CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING

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Control Valves and Tuning
Table of Contents Control Valves AND TUNING........................................................................................................1 Control Valves AND TUNING........................................................................................................2 RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS.........................................................................2 Control Valve Bodies................................................................................................................2 Control-Valve Actuators...........................................................................................................2 Discussion of Flow Characteristics and Valve Selection..........................................................2 QUICK-OPENING..............................................................................................................2 LINEAR FLOW...................................................................................................................2 EQUAL-PERCENTAGE.....................................................................................................3 CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP...........................................................................................3 SIZING BY CALCULATION.............................................................................................3 AERODYNAMIC NOISE PREDICTION..........................................................................4 LIQUID SERVICE..................................................................................................................4 CAVITATION......................................................................................................................4 FLASHING..........................................................................................................................5 TUNING CONTROL LOOPS.....................................................................................................6 TUNING CONSTANTS..........................................................................................................6 PROPORTIONAL BAND (K).............................................................................................6 GAIN (K) CALCULATION................................................................................................6 INTEGRAL or RESET (T1)................................................................................................6 DERIVATIVE (T2)..............................................................................................................6 TUNING..................................................................................................................................7 ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND....................................................................................7 ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION..........................................................................7 ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE).........................................................................7 FLOW CHARACTERISTICS.................................................................................................8 TUNING CONTROLLERS.........................................................................................................9 GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS........................................................................9 FLOW..................................................................................................................................9 LEVEL.................................................................................................................................9 LIQUID PRESSURE.........................................................................................................10 GAS PRESSURE...............................................................................................................10 TEMPERATURE, VAPOR PRESSURE, AND COMPOSITION....................................10 CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD........................................................11 CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS....................................11 DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS........................................................11 CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES.....................................................................................12 PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS..................................................13

Berry’s Commissioning Handbook

hydraulic. The valve body design. Most valve body designs are of the globe style. and manual actuators are also widely used. CONTROL-VALVE ACTUATORS Pneumatically operated control-valve actuators are the most popular type in use. In a control valve. the quick-opening valve plug is used primarily for on-off service. The spring and diaphragm pneumatic actuator is commonly specified. due to its dependability and its simplicity of design. QUICK-OPENING The quick-opening flow characteristic provides for maximum change in flow rate at low valve travel with a fairly linear relationship.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 2 of 13 CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Selecting the proper control valve for each application involves many factors. and plug characteristic are critical items for selection. Additional increases in valve travel give sharply reduced changes in flow rate. In areas where personnel will be affected. Final selection depends upon detailed review of the engineering application. DISCUSSION OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND VALVE SELECTION The flow characteristic of a control valve is the relationship between the flow rate through the valve and the valve travel as the travel is varied from 0 to 100 percent. the change in flow rate approaches zero. the valve body must permit actuator thrust transmission. "Inherent flow characteristic" refers to the characteristic observed during flow with a constant pressure drop across the valve. LINEAR FLOW Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . actuator. Proper valve sizing is necessary for accurate. When the valve plug nears the wide-open position. it must do all of this without external leakage. and provide the appropriate end connections to mate with the adjacent piping. style. economical process control. but other configurations such as ball and butterfly styles are available. efficient. resist chemical and physical effects of the process. Therefore. however. noise prediction and control becomes a significant factor. it is also suitable for many applications where a linear valve plug would normally be specified. but electric. RELATIONSHIP OF MAJOR COMPONENTS CONTROL VALVE BODIES The rate of fluid flow varies as the position of the valve plug is changed by force from the actuator. "Installed flow characteristic" refers to the characteristic obtained in service when the pressure drop varies with flow and other changes in the system. Pneumatically operated piston actuators provide integral positioner capability and high stem-force output for demanding service conditions.

This proportional relationship produces a characteristic with a constant slope so that with constant pressure drop (∆P). The first step is to calculate the required Cg by using the sizing equation. The second step is to select a valve from the manufacturer's catalog. disc. ∆P. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 3 of 13 The linear flow-characteristic curve shows that the flow rate is directly proportional to the valve travel. with a large flow. additional increases in pressure drop. the change in flow rate will be small. critical flow has been reached. Most commonly. or ball position. ∆P/P. the equation will predict the value of the critical flow. The vena contracta is the point of minimum cross-sectional area of the flow stream which occurs just downstream of the actual physical restriction. the change in flow rate will be large. When the critical pressure drop ratio. The valve selected should have a Cg. or ball is near its seat and the flow is small. system operating conditions and valve plug characteristic. When the velocity at the vena contracta reaches sonic velocity. as a rule of thumb. The change in flow rate is always proportional to the flow rate just before the change in position is made for a valve plug. When the valve plug. causes the sine angle to be 90 degrees. disc. The assumed C. EQUAL-PERCENTAGE In the equal-percentage flow characteristic. For service conditions that would result in an angle of greater than 90 degrees. Valves with an equal-percentage characteristic should also be considered where highly varying pressure drop conditions could be expected. Gain is a function of valve size and configuration. The modified parabolic-flow characteristic curve falls between the linear and the equal-percentage curve. the gas and vapor sizing equations are used to determine the proper valve size for a given set of service conditions. Valves with an equal-percentage flow characteristic are generally used for pressure control applications. value for the Cg calculation must match the C. Note: Where detailed process knowledge is lacking.) The linear-valve plug is commonly specified for liquid level control and for certain flow control applications requiring constant gain. as no further increase in pressure drop will cause an increase in flow. They are also used for other applications where a large percentage of the total system pressure drop is normally absorbed by the system itself. value for the valve selected from the catalog. with only a relatively small percentage by the control valve. use equal-percentage characteristics at 70 percent opening. Critical flow is a choked flow condition caused by increasing gas velocity at the vena contracta. the equation must be limited to 90 degrees. (by reducing downstream pressure) produces no increase in flow. the valve gain will be the same at all flows. SIZING BY CALCULATION The gas sizing equations can be used to determine the flow of gas or vapor through any style of valve. Absolute units of temperature and pressure must be used in the equation. equal increments of valve travel produce equal percentage changes in the existing flow. CRITICAL PRESSURE DROP Critical flow limitation is a significant problem when sizing valves for gaseous service. (Valve gain is the ratio of an incremental change in flow rate to an incremental change in valve plug position. which equals or exceeds the calculated value.

it will help to determine more accurately the maximum allowable pressure drop for sizing purposes. the fluid stream is accelerated as it flows through the restricted area of the orifice. r. as the velocity increases. Predicted noise levels can then be used to select the necessary degree of noise control for each application. the pressure at the vena contracta will be reduced to the vapor pressure of the liquid. appear in the fluid stream. This method introduces a critical pressure ratio factor. CAVITATION In a control valve. Cg and C1. When used in equations. voids or cavities. AERODYNAMIC NOISE PREDICTION Aerodynamic noise. A single coefficient is not sufficient to describe both the capacity and the recovery characteristics of the valve. Noise-prediction techniques outlined below may be used to determine control-valve noise levels. a brief discussion of the cavitation and flashing processes is presented in the following. Other valve configurations. In order to understand the problems more thoroughly. is the result of Reynolds stresses and shear forces that are the results of turbulent flow. At this point. Noise from turbulent flow is more common in valves handling compressible gases than in those controlling liquids. the most common type of control valve noise. Simultaneously. Graphical solution of the following equation provides a very expeditious and accurate technique for predicting ambient noise levels resulting from the flow of compressible fluids through globe valves. which not only broadens the scope of valve-sizing techniques but also increases the sizing accuracy. Applying the equation requires knowledge of one additional condition not included in previous equations. and Cg values derived by the manufacturers. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 4 of 13 Accurate valve sizing for gases requires the use of dual coefficients. the first stage in cavitation. that being the inlet gas density (d). which raises the pressure above the liquid vapor pressure. the fluid stream undergoes a deceleration process resulting in a reversal of the energy interchange. Downstream from the vena contracta. reaching maximum velocity at the vena contracta. can be sized in a similar manner using the unique C. LIQUID SERVICE The procedure used to size control valves for liquid service should consider the possibility of cavitation and flashing since they can limit the capacity and produce physical damage to the valve. an interchange of energy between the velocity and pressure heads forces a reduction in the pressure. If the velocity increases sufficiently. The mass flow form of the sizing equation is the most general form and can be used for both ideal and non-ideal vapor applications. such as ball and butterfly valves.

CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 5 of 13 The vapor cavities cannot exist at the increased pressure and are forced to collapse or implode. When sufficient vapor has been formed. The first stages of cavitation and flashing are identical. an increase in pressure drop (∆P) will not cause the flow to increase. As long as the inlet pressure (P1) remains constant. In order to avoid cavitation completely. the fluid will remain in the vapor state because the downstream pressure is equal to or less than the vapor pressure of the liquid. the pressure at the vena contracta must remain above the vapor pressure of the liquid. the flow will become completely choked. vibration and physical damage. the increase in flow rate will no longer be proportional to an increase in the square root of the body differential pressure. that is. the final stage in the cavitation process. After the first vapor cavities are formed. vapor forms as the vena contracta pressure is reduced to the vapor pressure of the liquid Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . These implosions. FLASHING If the pressure at the vena contracta remains low. produce noise.

• If a Proportional Band is less than 100%. therefore K = 2. PB = PROPORTIONAL BAND 100% (span) 50% (PB) 2 Honeywell uses letter “K" to represent GAIN.e: When derivative is applied to a two mode controller ( PI ). • Represents the time that the proportional plus derivative will take to reach a certain level of output. i. it's action consists of decreasing the number of repeats per minute required to drive the error back to setpoint. INTEGRAL OR RESET (T1) • Integral action repeats the proportional controllers initial corrective signal until there is no difference between the PV and Setpoint. GAIN (K) CALCULATION Ratio of entire span of measurement to percent span being used as Proportional Band. • The controller's output signal determines the amount of movement that will be produced at the control valve. • If a Proportional Band is larger than 100%. each percent change in input signal to the controller will produce a smaller percent of change at the controller's output. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . • Integral ( T1 ) is expressed in "Minutes per Repeat" DERIVATIVE (T2) • Changes the output of a controller in proportion to the "RATE" or "SPEED" at which the controlled variable is moving towards or away from the setpoint. • The Proportional Band that is selected for a particular operating situation determines how much corrective signal the controller can produce for each percent of change in the variable controlled by the controller.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 6 of 13 TUNING CONTROL LOOPS TUNING CONSTANTS PROPORTIONAL BAND (K) • If Proportional Band is 100%. in advance of the time proportional action alone would produce the same output. • Derivative action is expressed in minutes. each percent change of input signal to the controller will produce a greater percent of change at the controller's output. each percent of change at the input to the controller will produce the same percent of change at the controller's output. GAIN = Assume GAIN = GAIN = 100% (the entire span of measurement) % of span being used as a proportional band 50% proportional band. to make it a three mode controller ( PID ).

Then reduce the reset to ten seconds.5).CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 7 of 13 TUNING ADJUST PROPORTIONAL BAND Always tune proportional band with very little reset action. When cycling just begins. then three. adjust the derivative action by beginning at a setting of one second. then reduce the reset to five seconds. always set the reset (integral) adjustment at. from 18% to 24%. increase the reset to 12 seconds. increase the reset adjustment by 50%. for instance with a speed control loop. increase the proportional band by 50 percent. then two. Say the reset is at twenty seconds. etc. Cycling should stop. EXAMPLE: Start with 40% proportional band (a gain of 2. then halve the proportional band to 20% (a gain of 5). Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . until improvement is observed and seems to be optimal. from 10% to 15%. The reset action should now be properly adjusted and should be left at this value. etc. Normally. etc. then reduce the reset to two seconds. say twenty or thirty seconds or more before adjusting the proportional band. adjust the proportional band to a smaller value (higher gain) until cycling or instability begins. derivative action is not needed and does not help the situation. If cycling is observed at 8 seconds. The proportional band adjustment should now be properly set and should be left at this value. When cycling or instability begins. increase the reset to three seconds. etc. then halve the proportional band to 10% (a gain of 10). Example: If cycling is observed at two seconds. That is. That is. Then. ADJUST RESET (INTEGRAL) ACTION This is done by reducing the time value (in seconds). ADJUST DERIVATIVE ACTION (RATE) If a derivative adjustment is felt necessary.

Most lags are in the control system. Dead time possible. Measurement dynamics are important. Settings vary. Linear. High gain controllers. Linear. Noisy. no noise. Dead time possible (especially in Settings vary but gain usually above 1. Valve characteristic unimportant. Multiple capacity system. Equal percentage valves for linear measurement. No dead time. No Noise. Single capacity Precise control: No dead time. processes. Dynamics vary. Derivative unnecessary. variable reset rate. pH mixing. Low gain. Equal percentage valves. Valve is the major dynamic element. high PB Derivative hurts. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . no noise. Linear valves for differential pressure measurement. Simple process. fast reset. Sampling systems complicate both measurement and control. PRESSURE (Liquid) PRESSURE (Gas) PRESSURE (Vapor) P + I Controllers. add dead time. Averaging control: Infrequent noise. Three response controllers. Derivative of no value. Dynamics vary. Linear valve. Derivative sometimes useful. Low gain. P + I Controller. Gain near 1.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 8 of 13 FLOW CHARACTERISTICS Very fast. nonlinear. Fast. Valve characteristic relatively unimportant LEVEL TEMPERATURE COMPOSITION Three response controllers. Low gain. heat exchangers). Dead time usually present. Usually linear. Reset seldom necessary. Sometimes noisy due to poor On line analyzers fast. Self acting or high gain proportional controllers. fast reset rate. P + I controllers. Non linear. Equal percentage Linear. FLOW Non Linear (square) measurement common. Linear valves. Linear. Noisy Single capacity. Derivative of limited value if dead time is large. specialized controllers. Most lags are in the control system. often noisy. Slow compared to other pressure valves.

Use the controller in manual or a hand valve if you think a 10 minute reset time is necessary. "knobs" provided for controller tuning. A loop where a valve positioner has been used will require a proportional band setting two to three times larger than for a loop without a positioner. inspect the valve and orifice installation to find the.3 minutes but are rare exceptions. if the vessel time constant (volume/flow) is 1 to 2 minutes.e.1 minutes. If the process is fast to respond (i.2 or 0. usually about 300% although an occasional poor meter run installation may require as much as 1000%.e. Never use derivative action in a flow loop. Do not confuse these actions or grief will be your constant companion during your controller tuning efforts. often with a period (time from the peak of one cycle to the peak of the next) of 10 to 15 minutes. These notes are intended to provide a few simple rules to use in tuning controllers which will minimize upsets and still get the job done. the longer the period. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . IMPORTANT NOTE: No controller will work when the valve is almost closed or almost wide open. Have the operator open or close a bypass (if one exists) or wait until process conditions change enough to get the valve back within its operating range (from 5 to 95% of travel as extreme limits with 10 to 90% as a safer range). Do not adjust the controller to some ridiculous setting such as a 10 minute reset time. temperature control of a tray part way up a distillation column). problem. a flow loop). at least half of the control loops in a plant are flow loops. LEVEL The next most common loop after flow is level. Fast or slow for a controller refers to integral (or reset). many methods have been developed over the years to aid in their proper adjustment. Slow moving or sticky control valves may require 0. then the controller must be tuned fast too. Fix the problem. The shorter the integral time. you will find the loop will always cycle. NOT PROPORTIONAL BAND (or gain). If you do not have a feel for the process characteristics or cannot find someone to enlighten you.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 9 of 13 TUNING CONTROLLERS Since there are a very large number of combinations of the two or sometimes three. GENERAL RULES FOR COMMON LOOPS FLOW Usually. THE CONTROLLER MUST BE ADJUSTED TO BALANCE THE PROCESS. If the vessel is large and the controlling flow is a trickle. Set the integral at 10 minutes. Set integral (I) at 0. This will satisfy 80 to 90% of the level applications in a plant. then a shorter integral time can be used but remember that a large value is safer. If these settings do not work. often an unacceptable practice in real life. Adjust the proportional band so that the measurement is not too noisy. A few require upsetting the process to some extent. DO NOT EVER USE A SHORT INTEGRAL VALUE IN A LEVEL LOOP. leave controller tuning to someone else who can get the needed information. Don't attempt tuning under these conditions. then the controller must be tuned slow TO MATCH THE PROCESS. If the process is slow (i. then a greater value of integral must be used. If you do.

and composition. AND COMPOSITION There are several ways to tune these more difficult loops. Divide by two. increase the proportional band (double. Noise should not be as severe as for flow and proportional bands will usually be smaller. then such a limit cycle may be unacceptable. sometimes with flat bottoms and/or tops Limit cycle will show about 5% change. If a cycle develops. cycling is usually unimportant. There is absolutely nothing you can do to tune out such a limit cycle. set the derivative at one quarter of the integral time. a 5 or 10 minute integral time. A limit cycle looks like a saw blade. which is not equipped with a positioner. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . VAPOR PRESSURE. Please note that a valve cycling almost closed or fully open will also produce a limit cycle. Level loops will usually show a limit cycle when the level controller sets a valve. GAS PRESSURE Tune the same as level loops using a large integral value. When the flow is used to control the level going to tankage. set the proportional band to as small a value as possible (20-50%) without causing cycling. you're pretty well finished. Proportional bands can be quite small (under 100% and often as small as 20-30%. vapor pressure. on to the more difficult control tuning applications. TEMPERATURE. The period will get shorter as the integral time is increased.). These are temperature. Well now that you've tuned over 90% of the loops in the typical plant. This is the period of the control loop. Use a larger proportional band (perhaps 100%) if smooth flow control to a downstream unit is more important than tight level control. Switch the controller to automatic when the measurement is close to the desired set point. When the period is about twice the integral time and the cycles are dampening out. the integral time is too short and is causing the cycle. usually of the flat bottom type (when almost closed) or of the flat top type when almost fully open.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 10 of 13 If close control of level is important. triple etc. It will always work and will leave no doubt as to the characteristics of the control loop. If each peak is higher than the one before. Included are the temperatures used to infer composition for so many distillation columns. If the measurement is not noisy. If the starting integral value is less than one half of the period. If the shortcut method described above is unsuccessful or you want to be a bit more methodical. as flow loops. follow the procedure given below. If it is the reflux or feed to a distillation tower. Increase the integral time. Readjust the proportional band if required to get a damped oscillation after an upset (wait for a bump or ask the operator to make a small set point change in a safe direction). LIQUID PRESSURE Tune the same. measure the time from peak to peak (high to high or low to low). Never use derivative action in a level loop. Changes in tuning will shorten or lengthen the period but only a positioner or level cascaded to a flow controller will eliminate the problem. and no derivative.) until the cycles damp out. The first is to use starting settings of 100% proportional band.

Set D = to the period x 0. The period will increase by about 43%. Note the starting valve position. Measure the period (defined as the time for one complete cycle to occur). safe values are a large I and a small D.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 11 of 13 CLASSICAL CONTROLLER TUNING METHOD When the process is reasonably stable and no plant upsets are expected. (derivative or rate on some controllers) to minimum (if provided on the controller) and I. (integral or reset on some controllers) to maximum. Change the output a small amount and transfer the controller to automatic. For a P+I Controller: Set I = to the period x 0.0) to start.82. Double the proportional band and try again until uniform. Continue to reduce the proportional band until oscillations start. To test for interaction when two -loops cycle together at the same period. CASCADE AND OTHER INTERACTING CONTROL LOOPS Tune the secondary loop first using the local set point mode.12. If the cycle stops. and each controller will still require additional tuning. DEFAULT CONTROLLER TUNING PARAMETERS For the start-up of any plant. place one loop in manual. Rearrange the loops or use the technique outlined above to minimize cycling. there are default tuning parameters that can be entered into each controller. then use an integral time at least four times as great for the temperature controller. Remember. Reduce the integral as much as possible. Then set D. These are start-up values only. Some manufacturers use an inverse relationship so large becomes small and vice versa. This tuning may occur several times on individual controllers. Select a set point equal to the measurement and adjust the proportional band to 100% (or gain at 1. oscillations develop. The period will decrease by about 15%. These instructions are for controllers adjusted in terms of minutes per repeat. return to manual and set the valve at the original position noted in step 2. Transfer to remote set point and tune the primary loop. If oscillations do not develop. Tune the pressure loop (representing the fastest loop in this case) with a minimum integral value. switch the controller to manual. never under any circumstances set the derivative greater than the integral. or very nearly so. perhaps to half the value tried before. Never use a primary controller integral value less than four times the integral value used for the secondary controller. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired. it can be some time (the plant has to stabilize) before all controllers have their Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . derivative cannot usually be used. interaction is probably the problem. If oscillations of increasing amplitude develop on the first try. If the measurement is noisy (Ph loops in particular). Double the proportional band. Readjust the proportional band if more or less damping is desired. Double the proportional band.S. In fact. repeat step 2 reducing the proportional band. depending on plant start-up conditions. The same rules hold true for interacting loops such as pressure and pressure compensated temperature used for a distillation tower. Set I = to the period x O.

Derivative values should be added in the final tunings of the applicable controllers.2 MINS/REPEAT T1 .Cascade Control Loop.Discrete 1/0 Loops within APM (Advanced Process Manager).3 CONTROLLER INPUT/OUTPUT INDICATION Output to valves viewed by the operator shall indicate close as 0% and open as 100%. etc. TEMPERATURE 1.Complex Control Loop.). Master controller output in cascade loops shall be 0% to 100%. as it has not been shown to be required for those conditions.5 Min.Discrete 1/0 Loops within LM. Controller output to field devices shall be -6.3 ANALYZERS 1. 1 Min.2 . . .CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 12 of 13 final (normal operations) tunings.5 . CONTROL LOOP SCAN RATES The control loops shall be configured to achieve the functionality and philosophy of the P&IDs. The following is a list of typical start-up tunings: PROCESS FLOW PRESSURE (Liquid) PRESSURE (Gas) LEVEL GAIN K . When a control valve is tripped on abnormal condition (Low-low level.5 1 2 1 PB 200 100 50 100 75 75 REPEATS/MIN 12 1 . controller shall switch to manual output mode.083 or 5 Sec. 3. Berry’s Commissioning Handbook . In case of sensing element failure. .9% to 106. 2 Min.3 . .Analog Indication Only Loop. a "Bad PV" alarm will be generated and if it is a control point. 5 Min. and . the PID controller shall be configured to switch to manual output mode and the controller output to the fail-safe condition value.9% to compensate for calibration offsets in the field device. 5 Min. Following are the basic types of control loops: .Single Control Loop. There are no values shown for Derivative action for start-up conditions.

Some fast loops (according to EPC contractor) will run at 0.3 Integral (min.T2) 0.0 Berry’s Commissioning Handbook .0 5..0 1. final loop tuning will be done during plant operation: PID Gain (K) Derivative Flow Pressure (Liquid) Pressure (Gas) Level Temperature 0. .0 1.CONTROL VALVES AND TUNING Page 13 of 13 The controllers (APM) base scan rate will be 0. It is understand that these are initial values.0 2.T1) 0.0 0.0 0.08 1. PID ALGORITHM DEFAULT TUNING CONSTANTS The PID algorithms will be configured with the following default values unless otherwise specified by the EPC contractor.5 seconds.0 3.0 0.25 seconds.5 1.0 (min.0 2.0 0.

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