obtained from beff = [h2 + ss2]0. H or U section should be obtained by considering the web as a virtual compression member with an effective beff. Ra. Rb.5.Rd The design crippling resistance Ra. the following criteria should be satisfied: Fsd ≤ Ra.Rd The design buckling resistance Rb.5tw2(Efyw)0.Rd of the web of an I. 2. fyf and fyw are yield strength of steel at flange and web respectively. Rb.3 Buckling Resistance.

the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) Effective length Slenderness Compression resistance .5. Suggested limits for calculated deflections are given in Table 4.5 Deflection Deflection checking should be conducted to ensure that the actual deflection of the structure does not exceed the limit as allowed in the standard.5. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only. 2.1 of EC3. however. Therefore. 2. 2. Column is a compressive member and it generally supports compressive point loads. This.1 and Table 5. applies only to non-moment sustaining column.23 where βA = 1 and buckling curve c is used at Table 5. checking is normally conducted for capacity of steel column to compression only.5 Design of Steel Column According to BS 5950 The design of structural steel column is relatively easier than the design of structural steel beam.4.2. Actual deflection is a deflection caused by unfactored live load.1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam.5.

column members that carry more than 90% of their reduced plastic moment capacity Mr in the presence of axial force is assumed to be incapable of providing directional restraint. For continuous columns in multi-storey buildings of simple design. λ = LE / r 2.24 2.5.1. and back-to-back struts.3 Compression Resistance. channel. angle.7. LE The effective length LE of a compression member is determined from the segment length L centre-to-centre of restraints or intersections with restraining members in the relevant plane.1 Effective Length.4. in accordance of Table 22. T-section struts. the compression resistance Pc of a member is given by: Pc = Ag pc (for class 1 plastic.1.2 Slenderness.5. Pc According to Clause 4. This concept is not applicable for battened struts.5. depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plane. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross-sections) . λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its effective length LE divided by its radius of gyration r about the relevant axis. 2. Depending on the conditions of restraint in the relevant plate.1. directional restraint is based on connection stiffness and member stiffness.

2. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections. . for class 1 plastic.5. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area. and Mcy is the moment capacity about minor axis.25 Pc = Aeff pcs (for class 4 slender cross-section) where Aeff is the effective cross-sectional area. My is the moment about minor axis.5.2. py is the design steel strength. in which λ is based on the radius of gyration r of the gross cross-section.2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. Ag is the gross cross-sectional area.5. Mx is the moment about major axis.1 Cross-section Capacity Generally. the checking of cross-section capacity is as follows: My Fc M + x + ≤1 Ag p y M cx M cy where Fc is the axial compression. and pcs is the value of pc from Table 23 and Table 24 for a reduced slenderness of λ(Aeff/Ag)0. pc the compressive strength obtained from Table 23 and Table 24. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. Mcx is the moment capacity about major axis. 2.

2. For a structural steel column subject to compression load only. py the steel design strength.26 2. and Zy the elastic modulus. 2. the following stability check needs to be satisfied: My F Mx + + ≤ 1 .1 Column Subject to Compression Force Cross-sectional classification of structural steel column is identical as of the classification of structural steel beam.2. Pc the compression resistance of column. Mx the maximum end moment on x-axis. the following criteria should be checked: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Buckling length Slenderness Compression resistance Buckling resistance . Mb the buckling resistance moment.6 Design of Steel Column According to EC3 The design of steel column according to EC3 is quite similar to the design of steel column according to BS 5950.6.2 Member Buckling Resistance In simple construction.5.0 Pc M bs p y Z y where F is the axial force in column.

λ The slenderness λ of a compression member is generally taken as its buckling length l divided by its radius of gyration i about the relevant axis. Alternatively.6.1.4.Rd of a member is given by: Nc.6.5 states that. the value of λ should not exceed 180. the buckling length l may be conservatively be taken as equal to its system length L.Rd According to Clause 5. determined using the properties of the gross cross-section.5. provided that both ends of a column are effectively held in position laterally.1. the buckling length l may be determined using informative of Annex E provided in EC3.27 2.6.3 Compression Resistance. 2.Rd = A fy / γM0 (for class 1 plastic. class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact crosssections) .1. Nc.1 Buckling Length. whereas for column resisting self-weight and wind loads only.1.2 Slenderness. Clause 5.4. 2. λ=l/i For column resisting loads other than wind loads. l The buckling length l of a compression member is dependant on the restraint condition at both ends. the value of λ should not exceed 250. the compression resistance Nc.

1.4 Buckling Resistance. and Aeff / A for Class 4 cross-sections. Nb. 2 or 3 cross-sections.1 states that the design buckling resistance of a compression member should be taken as: Nc. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode. the relevant buckling mode is generally “flexural” buckling.5. For hot rolled steel members with the types of cross-section commonly used for compression members.Rd = Aeff fy / γM1 (for class 4 slender cross-section) The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nc. The design value of the compressive force NSd at each cross-section shall satisfy the following condition: NSd ≤ Nb.Rd .28 Nc.1.Rd 2.6.Rd = χ βA A fy / γM1 where βA = 1 for Class 1.Rd For compression members. Clause 5.

2. the crosssection capacity and the member buckling resistance need to be checked. for I and H sections.1 states that. Rd ⎥ ⎣ M Nz . β = 5n but β ≥ 1.Rd.Sd + + ≤1 Af yd Wel . z f yd for Class 3 cross-sections M y .2 Column Subject to Combined Moment and Compression Force For a column subject to combined moment and compression force. Rd M pl . Rd ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ α β for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections M y . z f yd for Class 4 cross-sections where fyd = fy/γM1.6.Sd ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ ≤1 ⎢ M Ny . Rd for a conservative approximation where.2. Aeff is the effective area of the cross-section when subject to uniform compression. z . y . for bi-axial bending the following approximate criterion may be used: ⎡ M y . Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject . M y .Sd + N Sd e Ny M z . α = 2. y f yd Weff .4.Sd N Sd M z .Sd ⎤ ⎡ M z .Sd + + ≤1 N pl . Clause 5.6. y f yd Wel .Sd + N Sd e Nz N Sd + + ≤1 Aeff f yd Weff . cross-section capacity depends on the types of cross-section and applied moment. in which n = Nsd / Npl.29 2. Rd M pl .1 Cross-section Capacity Generally.8.Sd N Sd M z .

30 only to moment about the relevant axis; and eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross-section is subject to uniform compression.

However, for high shear (VSd ≥ 0.5 Vpl.Rd), Clause 5.4.9 states that the design resistance of the cross-section to combinations of moment and axial force should be calculated using a reduced yield strength of (1 – ρ)fy for the shear area, where ρ = (2VSd / Vpl.Rd – 1)2.

2.6.2.2 Member Buckling Resistance

A column, subject to buckling moment, may buckle about major axis or minor axis or both. All members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.Sd must satisfy the following condition:

k y M y.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1,0 N b. y . Rd ηM c. y . Rd

where Nb.y.Rd is the design buckling resistance for major axis; Mc.y.Rd is the design moment resistance for major-axis bending, ky is the conservative value and taken as 1,5; and η = γM0 / γM1 for Class 1, 2 or 3 cross-sections, but 1,0 for Class 4.

2.7

Conclusion

This section summarizes the general steps to be taken when designing a structural member in simple construction.

31 2.7.1 Structural Beam

Table 2.1 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.1 : Criteria to be considered in structural beam design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 80ε 100ε 120ε ε = (275 / py)0.5 2.0 Shear Capacity Pv = 0.6pyAv Av = Dt Vpl.Rd = fyAv / (√3 x γM0) γM0 = 1,05 Av from section table 3.0 Moment Capacity Mc = pyS Mc = pyZ Mc = pyZeff Class 1, 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1,05 γM1 = 1,05 4.0 Bearing Capacity Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web subject to bending (Neutral axis at mid depth) 72ε 83ε 124ε ε = (235 / fy)0,5 EC3

32

Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw Smaller of Ry.Rd = (ss + sy) tw fyw / γM1 Ra.Rd = 0,5tw2(Efyw)0,5 [(tf/tw)0,5 + 3(tw/tf)(ss/d)]/γM1 Rb.Rd = χβAfyA / γM1 5.0 Shear Buckling Resistance d/t ≤ 70ε Ratio 6.0 Deflection L / 360 Limit (Beam carrying plaster or other brittle finish) N/A Limit (Total deflection) L / 250 L / 350 d/tw ≤ 69ε

2.7.2

Structural Column

Table 2.2 shown compares the criteria to be considered when designing a structural beam.

**Table 2.2 : Criteria to be considered in structural column design
**

BS 5950 Flange subject to compression 9ε 10ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 80ε / 1 + r1 100ε / 1 + 1.5r1 Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 1 Plastic Class 2 Compact Class 3 Semi-compact CRITERIA 1.0 Cross-sectional Classification Flange subject to compression 10ε 11ε 15ε Web (Combined axial load and bending) 396ε / (13α – 1) 456ε / (13α – 1) EC3

0 Stability Check My F Mx + + ≤ 1 .0 Pc M bs p y Z y k y M y.Rd = Aefffy / γM1 3. y . 2. Rd .5 Class 3 Semi-compact 42ε / (0.05 γM1 = 1. Rd ηM c. -1 < r1 ≤ 1 r2 = Fc / Agpyw ε = (275 / py) 0.67 + 0.Rd = Afy / γM0 γM0 = 1.05 Nc.33 120ε / 1 + 2r2 r1 = Fc / dtpyw.5 2.5(1 + γM0σw / fy) σw = NSd / dtw ε = (235 / fy)0.0 Compression Resistance Pc = Agpc Pc = Aeffpcs Class 1.0 N b.33ψ) ψ = 2γM0σa / fy – 1 σa = NSd / A α = 0.Rd = Wefffy / γM1 γM0 = 1.Rd = Wplfy / γM0 Mc.Sd N Sd + ≤ 1.eff Class 1.0 Moment Resistance Mb = pbSx Mb = pbZx Mb = pbZx.Rd = Welfy / γM0 Mc. y . 3 Class 4 Nc.05 4. 2 Class 3 Class 4 Mc.

such as shear capacity. At the same time. Analysis. analyzing the tables provided and the purpose of each clause stated in the code. Checking on several elements. bearing capacity. analysis on the difference between the results using two codes is done. Please refer to Figure 3.1 for the flowchart of the methodology of this study. Next. The first step is to study and understand the cross-section classification for steel members as given in EC. design and comparison works will follow subsequently. moment capacity. Eventually. . an understanding on the cross-section classification for BS 5950 is also carried out. it is necessary to study and understand the concept of design methods in EC3 and compare the results with the results of BS 5950 design.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3. Beams and columns are designed for the maximum moment and shear force obtained from computer software analysis. buckling capacity and deflection is carried out. comparison of the results will lead to recognizing the difference in design approach for each code.1 Introduction As EC3 will eventually replace BS 5950 as the new code of practice.

the use of advanced structural analysis software is not needed. Simple construction allows the connection of beam-to-column to be pinned jointed. Please refer to Appendices A1 and A2 for the analysis worksheets created for the purpose of calculating shear force and bending moment values based on the requirements of different safety factors of both codes. Sections 3. Calculation of bending moment.2 Structural Analysis with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The structural analysis of the building frame will be carried out by using Microsoft Excel worksheets. only beam shear forces will be transferred to the structural column. As the scope of this study is limited at simple construction. Different factors of safety with reference to BS 5950 and EC3 are defined respectively. End moments are zero. Therefore. .35 3.8 discuss in detail all the specifications and necessary data for the analysis of the multi-storey braced frame. V are based on simply-supported condition. M and shear force. that is M = wL2 / 8 V = wL / 2 where w is the uniform distributed load and L the beam span.4 to 3.

.36 3. Meanwhile. The method of design using BS 5950 will be based on the work example drawn by Heywood (2003). Several trial and error calculations can be used to cut down on the calculation time needed as well as prevent calculation error. (1995). Microsoft Excel worksheets will show the calculation steps in a clear and fair manner. al. The Microsoft Excel software is used for its features that allow continual and repeated calculations using values calculated in every cell of the worksheet. Please refer to Appendices B1 to C2 for the calculation worksheets created for the purpose of the design of structural beam and column of both design codes. Furthermore.3 Beam and Column Design with Microsoft Excel Worksheets The design of beam and column is calculated with Microsoft Excel software. the method of design using EC3 will be based on the work example drawn by Narayanan et.

Combined) Pass Comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 Phase 3 END Figure 3.37 Determine Research Objective and Scope Phase 1 Literature Review Determination of building and frame dimension Specify loadings & other specifications Phase 2 Frame analysis using Microsoft Excel (V=wL/2. M=wL2/8) Design worksheet development using Microsoft Excel Beams and columns design Fail Checking (Shear. Moment.1: Schematic diagram of research methodology .

Two (2) lengths of bay width will be used in the analysis – 6m and 9m respectively. in total. Please refer to Figure 3. The storey height will be 5m from ground floor to first floor. 4th storey is roof while the rest will serve as normal floors.4 Structural Layout & Specifications 3.3 for the illustrations of building plan view and elevation view respectively. a parametric study for the design of multi-storey braced frames is carried out. whereas for other floors (1st to 2nd. 3rd to roof). 2nd to 3rd. The intermediate frame will be used as the one to be analysed and designed. the storey height will be 4m. In plan view. 6m 6m 6/9m 6/9m Figure 3. The number of storey of the frame is set at four (4).2 and Figure 3. there will be three (3) numbers of 4-storey frames.2 : Floor plan view of the steel frame building. Each of the frame’s longitudinal length is 6m. .38 3.4. the 4-storey frame consists of four (4) bays.1 Structural Layout In order to make comparisons of the design of braced steel frame between BS 5950-1: 2000 and Eurocode 3.

39 4m 4m 4m 5m Figure 3. 3. Web cleats will be used as the connection method to create pinned connection. The main steel frame will consist of solely universal beam (UB) and universal column (UC). As this is a simple construction. Top flange of beams are effectively restraint against lateral torsional buckling. All the roof bays will be used for general purposes. Meanwhile. flat roof system will be introduced to cater for some activities on roof top.2 Specifications The designed steel frame structure is meant for office for general use. . All the bays will be serving the same function.3 : Elevation view of the intermediate steel frame.4. all the column-to-column connections are to be rigid. all the beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pinned. Meanwhile.

section 6. In this design. Weight of concrete is given by 24kN/m3. a uniform load intensity of 1. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design.4kN/m2 and 3. Table 8 (Offices occupancy class) states that the intensity of distributed load of offices for general use will be 2.2. all floors will be of one-way slab. The type of precast flooring system to be used will be solid precast floor panel.2 (Flat roofs) states that. This value will be used as this frame model is meant for a general office usage.5kN/m2 is appropriate. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project. Multiplying the thickness of the slabs. Therefore.0kN/m2 respectively.40 Precast concrete flooring system will be introduced to this project. Consequently.3 of Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) states that the characteristic values of imposed floor load and imposed roof load must be obtained from Part 1 and Part 3 of BS 6399 respectively. precast solid floor panel of 100mm thick was selected for flat roof. For precast floor selfweight. the intensity of slab selfweight will be 2. . all the values of imposed loads of both BS 5950 and EC3 design will be based on BS 6399. Meanwhile. Meanwhile. this value will be adopted. 3. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in 9kN/m and 15kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced. Therefore. Therefore. repair and other general purposes. each bay will contribute half of the load intensity to the intermediate frame.5kN/m2.5 Loadings Section 2. 125mm think floor panel will be used for other floors. For imposed roof load. for a flat roof with access available for cleaning.

Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 1. Meanwhile.0kN/m2 for finishes (superimposed dead load) on all floors will be assumed. γQ is given by 1.6 Factor of Safety Section 2. γG is given by 1. permanent actions G include dead loads such as self-weight of structure.6 for imposed load. partial safety factors. finishes and fittings. the total dead load intensity for roof and floor slabs are 3. 2 or 3 cross-section. Multiplying by 6m (3m apiece from either side of the bay) will result in kN/m and 24kN/m of load intensity on roof beam and floor beam respectively.4. depending on the interior designer’s intention. for normal design situations. From Table 2.05 as well. Partial safety factors for loads. a selection of floor carpets and ceramic tiles will be used. γM0. Combining the superimposed dead load with selfweight.4 for dead load. is given by 1.1.05. In EC3. in the design of buildings not subject to loads from cranes. 3. is given by 1.4kN/m2 and 4kN/m2 respectively. For other floors.2 “Buildings without cranes” of BS 5950 states that. γF for dead load.35. Partial safety factor for resistance of Class 4 cross-section. the principal combination of loads that should be taken into account will be load combination 1 – Dead load and imposed gravity loads. and 1.5.1.41 The finishes on the flat roof will be waterproofing membrane and decorative screed. γM1. The factor γM0 is used where the failure mode is plasticity or yielding. γf should be taken as 1. for imposed floor load. A general load intensity of 1. variable actions Q include live loads such as imposed load. Meanwhile. The .

42 factor γM1 is used where the failure mode is buckling – including local buckling. which governs the resistance of a Class 4 (slender) cross-section. fy is 355N/mm2 and 335N/mm2 respectively for the same thickness limits.8. Meanwhile.1 Load Combination This section describes the structural analysis of the steel frame. py is 275N/mm2 for thickness less than or equal to 16mm and 265N/mm2 for thickness larger but less than or equal to 40mm. two (2) types of steel grade will be used.4 times total dead load plus 1. in order to justify the effect of design strength of a steel member on the strength of a steel member. design strength py is decided by the thickness of the thickest element of the cross-section (for rolled sections). In BS 5950. py is 355N/mm2 and 345N/mm2 respectively for the same limits of thickness. For steel grade S 355. 3.8 Structural Analysis of Braced Frame 3. for Fe 510. the load combination will be 1. namely S 275 (or Fe 430 as identified in EC3) and S 355 (or Fe 510 as identified in EC3). 3.1. For steel grade S 275.6 times total imposed .2 “Material properties for hot rolled steel” (C-EC3) limits thickness of flange to less than or equal to 40mm for nominal yield strength fy of 275N/mm2 and larger but less than or equal to 100mm for fy of 255N/mm2.7 Categories In this project. According to BS 5950. in the meantime. 3.

5 times total imposed load (1. For all other floors. w.5% between the analyses of both codes.5LL). will be 45. V at end connections is given by V = wl/2. the w will be 62. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors.76kN/m. the resulting shear values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3. the w will be 59. BS 5950 results in higher value of shear.9kN/m. w.1 Resulting shear values of structural beams (kN) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 144 187.2 Shear Calculation This steel frame is pinned jointed at all beam-to-column supports. the resultant load combination.7 179. there is a difference of approximately 4.35DL + 1. will be 48kN/m. According to EC3.28 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 206.8. the resultant load combination.55 268. the load combination will be 1.92 Bay Width 9m 216 281.6LL). where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width.1.64kN/m.43 load (1.92 From Table 4.35 times total dead load plus 1. For all other floors. the shear. For the roof.88 6m 137. Clearly.4DL + 1. For the roof. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula.1 below: Table 3. For simple construction. Table 3. The next table.2 will present the accumulating axial loads acting on the structural columns of the steel frame. 3. This is done by summating the resultant shear .

96 992.88 779.54 Int.31 Int. = External column The accumulating axial loads based on the two codes vary approximately 4. 216 497.52 2123.08 Int.1 950. where w is the resultant load combination and l is the bay width.55 475.84 707.94 1488. structural beam moment. Inputting the resultant load combinations into the formula. 413.2 Accumulating axial load on structural columns (kN) BS 5950 Floor Int.3: . Roof – 3rd 3rd – 2nd 2nd – 1st 1st . the resulting moment values of both bay widths and codes of design can be summarized in Table 3. since all the beam-to-column connections are pinned jointed. Table 3.8. similar with the beam shear. 3. 206.98 496.68 1415. 144 331. Internal columns will sustain axial load two times higher than external columns of same floor level as they are connected to two beams.47 744.4 633.64 6m Ext.39 1013.5%.92 519.52 EC 3 9m 6m Ext. 137. can be calculated by using the formula M=wl2/8. 275. = Internal column Ext.28 Int.7 316.26 675.76 9m Ext.84 1039.78 2026.Ground 288 663. M.52 1351.3 Moment Calculation For simple construction.76 1559.62 Ext.44 force from beam of each floor.76 1061. 432 995.

23 6m 206. since this is simple construction.45 Table 3.55 268.92 EC 3 Bay Width 9m 464. For the moments of the structural columns. there is a difference of approximately 4. Me. the depth of the column has not been decided yet.3 Resulting moment values of structural beams (kNm) BS 5950 Location 6m Roof Other Floors 216 281. Therefore. can be determined from the following formula: Me = V (e + D/2) = V (e + h/2) where V is resultant shear of structural beam (kN). However. the higher the load combination of a floor. Subsequently. the higher the difference percentage will be. Since this is only preliminary analysis as well. there will be a moment due to eccentricity of the resultant shear from the beams. In this project.3. initially.88 Bay Width 9m 486 634. there will be no end moments being transferred from the structural beams. the eccentricity of the resultant shear from the face of the structural column will be 100mm. the eccentricity moment. in this case. This is solely due to the difference in partial safety factors. . D or h is the depth of column section (m). Regardless of the width of the bay.07 From Table 3. BS 5950 results in higher value of moment.4% to 4. the depth (D for BS 5950 and h for EC 3) of a structural column is assumed to be 400mm. e is the eccentricity of resultant shear from the face of column (m).6% between the analyses of both codes.74 605. Clearly.

9 Structural Beam Design Structural beam design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. 3.78 Int. 30.68 These values of eccentricity moments will be useful for the estimation of initial size of a column member during structural design in later stage. In simple construction. 30.98 86.0DL. However. Table 3.6LL) – 1.0DL.56 6m Ext.6 Int. 20.88 Int. For EC 3. Table 3. The moments for floor columns will be evenly distributed as the ratio of EI1/L1 and EI2/L2 is less than 1. Next.38 9m Ext. serviceability check in the form of deflection check will need to be done.6 56.46 V for external column can be easily obtained from shear calculation.4 below summarizes the moment values due to eccentricity.4 84. 20.4 Resulting moment due to eccentricity of structural columns (kNm) BS 5950 Floor Int. for internal column. Roof Other Floors 21.4 94. 32. 32.5LL) – 1.66 53.35DL + 1.08 EC 3 9m 6m Ext. V should be obtained by deducting the factored combination of floor dead (DL) and imposed load (LL) with unfactored floor dead load.98 80.6 63. V can be expressed as V = (1.84 Ext. two major checks that need to be done is shear and moment resistance at ultimate limit state. 21. V can be expressed as V = (1.66 57. For BS 5950. .5.4DL + 1.

92kN and 281.1mm. Flange thickness.9mm.3.1 BS 5950 In simple construction.3mm. D = 454. Depth.6mm. Web thickness. Width. From the section table for universal beam. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) . Elastic modulus.88 x 103 / 275 = 1025cm3 From the rearranged table.47 The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the floor beam of length 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).99.9. moment capacity and web bearing capacity. d/t = 50. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 59. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. Zx = 1120cm3. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 187. Depth between fillets. b/T = 6. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. Plastic modulus. d = 407. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. shear capacity.6mm. Sx = 1290cm3. t = 8. T = 13.8kg/m. From the section table. UB section 457x152x60 is chosen.88kNm. Sx = M / py = 281. B = 152. 3.

2.6 x 275 x 3682. actual d/t = 50. Actual b/T = 5. flange is Class 1 plastic section. Meanwhile. section 4.5 “Moment capacity. where neutral axis is at mid-depth.0 Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950.3 “Shear capacity” is checked. therefore. After clause 4. Pv = 0.2.6pyAv.6 x 607. shear buckling needs not be checked.3.6Pv = 0. Next. which is smaller than 9ε = 9.0.57 = 364.48 = 1. Since actually d/t < 70. shear capacity is adequate. section 4. Actual d/t did not exceed 80.5 is checked.75.57kN > Fv = 187. For web of I-section. clause 4.0.26mm2 Pv = 0.26 x 10-3 = 607.92kN Therefore. Since both flange and web are plastic. web is Class 1 plastic section. Therefore.1 x 454. this section is Class 1 plastic section. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section. Next.4. shear buckling resistance should be checked. For class 1 plastic cross-section.4. Av = 8. Mc = 275 x 1290 x 10-3 . where Av = tD for a rolled I-section.54kN > Fv Therefore.6 = 3682. it is low shear. Mc” is checked.0.0 in this design.5 states that if the d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for a rolled section. the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε = 80. Mc = pySx. Shear capacity. 0. Therefore.

1 x 275 x 10-3 = 218.3 + 10. If Fv exceeds Pbw. section 4. moment capacity is adequate.75kNm To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads. bearing capacity of web. n = 2 + 0.2 + 2 x 13.5. bearing stiffener should be provided.2 “Bearing capacity of web” is checked.02mm k=T+r = 13. To prevent crushing of the web due to forces applied through a flange.2mm b1 = t + 1.2 = 23.6r + 2T (Figure 13) = 8.2pyZx = 1.02 x 8.2pyZx. M = 281. Pbw = (b1 + nk)tpyw r = 10.88kNm from analysis < Mc = 354.1 + 1.02mm Pbw = 98. n = 2 b1 + nk = 98.49 = 354. 1.6kNm > Mc.6 x 10.5mm At support. be = 0.3 = 51. Mc should be limited to 1. therefore. OK.6be/k.75kNm Therefore.34kN > Fv = 187.92kN .2 x 275 x 1120 x 10-3 = 369.

50 Therefore. δ. This is done in the form of deflection check. .5) should be conducted. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4. Therefore. the serviceability limit state check (Section 2. Generally.84mm Table 8 (Suggested limits for calculated deflections) suggests that for “beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish). the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done. L = 6.67mm >δ Therefore. the vertical deflection limit should be L/360. However.0m E = 205kN/mm2 I = 25500cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. w = 15kN/m for floors. only unfactored imposed load shall be used to calculate the deflection. The section is adequate. the deflection is satisfactory. δlim = 6000 / 360 = 16. In this case. the bearing capacity at support is adequate. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check.

Web thickness. crippling and buckling.6mm. tf = 10. Wel.y = 927cm3. shear capacity.y = 1051cm3. Wpl.6mm. Depth. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. the sections are rearranged in ascending form.2 EC 3 In simple construction. From the section table for universal beam. Elastic modulus. b = 177.28kN and 268.4mm. lateral torsional buckling.6mm. Shear area. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl. tw = 7. Depth between fillets. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.y = M / py = 268.9mm. Width.9cm3 From the rearranged table. the properties of the UB chosen are as follows: Mass = 54kg/m. h = 402. The shear and moment value for this particular floor beam is 179. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be shear buckling. Plastic modulus. d = 360. resistance of web to crushing. moment capacity.92 x 103 / 275 = 977. Flange thickness. Wpl. The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design. UB section 406x178x54 is chosen. 3.y (cm3).9cm2. Av = 32.92kNm. From the section table.9. Therefore. Area of . it is adequate to be used.51 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check.

fu = 430N/mm2.5Vpl.36cm. d/tw = 47.1.Rd = (32. Therefore. Second moment of area. UB section 406x178x54 is Class 1 section. The design value of shear force. VSd = 179. A = 68.52 section.28kN Therefore.6(a). that is Vpl. 0. Flange is Class 1 element.15. limiting c/tf ratio (c is half of b) is 9. aLT = 131cm.05 Vpl.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0.9 x 100 x 275) / (√3 x 1. Iy = 18670cm4. limiting d/tw ratio is 66. shear resistance is sufficient. Actual c/tf = 8. yield strength. for “outstand element of compression flange. tf = 10.4. fy = 275N/mm2 and ultimate tensile strength.6 for Class 1 elements.Rd = 0.4 ≤ 66. Based on Table 3. From Table 5. Actual d/tw = 47.1 “Shear resistance of cross-section” of beam is checked. These values must be adopted as characteristic values in calculations. For “web subject to bending. neutral axis at mid depth”.6. Before checks are done for ultimate limit states.5.28kN γM0 = 1.49kN > VSd = 179.48 = 298. c/tf = 8.2 for Class 1 elements.9mm.6cm2.15 ≤ 9.05) = 497. section classification is a must. For S275 (Fe 430).5 x 497.28kN . flange subject to compression only”. Web is Class 1 element. tf ≤ 40mm. iLT = 4.48kN > 179. Next.2. VSd from analysis at each cross-section should not exceed the design plastic shear resistance Vpl.Rd. section 5.

26kNm > MSd Therefore. section 5. Actual d/tw = 47.Rd = Wpl. Section 5.Rd = 1051 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.5 [1 – (γM0 σf. the moment capacity is sufficient.Rd and buckling resistance.Rd. For low shear. MSd = 268. Ry. Section 5.5. shear buckling check is not required.92kNm Mc.6 “Resistance of webs to transverse forces” requires transverse stiffeners to be provided in any case that the design value VSd applied through a flange to a web exceeds the smallest of the following – Crushing resistance.8 and 56. Ry.Ed/fyf)2]0. The beam is fully restrained.05 = 275. For crushing resistance.y fy / γM0 for Class 1 or Class 2 cross-section.5[fyf/fyw]0. Therefore.2 “Moment resistance of cross-section with low shear” the design value of moment MSd must not exceed the design moment resistance of the cross-section Mc. not susceptible to lateral torsional buckling.6 “Shear buckling” requires that webs must have transverse stiffeners at the supports if d/tw is greater than 63. section 5.5 . Rb. crippling resistance. sy = tf(bf/tw)0. low shear.1 for steel grade Fe 430 and Fe 510 respectively.5 “Lateral-torsional buckling” needs not be checked. Ra.53 Therefore.Rd = (ss + sy) twfyw / γM1 where at support.5. Therefore.4 < 63.8.5.Rd.

A = 227.6/10.05 E = 210kN/mm2 Ra.5 + a + ss/2 = 0. OK. σf.Rd = (50 + 52.Rd = 0.4kN For crippling resistance.9/7.5 [402.5[h2 + ss2]0.8 x 7. ss = 50mm at support.6)0.05 = 307.14 ≤ 0.8kN For buckling resistance.28mm2 . γM0 = 1.5 x 7.6 x 275 x 10-3 / 1. fyf = 275N/mm2.Ed = 0.05.6)0. OK γM1 = 1. sy = 10.5 = 52.5 [(10.5 [(tf/tw)0.7mm.5 + 0 + 50/2 = 227. Ra.6 / 7.2.69mm Ry.5 + 3(7.05 = 204.6 = 1731.54 At support.Rd = βA fc A / γM1 A = beff x tw beff = 0.9 (177.5tw2 (Efyw)0.4 = 0. bending moment is zero.Rd = 0.62 + 502]0. Rb.14)] / 1.5 + 3(tw/tf) (ss/d)] / γM1 ss/d = 50 / 360.5 = 405.9)(0.8mm beff should be less than [h2 + ss2]0.62 (210000 x 275)0.69) x 7.

05 = 197.Rd = 204.6kN/m for floors. fc = 121N/mm2 λ√βA = 120. which is larger than VSd = 179.4 / 7. deflection should take into account deflection due to both permanent loads and imposed loads. Generally.05 For ends restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement (Table 5. δmax = δ1 + δ2 – δ0 (hogging δ0 = 0 at unloaded state) w1 = 27. Therefore.13 (rolled I-section).8N/mm2 Rb. buckling about y-y axis.6 λ√βA = 118.5 x 360.6 From Table 5. the web of the section can resist transverse forces. the serviceability load should be taken as the unfactored specified value. fc = 117N/mm2 By interpolation.29). λ = 2.4kN Minimum of the 3 values are 197.55 βA = 1 γM1 = 1.5kN. This is done in the form of deflection check. fc = 119.5 d/t = 2.8 x 1731. λ√βA = 118.2) should be conducted.Rd = 1 x 119.1. curve (a) is used.5kN Ra. After necessary ultimate limit state checks have been done. the serviceability limit state check (Section 4.8kN Ry. OK.Rd = 307.28 x 10-3 / 1.6 = 118.28kN. (Permanent load) . From Figure 4.

34mm Therefore.1 (Recommended limiting values for vertical deflections) suggests that for “floors and roofs supporting plaster or other brittle finish or non-flexible partitions”. In this case. 2 = 6000 / 350 = 17. .0m E = 210kN/mm2 Iy = 18670cm4 The formula for calculating exact deflection. max = 6000 / 250 = 24mm > δ1 + δ2 = 18. However. The section is adequate. (Imposed load) L = 6. δ. the vertical deflection limit should be L/350 for δ2 and L/250 for δmax. This calculation is repeated for different sections to determine the suitable section which has the minimal mass per length.56 w2 = 15kN/m for floors.88mm δ2 = 5 x 15 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 6.6 x 64 x 105 / 384 x 210 x 18670 = 11.14mm > δ2 δlim. it should also satisfy all the required criteria in the ultimate limit state check. the deflection is satisfactory. is given by δ = 5wL4 / 384EI δ1 = 5 x 27.46mm Table 4. δlim.

57 This section satisfied all the required criteria in both ultimate and serviceability limit state check. Therefore, it is adequate to be used.

3.10

Structural Column Design

Structural column design deals with all the relevant checking necessary in the design of a selected structural beam. In simple construction, apart from section classification, two major checks that need to be done is compression and combined axial and bending at ultimate limit state.

The sub-sections next will show one design example which is the internal column “ground floor to 1st floor” (length 5m) of the steel frame with bay width 6m and of steel grade S 275 (Fe 430).

3.10.1 BS 5950

In simple construction, apart from section classification, necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be compression resistance and combined axial force and moment. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1415.52kN and 63.08kNm respectively.

From the section table for universal column, the sections are rearranged in ascending form, first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Sx (cm3). The moment will then be divided by the design strength py to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.

Sx = M / py

58 = 63.08 x 103 / 275 = 229.4cm3

From the rearranged table, UC section 203x203x60 is chosen. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.

From the section table, the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 60kg/m; Depth, D = 209.6mm; Width, B = 205.2mm; Web thickness, t = 9.3mm; Flange thickness, T = 14.2mm; Depth between fillets, d = 160.8mm; Plastic modulus, Sx = 652cm3; Elastic modulus, Zx = 581.1cm3; Radius of gyration, rx = 8.96cm, ry = 5.19cm; Gross area, Ag = 75.8cm2; b/T = 7.23 (b = 0.5B); d/t = 17.3.

T < 16mm, therefore, py = 275N/mm2 ε = √(275/py) = √(275/275) = 1.0

Sectional classification is based on Table 11 of BS 5950. Actual b/T = 7.23, which is smaller than 9ε = 9.0. This is the limit for Class 1 plastic section (Outstand element of compression flange). Therefore, flange is Class 1 plastic section. Meanwhile, actual d/t = 17.3. For web of I-section under axial compression and bending, the limiting value for Class 1 plastic section is 80ε / 1 + r1, where r1 is given by r1 = Fc / dtpy. r1 = 1415.52 x 103 / 160.8 x 9.3 x 275 = 3.44 but -1 < r1 ≤ 1, therefore, r1 = 1 Limiting d/t value = 80 x 1 / 1 + 1 = 40

59 > Actual d/t = 17.3 Therefore, the web is Class 1 plastic section. Since both flange and web are plastic, this section is Class 1 plastic section.

Next, based on section 4.7.2 “Slenderness” and section 4.7.3 “Effective lengths”, and from Table 22 (Restrained in direction at one end), the effective length, LE = 0.85L = 0.85 x 5000 = 4250mm. λx = LEx / rx = 4250 / 8.96 x 10 = 47.4

Next, based on section 4.7.4 “Compression resistance”, for class 1 plastic section, compression resistance, Pc = Agpc. pc is the compressive strength determined from Table 24. For buckling about x-x axis, T < 40mm, strut curve (b) is used. λx = 46, pc = 242N/mm2 λx = 48, pc = 239N/mm2 From interpolation, λx = 47.4, pc = 239.9N/mm2 Pc = Agpc = 75.8 x 100 x 239.9 x 10-3 = 1818.44kN > Fc = 1415.52kN Therefore, compressive resistance is adequate.

is assumed to be acting 100mm from the face of the column. the column should satisfy the relationship (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) + (My / pyZy) ≤ 1 My = 0. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length. therefore. Therefore.19 x 10 = 48. Section 4.60 Next.5L / ry = 0. pb = 233N/mm2 From interpolation. M = 31.54kNm.08kNm. λLT = 45.7.17 From Table 16 (Bending strength pb for rolled sections). pb = 250N/mm2 λLT = 50.03kNm . My / pyZy = 0 Equivalent slenderness λLT of column is given by λLT = 0. for columns in simple construction. From frame analysis. when only nominal moments are applied. the beam reaction.7 “Columns in simple structures”. R.5 x 5000 / 5. For EI / L1st-2nd : EI / Lground-1st < 1.5. λLT = 48.78N/mm2 Mb = pbSx = 260. pb = 260.17. Mi = 63. The moment is distributed between the column lengths above and below 1st floor. the moment will be equally divided.78 x 652 x 10-3 = 170.

From the section table for universal column. the sections are rearranged in ascending form. necessary checks for ultimate limit state will be cross-section resistance (in the form of moment resistance) and in-plane failure about major axis (which is a combination of axial force and eccentricity moment). The moment will then be divided by the design strength fy to obtain an estimated minimum plastic modulus value necessary in the design.y (cm3). 3.88 x 103 / 275 = 210.52 / 1818. Therefore. Wpl. .54 / 170. apart from section classification.96 < 1.88kNm respectively. it is adequate to be used.44 + 31. The axial force and eccentricity moment value for this particular internal column are 1351.61 (Fc / Pc) + (Mx / Mbs) = 1415.y = MSd / fy = 57. This section satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.03 = 0. first the mass (kg/m) and then the plastic modulus Wpl. the combined resistance against axial force and eccentricity moment is adequate.10.2 EC 3 In simple construction.08kN and 57.5cm3 From the rearranged table. UC section 254x254x73 is chosen.0 Therefore. The size will then be checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. This is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.

Area of section.6cm2. Beforehand. the properties of the UC chosen are as follows: Mass = 73kg/m.94. from.86cm.2 respectively.2mm < 40mm. σw. d = 200.y = 895cm3. the limiting values of c/tf for Class 1 and 2 are 9.1.6 = 784.94 (c = 0.2.2mm.62 From the section table.y = 990cm3.9cm2.5cm. σw = NSd / dtw = 1351. Radius of gyration. For symmetric I-section of Class 1 or 2. d/tw = 23.1cm. From this table. Actual c/tf = 8.2 and 10. Second moment of area. therefore. for outstand element of compression flange (flange subject to compression only).3. fu = 430N/mm2 Sectional classification is based on Table 5. tw = 8. section 5. From Table 5. iLT = 6. Plastic modulus. with d/tw = 23.8 gives the limiting values of stress σw for Class 1 and 2 cross-sections. flange is Class 1 element. aLT = 98. Elastic modulus. Next.6(a) of C-EC3 for Class 1 elements. b = 254mm. Shear area. Wpl.94 < 9. Flange thickness.8.2mm. Depth. fy = 275N/mm2. c/tf = 8. this section is Class 1 section.73N/mm2 Table 5.6mm. Since both flange and web are plastic. A = 92. tf = 14. . Wel. Iy = 11370cm4. Web thickness.46cm.5b). iz = 6. section 5. For web subject to bending and compression. the web is Class 1. Depth between fillets. the classification depends on the mean web stress.5. Therefore. iy = 11. Actual c/tf = 8. Width.08 x 103 / 200.3.6 “Axially loaded members with moments” will be checked. h = 254mm. tf = 14. Av = 25.2 x 8.

05 = 2433.Rd = Wpl. From Table 5.Rd (1 – n) Npl.5Vpl.1 = 0.3kNm MNy.05) = 387.Sd Therefore.63 Vpl.58kN 0.05 = 259.555 ≥ 0.Rd = Av(fy / √3) / γM0 = (25.1 Therefore.11 Mpl. n = NSd / Npl. MNy.Rd n ≥ 0.11 Mpl.Rd (1 – n) Mpl.555) .Rd = 1.9 x 102 x 275 x 10-3 / 1.Sd / L = 57.27.Rd = 1.Sd = My.11 x 259.Rd Reduced design plastic moment.Rd = Mpl.y.Rd > Vmax.88 x 103 / 5000 = 11.1kN Maximum applied shear load (at top of column) is Vmax.08 / 2433. the section is subject to a low shear. allowing for axial force.3 x (1 – 0.1 : MNy.Rd = A fy / γM0 = 92.1kN n = 1351.y fy / γM0 = 990 x 10-3 x 275 / 1.Rd is such that n < 0.y.6 x 102 x 275) x 10-3 / (√3 x 1.y.y. MN.1 : MNy.Rd = 1.

64 = 128.3.Sd / ηMc. fc = 250N/mm2 λy√βA = 40.85L = 0.6. buckling curve (b) is used.1kNm > MSd = 28.3 Based on Table 5.1 x 10 = 38. for buckling about y-y axis.3.7N/mm2 .y. βA = 1 λy√βA = 38.y. λy√βA = 38.13 “Selection of buckling curve for fc”.85 x 5000 = 4250mm Slenderness ratio λy = Ly / iy = 4250 / 11. the moment resistance is sufficient.Sd must satisfy the expression (NSd / Nb. section 5.94kNm Therefore.Rd) ≤ 1. fc = 248N/mm2 From interpolation.3 tf ≤ 40mm λy√βA = 38. fc = 249.2 “Axial compression and major axis bending” states that all members subject to axial compression NSd and major axis moment My.0 Ly = 0.Rd) + (kyMy. Lastly.

94 / 1 x 128.9 x 102 x 10-3 / 1.05 = 1 x 249.y.05 = 2209.95 < 1. Therefore.65 Nb.0 Therefore.1) = 0.Rd = βA fc A / γM1. the resistance against in-plane failure against major axis is sufficient. This section 254x254x73 UC satisfied all the required criteria in ultimate limit state check.08 / 2209.Rd) + (kyMy.Sd / ηMc.y.y.5 x 28.5 (Conservative value) η = γM0 / γM1 =1 (NSd / Nb.Rd) = (1351.3) + (1.3kN ky = interaction factor about yy axis = 1. it is adequate to be used.7 x 92. . γM1 = 1.

CHAPTER IV RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS The results of the structural design of the braced steel frame (beam and column) are tabulated and compiled in the next sections. The results are shown in Table 4. Here. based on steel grade S275 and S355. structural capacity is sub-divided into beam and column.1 Structural Beam UB sections ranging from 305x102x25 to 533x210x122 are being tabulated in ascending form. 4.1 Structural Capacity Structural capacity deals with shear and moment resistance of a particular section chosen. The results are arranged accordingly.2 for moment capacity.1 for shear capacity and Table 5. deflection. namely structural capacity. . and weight of steel. The results based on BS 5950 and EC3 calculation are compiled together to show the difference between each other. 4.1. Shear capacity and moment capacity of each section are being calculated separately.

58 34.39 1.67 644.2 -2.87 -0.78 942.02 12.33 409.6 405.27 0.19 1.5 1102.19 4.11 1218.65 724.67 Table 4.45 -1.28 554.93 1.21 -24.1 -2.46 -3.77 1146.48 759.5 -0.05 607.24 3. 2.02 698.13 19.91 1011.96 666.94 2.25 382.27 845.17 8.88 -18.53 943.15 -16.15 3.02 496.24 0.7 1.02 6.28 8.32 EC 3 (kN) 366.66 24.77 728.78 456.55 583.47 545.19 387.83 938.77 -3.46 2.98 1134.44 471.56 -5.6 1.26 -8.57 13.77 6.81 -3.14 18.82 2.41 925.75 437.26 888.55 522.4 -0.84 300.81 -2.37 399.38 1.48 517.81 528.93 11.6 10.28 303.7 -0.46 478.11 -1.97 392.72 -12.29 5.87 433.99 660.81 -3.58 753.56 878.15 343.55 1.7 -0.37 338.91 -19.86 1204.55 617.57 680.35 431.13 1091.69 4.89 678.53 564.5 1.2 1102.23 -9.79 11.18 8.78 541.72 % Diff.94 559.13 705.78 -25.07 942.16 1057.32 877.74 0.59 460. BS 5950 (kN) 376.45 623.38 542.14 784.1 Shear capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 291.47 831.32 860.71 429.06 1.93 1.56 3.27 0.15 507.38 1.38 811.29 452.16 4.74 2.08 2.99 15.85 405.86 -0.31 446.3 14.64 0.51 18.35 -1.62 1.1 493.34 44.92 394.79 2.37 609.96 6.21 15.4 0.65 0.93 11.63 12.2 777.83 0.5 642.79 12.66 5.92 2.99 918.85 767.65 846.56 15.11 -2 2.31 2.33 577.57 -2.62 515.09 -2.55 1.52 439.55 712.64 0.5 S355 Difference (kN) 9.39 511.2 447.61 345.68 6.14 583.06 EC 3 (kN) 284.65 635.32 10.22 2.3 683.85 854.56 400.5 1.51 1.66 497.04 % Diff.94 2.21 667.14 .27 14.78 15.6 14.6 1.34 523.93 334.84 727.81 523.68 1007.85 517.78 -20.61 340.79 398.38 20.44 2.53 356.82 2.66 704.65 0.06 1.5 1.8 800.64 5.21 441.33 862.92 588.09 -2.73 -3.09 1012.39 462.4 -10.98 305.35 730.56 S275 Difference (kN) 7.09 16.32 783.16 551.74 2.79 2.36 11.79 2.35 793.42 820.81 1024.51 -4.74 -0.21 668.83 0.99 589.74 594.27 819.5 529.95 2.74 393.18 358.27 13.4 0.47 341.15 3.58 308.5 -0.52 443.65 420.03 4.7 9.69 -1.95 404.47 596.19 1.51 384.86 619.88 876.09 773.5 461.73 -2.75 -13.55 3.26 2.

Negative value indicates that the shear capacity calculated from EC3 is higher than that from BS 5950.77 4.07 .68 533x210x109 533x210x122 995.83 132.43 -1.06 % Diff.28 148.57 206. the difference percentage ranges from -2.76 4.6 as suggested by BS 5950. The shear capacity of a structural beam is given by Pv = 0.43 3.Rd = (Av x fy) / (γM0 x √3) … (EC3) … (BS 5950) Av is obtained from section table. however.43 3. Also.3 6.01 -16. 1 / (γM0 x √3) ≈ 0.06 1115.98 141.21 -1. varies with Av = Dt as suggested by BS 5950. For steel grade S275.85 EC 3 (kNm) 88 106.55.07 170.69% to 4.05 3.13 -0.51 1007.2 Moment capacity of structural beam UB SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 94.94 -12. 6.29 S275 Difference (kNm) 6.81 5. meanwhile.86 125.44 1300.3% less than 0. BS 5950 (kNm) 121.59 4.35 -0.59 5.58 4. This value.94 162.58 -9.06%.8 8.97 6.41 143.59 5.6 137.35 217. There are a few explanations to the variations. which is approximately 8.57 -4.6 py Av Av = Dt Vpl.78 11.76 191.57% to 4. For steel grade S355.05 1099.91 % Diff.97 EC 3 (kNm) 113.14 8.56 S355 Difference (kNm) 7.49 1295.43 160.23 168.06%.05 110. the difference percentage ranges from -3.13 8. Therefore. these facts explain the reason why shear capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950. Table 4.62 182.45 1431. Most of the values given are lesser than Dt value.03 1440.07 6.64 The difference is based on deduction of shear capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.

5 302.88 10.85 5.69 188.24 1.72 9.29 15.95 479.69 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 195.57 5.65 244.55 429.83 1.4 277.39 682.5 654.2 24.17 171.41 19.65 590.1 5.24 17.77 233.6 300.85 11.6 341.44 14.41 221.5 390.52 434.44 12.49 5.61 4.63 4.95 385.21 287.98 20.75 431.73 19.43%.5 44.11 5.8 799.46 5.87 4.48 17.83 5.95 189.95 514.86 4. Positive value indicates that the moment capacity calculated from EC3 is lower than that from BS 5950.51 1.2 291.49 5.93 740.29 202.7 211.9 619.41 5.5 457.4 264.57 5.55 21.1 285.5 34.85 27.86 8.55 433.68 560.1 5.97 14.45 521.35 693.02 315.1 220.35 302.52 395.25 497.32 0.08 5.32 1.62 7.65 404.11 261.16 9.22 13.95 566.49 15.05 0.85 585.75 631.5 14.33 181.87 4.45 234.11 5.55 9.75 484.53 549.98 352.27 14.9 900.02 377.95 848 184.65 749.31 19.96 21.12 5.79 141.17 255.33 192.03%.1 1.71 9.3 4.95 24.25 5.24 376.52 11.06 0.5 15.53 171.58 5.89 1.95 532.35 1104 238.3 695.1 244.95 755.75 332.66 5.06 11.33 198 232. the difference percentage ranges from 0.26 312.45 976.4 838.99 4.73 2.57 355.05 35.02 18.83 275.5 5.36 2. For steel grade S275.53 1.16 5.68 12 13.9 11. the difference percentage ranges from 1.5 330 371.01 182.84 13.85 5.7 18.91 The difference is based on deduction of moment capacity of EC3 from BS 5950.75 300.16 5.05 336.5 354.08 252.14 3.98 24.8 1082.92 13.33 221.11 242.05 585.67 685.94 10. .05 232.28 15.73 21. meanwhile.28 5.48 5.17 27.25 517.31 4.55 4.02 455.58% to 6.5 479.83 4.63 4.37 16.55 4.53 5.26 317.25 397.9 163.44 4.78 487.01 4.13 246.25 453.6 5.08 510.45 769.43 4.42 5.65 5.75 562.29 1.04 1.68 0.63 7.19 370.5 691.86 4.53 5.34 404.3 844.93 885.24 1.33 471.32 10.95 275.13 318.1 539 619.81 529. For steel grade S355.05 11.07 609.23 213.65 149.55 257.38 8.35 624.67 425.35 731.67 20.29 2.17 7.08 6.41% to 6.75 199.17 24.43 4.28 5.66 2.78 15.3 426 479.14 410.08 358.45 18.01 4.96 10.47 955.75 398.27 1.

The moment capacity of a structural beam is given by Mc = py Sx Mc. Meanwhile.1 of BS 5950 and EC3 respectively. A study is conducted to determine independently compression and bending moment capacity of structural column with actual length of 5m.y) are 1060cm3 and 1051cm3 respectively.0 as suggested by BS 5950.4 shows the result and percentage difference of moment resistance.2 Structural Column In determining the structural capacity of a column. . For a column web subject to bending and compression.85%. whether it is Class 1.70 There are a few explanations to the variations.y fy / γM0 … (BS 5950) … (EC3) From EC3 equation. are revised.Rd = Wpl. Therefore. sectional classification tables – Table 11 and Table 5.95. Class 2 or Class 3 element. there are some variations between plastic modulus specified by BS 5950 section table and EC3 section table. EC3 provides better guidelines to classify a section web. these facts explain the reason why moment capacity of most of the sections designed by EC3 is lower than the one designed by BS 5950.1. for a UB section 406x178x54. 1 / γM0 ≈ 0. 4.3. Table 4. For example. Besides that. There is a variation of approximately 0.3 shows the result and percentage difference of compression resistance while Table 4. This is approximately 5% less than 1. BS 5950 only provides a clearer guideline to the classification of Class 3 semi-compact section. plastic modulus based on BS 5950 (Sx) and EC3 (Wpl.

**71 Table 4.3 Compression resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kN) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 1027.63 1403.56 1588.95 1818.44 2199.15 2667.72 2341.45 2878.73 3454.34 4291.41 5419.6 3205.31 3901.39 4553.57 5256.95 6612.78 8028.11 9489.33 EC 3 (kN) 956.1 1323.8 1500 1721.2 2067.3 2508.5 2209.3 2715.9 3269.7 4057.6 5117.3 3025.8 3695.7 4292 4965.7 6242.4 7572.7 8958.9 S275 Difference (kN) 71.53 79.76 88.95 97.24 131.85 159.22 132.15 162.83 184.64 233.81 302.3 179.51 205.69 261.57 291.25 370.38 455.41 530.43 S355 Difference (kN) 117.66 142.41 158.24 170.26 213.57 255.76 209.85 256.99 295.49 375.39 486.02 271.11 310.04 385.76 426.68 530.78 641.15 735.89

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kN) 1259.66 1773.41 2007.94 2298.26 2780.37 3373.46 2982.65 3668.29 4402.89 5474.39 6918.72 4097.01 4987.14 5821.16 6720.88 8455.58 10267.55 12138.99

EC 3 (kN) 1142 1631 1849.7 2128 2566.8 3117.7 2772.8 3411.3 4107.4 5099 6432.7

% Diff.

6.96 5.68 5.6 5.35 6 5.97 5.64 5.66 5.35 5.45 5.58 5.6 5.27 5.74 5.54 5.6 5.67 5.59

9.34 8.03 7.88 7.41 7.68 7.58 7.04 7.01 6.71 6.86 7.02 6.62 6.22 6.63 6.35 6.28 6.24 6.06

3825.9 4677.1 5435.4 6294.2 7924.8 9626.4 11403.1

**Table 4.4 Moment resistance and percentage difference
**

UC SECTION BS 5950 (kNm) 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 203x203x86 254x254x73 254x254x89 254x254x107 69.47 129.03 146.73 167.96 205.13 249.38 277.94 344.27 413.51 EC 3 (kNm) 80.9 130.2 148.5 171.3 209.8 256.4 259.3 320.8 388.7 S275 Difference (kNm) -11.43 -1.17 -1.77 -3.34 -4.67 -7.02 18.64 23.47 24.81 S355 Difference (kNm) -30.81 -7.67 -9.49 -12.6 -16.45 -21.92 14.12 17.68 16.48

% Diff.

BS 5950 (kNm) 73.69 160.33 182.21 208.5 254.35 309.08 348.82 431.88 518.18

EC 3 (kNm) 104.5 168 191.7 221.1 270.8 331 334.7 414.2 501.7

% Diff.

-16.45 -0.91 -1.21 -1.99 -2.28 -2.81 6.71 6.82 6

-41.81 -4.78 -5.21 -6.04 -6.47 -7.09 4.05 4.09 3.18

72

254x254x132 254x254x167 305x305x97 305x305x118 305x305x137 305x305x158 305x305x198 305x305x240 305x305x283 521.91 669.51 438.6 538.83 633.77 738.82 946.51 1168.56 1403.39 490.3 633.3 416.2 511.2 600.5 700.6 900.4 1111.3 1287.4 31.61 36.21 22.4 27.63 33.27 38.22 46.11 57.26 115.99 6.06 5.41 5.11 5.13 5.25 5.17 4.87 4.9 8.26 653.96 838.26 575.44 705.68 828.47 964.08 1231.05 1515.42 1815.14 632.9 817.5 537.2 660 775.3 904.4 1162.4 1434.5 1676 21.06 20.76 38.24 45.68 53.17 59.68 68.65 80.92 139.14 3.22 2.48 6.65 6.47 6.42 6.19 5.58 5.34 7.67

Shear capacity designed by BS 5950 is overall higher than EC3 design by the range of 5.27 – 6.96% and 6.22 – 9.34% for steel grade S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) respectively. This is mainly due to the partial safety factor γM1 of 1,05 imposed by EC3 in the design. Also, the compression strength fc determined from Table 5.14(a) of EC3 is less than the compression strength pc determined from Table 24 of BS 5950.

Meanwhile, as the size of section increases, the difference percentage changes from -16.45% to 8.26% for S275 (Fe 460) and -41.81% to 7.67% for S355 (Fe 510). This means that smaller sizes designed by EC3 have higher moment capacity than BS 5950 design. From the moment capacity formula of BS 5950,

Mb = pbSx

pb depends on equivalent slenderness λLT, which is also dependant on the member length. The bigger the member size, the higher the radius of gyration, ry is. Therefore, pb increases with the increase in member size.

However, moment capacity based on EC3 design,

Mpl.y.Rd = Wpl.y fy / γM0

73 The moment capacity is not dependant on equivalent slenderness. Therefore, when member sizes increase, eventually, the moment capacity based on EC3 is overtaken by BS 5950 design.

4.2

Deflection

Table 4.5 shows the deflection values due to floor imposed load. In BS 5950, this is symbolized as δ while for EC3, this is symbolized as δ2.

**Table 4.5 Deflection of floor beams due to imposed load
**

UB SECTION BS 5950 (δ, mm) 27.56 22.99 19 17.22 15.06 12.89 14.53 12.47 10.55 14.97 12.11 10.2 8.76 7.72 6.33 9.88 7.86 6.6 5.72 5.08 4.52 L = 6.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 27.62 22.16 18.54 16.83 14.77 12.68 14.1 12.13 10.31 14.71 11.93 9.98 8.51 7.51 6.17 9.71 7.69 6.46 5.6 4.95 4.39 Difference (mm) -0.06 0.83 0.46 0.39 0.29 0.21 0.43 0.34 0.24 0.26 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.21 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.13 % Diff. -0.22 3.61 2.42 2.26 1.93 1.63 2.96 2.73 2.27 1.74 1.49 2.16 2.85 2.72 2.53 1.72 2.16 2.12 2.1 2.56 2.88 BS 5950 (δ, mm) 139.53 116.41 96.17 87.18 76.23 65.25 73.54 63.14 53.43 75.77 61.28 51.66 44.33 39.07 32.06 50.01 39.81 33.43 28.94 25.72 22.9 L = 9.0m EC 3 (δ2, mm) 139.83 112.19 93.86 85.2 74.79 64.19 71.36 61.42 52.2 74.49 60.42 50.51 43.09 38 31.23 49.17 38.94 32.68 28.33 25.08 22.25 Difference (mm) -0.3 4.22 2.31 1.98 1.44 1.06 2.18 1.72 1.23 1.28 0.86 1.15 1.24 1.07 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.75 0.61 0.64 0.65 % Diff. -0.22 3.63 2.4 2.27 1.89 1.62 2.96 2.72 2.3 1.69 1.4 2.23 2.8 2.74 2.59 1.68 2.19 2.24 2.11 2.49 2.84

305x102x25 305x102x28 305x102x33 305x127x37 305x127x42 305x127x48 305x165x40 305x165x46 305x165x54 356x127x33 356x127x39 356x171x45 356x171x51 356x171x57 356x171x67 406x140x39 406x140x46 406x178x54 406x178x60 406x178x67 406x178x74

85 1.71 3.52 0.1 0.1 0.56 2.45 14.77 4.68 2.22% to 3.64 4.68 13.63%. as required by EC3.74 457x152x52 457x152x60 457x152x67 457x152x74 457x152x82 457x191x67 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x191x89 457x191x98 533x210x82 533x210x92 533x210x101 533x210x109 533x210x122 5.04 0.51 21.9 9. EC3 requires deflection due to permanent dead load to be included in the final design.31 2. the major difference between the deflection designs of these two codes is the total deflection.46 2. E.26 18.12 17.79 16.55 From Table 4.33 0.35 0.37 4.83 20. Section 3.19 2.13 8.04 2.1 3.4 0.25 0.07 0.29 0.22 28.85 1.23 0.83 13.55 23.25 2. .34 18.6 2.06 0.32 10.27 3.13 0.08 21.25 16.16 11.08 0.58 0.53 0.43 2.26 2.61 3. subject to 15kN/m of unfactored imposed floor load. the difference percentage ranges from -0.51 0. for a floor beam of 6m long. The first explanation for this difference is the modulus of elasticity value.4 2.56 2.05 0.1 0.5 above.32 0.3 “Other properties” of BS 5950 states that E = 205kN/mm2.1.98 21.03 9. δmax.21 2.54 2. section 3.66 0.47 29.96 1.56 2. Meanwhile. Different from BS 5950. Ix = 16000cm4 from BS 5950 section table. Meanwhile.05 0.33 12.06 0.8 1.34 1.49 2.42 0. For example.93 2.16 1.7 2.75 18.7 2.78 3.84 4.77 16. the difference percentage ranges from -0. Meanwhile.01 0. there is also slight difference between second moment of area in both codes.01 1. This is basically same as the range of beam length 6m.01 2.4 “Design values of material coefficients” of C-EC3 states that E = 210kN/mm2.74 4.63 19.46 2.59 2.24 2.33 3.25 2.85 15. However.61%.07 1. for a section 356x171x57.25 13. The minor differences had created differences between the deflection values.06 0.21 24. Apart from that.7 2.16 9.2 3.71 3.1.29 0.75 2. Iy = 16060cm4 from EC3 section table.08 0.33 4.36 8.4 2.07 0.26 0.62 5. for a floor beam of 9m long.18 1.41 1.73 1.22% to 3.21 3.84 11.66 2.63 2.77 2.37 2. It also indicates that deflection value calculated from BS 5950 is normally higher than that from EC3.38 2.

889 152x152x23 152x152x37 152x152x37 203x203x52 3.6 and Table 4.7 for BS 5950 and EC3 design respectively.744 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) .75 4.6 Weight of steel frame designed by BS 5950 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 1 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 2 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 3 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 4 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x191x67 406x140x46 406x140x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd . To compare the economy of the design. the weight of steel will be used as a gauge.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x52 203x203x86 9. floor beams.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .122 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x60 4.4th Storey 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 7. the results of the design (size of structural members) are tabulated in Table 4.3 Economy of Design After all the roof beams. external columns and internal columns have been designed for the most optimum size. Table 4.750 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x152x60 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .

645 3. meanwhile.8.571 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.744 EC3 4.821 .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 9.122 9.9.76 Table 4.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9.889 9.313 9.750 4.821 Roof Section Designation Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) Summary of the total steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4. Table 4.8 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design Types of Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.571 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd . is tabulated in Table 4. The saving percentage.7 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x92 533x210x82 406x178x54 356x171x45 To 2nd Storey 2nd .313 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.

122 7.744 3.313 % 1.96%. The percentage savings for braced steel frame with 9m span is higher than that one with 6m span. beam spans and steel grade designed by using BS 5950 offer weight savings as compared with EC3.645 9. Further check on the effect of deflection was done.60 17. The percentage of saving offered by BS 5950 design ranges from 1. This time. depending on the steel grade. larger hot-rolled section is required to provide adequate moment capacity and also stiffness against deflection. the connections of beam-to-column were assumed to be “partial strength connection”.42 15. the percentage savings by using BS 5950 are higher than EC3 for S355 steel grade with respect to S275 steel grade.96 5.750 9. unaffected by the effect of imposed load deflection.29 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) As shown in Table 4.821 4.9 EC3 design Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4. This is because deeper. This is because overall deflection was considered in EC3 design.889 EC3 4. Meanwhile.60% to 17. all frame types.9.77 Table 4. This resulted in higher percentage difference. Regardless of bay width. Semi-continuous . BS 5950 design allowed lighter section.571 9.

749 Roof Section Designation (Semi-continous) Universal Columns External Internal Total Steel Weight (tonne) .211 533x210x92 533x210x82 457x178x52 406x140x46 To 2nd Storey 2nd .645 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 254x254x73 4.4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey To 2nd Storey 2nd .4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x71 203x203x71 254x254x107 9. which was used in the beam design.0.4th Storey 203x203x46 203x203x60 203x203x60 254x254x89 8. where zero “support” stiffness corresponds to a value of β = 5. the deflection coefficient.5. Columns remained the same as there was no change in the value of eccentricity moment and axial force. This is different from pinned joint in simple construction. The renewed beam sections are tabulated in Table 4. Table 4. For uniformly distributed loading.503 152x152x30 203x203x46 203x203x46 203x203x71 4.10 Weight of steel frame designed by EC3 (Semi-continuous) Model No Frame Type Universal Beams Floor S275 5 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 6 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) S355 7 2 Bay 4 Storey (6m span) 8 2 Bay 4 Storey (9m span) 533x210x82 457x151x67 406x140x46 356x127x39 To 2nd Storey 2nd . β is treated as β = 3.10 shown.78 frame is achieved in this condition. the deflection value is given as: δ = βwL4 / 384EI For a span with connections having a partial strength less than 45%. Please refer to Appendix D for a redesign work after the β value had been revised and the section redesigned to withstand bending moment from analysis process.

is tabulated in Table 4.750 4.749 Table 4.22 9.645 3.744 Total Steel Weight (ton) EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4. Table 4. meanwhile.11 .79 Summary of the total revised steel weight for the multi-storey braced steel frame design is tabulated in Table 4.95 BS 5950 4.744 EC3 (Semi-Cont) 4.750 4.12 Percentage difference of steel weight (ton) between BS 5950 design and EC3 design (Revised) Frame 2Bay 4Storey Bay Width (m) 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.11 Total steel weight for the multi-storey braced frame design (Revised) Types of Frame Bay Width (m) 2Bay 4Storey 6 Steel Grade S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 2Bay 4Storey 9 S275 (Fe 430) S355 (Fe 510) 7.12.211 Total Steel Weight (ton) BS 5950 4.889 8.211 10.503 9.889 8.122 9.11.645 5.122 9. The saving percentage.749 % 0.42 3.503 7.

the effect of deflection on the design will be eliminated. (b) semi-rigid construction. Even though EC3 design still consumed higher steel weight. The ability of partial strength connection had enabled moment at mid span to be partially transferred to the supports (Figure 4.1(a) for the illustration of rigid connection.1(c)). the percentage of difference had been significantly reduced to the range of 0. The effect of dead load on the deflection of beam had been gradually reduced.1(b)).11% to 10. with deflection coefficient set as β = 1. it can be seen that there is an obvious reduction of steel weight required for the braced steel frame.1 Bending moment of beam for: (a) rigid construction.95%. . the sagging moment at mid span became less than that of simple construction (Figure 4. The moment capacity will be the deciding factor. Therefore. (c) simple construction.0. if it is built semi-continuously. The greater difference for steel grade S355 indicated that deflection still plays a deciding role in EC3 design. However.80 From Table 4. Eventually.12. Please refer to Figure 4. wL2/8 MR wL2/8 MR wL2/8 (a) Design moment. the gap reduces. MD = wL /8 – MR 2 (b) (c) Figure 4. as the connection stiffness becomes higher. if rigid connection is introduced.

The application of different steel grade did not contribute greater percentage of difference between the shear capacities calculated by both codes.43%. In review to the research objectives. This is mainly due to the application of partial safety factor. 5.05 in the moment capacity .06% with regard to BS 5950 due to the variance between constant values of the shear capacity formula specified by both codes. a summary on the results of the objectives is categorically discussed. calculation based on EC3 had effectively reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 6. Meanwhile.1. for the moment capacity of structural beam. Av value also caused the difference.1 Structural Beam For the shear capacity of a structural beam.1 Structural Capacity 5. γM0 of 1. Apart from that.CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents the summary for the study on the comparison between BS 5950 and EC3 for the design of multi-storey braced frame. calculation based on EC3 had reduced a member’s shear capacity of up to 4. Suggestions of further research work are also included in this chapter. the difference between the approaches to obtain shear area.

Therefore. EC3 design created majority .05 as required by EC3 design. it was found that for a same value of λ. fc is smaller than pc. fc and pc respectively. Meanwhile. For the same value of unfactored imposed load. This is due to the implication of partial safety factor. it is obvious that EC3 stresses on the safety of a structural beam. γM0 of 1. γM of 1. Only gravitational loads will be considered in this project.24% of column compressive resistance was achieved when designing by EC3.2 Structural Column In simple construction.2 Deflection Values When subject to an unfactored imposed load.82 calculation required by EC3. This comparison is based on a structural column of 5.1. A reduction in the range of 5. 5.0 as suggested by BS 5950. The steel frame is assumed to be laterally braced.27% to 9. From interpolation. wind load (horizontal load) will not be considered in the design. compared with BS 5950. Therefore. as compared to the partial safety factor. only moments due to eccentricity will be transferred to structural column. of both codes. axial compression is much more critical. 5. only compressive resistance comparison of structural column was made. In comparison. a structural beam will be subject to deflection. The design of structural beam proposed by EC3 is concluded to be safer than that by BS 5950.0m long. With the inclusion of partial safety factor. there is also a deviation in between the compressive strength.

744 tons and 3. The difference ranges from 0. In this study.22% to 3. E. . and 4. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 9. For a 2-bay. I will have to be chosen.571 tons for EC3 design. and 9. compared with the section chosen for BS 5950 design.889 tons for BS 5950 design. Higher E means the elasticity of a member is higher.645 tons and 9. Therefore. For a 2-bay.821 tons and 4. 5. 6m bay width steel frame.83 lower deflection values with respect to BS 5950 design. 4-storey.1 of EC3 provided proof to this. 4-storey. The total steel weight of structural beams and columns was accumulated for comparison. Section 4. The main reason for the deviation is the difference in the specification of modulus of elasticity. 9m bay width steel frame. Cross-section with higher second moment of area value. taking into account deflection due to permanent loads.63%. serviceability limit states check governs the design of EC3 as permanent loads have to be considered in deflection check.313 tons for EC3 design. thus can sustain higher load without deforming too much.750 tons for BS 5950 design. the total deflection was greater. the consumption of steel for S275 (Fe 430) and S355 (Fe 510) is 4. it was found that EC3 design produced braced steel frames that require higher steel weight than the ones designed with BS 5950.122 tons and 7.2. BS 5950 specifies 205kN/mm2 while EC3 specifies 210kN/mm2. However.3 Economy Economy aspect in this study focused on the minimum steel weight that is needed in the construction of the braced steel frame.

22% 5. 4-storey. S275 (Fe 430): 1. since the results of the third objective contradicted with the background of the study (claim by Steel Construction Institute). 6m bay width. it is recommended that further studies to be conducted to focus on the economy aspect of EC3 with respect to BS 5950.4 Recommendation for Future Studies For future studies. S275 (Fe 430): 5. S355 (Fe 510): 7. This study showed that steel weight did not contribute to cost saving of EC3 design. structural design and economic aspect based on both of the design codes.96% 2-bay. 9m bay width. 4-storey.5 had successfully reduced the percentage of difference between the steel weights designed by both codes. 4-storey. . 6m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 10. S275 (Fe 430): 0.42% 2-bay. 4-storey. 9m bay width. it is suggested that an unbraced steel frame design is conducted to study the behavior. However. 9m bay width. S275 (Fe 430): 5. 6m bay width. The reduction in deflection coefficient from 5.11% 2-bay. 4-storey.60% 2-bay.42% 2-bay.95% 2-bay. 6m bay width. 4-storey. 4-storey.0 to 3. The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay.84 The percentages of differences are as follow: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2-bay. 4-storey.29% Further study was extended for the application of partial strength connection for beam-to-column connections in EC3 design. S355 (Fe 510): 17. 9m bay width. S355 (Fe 510): 15.

D. Paper 2658. “British Standard – Structural Use of Steelwork in Building: Part 1: Code of Practice for Design – Rolled and Welded Sections.” London: British Standards Institution. Heywood M. Narayanan R et.85 REFERENCES Charles King (2005). (2001). Vol 13 No 4. (1995).” London: European Committee for Standardization.” ICE Journal. “EN 1993 Eurocode 3 – Steel. “Introduction to Concise Eurocode 3 (C-EC3) – with Worked Examples.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute.” Berkshire: Steel Construction Institute. 4. “Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000 Volume 2: Worked examples. al. Taylor J. “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures: Part 1. Issue 3.” New Steel Construction. Steel Construction Institute (SCI) (2005). 29-32. 24-27. . “EN1993 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures.C.” Eurocodenews. European Committee for Standardization (1992). & Lim J B (2003).1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings. “Steel Design Can be Simple Using EC3. November 2005. British Standards Institution (2001).

86 APPENDIX A1 .

64 kN/m . l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load. of Bay No. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.4 x 24 + 1. DL Live Load. LL LOAD FACTORS Dead Load.4 1.6 x 9 = 48 kN/m Floors w = 1. DL Live Load.6LL Roof w = 1.6 FACTORED LOAD w = 1.6 15 kN/m kN/m = = 1.0 DATA No. DL Live Load.87 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27. LL = = 4 1.6 + 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.4 x 27.6 2. MAHMOOD 1. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.4DL + 1.6 x 15 = 62. LL Floors Dead Load.

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2. MAHMOOD 2.0 2.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame .88 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62.64 kN/m 62. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.64 kN/m 62.0 LOAD LAYOUT 48 kN/m 6m 48 kN/m 62. MAHMOOD 2.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.89 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.64 kN/m .64 kN/m 62. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.

Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column . Shear.64 x 6 / 2 = 187.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced.92 kN M = 62.52 144 331.76 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment.68 1415. V = 62. .92 519. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.88 kNm 4. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4. V = 48 x 6 / 2 = 144 kN M = 48 x 6^2 / 8 = 216 kNm Floor beams.84 1039. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 288 663.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.90 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD 4. Roof beams. contributed by beam shear.84 707.1 Beam Moment.64 x 6^2 / 8 = 281.

88 281.52 707.88 281. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.88 281.0 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 216 216 281.92) 144 [1] 331.88 Shear (kN) (144) (144) 144 (187. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC.92) 519.84 (187.91 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.84 [3] [4] 707.92) 663.88 281.92 [2] 519.92) 331.68 (187.88 281.92) 288 (187.92) 1039.92 (187.84 (187. MAHMOOD 5.76 1415.76 .

19 31.54 28. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1001 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Frame Analysis STC. MAHMOOD Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 21.19 28.54 28.54 31.54 28.4DL+1.19 31.19 Moments are calculated from (1.6 [2] 28.19 31.6 [1] 21.19 [3] 28.19 28.19 21.6 21.6 21.19 28.6 28.6 31.54 31.0DL Most critical condition .19 21.19 [4] 28.92 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.19 28.54 28.1.6LL) . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.

93 APPENDIX A2 .

9 kN/m Floors w = 1. LL = = 1. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. DL Live Load. LL = = 4 1.0 DATA No.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 24 9 kN/m kN/m = = 4.35 x 24 + 1.35 1.5 x 15 = 59. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC. MAHMOOD 1. DL Live Load.5 kN/m @ 2 kN/m @ 2 27. l Storey Height = = = = = = 2 4 6 6 5 4 m m m (First Floor) m (Other Floors) LOADING Roof Dead Load.5 FACTORED LOAD w = 1.6 2. of Storey Frame Longitudinal Length Bay Width.5LL Roof w = 1.35 x 27.6 + 1. of Bay No.35DL + 1.94 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. DL Live Load.6 15 kN/m kN/m LOAD FACTORS Dead Load.5 x 9 = 45.76 kN/m . LL Floors Dead Load.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.2 Precast Slab Panel Load Transfer to Intermediate Frame .95 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. MAHMOOD 2.0 2.1 FRAME LAYOUT Selected Intermediate Frame 6m 6m 6m 6m 2. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.

76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.9 kN/m 6m 45. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.0 LOAD LAYOUT 45. MAHMOOD 2.96 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.3 Cut Section of Intermediate Frame 4m [4] 4m [3] 4m [2] [1] 5m 6m 3.76 kN/m 59.76 kN/m 59.9 kN/m 59. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.76 kN/m .

2 Column Shear Column Shear (kN) Internal External 275.92 kNm 4. Eccentricity = 100 mm from face of column.97 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Universal column of depth 200 mm Internal column .9 x 6 / 2 = 137.08 137.Moments from left and right will cancel out each other.9 x 6^2 / 8 = 206.96 992. V = 45. Roof beams.7 kN M = 45.76 x 6 / 2 = 179.4 633. horizontal load is not taken into account Beam restraint Top flange effectively restrained against lateral torsional buckling 4. V = 59.28 kN M = 59.54 M = wl / 8 V = wl / 2 2 [4] [3] [2] [1] Moment External column will be subjected to eccentricity moment. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.55 kNm Floor beams.7 316.98 496.76 x 6^2 / 8 = 268. contributed by beam shear. MAHMOOD 4.0 LOAD CALCULATION Frame bracing Laterally braced.26 675.52 1351. Shear.1 Beam Moment. . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.

08 675.28) 316.28) 137.92 268.98 (179. MAHMOOD 5.92 268.28) 992.28) 496.92 268.55 206.92 5.26 (179.28) 275.54 1351. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 ANALYSIS SUMMARY Moment (kNm) 206.92 268.7 (179.92 268.7) 137.7) (137.52 (179.98 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.98 [2] 496.0 5.7 [1] 316.26 [3] [4] 675.2 Shear (kN) (137.55 268. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.54 .28) 633.96 (179.4 (179.

66 26.0DL Most critical condition . MAHMOOD 5.89 26.89 Moments are calculated from (1.89 20.99 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.66 20.94 26.1.89 28.89 28.94 26.89 26.66 26.5LL) .89 26.89 28.89 26. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1002 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (Eurocode 3) Frame Analysis STC.94 28.89 26.94 28.71 28.89 26. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.89 19.66 19.94 26.35DL+1.3 Column moment due to eccentricity (kNm) 20.94 26.71 20.

100 APPENDIX B1 .

8 60.1 Sx (cm3) 1010 1290 1200 1210 1350 1470 1450 1500 1630 1650 1830 1810 2060 2010 2380 2230 2610 2880 2830 3280 3200 3680 4140 4590 5550 7490 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 305x102x25 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x28 254x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 406x140x39 356x127x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 406x140x46 305x165x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 457x152x60 406x178x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x191x67 457x152x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x191x82 457x152x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 281.1 67.1 32.2 28.3 82 82.3 101 101.1 98.8 25.1 67.8 33.1 40.3 92.9 149.101 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.3 30 31.88 kNm Sx = M / fy = 281.2 74. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23.1 67.2 74.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 1025 cm Try UB 457x152x60 .2 109 113 122 125.1 51 52.0m) STC.1 24.1 37 37 39 39. L = 6.9 43 45 46 46.1 139. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams.2 28. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.1 82.1 25.2 179 238.1 67.2 74.3 54 54.2 89.3 41.1 Sx (cm3) 171 259 234 342 258 306 403 353 314 393 481 543 483 539 724 659 623 614 566 775 888 720 711 896 1100 846 1060 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 59.1 48.

75 = < 9 9 Flange is plastic Class 1 Section is symmetrical.6 152.0 1.3 2.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = 59. py = = mm 275 S275 < N/mm 2 16mm ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 Outstand element of compression flange.9 8. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. Limiting d/t = 80ε = 80 Actual d/t = 50.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 13.75 50.3 < 80 Web is plastic Class 1 Section is : Class 1 plastic section .8 454.0m) STC. neutral axis at mid-depth. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 5.3 407.102 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. L = 6. subject to pure bending. MAHMOOD 1. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.1 DATA Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.3 Therefore. Section chosen = 457x152x60 UB 1.1 13.6 1290 1120 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm 3 b/T = d/t = 5.

103

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

3.0

SHEAR BUCKLING If d/t ratio exceeds 70ε for rolled section, shear buckling resistance should be checked. d/t = 50.3 < 70ε = 70 Therefore, shear buckling needs not be checked

4.0

SHEAR CAPACITY Fv = 187.92 kN

Pv = 0.6pyAv py = 275 N/mm Av = tD = 8.1 x 454.6 2 = 3682.26 mm

2

Pv = 0.6 x 275 x 3682.26 x 0.001 = 607.57 kN Fv Pv < Therefore, the shear capacity is adequate

5.0

MOMENT CAPACITY M= 281.88 kNm

0.6Pv = 0.6 x 607.57 = 364.542 kN Fv 0.6Pv < Therefore, it is low shear Mc = pySx = 275 x 1290 x 0.001 = 354.75 kNm 1.2pyZ = 1.2 x 275 x 1120 x 0.001 = 369.6 kNm Mc M < < 1.2pyZ Mc OK Moment capacity is adequate

104

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

6.0 6.1

WEB BEARING & BUCKLING Bearing Capacity Pbw = (b1 + nk) tpyw r= 10.2 mm (Unstiffened web)

b1 = t + 1.6r + 2T = 8.1 + 1.6 x 10.2 + 2 x 13.3 = 51.02 mm k= T+r = 13.3 + 10.2 = 23.5 mm At the end of a member (support), n = 2 + 0.6be/k = 2 b1 + nk = = = = = < but n ≤ 5 be = 0

51.02 + 2 x 23.5 98.02 mm 98.02 x 8.1 x 275 x 0.001 218.34 kN 187.92 Pbw kN

Pbw

Fv Fv

Bearing capacity at support is ADEQUATE

105

Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI, JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1003 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Beam Design (Floor Beams, L = 6.0m)

STC, UTM

Made by Checked by

CCH DR. MAHMOOD

7.0

**SERVICEABILITY DEFLECTION CHECK Unfactored imposed loads: w= = E= I= δ= 9 15 205 25500
**

4

kN/m kN/m kN/mm cm

4 2

for roofs for floors

L=

6

m

5wL 384EI = 5 x 15 x 6^4 x 10^5 384 x 205 x 25500 = 4.84 mm

Beam condition Carrying plaster or other brittle finish Deflection limit = Span / 360 = 6 x 1000 / 360 = 16.67 mm 4.84mm < 16.67mm

The deflection is satisfactory!

106 APPENDIX B2 .

92 kNm W pl.107 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.y = M / fy = 268.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl.92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977. L = 6.0m) STC.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.9 cm3 Try 406x178x54 UB . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.

4 1051 927 32.9 68.6 10.9 Therefore.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.36 131 8.0m) STC.6 177. Second moment of area. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 . Section chosen 1.6 18670 4.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.108 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.15 47.6 7.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 54 402. cm 4 cm cm cm 2. = 406x178x54 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl.0 1.y = W el. MAHMOOD 1.4 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section.9 360. L = 6.

y fy / γMO = 1051 x 275 x 0. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.2 (b) Web. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.5Vpl.05 = 32. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.Rd = W pl.7 3.92 kNm 0.48 kN VSd < Vpl.Rd = 0.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.5Vpl.49 kN VSd 0.0m) STC.7 Web is Class 2 element 406x178x54 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.Rd < Therefore.05 √3 = 497.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.001 γMO = 1.28 kN V pl.26 kNm MSd Mc.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268.05 = 275. it is low shear Mc. L = 6.9 x 100 275 1.4 > 46.109 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.001 / 1.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.15 <= 9.48 = 298. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 47.5 x 497.

ss = 50 75 mm mm 7. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.6 x 275 x 0.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.05 204.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.Rd = (50 + 52. not susceptible to LTB 6.1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.69) x 7.4 63.110 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.Rd = γM1 At support.5 Ry.28 kN < Ry.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance . L = 6.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 σf. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 47.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.001 / 1.4 kN = VSd = 179.0m) STC.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 52.8 < 63.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430). JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. MAHMOOD 5.69 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f . ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.

3 ≤ = 1.4 = γM1 = E= Ra.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.26 7.2 0.6 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.05 205 307.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f . MSd Mc.Rd = > 0. Ra.5 0.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 360.92 275.14 1.98 <= 1.111 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.5 ] .28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span. h= a= 402. L = 6.Rd 268.5 Crushing resistance is OK 7. Rd = 0.0m) STC.8 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0. MAHMOOD At midspan. Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.

5 d/t = 2.4 / 7.112 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.(118.8 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1. Rb. L = 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.5 kN > At mid span.6 .117) / (120 .6 l = 0. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.118) = 119.8 x 7.8 x 1731.001 / 1. buckling about y-y axis.8 N/mm 2 Rb.5 x SQRT(402.7 mm Buckling resistance of web.6 2 = 1731. λ = 2.5 = 405.6^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 227. MAHMOOD beff = 0.28 x 0.05 A = beff x tw = 227. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.Rd = 1 x 119. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 118 120 118.118) x (121 .05 = 197.6 = 118.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan .5 x 360.0m) STC.75d Rolled I-section.28 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement.6 fc 121 117 fc = 121 .

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0m) STC.113 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.46 = 18.14 mm OK δmax = 11.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27. L = 6.0 1.88 6.88 + 6.46 mm mm < L / 350 = 17.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 . JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 18670 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 11. .6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.34 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory. MAHMOOD 8.

114 APPENDIX C1 .

3 247.08 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 229.4 988.6 978. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.8 1228 1589 1485 1953 2482 1875 2298 2964 2680 2417 3457 3436 3977 4689 4245 5101 5818 6994 8229 10009 12078 14247 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 63. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.1 310. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Sx (cm3) 184. L = 5.0m) STC.08 kNm M= Sx = M / fy = 63.115 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.4 568.1 497.1 652 802.4 cm Try 203x203x60 UC .

1 8.3 2. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. py = 275 ε = √ (275/py) = SQRT(275/275) = 1 . Section chosen = 203x203x60 UC 1.52 kN L= 5 m 1. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.3 14. L = 5.0m) STC.23 17.0 DATA Fc = 1415.6 205.8 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 2 3 b/T = d/t = 7.2 = mm S275 < < < N/mm 2 16mm 40mm 63mm Therefore. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.96 5. Local buckling ratios: Flange Web = D= B= t= T= d= Sx = Zx = rx = ry = Ag = 60 209.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel T= 14.19 75.8 652 581.116 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. Gross area.2 9. MAHMOOD 1.2 160.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 5. Limiting b/T = 9ε Actual b/T = 7.85L = 0. "Restrained in direction at one end" LEX = 0.or H-section under axial compression and bending ("generally" case) r1 = Fc dtpy = 1415.5r1 = 40 All ≥ 40ε < Section is : = 40 Web is plastic Class 1 Class 1 plastic section 3.117 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.52 kN Pc = pcAg py = Ag = 275 75.8 x 9.3 80ε 1+r1 100ε 1+1.52 x 1000 / (160. MAHMOOD Outstand element of compression flange.3 x 275) -1 < r1 ≤ 1 = 3.0 3.0 COMPRESSION RESISTANCE Fc = 1415.1 SLENDERNESS Effective Length About the x-x axis.0m) STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm λx = LEX / rx = 4250 / (8.23 < < = < 10ε = 15ε = 9 9 10 15 Flange is plastic Class 1 Web of I.8 N/mm cm 2 2 Buckling about x-x axis .96 x 10) = 47.4 4.44 r1 = 1 Actual d/t = < 17.

54 kNm . R is assumed to act 100mm off the face of the column.118 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.001 = 1818.4 pc 242 239 Therefore.08 kNm 100 mm Moments are distributed between the column lengths above and below level 2. M= 31.44 kN Fc < Pc 47.4 . For EI/L1 : EI/L2 < 1.0m) STC. beam reaction.9 N/mm Pc = pcAg = 239.46) x (242 .5. in proportion to the bending stiffness of each length. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column. the compressive resistance is adequate 5.9 x 75. MAHMOOD Use strut curve (b) λx = λ 46 48 Interpolation: pcx = 242 . the moment will be equally divided. R From frame analysis sheets.239) 2 = 239. Therefore. L = 5.8 x 100 x 0.(47.46) / (48 .0 NOMINAL MOMENT DUE TO ECCENTRICITY For columns in simple construction. Mi = 63.

250) 2 = 260.78 x 652 x 0.0 COMBINED AXIAL FORCE AND MOMENT CHECK The column should satisfy the relationship My Fc Mx + + ≤1 Pc M bs pyZ y λLT = 0.45) x (233 .0 CONCLUSION Compression Resistance = Combined Axial Force and Moment Check = Use of the section is adequate Use : 203x203x60 UC OK OK .0 4.52 1818. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1005 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (BS 5950-1 : 2000) Column Design (Internal Column.0m) STC.44 + 31.96 1.19 x 10) = 48. L = 5.17 .(48.03 kNm 1415.54 170. MAHMOOD 6.5 x 5 x 1000) / (5.45) / (50 .001 = 170.00 The combined resistance against axial force and moment is adequate. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. 7.78 N/mm Mb = pbSx = 260.03 = < 0.0 6.5 L/ry = (0.119 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.17 py = λLT 45 50 275 pb 250 233 N/mm 2 pb = 250 .

120 APPENDIX C2 .

0m) STC.5 cm Try 254x254x73 UC . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Mass (kg/m) 23 30 37 46 52 60 71 73 86 89 97 107 118 129 132 137 153 158 167 177 198 202 235 240 283 287 340 393 467 551 634 Wpl.y (cm3) 184 248 309 497 567 654 801 990 979 1225 1589 1484 1952 2485 1872 2293 2970 2675 2418 3455 3438 3978 4691 4243 5101 5814 6997 8225 10010 12080 14240 Section 152x152x23 152x152x30 152x152x37 203x203x46 203x203x52 203x203x60 203x203x71 254x254x73 203x203x86 254x254x89 305x305x97 254x254x107 305x305x118 356x368x129 254x254x132 305x305x137 356x368x153 305x305x158 254x254x167 356x368x177 305x305x198 356x368x202 356x406x235 305x305x240 305x305x283 356x406x287 356x406x340 356x406x393 356x406x467 356x406x551 356x406x634 57. L = 5.y = M / fy = 57.121 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.88 kNm M= W pl.88 x 10^3 / 275 3 = 210.

3 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm cm cm 4 cm cm cm 2 3 2.122 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel tf = 14.2 Therefore.0 DATA NSd = 1351.y = W el.5 8.1 6. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.46 92.9 11370 6. L = 5.86 98.6 14.1 Trial Section Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.94 kNm L= 5 m 1. = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl. MAHMOOD 1.0m) STC.2 200. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 . Area of section.y = iy = iz = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 73 254 254 8. Second moment of area. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.94 23.08 kN Msd = 28.2 990 895 11. Section chosen = 254x254x73 UC 1.

Rd Mny.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9. L = 5.1 Class 3 = 38.5 Limit d/tw Class 2 = 35.y.y.1 Mpl.3 kNm Mny.001 / 1.1 kN n = 1351.08 / 2433.001 / 1.9 (b) Web.2 Limit c/tf Class 2 = 10.1 n ≥ 0.Rd = 92.123 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.9 x 100 x 275 x 0.3 <= 30.05 Npl.1 28.Rd A fy Npl.11 Mpl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.Rd = > MSd = 128.555 >= n < 0. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.Rd(1-n) W pl.1 = 0.94 kNm kNm Sufficient moment resistance .0m) STC.y.5 Web is Class 1 element Therefore.05 = 259. subject to bending and compression : Classify web as subject to compression and bending d/tw = 23. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 8.0 CROSS-SECTION RESISTANCE n= NSd Npl. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.2 Class 3 = 13.8 3. it is Class 1 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 30.Rd = 0.y fy γMO = 990 x 275 x 0.Rd = 1.94 <= 9.05 = 2433.1 Mny.Rd = γMO γMO = 1.Rd = Mpl.

3 kN ky = 1.Rd = 1 x 249.y.1 x 10) = 38.(38. y .7 x 92. Rd η M c .3 Buckling about y-y axis (Curve b) βA = λy√βA = tf λ√βA 38 40 1 38.0 IN-PLANE FAILURE ABOUT MAJOR AXIS Members subject to axial compression and major axis bending must satisfy k y M y .248) 2 = 249.y.Rd = = 1351.5 x 28.38) / (250 .0m) STC. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 N b . sufficient resistance against in-plane failure against major axis .124 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI. L = 5.Rd = βA f c A γM1 l y = 0.95 (Conservative value) + kyMy.3 0.9 x 100 x 0.38) x (40 .7 N/mm Nb.5 NSd Nb.05 = 2209.y. MAHMOOD 4.85 L (Restrained about both axes) = 0. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.001 / 1.08 2209. Rd Nb.Sd ηMc. Sd N Sd + ≤ 1 .94 1 x 128.y.1 1 η= = + < γMO / γM1 1 Therefore.85 x 5 x 1000 = 4250 mm Slenderness ratio λy = l y / iy = 4250 / (11.3 .3 <= fc 250 248 40mm fc = 250 .Rd 1. y .

JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1006 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Column Design (Internal Column.0 CONCLUSION Cross Section Resistance In-plane Failure About Major Axis Use of the section is adequate. MAHMOOD 5.0 4. L = 5. Use : 254x254x73 UC OK OK . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.0 3.0m) STC.125 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

126 APPENDIX D .

UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.y (cm ) 171 260 232 259 307 336 354 408 313 395 481 539 485 540 654 718 626 612 568 773 722 889 706 895 1096 843 1051 3 Section Mass (kg/m) 57 60 60 67 67 67 67 74 74 74 82 82 82 89 92 98 101 101 109 113 122 125 140 149 179 238 Wpl.9 cm3 Try 457x152x52 UB .92 x 10^3 / 275 = 977. L = 6.0m) Rev 1 STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 1 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.92 kNm W pl. MAHMOOD Grade = S275 Section Mass (kg/m) 19 22 23 25 25 25 28 28 30 31 33 33 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 46 48 51 52 54 54 Wpl.y (cm3) 1009 1195 1283 1213 1346 1442 1472 1509 1624 1659 1802 1832 2058 2020 2366 2234 2619 2887 2827 3287 3203 3673 4139 4575 5515 7462 178x102x19 254x102x22 203x102x23 203x133x25 254x102x25 305x102x25 254x102x28 305x102x28 203x133x30 254x146x31 305x102x33 356x127x33 254x146x37 305x127x37 356x127x39 406x140x39 305x165x40 305x127x42 254x146x43 356x171x45 305x165x46 406x140x46 305x127x48 356x171x51 457x152x52 305x165x54 406x178x54 356x171x57 406x178x60 457x152x60 356x171x67 406x178x67 457x152x67 457x191x67 406x178x74 457x152x74 457x191x74 457x152x82 457x191x82 533x210x82 457x191x89 533x210x92 457x191x98 533x210x101 610x229x101 533x210x109 610x229x113 533x210x122 610x229x125 610x229x140 610x305x149 610x305x179 610x305x238 M = 268.y = M / fy = 268.127 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.

9 407.5 66. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 2 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams. = 457x152x52 UB = h= b= tw = tf = d= W pl. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.9 Therefore.99 53. MAHMOOD 1. Section chosen 1. The size is then checked to ensure suitability in all other aspects.0 SECTION CLASSIFICATION Grade of steel t= 10.0m) Rev 1 STC.y = Av = A= Iy = iLT = aLT = c/tf = d/tw = 52 449.y = W el.6 21370 3.8 152. L = 6.1 DATA Trial Section L= 6 m Initial trial section is selected to give a suitable moment capacity.6 10. fy = fu = = mm 275 430 S275 <= N/mm N/mm 2 (Fe 430) 40mm 2 .0 1.6 1096 950 36.128 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.2 Section Properties Mass Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Shear area.59 121 6.4 7. cm 4 cm cm cm 2.6 kg/m mm mm mm mm mm 3 cm cm cm 3 2 2 Area of section. Second moment of area.

92 kNm 0.129 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.Rd = W pl. it is low shear Mc.99 <= 9.0 MOMENT RESISTANCE MSd = 268. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. MAHMOOD Classification of Trial Section (a) Outstand element of compression flange.5 x 100 275 1. L = 6.05 kNm MSd Mc.5Vpl. flange subject to compression only : c/tf = 6.5Vpl.Rd < Therefore.15 kN VSd 0.0 SHEAR RESISTANCE VSd = 179.001 γMO = 1.Rd < Moment capacity is adequate .7 3.05 = 36.28 kN V pl. subject to bending (neutral axis at mid depth) : d/tw = 53. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 3 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.001 / 1.5 x 551.2 (b) Web.2 Flange is Class 1 element Class 1 limit : c/tf = 9.6 > 46.7 Web is Class 2 element 457x152x52 UB is a Class 2 section Class 1 limit : d/tw = 46.0m) Rev 1 STC.Rd = 0. Rd = Av ⎛ f y ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ MO ⎜ ⎝ 3⎠ x 0.y fy / γMO = 1096 x 275 x 0.05 √3 = 551.05 = 287.92 = 331.Rd Sufficient shear resistance 4.92 kN VSd < Vpl.

0m) Rev 1 STC.68 kN VSd = 179. ss = Stiff bearing at midspan.5 σf.05 = 196. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 6.81 mm ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f .Rd = γM1 At support.0 SHEAR BUCKLING For steel grade S275 (Fe 430). Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎜ ⎣ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0. ss = 50 75 mm mm 7.81) x 7.28 kN < Ry. shear buckling must be checked if d/tw d/tw = > 53.8 Shear buckling check is NOT required 7.5 Ry. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 4 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.6 63.8 < 63.Rd Sufficient crushing resistance .1 Crushing Resistance Design crushing resistance. not susceptible to LTB 6.05 2 N/mm fyf = 275 sy = 48. tw fyw (ss + sy) Ry.0 RESISTANCE OF WEB TO TRANSVERSE FORCES Stiff bearing at support.Rd = (50 + 48.Ed = Longitudinal stress in flange (My / I) = 0 at support (bending moment is zero) γMO = 1.130 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.0 LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING (LTB) Beam is fully restrained.001 / 1.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0. ⎛ bf sy = t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0. MAHMOOD 5.6 x 275 x 0.

0m) Rev 1 STC. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 5 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.131 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.94 <= 1.05 205 299.5 +a+ ss 2 but beff ≤ h 2 + s s [ 2 0.2 Crippling Resistance Design crippling resistance At support.6 = γM1 = E= Ra. MSd Mc.92 287.5 ⎡ ⎛γ σ MO f . Ed × ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ f yf ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0.5 ⎛ f yf ⎞ ⎟ ×⎜ ⎜f ⎟ ⎝ yw ⎠ 0.3 ≤ = 1. ⎛ bf s y = 2t f ⎜ ⎜t ⎝ w VSd = 0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.16 VSd = kN/mm kN 179.Rd 268.8 0 mm mm beff = 1 2 2 h + ss 2 [ ] 0. Rd = 0.12 1.5t w (Ef yw ) 2 0. MAHMOOD At midspan. h= a= 449.Rd = > 0.28 kN Sufficient crippling resistance 2 At mid span.5 0.5 ⎛t + 3⎜ w ⎜t ⎝ f ⎞⎛ s s ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ d ⎠ ⎞⎤ 1 ⎟⎥ γ ⎠⎥ ⎦ M1 ss/d ≤ 50 / 407.5 ⎡⎛ t f ⎢⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 0.2 0.05 7. Ra. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.5 OK Buckling Resistance At support. L = 6.5 ] .5 Crushing resistance is OK 7.

1 l = 0.(134.1 fc 103 98 fc = 103 .8^2 + 50^2) + 0 + 50 / 2 = 251.05 = 179. buckling about y-y axis.6 mm Buckling resistance of web.98) / (135 .88 mm Ends of web restrained against rotation and relative lateral movement. L = 6.132 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.6 = 134. UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR.Rd = 1 x 98.5 d/t = 2. VSd = 0 VSd = 179.130) = 98.5 x 407. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 6 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.88 x 0.0m) Rev 1 STC.28 kN Sufficient buckling resistance Sufficient buckling resistance at midspan . Rb.3 mm <= [h + ss ] 2 2 0.6 2 = 1909.5 = 452.05 A = beff x tw = 251.1 .9 kN > At mid span. use curve a λ √βA = λ √βA 130 135 134. MAHMOOD beff = 0.Rd = βA = βAf c A γM1 1 γM1 = 1.6 / 7.3 x 7.75d Rolled I-section.9 N/mm 2 Rb.130) x (103 .001 / 1. λ = 2.5 x SQRT(449.9 x 1909.

MAHMOOD 8.6 15 kN/m kN/m γG = γQ = 1.26 3.0m) Rev 1 STC.0 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT (DEFLECTION) Partial factor for dead load Partial factor for imposed floor load Dead Imposed gd = qd = 27.5(gd / qd) x L 384 EI 7. .21 mm Recommended limiting vertical deflection for δmax is L 250 = δmax < = 6000 250 24 24 mm mm Deflection limit is satisfactory.95 mm mm < L / 350 = 17. JOHOR Client: Job Title: Subject: Page 1004 7 Braced Steel Frame Design (EC 3) Beam Design (Floor Beams.14 mm OK δmax = 7.0 1.0 δ2 = Variation of deflection due to variable loading δ1 = Variation of deflection due to permanent loading δ0 = Pre-camber of beam in unloaded state = 0 δmax = δ1 + δ2 . UTM Made by Checked by CCH DR. L = 6.26 + 3.133 Job No: UTM 81310 SKUDAI.δ0 Iy = E= δ= δ1 = δ2 = 21370 210 cm 4 2 kN/mm 4 3.95 = 11.

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- BS 5950-Part1(1990)
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- Designers guide to EC3
- Designers' Guide to en 1998
- How to design to eurocode 2.pdf
- Wind Loads on Buildings Part-01 (BS6399)
- Eurocode 3 Design of Steel Structures 1[1].2
- BS5950 Vs EC3

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