Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid Team

Rev. 1, August 2004

Airplane Upset Recovery

Appendix 3-B.2

Causes of Airplane Upset

Appendix 3-B.3

Airplane Upset Recovery

Appendix 3-B.4

Upset Recovery Training Objectives ● To increase the pilot's ability to recognize and avoid upset situations ● To improve the pilot's ability to recover control. if avoidance is not successful Appendix 3-B.5 .

6 .Upset Recovery Training Will Review ● The causes of airplane upsets ● Swept-wing airplane fundamentals ● Airplane upset recovery techniques Appendix 3-B.

7 .What is “Airplane Upset?” Appendix 3-B.

8 .Causes of Airplane Upset Incidents ● Environmental ● Systems-anaomalies ● Pilot ● A combination of all three Appendix 3-B.

9 .Environmental Causes of Airplane Upset ● Turbulence ● Clear air turbulence ● Mountain wave ● Windshear ● Thunderstorms ● Microbursts ● Wake turbulence ● Airplane icing Appendix 3-B.

Turbulence Is Primarily Caused By ● Jet Streams ● Convective currents ● Obstructions to wind flow ● Windshear Appendix 3-B.10 .

11 .Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) Is Characterized by Marked Changes In ● Pressure ● Temperature ● Wind direction ● Wind velocity Appendix 3-B.

Mountain Wave Turbulence Appendix 3-B.12 .

13 .Windshear Appendix 3-B.

14 .Thunderstorms Appendix 3-B.

Microbursts Appendix 3-B.15 .

16 .Wake Turbulence Appendix 3-B.

Airplane Icing Appendix 3-B.17 .

System-Anomolies Induced Airplane Upsets Primarily Involve ● Flight instruments ● Autoflight systems ● Flight controls and other anomalies Appendix 3-B.18 .

19 .System-Anomolies Induced Airplane Upsets Appendix 3-B.

Flight Instruments Appendix 3-B.20 .

21 .Autoflight Systems Appendix 3-B.

Flight Control and Other Anomalies Appendix 3-B.22 .

Pilot-Induced Airplane Upsets ● Instrument misinterpretation or slow cross-check ● Inattention and distraction from primary cockpit duties ● Vertigo or spatial disorientation ● Improper use of airplane automation Appendix 3-B.23 .

Instrument Cross-Check

Appendix 3-B.24

Distraction

Appendix 3-B.25

Vertigo or Spatial Disorientation

Appendix 3-B.26

Improper Use of Airplane Automation

Appendix 3-B.27

and flight control anomalies 3.Causes of Airplane Upsets Summary 1. Pilot induced Instrument cross-check. microbursts. vertigo or spatial disorientation.28 . wake turbulence. windshear. Environmental Turbulence. thunderstorms. Systems anomalies Flight instruments. and airplane icing 2. and improper use of airplane automation Appendix 3-B. mountain wave. autoflight systems. CAT. inattention and distraction from primary cockpit duties.

29 .Swept-Wing Airplane Fundamentals Overview ● Flight dynamics ● Energy states ● Load factors ● Aerodynamic flight envelope ● Aerodynamics Appendix 3-B.

Flight Dynamics Appendix 3-B.30 .

Potential energy. Kinetic energy.The Three Sources of Energy Available to the Pilot 1.31 . which is approximately proportional to altitude 3. Chemical energy. from the fuel in the tanks Appendix 3-B. which increases with increasing speed 2.

32 .Energy Relationships Kinetic energy Aerodynamic forces. maneuver capability Potential energy Chemical energy Appendix 3-B.

33 .Load Factors Four Forces of Flight Lift = 1 x weight Drag Level flight path Weight Thrust Appendix 3-B.

34 .Load Factors Airplane in Pull-Up Lift > 1 x weight Flight path is curved. Weight Appendix 3-B.

Appendix 3-B.35 .Aerodynamic Flight Envelope M Maximum operating altitude M MO Altitude Stall speed* VMO Airspeed M DF M MO DF = maximum operating Mach number = maximum flightdemonstrated Mach number = maximum operating airspeed = maximum flightdemonstrated airspeed V V MO DF VDF * Function of airplane configuration and load factor.

Angle of Attack Flight path vector Angle of attack is the difference between pitch attitude and flight path angle (assumes no wind).36 . Ang ty Veloc i t ac k t a f le o Pitch attitude Flight path angle Horizon Appendix 3-B.

37 .Stalls Appendix 3-B.

38 .Camber Appendix 3-B.

Trailing Edge Control Surfaces Appendix 3-B.39 .

Spoiler Devices Spoiler deflected Separation region Spoiler deflected Separation region Flaps Up Flaps Down Appendix 3-B.40 .

Trim Appendix 3-B.41 .

Lateral and Directional Aerodynamic Considerations The magnitude of coupled roll-due-to-sideslip is determined by several factors.42 . including ● Wing dihedral effects ● Angle of sideslip ● Pilot-commanded sideslip Appendix 3-B.

43 .Wing Dihedral Angle Dihedral angle Appendix 3-B.

44 . right aileron/ spoiler ― Crosscontrolled‖ Sideslip angle Rel ativ e win d Aileron down Aileron up Rudder deflected left to hold sideslip angle Appendix 3-B.Angle of Slideslip Airp lan ev elo city Rel ativ ew ind Spoilers up Left rudder.

High-Altitude Characteristics Coefficient of lift Coefficient of lift Cruise altitude Coefficient of lift Cruise altitude Cruise altitude Mach Mach Mach Airplane A Airplane B Airplane C Appendix 3-B.High-Speed.45 .

Unstable When ball is displaced. it returns to its original position.-— just takes up a new position. Appendix 3-B.46 .Static Stability Stable When ball is displaced. Neutral i When t ball is displaced. it accelerates from its original position. nor accelerates away. it neither returns.

Maneuvering in Pitch Lift Wing-body moment Drag Tail lift Tail distance Wing distance Thrust Engine distance Weight (Moment) Tail lift Tail + (Moment) Wing lift Lift + (Moment) Thrust Thrust Engine distance + (Moment) (Moment) Total = pitching Wing-body moment Wing-body Total = pitching moment Appendix 3-B.47 * Tail distance + * Wing distance + * + .

48 Bank angle. g's 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Appendix 3-B.Mechanics of Turning Flight Additional lift required so that vertical component still equals weight Horizontal component produces curved flight path = turn Lift Weight 4 3 Load 2 factor. deg .

Lateral Maneuvering Roll Axis Late ral a xis al n i ud t i ng xis o a L Roll Vertical axis Center of gravity Appendix 3-B.49 .

50 .Lateral Maneuvering Flight Dynamics Appendix 3-B.

Directional Maneuvering Yaw Axis Yaw Late ral a xis al n i ud t i ng axis o L Vertical axis Center of gravity Appendix 3-B.51 .

52 .Flight at Extremely Low Airspeeds Appendix 3-B.

Flight at Low Airspeeds and Thrust Effect (continued) Appendix 3-B.53 .

54 .Flight at Extremely High Speeds Appendix 3-B.

and vertical ● Aerodynamic flight envelope: operating and demonstrated speeds ● Aerodynamics: the relationship of angle of attack and stall Appendix 3-B.55 . and chemical ● Load factors: longitudinal. lateral.Summary of Swept-Wing Fundamentals ● Flight dynamics: Newton’s laws ● Energy states: kinetic. potential.

56 .Airplane Upset Recovery Appendix 3-B.

Situational Awareness During an Airplane Upset "Recognize and confirm the situation" by the following key steps: ● Communicate with crew members ● Locate the bank indicator ● Determine pitch attitude ● Confirm attitude by reference to other indicators ● Assess the energy state Appendix 3-B.57 .

The Miscellaneous Issues Associated With Upset Recovery Have Been Identified ● Pilots who have experienced an airplane upset ● Pilot observations in a simulator-training environment ● And they are associated with – The startle factor – Negative g force – Full control inputs – Counter-intuitive factors Appendix 3-B.58 .

Startle Factor Appendix 3-B.59 .

60 .Negative G Force Appendix 3-B.

61 .Use of Full Control Inputs Appendix 3-B.

Nonintuitive Factors Appendix 3-B.62 .

63 .Airplane Upset Recovery Techniques ● The following airplane upset situations will be discussed: – Nose high. wings level – Nose low. wings level – High bank angles – Nose high – Nose low ● And a review of recommended upset recovery techniques based on two basic airplane upset situations: – Nose high – Nose low Appendix 3-B.

Airplane Upset Recovery Techniques (continued) Stall characteristics ● Buffeting ● Lack of pitch authority ● Lack of roll control ● Inability to arrest descent rate Appendix 3-B.64 .

Nose-High. Wings-Level Recovery Technique ● Recognize and confirm the situation ● Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Appendix 3-B.65 .

Nose-High. Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) ● Apply as much as full nosedown elevator Appendix 3-B.66 .

Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) ● Roll to obtain a nose-down pitch rate Appendix 3-B.67 .Nose-High.

Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) ● Reduce thrust (underwing-mounted engines) Appendix 3-B.68 .Nose-High.

Nose-High. Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) ● Complete the recovery – Approaching horizon.69 . roll to wings level – Check sirspeed and adjust thrust – Establish pitch attitude Appendix 3-B.

Nose-Low. Wings-Level Recovery Technique ● Recognize and confirm the situation Appendix 3-B.70 .

Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) ● Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Appendix 3-B.Nose-Low.71 .

72 . Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) ● Recover from stall. if necessary Appendix 3-B.Nose-Low.

if neccessary Appendix 3-B.Nose-Low. Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) Recover to Level Flight ● Apply noseup elevator ● Apply stabilizer trim.73 .

74 . Wings-Level Recovery Technique (continued) ● Adjust thrust and drag. as necessary Appendix 3-B.Nose-Low.

High-Bank-Angle Recovery Technique ● Recognize and confirm the situation ● Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Appendix 3-B.75 .

76 .High-Bank Angle Recovery Technique (continued) ● Reduce the angle of attack ● Adjust bank angle to achieve nosedown pitch rate Appendix 3-B.

adjust thrust – Establish pitch attitude Appendix 3-B.77 . roll to wings level – Check airspeed.High-Bank Angle Recovery Technique (continued) ● Complete the recovery – Approaching the horizon.

78 .High-Bank Angle Recovery Technique (continued) ● Recognize and confirm the situation ● Disengage autopilot and autothrottle Appendix 3-B.

High-Bank Angle Recovery Technique (continued) ● Reduce the angle of attack. if necessary Appendix 3-B.79 .

High-Bank Angle Recovery Technique (continued) ● Simultaneously reduce thrust and roll the shortest direction to wings level Appendix 3-B.80 .

High-Bank Angle Recovery Technique (continued) ● Recover to level flight: – Apply noseup elevator – Apply stabilizer trim. if necessary – Adjust thrust and drag. as necessary Appendix 3-B.81 .

82 .Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery Appendix 3-B.

Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery (continued) ● Recognize and confirm the situation ● Disengage autopilot and autothrottle ● Apply as much as full nosedown elevator Appendix 3-B.83 .

84 .Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery (continued) Use appropriate techniques ● Roll (adjust bank angle) to obtain a nosedown pitch rate ● Reduce thrust (underwing-mounted engines) Appendix 3-B.

adjust thrust ● Establish pitch attitude Appendix 3-B.Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery (continued) Complete the recovery ● Approaching the horizon.85 . roll to wings level ● Check airspeed.

86 .Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-Low Recovery Appendix 3-B.

87 .Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery (continued) ● Recognize and confirm the situation ● Disengage autopilot and autothrottle ● Recover from stall. if necessary Appendix 3-B.

Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery (continued) Roll in the shortest direction to wings level ● Bank angle to more than 90 deg.88 . unload and roll Appendix 3-B.

as necessary Appendix 3-B.Summary of Airplane Recovery Techniques Nose-High Recovery (continued) Recover to level flight ● Apply noseup elevator ● Apply stabilizer trim.89 . if necessary ● Adjust thrust and drag.

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