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A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption - Part 1
D J Abson
(a) (b) (c) (a)
, Y Tkach
, I Hadley
V S Wright
and F M Burdekin
TWI, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL, U.K. Consultant, recently retired; formerly General Manager IRD, Rolls-Royce Formerly Professor at University of Manchester Institute of Technology
Published in Welding Journal, vol.85, no.3, March 2006, pp.63-69. In Part 1, the similarities and differences between the exemptions from PWHT in several current codes are reviewed, and some rationalisations are considered. Part 2 of this article will consider a fracture mechanics assessment of steel toughness requirements.
Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) is applied to steel assemblies primarily to reduce the likelihood of brittle fracture by reducing the level of tensile welding residual stresses and by tempering hard, potentially brittle, microstructural regions. For large steel assemblies in particular, PWHT can be an expensive operation, and there is thus an economic incentive to avoid PWHT, wherever possible. Whether PWHT is necessary depends on the fracture toughness at the minimum service temperature, the stress levels and the size of any flaws which may be present. According to current fabrication codes, some structures (for example, where thickness is low) are exempt from PWHT. However, the exemptions differ between codes, and it would be desirable to effect some unification of these differing requirements. The present article reviews exemptions from PWHT in several current codes, and considers the similarities and the differences between them, including maximum permitted thickness for as-welded conditions, the associated toughness requirements (in terms of the Charpy test) and what may be done to effect some rationalisation. The views of representatives of user groups have been obtained in compiling this article.
Conventional welding processes, which rely upon the local melting and fusion of material, generate significant residual stress distributions in the weldment. The magnitude of these stresses can, under conditions of high restraint, approach the yield strength of either the parent or weld materials. Post-weld heat treatment is applied to welded steel assemblies, primarily to reduce the likelihood of brittle fracture. The benefits of PWHT include a significant reduction of tensile residual stresses in the weld joint and, to a lesser extent, tempering of the heat-affected zone and the weld metal microstructures. PWHT is required where there is a risk of environmentally-assisted cracking. PWHT of C-Mn steels is typically carried out at approximately 600°C, for one hour per 25mm of thickness. The PWHT of large steel assemblies is an expensive process, owing to the long hold times and slow heating and cooling rates involved, and also due to the high cost of down-time, particularly where PWHT follows the repair of an existing fabrication. It is therefore greatly desired that exemption from PWHT be achieved, where possible. Current design codes in the pressure vessel and piping industries, such as the BSI and ASME codes, specify that PWHT is required if the thickness of the parts being welded exceeds a specified value, that limit usually depending on the Charpy test properties of the material and the minimum service temperature required. This approach provides a simple and direct method for determining whether PWHT is required and, since the limiting thickness criterion has been in use for many years, it can be considered to have been validated by custom and practice. However, the degree of conservatism of the codes is difficult to assess, and anomalies in limiting thickness values between different codes are known to exist. In the general structural industry for bridges, buildings and offshore structures, there is considerably more scope for using thick steel in the as-welded condition, but with increasing toughness requirements in terms of either higher Charpy energy absorption or lower temperatures for a reference level of energy absorption. There is, therefore, significant scope for extending the boundaries of exemption from PWHT. There have been many years of research, principally carried out by or on behalf of the electric utility and petrochemical processing industries, examining the consequences for welded steel structures, vessels and pipework of carrying out repairs without PWHT. Of principal interest have been thick section C-Mn and low alloy steels, for which controlled deposition repair procedures have been devised. Some codes now include provision
The results are included in Table 1. Table 1 Limiting thickness for which postweld heat treatment is not required for C-Mn steels according to various standards. calculated by a fracture mechanics approach. codes relate to ASME P1 to P5 steels. wide variations in weldability and in toughness can occur among steels that meet the same specification. 149°C preheat.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 2 of 12 for repair without PWHT. & BS EN Group 1. [4.K.5] It is recognised that steel making technology has changed over the last thirty years or so.7] . This investigation relates only to C-. to compare and contrast the limiting thickness requirements above which PWHT is required and the associated Charpy test requirements for the as-welded condition in standards relevant to the fabrication industry. & BS EN Group 5. Review of current practice and code requirements Fabrication standards for c-mn steel pressure vessels. steel specifications do not always reflect these changes. U.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption .) regarding the PWHT requirements of welds and the limits for as-welded construction made in pipes. including bridges. significant divergence remained. C 0. piping and offshore structures A survey was carried out in 1971  . and limits for S and P of 0. ASME B31. In addition this article examines a number of methods available for gaining exemption from PWHT.S. The fabrication codes were generally devised for older. Later work in 1980  showed that. the views of representatives of fabricators and end users have been sought. & BS EN Group 5.S.html 7/10/2010 .035%. This present article compares and contrasts the current rules and guidelines present in various fabrication standards (mainly U.15% Code ASME VIII  ASME P1 Group 1/C-Mn. These studies showed there was still some variation between codes. ASME P3 Groups 1 & 2. where the requirements of the U. and to cover a range of other codes and standards.1  19mm 16mm. varied considerably. as discussed below. C-Mn and low alloy steels. and U. C 0. steel specifications commonly allow steels with a maximum carbon content in excess of 0.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. and sometimes more. and testing required to move towards elimination of the apparent anomalies is considered. to investigate the methods available for gaining exemption from PWHT. namely the use of specially designed repair procedures and the specification of a minimum Charpy energy. in terms of the material thickness above which PWHT was required. C 0. while considerable harmonisation had taken place.S. 120°C 13mm. The objectives of the study were to identify the types of materials where industry considers that there are grounds for seeking wider exemption from PWHT. In compiling this article. has highlighted the limits and provisions for exemption from PWHT.15% ASME P5 Group 1. and often with no toughness requirement.2 16mm.4 16mm.2%. the Table has been extended to include requirements for Charpy test properties. allowable thickness increases as toughness increases and as strength decreases. [1-3] From time to time there have also been investigations aimed at providing recommendations for acceptable limits for the as-welded condition for general structural conditions. and to identify whether a future programme of toughness testing and residual stress measurements on specific steels is needed to demonstrate a case for exemption from PWHT. As a consequence. buildings and offshore structures.A. & BS EN Group 1 32mm increase to 38mm with 93°C preheat Comments 27J at 20° C for 32mm and R e 448MPa( 20J at 20° C for 34mm and Re 345MPa) Toughness requirement increases as strength increases. 95°C preheat.A. Some of the similarities and differences are considered.1 16mm. normalised steels with higher carbon contents [6.25% ASME P4 Groups 1 & 2. including specially designed weld repair procedures and a case-specific fracture mechanics approach (in Part 2). 93°C preheat. who reviewed the differences in thickness limits. 150°C No explicit Charpy test requirement in the http://www. More recent work by Mohr  and also by Salkin  .co. However. which showed that the requirements of various codes. 121°C preheat. For example. C 0. in temperature ranges and in hold times covering a range of steel types. particularly when steels are produced in parts of the world where steel making technology lags behind best practice.twi.25% 13mm. pressure vessels and structures.
120°C R m JIS B. C v 20J R e 656MPa. Test temperature of -196°C for liquefied hydrocarbon gases. C 20J V At T minimum operating temperature.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . Gp I-III & IIIA (defined in the standard) C V 20J. increase to 38mm with 93° C preheat PWHT required for nozzles and attachments when wall thickness exceeded. 34J in longitudinal direction) AWS D1/1  Limits set by contract drawings or specifications. C v 34J ( 40J for Q&T grades) C C C v v v 34J 40J 27J ( Test temperature (design metal temperature -17°C). C 0.0. Cr 3. increase to 38mm with 95° C preheat 16mm. http://www.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1.15.15% standard.95°C preheat Tubing 16mm.15% 13mm. 120°C Tubing 16mm. For design metal temperature > -40°C.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 3 of 12 preheat. C 0. C v 48J if Q & T or TMCP API 620  32mm.15% ASME B31.8243  <490MPa. C 0. C 0. 32mm. R Room temperature Charpy toughness requirements for carbonand low alloy steels: 19mm 19mm 13mm 149°C preheat 448MPa.twi.15.html 7/10/2010 . 177°C preheat. if tested at or below this temperature.co. C v 18J R e e 517MPa.25%. Acceptable for design metal temperatures -40°C.3  preheat. Gp VIA. C 0.8  32mm No explicit Charpy test requirement in the standard. C 27J v ASME B31. C 0. Gp IV-VI C V API 650  32mm increase to 38mm with 90°C preheat 41J.
may increase to 40mm BS 2971 BS 1113  35mm 30mm.5mm. 13mm thick and 127mm diameter. increase to 40mm if C v 27J at -20°C 12. 120°C preheat PWHT required for all thicknesses 12.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. and as long as there is no accumulation of weldments or extensive local stiffening. C 0. increase to 35mm 100°C preheat. but see comments R e T CV =2. increase to 35mm with 100°C preheat.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 4 of 12 preheat. C 27J V Fine-grained steel: C 0.twi.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . C 27J) V R e (MDMT -10)° C(PD 5500 Annex D) http://www. PWHT all thicknesses of vessel Stoomwezen  preheat. scheduled operating temperature (T CV 20°C). C 0.55 and R e 450MPa and t 32mm and as long as there is no accumulation of weldments or extensive local stiffening. increase to 35mm with 100°C preheat.5mm thick and 127mm diameter.15% PWHT required for all thicknesses No Charpy test requirement. C v  >40J BS EN 12952  C v 27J for T CV lowest transverse specimens (preferred) or C v 35J for longitudinal.15% <13mm No Charpy test requirement. Fine-grained steel: C 0. C 0. C 0.co.5mm thick and 127mm diameter.25% 12. there is no toughness requirement. C 0. 150°C preheat. PWHT all thicknesses of vessel R m 490MPa.94 <450MPa. increase to 19mm with 100° C preheat PD 5500  (Service temperature <0°C) 40mm.23%. C 0.html 7/10/2010 . BS 2633  30mm.25% <35mm 13mm. PD 5500  35mm.5mm thick and 127mm diameter 12.23 and CE 0. and a hydrotest is carried out.23 and CE 0. 32mm.25%.15% <13mm 13mm thick and 127mm diameter.55 and R e 370MPa and KV (perpendicular) 31J at 0°C and also KV (parallel) 27J at -50°C and 32mm < t 40mm and weld metal KV (perpendicular) 31J at 0° C. C 0.
there is greater uniformity among the standards. in part illusory.18-20.co. k = 2 for as-welded joints but reduces with stress concentrations present. at ~32mm. relate to steels with 0.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . or 13 mm thick and 120 mm diameter 15mm thick. which are shown in Table 1. with a thickness limit of 19mm. C 27J R e 355 MPa.25] . in these standards. if it is specified by the The general trends revealed by the tabulation are for the permitted thickness without PWHT to decrease with increasing alloy content of steels and/or for increased preheat to be required.25%Cr-1%Mo steels (including ASME P5 group 1 steels). In Table 1. and the U.5%Cr and  0. MPa. It should be noted that the basic requirements of BS 1113  and BS 2633  .Part 1 (March 2006) Page 5 of 12 V 450MPa. C V for assumed MDMT = 10°C. The reason for this is not known.24. have been examined. as well as a reduced likelihood of hydrogen-assisted fabrication cracking. BS 1113  and BS 2633  . (including ASME P4 groups 1 and 2 steels) and also for 2. however. API 650  . In BS 2633  . because the steels employed in the U.S. 36J R e 450 MPa. and there are some strong similarities between the BS 2633 requirements and those of ASME VIII and ASME B31. while PD 5500  has the same requirement for steels up to 40mm thick. PWHT is only necessary in special cases. In Pr EN 13445  .1  and B31. generally the imposition of a preheat of the order of 93°C (200°F). [21. and has not been discovered in the contacts made with representatives of the fabrication industry.twi. Fabrication standards for buildings and bridges The material thickness requirements for bridges and buildings. are generally different in chemical composition (an issue which is considered in more detail in the Discussion). Provision is made in several codes [14. it will be noted that in ASME VIII  .html 7/10/2010 . and may well have different inherent Charpy test properties. The apparent harmony is.25] to extend this limit to 38 or 40mm if certain conditions. and EEMUA 158  that specifies a limit of 40mm for nodes. together with reductions in maximum carbon level permitted.A. including those in http://www. C 40J) v v PrEN 13445  35mm 15mm thick. and those of Stoomwezen  to steels with 0. PWHT is required. For low alloy steels containing  1. It may reflect an anticipated increase in toughness or avoidance of hard local brittle zones from a slight reduction in as-welded HAZ hardness. with a limit of 50mm applying to other regions. there is a marginal increase in the thickness limit if a preheat at a minimum temperature of ~93°C (200°F) is used.3. C 45J BS 5950  & BS 5400  V C v required at MDMT.3  . In some of the British Standards purchaser. The notable exceptions are ASME B31.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. These specifications are much less prescriptive regarding requirements for exemption from PWHT. or 13 mm thick and 120 mm diameter and design temperature <480°C C C 27J or 40J Test temperature depends on strength. C v EEMUA 158  Minimum design throat thickness: 40mm nodes 50mm plain regions R e 275 V at -40°C. even up the limiting thickness shown. Several of the codes have a similar thickness limit.K. toughness level and design reference temperature.1 and B31. above which PWHT is required. most welded connections in bridges and buildings. are met.5%Mo. for example in H 2S service.25%C. PWHT is not required for steels 35mm thick if the service temperature is above 0°C.23%C. as specified in BS 5950:2000  and BS 5400:2000 Part 3  . PWHT is required for steels with higher carbon contents.
with simple weld details. BS 5950 does not consider PWHT at all. However. there may be a limiting thickness up to which the impact toughness is guaranteed. if gross stress concentrations and poor weld details are present. k g accounts for the presence of gross stress concentrations and takes values up to 1. All the new European structural steel grades are supplied to a minimum Charpy impact level.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . the maximum permitted thickness of a grade 355 steel in the as-welded condition. is the maximum permitted thickness of the part under stress in mm.20:  .Part 1 (March 2006) Page 6 of 12 thick sections. these codes do provide material thickness limits. bridge http://www. T T . is the design minimum temperature of the part in °C. For example in BS EN 10025  . with some requirements being 40J at -20°C (which is approximately equivalent to 27J at -30°C).html 7/10/2010 . i. Indeed. and the emphasis is on the use of materials with sufficient fracture toughness not to require PWHT. this limiting thickness for non-alloyed grades is 250mm for plates and 100mm for sections.5 (for areas likely to be loaded under impact) and 1 (for all other areas). The equations.co. although differences exist in calculating the so-called kfactor. as follows: z k d accounts for the weld detail. k k s takes account of stress levels. high applied stress. high strain rate or the presence of stress concentrations. with values of 0. subjected to Charpy testing at the material design minimum temperature (MDMT). Unlike some of the pressure vessel and piping codes examined previously. However. The limiting thickness values in BS 5950  and BS 5400  are presented as general equations. If high-strain-rate loading also applies.g.20: BS 5950: BS 5400: where: t k y T min not permitted.g. e. is the nominal yield strength of the part. is the temperature in degrees Celsius for which a minimum Charpy energy of 27J is specified by the product standard for impact tests on longitudinal V-notch test pieces. with values ranging from 1 to 2 takes account of high strain rates.k g.25 to 4. would be 50mm for the condition k = 1.5 and 2. However.e. The sub-factors each account for a different aspect of susceptibility to brittle fracture. are left in the as-welded condition.twi. Low values of k denote higher susceptibility to brittle fracture. min 27J BS 5950 & BS 5400: Tmin < T27J . quasi-static strain rates and no gross stress concentrations. e. which can be increased by 50% if z z z PWHT is applied. A summary of strength and impact values for current European structural steel products is given in Ref. yield strength and Charpy impact properties. the minimum Charpy toughness requirements are 27J at -50°C for most grades.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. As an example.k . This is broadly comparable with the upper range of allowable thicknesses of Table 1.  . the form of these equations is the same for both specifications. as follows: k=k d. the limiting thickness for the same as-welded joint could be as low as 14mm under the same applied stresses and strain rates. is the k-factor (see below).k s and takes values ranging from <0. the limiting thickness requirements are dependent upon service temperature. and takes values between 0. are shown below. T 27J The k-factor is the product of four sub-factors relating to susceptibility to brittle fracture. the background to which is explained in more detail in Ref.
A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . has also been reviewed. The document contains a procedure based on fracture mechanics principles and the Master Curve correlation between fracture toughness and Charpy energy. Loading speed.K. It should be recognised that the situation is appreciably more complex than these numbers in Table 1 suggest. for simple welded joints under low applied stress. 1%Cr-0.5%Mo. the requirements of ASME B31. See.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1.) For such steels. Type of structural element. for example.html 7/10/2010 . Application of PWHT.25%Cr-1%Mo. and the welding of pressure parts to non-pressure parts. and so is subject to change before final issue as a Eurocode. and even 150mm if the fabrication is subjected to PWHT. in that PWHT is not required for ASME P3 grade 1 and 2 steels up to 19mm thick. Section thickness. it could be even lower at 7mm. the procedure determines the required fracture toughness for a steel component. in Table 1. Applied stress.S. The draft Eurocode  and BS5400-3  requirements are compared and contrasted in detail in Ref. The provisions of the draft Eurocode  are fairly similar to those of BS5400  (and therefore similar to the upper range of Table 1) for the case k = 1. Lowest service temperature. BS 2633  stipulates a similar preheat to the U. i.K. and a comparison is made with the work carried out in the present investigation in Part 2 of this article. and U.5%Cr-1.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 7 of 12 parapets. Details of these calculation methods are described in reference 5. 0.3  differ from the other codes.twi. Table 2 Summary of information on relevant ASME P numbers ASME P number P1 group 1 P3 groups 1 and 2 P4 groups 1 and 2 P5 group 1 Steel types C-Mn C-0. which includes clauses relating to nozzle connections. Basically. depending on factors such as: z z z z z z z z Steel strength grade. and case histories of bridge failure. 3%Cr-1%Mo Discussion Differences between material grouping systems in the ASME. where there are no gross stress concentrating features or fatigue-sensitive weld details.S. codes. Review of documentation for low alloy steels  .5%Cr-0.A. (See Table 2 for the compositions of relevant ASME P numbers. the footnote to ASME VIII Division 1 Table UCS-56  . However.S. primarily from the U.5%Mo 0. CEN and British Standard codes http://www.co. as different recommendations apply to specific weldments. The information is also summarised in Table 1. the limiting thickness could be as high as 100mm. Consequences of failure.25%Mn-Si.e.A. there are some strong similarities in the requirements relating to exemptions from PWHT between the U. Conversely. Note that the document examined is a draft for development (DD ENV).25%Cr-0.5%Mo. However.design of steel structures The requirements of Eurocode 3  have also been examined.5%Mo-Si 2. Eurocode 3 . where concern is expressed at some of the potentially unsafe provisions of the former. The additional requirement to gain exemption from PWHT for tubes less than or equal to 13mm thick and less than or equal to 120mm diameter in P5 type steels in Pr EN 13445  is that the design temperature should exceed 480°C.. and U. it would remain 50mm throughout under the draft Eurocode. codes. 1. whereas under BS5400 the maximum permitted thickness for the same as-welded joint under similar applied stress and at a similar strain rate could range from 14 to 50mm (as illustrated in the previous section). while this code requires a higher preheat for P4 grades 1 and 2 and P5 grade 1 steels. The fracture avoidance rules given in BS5400 Part 3  are based on fracture mechanics calculations broadly similar to those described in Part 2 of this article. The information relating to low alloy steels in piping and pressure vessel codes. calibrated against other considerations such as the results of full-scale tests on simulated bridge details.
the lower thickness threshold embodied in ASME B31. In his proposed Annex to CR TR 15608.S.twi. This study has indicated that.html 7/10/2010 . and these were calibrated against other information. However. Differences between these may include different design stress criteria. Also. in terms of an ASME or CEN grouping system. material grouping does not provide a basis for exemption from PWHT. and PWHT is only considered for local sub-assemblies under exceptional circumstances. different inherent Charpy test requirements and (through the inspection codes) different allowable defect sizes. for example to the 40mm embodied in EEMUA 158  for C-Mn steels. and who concluded that the fracture resistance of pipes thicker than 19mm was at least equal to that of thinner walled pipes. Both of these standards have been superseded by European standards BS EN 288  and BS EN 287  .A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . but since 1998 materials used for welder qualification may conform to other national or international standards or specifications. Girth welds in steel pipes have been subjected to a fracture mechanics assessment by Mohr  . presumably because the fracture resistance has been found to be sufficient. This limitation appears questionable. a comparison of codes. In the U. The codes were drawn up by different professional bodies.K. or even multiple. are left in the as-welded condition.1  and B31. in terms of preheat and other requirements. and this is not explicitly treated in some of the codes involved. 2. The data covered in this review suggest that reconciliation of the requirements of these two user groups may not be possible. including the U. may reflect the likelihood that the welding will be carried out in the field.S. who assumed the presence of root defects. and the emphasis is on the use of materials with sufficient fracture toughness not to require PWHT. steels have been allocated a P number or S number. he attempted to unify the ASME and CRTR 15608 grouping.25%. For C-Mn steels. and case histories of bridge failure. Table 1 indicates that rationalisation of the PWHT exemption of all the codes would not be easy to achieve. materials have been given group numbers in BS 4870  (for welding procedures) and BS 4871  (for welder qualifications). all of these considerations need to be seen in the context of the inherent Charpy properties of the materials concerned. so that greater uniformity is achieved in the compositions of steels. including those in thick sections.A. Fracture mechanics calculations broadly similar to those described in Part 2 of this article were used in defining the fracture avoidance rules given in BS5400 Part 3  . The position of the general structural industry is that the scale and size of structures is so large that PWHT of the overall structure is impracticable.1 for thinner walled pipes. Of the 196. The codes are for different engineering applications. and the U. Code requirements Although the fundamental details of the differences in the separate codes for pressure vessels and piping. Virtually all welded connections in bridges and buildings. including the results of full-scale tests on simulated bridge details. but it is likely that custom and practice made a greater contribution. steel specifications. but should be considered in relation to the Charpy properties of the steels concerned.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 8 of 12 The grouping of materials used for welding has been carried out under the auspices of the different code standards committees in both Europe. Therefore differences arose and inconsistent requirements ensued. provided that the requirements for mechanical properties and specified analysis limits of the P or S number are met. the draft guidelines for a metallic material grouping system  by Sperko  . A submission was made to the committee compiling CR TR 15608.3  .S. it is noted that http://www. has suggested an even more widely spread divergence.the Electricity Generators Welding Panel) and the general structural industry. It would clearly be of benefit to the power generation industry to increase the thickness threshold for PWHT. based on extensive experience and engineering practice.. a broadly similar conclusion to that implied by the calculated toughness in Part 2 of the current work. and that defect rates and defect sizes may be greater than for shop welds. Mohr questioned the need for PWHT of thicker walled pipe. no doubt with some experience of failures incorporated. Examination of the data also raises questions about the need to give a PWHT to weldments covered by BS 1113  and BS 2633  when the carbon content exceeds 0.A.co. have not been included.A. In the UK. Three of the main groups of steel users with an interest in obtaining exemption from PWHT are the petrochemical industry (through EEMUA [The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association] Material Technology Committee). certification of steels. It would clearly be of considerable benefit in moving towards more uniform PWHT requirements if steel producers were to extend the practice of dual. compared with the other standards. and found the following: 1. 196 steel compositions could be classified within an ASME P1 Group. if a fixed (rather than a proportional) flaw size is assumed in the calculations. The detailed history of the piping codes is not known. He examined 985 relevant U. in the absence of such a condition in the other codes. only 91 C-Mn steels could be given a CR TR 15608 group number. in terms of maximum wall thickness where PWHT is not required and maximum carbon equivalent of material permitted.. For C-Mn and Cr-Mo steels.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. The practice would also facilitate the eventual unification of standards. The gross differences that have arisen are likely to preclude the issue of a unified code requirement giving exemption from PWHT. As PWHT is not required by ASME B31. the power generation industry (through EGWP .
It may then be possible for codes to include HAZ toughness requirement for weldments. even though this factor would probably be limiting if HAZ fracture toughness were to be measured and a detailed engineering critical assessment were to be carried out. code requirements for general structures such as bridges. there are differences in the chemical compositions of U. However. It is therefore likely that limiting thicknesses could be increased. 4. In view of the differences which exist in the chemical compositions of broadly comparable U. Conclusions Code requirements for permitting as-welded construction without PWHT have been reviewed for C. and U. at least for C. and the approach may not gain wide acceptance in codes for other applications. U. What appears to be required is a knowledge base of weldment impact value/fracture toughness properties for welds deposited with known welding parameters.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. and the requirements of different codes have been compared.K. BS 5950 for buildings and EEMUA 158 for offshore structures. steel-making technology has changed significantly. for the omission of PWHT following welding. steels which influence PWHT requirements. approach might be more widely acceptable. From this study. One possible approach would be to define a modest limiting thickness. It is therefore likely that limiting thicknesses could be increased. such as BS 5400 for bridges. code requirements are generally similar in the limiting thickness of C. PD 5500:2000  provides an Appendix which can be used to justify exemption from PWHT. (including ASME P4 groups 1 and 2 steels) and also for 2. based on fracture mechanics analyses. However. This is the approach adopted in PD5500  . steel toughness levels have generally improved substantially. 5.A and U.1  and ASME B31.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 9 of 12 ASME B31. as was shown to be acceptable for the steel vessels subjected to an ECA by Leggatt et al.5%Cr and 0. both C v 27J at -50°C and C v 31J at 0°C for the parent steel.5%Mo. General discussion In spite of the disparities between the PWHT requirements of the pressure vessel and piping standards depicted in Table 1. it appears that this philosophy has been adopted only in this pressure vessel code. together with reductions in maximum carbon level permitted. at ~32mm. and (at least within Europe) steel specifications commonly incorporate impact toughness requirements. steel-making technology has changed significantly.1 and B31. 3.and C-Mn steels (including ASME P1 steels) beyond which PWHT is required for pressure vessels.A. This present study has demonstrated that code classifications and material groupings do not provide avenues for a uniform approach across all the codes. there are some strong similarities between the BS 2633 requirements and those of ASME VIII and ASME B31. steels and the lack of consistent requirements for Charpy test properties (as far as ASME and CEN are concerned). some rationalisation could be effected by building on the similarities which do exist.8  provide for non-impact tested steels to be used. steel toughness levels have generally improved substantially. permit significantly higher thicknesses in the as-welded condition.1 and B31. where the additional requirement is a minimum Charpy impact toughness (of 27J at -20°C) for the higher level of limiting thickness of 40mm. R e 370 N/mm 2 .A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption .K. and C v 31J at 0°C for the weld metal. U. A material properties. A greater limiting thickness could then be accommodated if additional requirements were met.and C-Mn and some low alloy steels. and thus PWHT omitted.3. For low alloy steels containing 1. IIW CE 0.twi. The justification is based on a design reference temperature calculation.K. The requirements can be expressed in terms of MDMT .S. 2. alignment by material grouping for C-Mn steels is not universally possible as a basis for exemption from PWHT. and U. It will be noted that the codes do not mention explicitly as-welded HAZ toughness. However. More extensive requirements for the same limiting thickness are imposed in Stoomwezen  . rather than code-based. Since the development of the earliest codes. general structural codes. and thus PWHT omitted.html 7/10/2010 .3 (limiting thickness 19mm).S. These are C 0. The general trends are for the permitted thickness without PWHT to decrease with increasing alloy content of steels and/or for increased preheat to be required. linked to Charpy toughness requirements for different grades of steel.  . piping and storage tanks. However.25%Cr-1%Mo steels (including ASME P5 group 1 steels). since the code development took place.T27J (the temperature difference between the material design minimum http://www.co.23%.and C-Mn steels. the following conclusions have been drawn: 1.S.45. linked to increasing Charpy energy requirements. The major exceptions in this area are ASME B31. perhaps ~32mm. buildings and offshore structures permit significantly greater thicknesses to be used in the as-welded condition.K.A. for which there are few additional requirements and a minimum level of absorbed Charpy energy could be assumed for the steels concerned. and (at least within Europe) steel specifications commonly incorporate impact toughness requirements.
Proc.R.C. Typical Charpy test data should be reviewed and collated in terms of thickness and material type and IIW CE for steels supplied against the various standards summarised in Table 1. and input from D J Allen. 10 July 2003. paragraph IWA-4623. critical CTOD and critical J values of welds in metallic material'. and where Charpy energy requirements are not unduly onerous. IIW Int. 5.twi. which was funded by Industrial Members of TWI. Columbus. 56th Annual Assembly of the IIW. References 1. Ed.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. Section XI 'Rules for service inspection of nuclear power plant components'. Chubb J P and Spurrier J: 'A new perspective on the influence of thickness and post-weld heat treatment for large scale welded joints'. Burdekin F M and Hadley I: 'Material selection requirements for civil structures'. 7. Bucharest. USA. K. 2: ASME post-weld heat treating practices: an interpretive report'.and C-Mn steels with <0. Where the relevant fabrication codes require that a PWHT be carried out. 4. consideration should be given to the following cases: i. C. or even multiple. paper 4 in The Design of Steel Bridges' Ed. Consideration should be given to introducing HAZ toughness requirements into fabrication codes. 2003. 2. 2. 3. with the agreement of all interested parties. Following completion of the review. Ohio. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Section III 'Rules for construction of nuclear facility components'. Welding Research Council Bulletin. Doty W D: 'Report No. The work was carried out within the Core Research programme of TWI. incorporating Amendment 1. National Board Inspection Code . Recommendations 1.Shielded metal arc welding. Spaeder C E. ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code. of Powergen. 209-214. certification of steels. 201-229. paragraph NB-4622. July 2001. consideration should be given to carrying out a fracture mechanics assessment. 1981.and C-Mn steels which would potentially allow an increase in the ASME B31. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Romania.1 Temper bead welding of similar materials . ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . Conf. on Welded Construction for Urban Infrastructure. 6. thereby facilitating the eventual unification of standards. BS 7910: 1999: 'Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures'. Burdekin F M: Materials aspects of BS5400:Part 6. of British Energy.3 threshold thickness level for PWHT. New York July 2001. J Engineering Materials and Technology 1995.5mm. National Board of pressure Vessel Inspectors. 8.25%C. Steel producers should be encouraged to extend the practice of dual. to see where the avoidance of PWHT can be justified.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 10 of 12 temperature and the temperature for 27 Joules energy absorption in the Charpy test) and the yield strength of the steel. pp.co. so that greater uniformity is achieved in the compositions of steels. Consideration should be given to the generation of toughness data for thicknesses >12. Ogle M H. BS 7448: Part 2: 1997: 'Fracture mechanics toughness tests . http://www. in order to extend the thickness beyond which PWHT is required. International Institute of Welding. for given assumptions about flaw size and stress level. Hancock P.Method for determination of KIc. Acknowledgements Helpful discussions with C S Wiesner and other colleagues at TWI. 1.html 7/10/2010 . 3.A manual for boiler and pressure vessel inspectors.9 Temper bead weld repair. to establish if the BS 1113 and BS 2633 requirements are justified. Rockey and H.117. 5. and ii. 4. and R Carroll of Foster Wheeler Energy Limited are gratefully acknowledged. 407 December 1995. 9.1 and B31. D Dehelean. C. New York. B Parry-Mills and M Coleman. Evans. Granada ISBN 0 24611339 1.
Mohr W: 'Post-weld heat treatment: A review.html 7/10/2010 . 1991. BS EN 12952: 2001: 'Water tube boilers and auxiliary installations -Part 2 Materials for pressure parts of boilers and accessories'. Vol. Salkin R V: 'The desirability of unifying ideas and codes on stress relief thermal heat treatments'. 12. concrete and composite bridges . 1994. low-pressure storage tanks'. ASME VIII Div 1: July 2001: 'Rules for construction of pressure vessels'. reheaters and steel tube economisers)'.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 11 of 12 10. 11.Rolled and welded sections'. BS EN 10025: 1993:'Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels -Technical delivery conditions'. 23. 16. assessment and repair of welded structures and components'. February 1996. 30. 1991. Code of practice for design . (Superseded by BS EN 288-1: 1992 and BS EN 288-3: 1992. Part 1. Proc. 1988 5-13. BS 5400-3:2000 (incorporating Corrigendum 1): 'Steel. gas transmission and distribution piping systems'. 2000: 'Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels'.1/D1. BS 5950-1:2000: 'Structural use of steelwork in building. Part 1 Nov. 10th Annual North American Welding Research Conference. 27.co. 17. 'Class 1 arc welding of ferritic steel pipework for carrying fluids'. 20. BS 2971 'Specification for Class II arc welding of carbon steel pipework for carrying fluids'. 'Rules for pressure vessels'. 33.1M: 2002: 'Structural welding code steel'. JIS B 8243 . and Part 5 'Workmanship and construction of pressure parts of the boiler. American Petroleum Institute. 29. ASME B31. 31. On Heat Treatment'. 34. Joint Committee Iron and Steel Inst. 1980. 22. FWP Journal. 13.8: 1999: 'ASME code for pressure piping. 26.1 General rules and rules for buildings'.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . 15.3: 1999: 'ASME code for pressure piping. Developments in Pressure Vessel Technology-3.1981: 'Construction of pressure vessels'. Dienst voor het Stoomwezen. 19. BS 1113: 1992: 'Design and manufacture of water-tube steam generating plant (including superheaters. BS EN 13445 2002: 'Unfired pressure vessels. 18. 21. AWS D1. Biennial Conf. Saunders G G: 'Residual stresses and their reduction'.Part 1: Fusion welding of steel'. API 620 'Design and construction of large. EEMUA 158: 1994: 'Construction specification for fixed offshore structures in the North Sea'.twi. London. December 1971. 28. Ohio. British Standards Institution Published Document PD 5500. British Standards Institution. The Hague.Part 3: Code of practice for design of steel bridges' 32.. process piping'. 24. Part 2 Dec. DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 'Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. API 650: November 1998: 'Welded steel tanks for oil storage'. Applied Science Publishers Ltd. BS 2633: 1987. Inspection. BS 4870: 1981 'Approval testing of welding procedures .uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. Nicholson S and Brook J C: 'Review of codes'. ASME B31.' 25. ASME B31. 'Heat treatment of unalloyed and low alloy steel' and Section W 0702 'Heat treatment of unalloyed and low alloy steel pipes'.) http://www.1988 27-34. 14. welded.1: 1998: 'ASME code for pressure piping.2 Section W 0701.. Part 4: Manufacture'. power piping'.
(Superseded by BS EN 287-1: 1992. BS 4871: 1992 'Approval testing of welders working to approved welding procedures .Part 1: 1992 'Approval testing of welders for fusion welding -: Steels'. TWI Report for Research Members 679/1999. May 1999. BS EN 287. June 2000.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . Edison Welding Institute Report for Research Members MR9708. June. and BS EN 288: Part 3: 1992 'Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials . 1998. 37.General rules for fusion welding'.co.Welding procedure tests for the arc welding of steels'.html 7/10/2010 .J: 'Assignation of ASME Materials to the new grouping system CR TR 15608'. Leggatt R H. Smith A T and Cheaitani M J: 'Using fracture mechanics to claim exemption from PWHT .Four case studies'. Published Document PD CR ISO 15608:2000 'Welding-guidelines for a metallic material grouping system'. December 1997. 40. 41.twi. Muhammed A.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 12 of 12 35. 38.) 36.Part 1: Fusion welding of steel'. BS EN 288: Part 1: 1992 'Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials .uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. British Standards Institution. 39. Sperko W. Mohr W C: 'Fracture mechanics to justify the minimum thickness for PWHT: Girth butt-welded steel pipe'. Last Reviewed 2007 / Copyright © 2007 TWI Ltd http://www. CEN/TC 121/SC 1 N 407.