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# Name : Roll No: Supersonic Flow over A Diamond Shaped Airfoil Aim

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M.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group

To estimate the lift and drag coefficients for a Diamond shaped (double wedge) airfoil in supersonic flow (M = 2) for two different angles of attack (α = 0O & -10O). Description: This experiment is an analysis on flow over a diamond airfoil (shown in figure -1) section at supersonic condition at nominal Mach number (M = 2, Inlet Gauge pressure of supersonic wind tunnel PO = 24 PSI). The supersonic flow is simulated in the supersonic wind tunnel for angles of attack (AoA or α) of 0°, -10°. Pressure measurements taken on each of the four faces of the airfoil (8 – Ports, shown in figure -1) as well as a static pressure measurement from the free stream (Port No.9), are used to calculate the lift and drag coefficients. The results of this analysis are compared to those determined from standard oblique shock and Prandtl – Mayer expansion wave theories.

Figure -1 Diamond Shaped Airfoil with regions numbered (8 - Static pressure locations are shown) Measuring Instruments: The scanivalve disc type pressure transducer is used for the static pressure measurement over the surfaces of diamond shaped airfoil (2 ports per surface, totally 8 ports). 1 more static pressure port is used to measure the free stream static pressure (P1). The scanivalve pressure transducer has 50 ports and it can measure 4 ports/sec. 9 ports only used for the experiment. Static pressure values are displayed using digital data acquisition system. Test Procedure: The diamond shaped airfoil is fixed 0O with respect to the supersonic flow direction in the supersonic wind tunnel test section. The high pressure stagnant air (PO = 24 PSI) stored in the settling chamber is allowed to flow through the supersonic wind tunnel (which has C-D nozzle to accelerate the flow to M = 2, at the end of the divergent section the test section is located). The static pressure values are recorded. The valve between the settling chamber and the C-D nozzle is closed. 1

Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group The measured static gauge pressures at the 8 locations shown in figure -1 and one free stream location for the two angles of attack (0O & -10O) is given in table -1.70 3.37 The theoretical calculations for estimating lift and drag of diamond shaped airfoil for M = 2.067 PSI -7.35 PSI P2 = P2/P1 X P1 = 7.46 2.81 -9. Analysis and results: M.1 M1 = 1. Measured Gauge Pressure (PSI) Port Nos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (P1) 9 Absolute Pressure α = 0O Gauge Error = -0.6) from Ref -1 Table A.322 -11.12 Table -1Static Pressure readings α = 0O 6.31 -9.49/5.58 3.891 -10. Flow Turning Angle θ3 = -14.34 6. for (P01/P1 = 7.69 5.99 P02 = P02/P01 X P01 = 38.946 -8.07 = 7.032 -11.796 -9. The reference atmospheric pressure is 14.17 𝑃1 𝑃 M2 = 1. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1.97 -9.73.43 PSI Co – efficient of Pressure CP2 = Region – 3 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 � 2 − 1� = 0.6.54 6.31 6.125O.41 3.08 -10. from Oblique shock relations Shock Angle β2 = 36.24 -9. Flow Turning Angle θ2 = 7.5826PSI.47 -3.067 PSI -0.47.68 5.73.60 3.07 α = -10O 14.907 -10. The absolute pressure = Gauge Pressure + Error + Atmospheric pressure.177 -8.98.Name : Roll No: The diamond shaped airfoil is set at -10O to the flow and the above procedure is repeated. P02/P01 = 0.25O.98 Region – 2 M1 = 1.17 3.144 -8. O Theoretical Calculation AOA α = 0O Region – 1 From measurements P01/P1 = 38. Table A. & AOAs (α = 0 & -10O) is shown below.79 -10.71O M2 = 1.25 5.39 -9. P2/P1 = 1.52 5.02 11.42 α = -10O Gauge Error = -0.18 5.10 4.5) 2 .

13 Lift (L) = (P4 + P5 – P2 – P3) X 1.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group 2 Region – 4 � 3 − 1� = -0.99 P3 = P3/P03 X P03/P02 X P02/P2 X P2= 3.43 PSI CP2 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 Region – 3 � 2 − 1� = 0. CP5 = CP3 = -0.35 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M3 = 2.02 PSI CP3 = -0.587 X COS 7.125O = 1. because AoA α = 0O P4 = P2 = 7.13 𝑃1 𝑃 The flow is symmetric about the diamond airfoil horizontal axis.93O ) from Ref -1. ν2 = ν1 + θ2 = -32.17 Region – 5 The flow is symmetric about the diamond airfoil horizontal axis.125O = 0.43 PSI CP4 = CP2 = 0. because AoA α = 0O P5 = P3 = 3.62 lbf/inch CD = 𝜸 CL = 𝜸 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 𝟏 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑.25) from Ref -1.32 PSI.68O.25.1 (Isentropic Relations) P03/P3 = 11.0 Drag (D)= (P2 + P4 – P3 – P5) X 1.5 M3 = 2.𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) 𝑳 𝑫 = 0.Name : Roll No: ν1 = -18.𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) Experiment AOA α = 0O Region – 2 P2 = (Pressure value @ Port 2 + Pressure value @ Port 4) / 2 = 6.93O for (ν2 = -32.1 𝑃1 𝑃 P3 = (Pressure value @ Port 5 + Pressure value @ Port 7) / 2 = 3. P02/P01 = 0.04 =0 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 𝟏 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑. Table A.15 3 . Table A. P03 = P02 = 38.32 PSI CP3 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 M.587 X SIN 7.56.

99 4 .587 X SIN 7. Table A.25O.587 X COS 7.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group Theoretical Calculation AOA α = -10O Region – 1 From measurements P01/P1 = 38. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1. for (P01/P1 = 7. P03 = P02 = 36.17.17O.3.79) from Ref -1.5 M3 = 1. P02/P01 = 0.0 PSI Co – efficient of Pressure CP2 = Region – 3 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 � 2 − 1� = 0.37 = 7.49/5.6) from Ref -1 Table A. Table A. P02/P01 = 0.94.88 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M3 = 1.18 lbf/inch CD = 0.1O M2 = 1.1 M1 = 1. Flow Turning Angle θ2 = 17. ν2 = ν1 + θ2 = -20.1 (Isentropic Relations) P03/P3 = 5.125O.125O = 1.656.42O for (ν2 = -20.09 Region – 5 P5 = (Pressure value @ Port 6 + Pressure value @ Port 8) / 2 = 3.125O = 0.42.94 Region – 2 M1 = 1.3.79.03 CL = 0.Name : Roll No: Region – 4 P4 = (Pressure value @ Port 1 + Pressure value @ Port 3) / 2 = 6.72 lbf/inch Drag (D)= (P2 + P4 – P3 – P5) X 1.5) ν1 = -6.42O ) from Ref -1. Table A.02 M.64 PSI CP5 = -0.933 P02 = P02/P01 X P01 = 36.1 Lift (L) = (P4 + P5 – P2 – P3) X 1. from Oblique shock relations Shock Angle β2 = 50.25 PSI CP4 = 0.54 𝑃1 𝑃 M2 = 1. Flow Turning Angle θ3 = -14.88 PSI P2 = P2/P1 X P1 = 13. P2/P1 = 2.

P04 = P01 = 38.5 M5 = 2.63.P2 COS 17.𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) 𝑳 𝑫 � 3 − 1� = -0.125O + P3 SIN 2. Table A. Table A. Table A.25 𝑃1 𝑃 = 0.1 (Isentropic Relations) P04/P4 = 8.5) ν1 = -24.04.875O – P5 SIN 17. Table A.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group 2 Region – 4 � 3 − 1� = 0.875O – P4 SIN 2.59O for (ν2 = -27.5 M4 = 2.08 𝑃1 𝑃 M1 = 1. Table A.63) from Ref -1.875O + P4 SIN 2.04.5) ν1 = -27.875O + P5 SIN 17.125O) X 1.587 = 5.125O .55 PSI CP4 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 Region – 5 � 4 − 1� = -0.79 PSI CP5 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 2 Lift (L) = (. Flow Turning Angle θ3 = -14.3. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1. ν2 = ν1 + θ2 = -42O for (ν2 = -42O ) from Ref -1. Flow Turning Angle θ4 = -2.75O. ν2 = ν1 + θ4 = -27.Name : Roll No: P3 = P3/P03 X P03/P02 X P02/P2 X P2= 6. P04/P01 = 1 P4 = P4/P04 X P04/P01 X P01/P1 X P1= 4.88O.71O.587 = -20.52 PSI CP3 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 M.12 = -0.5.P3 SIN 2.59O ) from Ref -1.125O) X 1.25O. P05 = P04 = 38.06 𝑃1 𝑃 M4 = 2.39 lbf/inch CD = 𝜸 CL = 𝜸 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 𝟏 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑.1 (Isentropic Relations) P05/P5 = 21. Table A.45 �𝟐𝑷𝟏 𝑴𝟐 𝟏 ×𝑳𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 𝒐𝒇 𝑨𝒊𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒊𝒍 (𝟑.458. P05/P04 = 1 P5 = P5/P05 X P05/P04 X P04/P4 X P4= 1.04) from Ref -1.49 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M4 = 2. from Prandtl – Mayer Expansion Wave theory (Ref -1.12 lbf/inch Drag (D)= (P2 SIN 17.49 PSI (Expansion Wave is Isentropic process) For (M5 = 2.𝟏𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉) 5 .

587 = -14.125O .875O + P4 SIN 2.125O) X 1.Name : Roll No: Experiment AOA α = -10O Region – 2 P2 = (Pressure value @ Port 2 + Pressure value @ Port 4) / 2 = 12.P3 SIN 2.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group 2 Region – 3 � 2 − 1� = 0.587 = 4.69 PSI CP5 = -0.html. Ref-2:“Compressible Aerodynamic Calculator” http://www. Table -2 gives the comparison between the theory and experimental values.81 PSI CP4 = -0.04 Region – 5 P5 = (Pressure value @ Port 6 + Pressure value @ Port 8) / 2 = 3.875O – P4 SIN 2. Ref-1: Modern Compressible flow with historical perspective – John D Anderson.aoe.vt.P2 COS 17.33 PSI CP3 = 0 Region – 4 P4 = (Pressure value @ Port 1 + Pressure value @ Port 3) / 2 = 4.875O + P5 SIN 17.edu/~devenpor/aoe3114/calc. 6 .125O + P3 SIN 2.09 CL = -0.6 PSI CP2 = 2 𝛾𝑀1 M.32 Figures 2 &3 shows the pictorial representation of the theoretical & experimental values for 0O & -10O α respectively.125O) X 1.51 𝑃1 𝑃 P3 = (Pressure value @ Port 5 + Pressure value @ Port 7) / 2 = 5.21 lbf/inch CD = 0.12 Lift (L) = (.34 lbf/inch Drag (D)= (P2 SIN 17. Conclusion: From the table -2. it is observed that the variation between the theortical and experimental values are not much as well as the lift curve (fig -4) and drag curve (fig -5) shows the slope of the theory and experiment are very close.875O – P5 SIN 17. figures 4 & 5.

Name : Roll No: M.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group Figure -2 Pictorial Representation of Theoretical & Experiment Values for 0O α 7 .

Name : Roll No: M.Karthick AE12M009 2nd Group Figure -3 Pictorial Representation of Theoretical & Experiment Values for -10O α 8 .

Name : Roll No: AE12M009 M.CD Figure -5 α – Vs .CL 9 .Karthick 2nd Group Table -2 Comparison of Calculated & Experimental Values Figure -4 α – Vs .