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05/10/2014

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# Chapter 2

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Forces And Motion

18

Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational potential energy of an object due to its position
Ep = mgh
Path 2 Work done h = mgh Surface of the Earth

m Final

position

Path 1 Work done = mgh

m : mass of object g: acceleration due to gravity h: height of the object from the earthʼs surface

m position

Initial

Water falls due to gravitational potential energy

Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy of an object due to its motion
Ek = 1 mv2 2

m : mass of object v: velocity of the object

m

v

A flying bird has kinetic energy

The Principle Of Conservation Of Energy
The total energy in a closed system is constant.
Maximum diplacement Total energy = mgh
Maximum diplacement
Total energy Gravitational potential energy Energy Kinetic energy Displacement

m

v m

h

m

Total energy = mgh

Simple Pendulum

Total energy = 1 mv2 2

Total energy = Kinectic energy + Potential energy

Question A ball is released from the top of a building, 20 m tall. What is the velocity of the ball when it reaches the surface of the Earth?

Solution

Gain in kinetic energy = Loss of gravitational potential energy 1 mv2 = mgh 2 Velocity of object, v = √ 2gh = √ 2 × 10 × 20 = 20 m s–1
© Marshall Cavendish ( Malaysia ) Sdn. Bhd.

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