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05/10/2014

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Chapter 4

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Heat

35

Gas Laws (II)
Charlesʼ Law
For a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas at constant pressure.
Copper sulphate solution Air Load Gas molecules

As temperature increases, the copper sulphate solution rises up the glass tube, showing that the volume of air has increased.

As temperature increases, the volume of the gas also increases at constant pressure.

Charlesʼ Law Experiment
Half metre ruler Capillary tube Air Stirrer
−273 0

Thermometer

Length of air column l (cm)

Length of air column l (cm)

Concentrated sulphuric acid

0 273 (Absolute temperature)

Temperature θ (ºC) Celsius temperature scale Temperature T (K) Absolute temperature scale

As temperature increases, the air column increases in height, showing that the volume of air has increased. The air pressure remains constant at atmospheric pressure.

When the graph is extrapolated to –273 ºC or (0 K), we have l ∝T Hence, V∝T V = constant T V1 V2 or = T1 T2 The new temperature scale is called absolute temperature scale. T = 273 + θ
© Marshall Cavendish ( Malaysia ) Sdn. Bhd.

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