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# Vibration analysis and calculation, shock and noise

Saptarshi Basu – GL trainer

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

**ILL EFFECTS OF NOISE AND VIBRATION
**

• Excessive ship vibration is to be avoided for

passenger comfort and crew habitability.

**• In addition to undesired effects on humans, excessive
**

ship vibration may result in the fatigue failure of local structural members or malfunction of machinery and equipment.

**• For naval application noise and vibration means
**

decrease in stealth capability, increase in detectability and susceptibility.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 2

VIBRATION MONITORING

• VIBRATION THOUGH HAS SEVERAL UNDESIRABLE

EFFECTS ITS CHARECTERISTICS CAN BE MONITORED TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT THE HEALTH OF THE MACHINERY AND ANY IMPENDING DISASTER OR HIDDEN DEFECT.

**• ADVANCED ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES SUCH AS THE
**

FOURIER FAST TRANSFORM and INSTRUMENTS LIKE SHOCK PULSE METER.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 3

VIBRATION MONITORING • The vibration source data (accelerometers) from the must be acquired at high sample rates in order to provide the best time and frequency resolutions in the frequency domain for performing enhanced engine health monitoring. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 4 . can be assessed at high speeds and utilized to mitigate potential catastrophic engine failures.• Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) produces real-time vibration spectral data from critical components discrete spectral signatures. which are prime indicators of machinery health.

the data must be transferred rapidly to Digital Signal Processing (DSP) modules.Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) • After the high-speed acquisition task is performed. 5 . and summarily run the pertinent health algorithms on-board the DSP chips. • The DSP modules take the digital data. perform a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to produce frequency spectral data. • The complexity of the DSP operations is dependent on the health algorithms being utilized © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) • The DSPs can act independently if the processing load is light or may be utilized as multiple parallel processors (MPP) if the processing tasks are heavy. and act in parallel to perform immense processing tasks without any additional and harmful processing latency. 6 . • The use of MPP operations allows a system to utilize multiple DSP‘s. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. which communicate through the DSP communication ports. The system is a real-time distributed processing system that performs Multiple Instructions on Multiple Data (MIMD).

7 .Health Management Computer Block Diagram © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

8 . • Human Error – Any deviation from a system performance standard which is caused indirectly or directly by an operator and which has significant consequences to the system operation in which it was made © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.HUMAN ERROR related human fatigue • Human error resulting from fatigue-impaired performance has been identified as the cause of numerous transportation mishaps. increase alertness. and decrease human error. • Incorporating human factors into a ship‘s design can help combat fatigue.

**OSVs: Crew and Safe Operations
**

Late 90’s – Considerable increase of accidents, mostly in the North Sea:

- Supply vessels - Anchor handling vessels - Rescue vessels

14 12 10 8 6 4

Last days/hours of rotation/watch

2 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

**Sleep problems for OSV crews
**

What are the causes of your sleep problems at sea?

Noise Vibration in cabin Cabin temperature/humidity Wakened by alarms or other loud noises Bad mattress/pillow/duvet Need to get up to urinate Bothered by shift-working Conflicts/worries at home Other (write): Conflicts/worries at work Feel that something on board is not safe Physical problems (write): Snoring

51

32

29 28

22 18

15

12 11 8

6

4 3 0 10 20 30 Percentage 40 50 60

**Reprinted with permission from Sintef
**

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

**Effects of human fatigue
**

• Fatigue drastically reduces human alertness levels and negatively affects job

performance.

**• Although fatigue is difficult to define, it can be generalized as "impaired
**

alertness―.

• Fatigue affects humans in different ways, although most people suffer from: • decreased problem solving ability • increased risk taking • delayed reaction time • moodiness • inability to concentrate, and • inattentiveness. • Logical reasoning and decision-making are affected by fatigue and it impairs

human physical abilities such as strength, speed, coordination, and balance

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 11

It has also been described as a "fog" that comes over the brain at certain times of the day. Of importance is that fatigue lowers alertness levels and impairs performance. • drug/alcohol use.CAUSES OF FATIGUE • Fatigue may result from: • poor sleep quality • sleep deprivation • physical/mental exertion • emotional stress • disruption of circadian rhythms • poor physical condition. • Everyone has felt the effects of fatigue. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 12 . It is usually described as an uncontrollable urge to sleep or rest.

FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEP © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 13 .

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. namely quality. Quantity and time of day are impacted by work schedules and operational commitments. and recreational environments.RESTORATIVE SLEEP ENVIRONMENT • The sleeping environment determines a person‘s ability to get three of the four factors of restorative sleep. and quantity. working. continuity. 14 . • The design factors that create a good sleeping environment also impact the watch station.

15 .SLEEP DEPRIVATION & ALTERNESS Effects of Reduced Sleep on Alertness Levels Effect of Successive Days of Reduced Sleep on Alertness Levels © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

DESIGN FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEPING ENVIRONMENT • The foundation of the diagram is the six design factors. • These factors determine how comfortable the working and sleeping environments are aboard a ship: • lighting • noise • vibrations • ventilation • temperature. all of which naval architects and marine engineer‘s can directly control. 16 . and • ship motions • These all can be incorporated through the preliminary design of a vessel and maintained throughout ships post-production life © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

can wake a person throughout the night. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. It makes it difficult to fall asleep. which greatly contributes to fatigue. • Nightly interruptions can get so frequent that a person may begin to forget that they were awoken and return to sleep very quickly.NOISE AND SLEEP • Noise affects sleep patterns. and pulls a person from deeper to lighter sleep stages. • This pattern is particularly dangerous because the person is not getting enough deep sleep and will be drowsy the next day. 17 .

Levels of 40 to 50 dBA (lower than a casual conversation) have caused difficulty in falling asleep and has extended the time of falling asleep to one hour. • Short sound duration awakens more than long and steady noise. • Long-term exposure to noise affects sleep.NOISE LEVEL AND SLEEP DISTURBANCE • The noise levels at which sleep disturbances occur are low. Noise is an important factor and is not usually considered with fatigue in mind © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The effect that noise has on sleep challenges designers of shipboard general arrangements. • Three other important findings are listed: • 70 dBA is enough to significantly change the sleep patterns of most subjects. Finding the optimal location for sleeping quarters and crew recreation compartments is critical. • As the sound levels increase it becomes more difficult to fall asleep. 18 .

generators. • Noise also affects sleep patterns and decreases the restorative quality of rest. • Noise comes from numerous sources including engines. 19 . There are many human physiological and physical impacts of noise in the workplace that cause fatigue and negatively impair human performance. and air conditioners.HEALTH EFFECTS OF NOISE • Noise can be defined as unwanted or undesirable sound. It is present in most compartments of a ship and it is difficult to avoid. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. pumps.

NOISE AND HEARING LOSS • Long-term exposure to excessive noise can result in permanent hearing loss. • Temporary loss of hearing is the result of short-term exposure to noise and can lead to permanent hearing loss. • The extent of the hearing damage is dependent upon noise intensity and frequency. 20 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

Although the physiological effects are less perceptible. even at low noise levels and while a person is asleep © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. they have a considerable impact on human performance and this makes them the most dangerous cause of noise induced fatigue.PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE • There are also physiological impacts of noise and these have not been adequately addressed in the guidelines used to establish acceptable noise levels. The body perceives all noise as a threat or warning of danger and continuously responds to it accordingly. 21 . • The physiological changes that occur due to noise are the result of the natural "fight or flight" response of the human body.

• The physiological changes described above also occur when a person is asleep. and unable to effectively deal with minor frustrations. • Noise causes blood pressure to go up. irritable. 22 . increases heart and breathing rates.PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE • Mariners working in a noisy environment tend to be moody. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. accelerates the metabolism. affecting their ability to get restorative sleep and leading to fatigue. and a low-level muscular tension takes over the body ("fight or flight" effects).

insomnia. neuroticism • (b) Cardiovascular system disturbances: hypertension. colitis • (d) Endocrine and biochemical disorders • (e) Sleep disturbance © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. cardiac disease • (c) Digestive disorders: ulcers.PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF NOISE • Problems caused by this type of stress are listed below: • (a) Neuropsychological disturbances: headaches. 23 . fatigue. irritability. hypotension.

24 . the factors compound and it becomes harder to relax. • If the noise continues for long periods. The factors increase as the noise levels increase. • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and numerous human factor design guidelines have prescribed values for intensities and exposure duration at which operators can safely be subjected to noise. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.NOISE EXPOSURE • Noise levels that cause the human body to respond in these ways vary with individuals.

25 . 'C' weighting is used as it is almost a linear weighting which is incorporated in many commercial sound level meters. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. It is normalized for an 8 hour working day so that if for example the exposure time per day is more than 8 hours.8h) • Because noise exposure depends on both the amplitude of noise and the duration of exposure. the daily noise exposure level is the time weighted average of the noise level experienced. It is the maximum instantaneous noise pressure measured on a 'C' weighted frequency scale. • Weekly Noise Exposure Level • This is simply the time weighted average of daily noise exposure levels for a standard 40 hour working week. the noise level to which an employee is exposed must be reduced. • Daily Noise Exposure Level (LEX.8h is a direct replacement of the old LEP.d and is measured in dBA.Definitions • Peak Sound Pressure (Ppeak) • This is measured in units of pressure (pascals) and not decibels. • The LEX.

Noise exposure control • There are two action values and a limit value: • Action Value • The two action values are: • 1. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The Lower Exposure Action Value • 2.8h and peak pressure. Ppeak of 140 pascals.8h and peak pressure Ppeak of 112 pascals. The Upper Exposure Action Value • (1) The Lower Exposure Action Value is 80dBA LEX. • (2) The Upper Exposure Action Value is 85dBA LEX. • These 'Action Values' do not take into account the attenuating effect of ear protectors that employees would be wearing. 26 .

• Variable Daily Exposure • In some industries particularly where production is of a batch rather than continuous nature. 27 . noise exposure varies greatly from day to day. the Directive suggests the use of a weekly noise exposure level.Noise exposure control • Limit Value • The exposure limit value is similar to the action value except that the attenuation provided by ear protection is taken into account. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The exposure limit value is 87dBA Lex.8L and peak pressure Ppeak of 200 pascals. When this the case.

Work places and work stations should be designed to minimize the noise exposure. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 28 . reduction of noise at source is preferred. • The employer should reduce noise using suitable techniques depending on whether noise is predominantly air borne or structure borne. In particular the employer should use quiet working methods and equipment.Reducing Noise Exposure • Wherever possible. Also equipment should be well maintained as it is know that poorly maintained equipment tends to be noisier.

• There are no circumstances in which employees can be allowed to exceed the Exposure Limit Value. The employer must see that this is done.Reducing Noise Exposure • Work should be planned so that times spent in noisy situations is limited and that rest from noise is provided. • Upper Action Value • In particular. Warning signs must be displayed and if possible access to these noisy areas restricted. 29 . • Ear Protection • Once the possibility of noise reduction by technical or organisational means has been eliminated. efficient ear protection must be made available and must be used. if the upper action value is exceeded the employer is to reduce noise by either technical means and or organizational means. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

TIME EXPOSURE OF NOISE The sound levels and permissible duration exposure time per day given by OSHA are listed below and are a good generalization of standards used by the military: Sound Level and Duration per day © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 30 .

NOISE LIMITS AS PER SPACE © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 31 .

000.000.000 μPa 30 dB 20 dB 100 μPa 20 μPa © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 10 dB SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL Pop group 10.000 μPa Jet take-off at 100 meters distance 100 dB SOUND PRESSURE Heavy truck Conversation 1.000 μPa 90 dB 80 dB 100.000 μPa 70 dB 60 dB Business office Living room Woods 0 dB (A) Threshold of Hearing 10.000 μPa 110 dB Pneumatic chipper Street traffic .000.Jet engine Sound pressure at 25 meters distance 140 dB(A) Threshold of Pain 130 dB 120 dB 100.000 μPa 50 dB 40 dB Library Bedroom 1.

Sound pressure Airborne + 62 dB = Waterborne © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 .

IMO on underwater noise The Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) July 2009: ―The committee urged governments to review their commercial fleets to identify the ships that contribute most to underwater noise pollution‖ IFAW estimates that the noisiest 10% of ships contribute the majority of the noise problem © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 .

generators. gears Water flow © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 . thrusters Diesel engines.Noise sources Propellers. electric motors.

iucn.174 dB © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 Photo source: www. moans.185 dB 128 .Underwater Sound Levels Ships underway Tug and barge Supply ship Large tanker Broadband source level (underwater dB at 1 m) Source Broadband source level (underwater dB at 1 m) 171 dB 181 dB 186 dB Grey whale moans Bowhead whale tonals.org .189 dB 144 . and song Humpback whale song 142 .

• Airborne noise is what causes stress and hearing loss. Both of these noise types vary in frequency and intensity. 37 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Noise transmission • Audible noise can be broken down into two categories: (1) airborne and (2) structure-borne. • Structure-borne noise induces vibrations that can damage machinery and marine structures.

or springs. 38 . Damping materials are selected by considering the thickness of the vibrating surface. • Absorption: Minimizes noise with resonators and open-celled porous material. and the environment. pads. • Isolation: Minimizes noise by reducing vibrations caused by machinery or equipment. • Damping: Minimizes noise by adding mass to the vibrating structure or by connecting it to a surface that does not want to vibrate. The type of material for an application is based on weight. which converts sound energy to heat. Using more mass increases the effect and barriers work better at higher frequencies. • Barriers: Minimizes noise by blocking sound transmission through the use of high mass. There are three locations where noise can be minimized and four basic methods of controlling it. desired reduction.Noise Control • A ship designer must consider a number of different issues when designing to reduce and control noise. or limp mass materials. Vibration-absorbing materials are used such as rubber mounts. resilient. vibration frequency. and desired degree of isolation. Materials used are based on the noise frequency. and environment. the desired reduction. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

expensive. These materials can be heavy. Despite this.Locations of barriers for noise transmission • In most applications. specially enclosed workspaces can have as much as an eight to nine dBA reduction. In order for barriers to be effective designers must use the proper absorption materials. 39 . the use of barriers is the most effective means of reducing airborne noise. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and take up critical space.

HEALTH EFFECT OF VIBRATION • Vibrations resonate throughout the hull structure and the entire crew can be affected. • The propagation of these vibrations along the decks and bulkheads subject the crew to whole body vibration and noise. • There are two types of effects short term and long term © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The effects of whole body vibration are well studied and documented. 40 .

and • Fatigue • Long term effects:• • • • • hearing loss constant body agitation musculoskeletal injuries. • Stress. Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and bone degeneration.PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF VIBRATION • short term effects:• headaches. 41 © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 . back disorders.

HEALTH EFFECT OF VIBRATION • Physiological: • Cardiac rhythm increases • Respiration rhythm increases • Blood circulation increases • Vasoconstriction • Endocrine secretions • Central nervous system affected • Comfort and Performance: • Pain • Nausea • Vision problems • Posture • Movement and coordination decline • Force • Perceptions altered © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 42 .

Vibration Exposure Criteria Vibration Exposure Criteria for the Longitudinal Directions with Respect to Body Axis © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 Vibration Exposure Criteria for the Transverse Directions with Respect to Body Axis No. 43 .

Avoid resonance • Path Control • .Use vibration isolators • Receiver Control • .adapt posture • .reduce contact area © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Reduce vibration transmission (structural dampening) • .Vibration Control • Listed below are the three effective ways: • Source Control • . 44 .use vibration isolators • .Limit exposure time • .Reduce vibration intensity • .

or any other measurable physical parameter. current. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 45 . Typically. including local maxima which may exist at the frequency endpoints of the transmissibility function. for both plus and minus increments however small. with little or not outward manifestation at the vibration measurement point. a response prominence is identified by the frequency of its maximum response. A response prominence may occur in an internal part of the equipment. regardless of magnitude.MIL-STD-167-1A changes from previous version • Definition of response prominence • A resonance with transmissibility (output/input) greater than 1. which is the response prominence frequency. such as voltage. in a transmissibility function. in the frequency of excitation results in a decrease of the system response at the observing sensor registering the maximum. and in some cases. Instructions on how to identify response prominences is provided in Appendix A”. the response may be detected by observing some other type of output function of the equipment. A response prominence of a system in forced oscillation exists when any change.5: • “Response prominence is a general term denoting a resonance or other distinct maximum.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 46 . • Rotor. its residual unbalance does not exceed the allowed tolerance. Any value of unbalance assigned to a flexible rotor must be at a particular speed. relative to the shaft axis. rigid – A rotor is considered to be rigid when its unbalance can be corrected in any two arbitrary selected planes and it operates below its first resonance. for example. The unbalance of a flexible rotor changes with speed. A rotor which operates above n resonances requires n+2 balance planes of correction. at any speed up to the maximum service speed and when running under conditions which approximate closely to those of the final supporting system. After correction.Balance Definitions • Rotor. The balancing of flexible rotors requires correction in more than two planes. requires 2 + 2 balance planes of correction. A rotor which operates between the second and third resonances. flexible – A flexible rotor is one that does not meet the criteria for a rigid rotor and operates above its first resonance.

TEST UP TO AND INCLUDING: F = (DESIGN RPM/60) x (NUMBER OF PROPELLER BLADES) x 1.15 NOTE: ROUND ANSWER UP TO NEXT HIGHER INTEGRAL FREQUENCY © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 47 .MIL-STD-167-1A • 15 SECOND TEST/ ID RESPONSE PROMINANCES AND/OR RESONANCES • 5 MIN SCREENING TEST/ 40% OF CYCLES UNOFFICIAL ENDURANCE TEST • 2 HR ENDURANCE TEST • FOR ONE CLASS INSTALLATION.

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 • IDENTIFY POTENTIAL SIGNS OF HIGH STRESS • TAILORING : TAILORING IS A FUNCTION OF THE QUALITY OF © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 48 .DRAFT MIL-STD-810G METHOD 528 • PRETEST • CHECK BOLTS AND WASHERS BEFORE. CONCENTRATION. THE ALTERNATING THRUST IS HIGH FOR FLAT PROPELLERS AND DECREASES SIGNIFICANTLY FOR MODERN HIGHLY SKEWED PROPELLERS. DURING (WHEN CHANGING DIRECTION OF VIBRATION). THE COMBATANT‘S PROPELLERS. CONSIDER COMPOSITE AND CAST MATERIALS. AND AFTER TEST. ENSURE ALL BOLTS ARE PROPER GRIP LENGTH AND THAT THE WASHERS ARE NOT ROTATING.

it may be more representative of the actual environment. In most cases. the random vibration test would be less severe than the sinusoidal test of MIL-STD-167-1A. at the centered frequency in g2/Hz. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 49 . however.Draft MIL-STD-810G. METHOD 528 • Definitions – Random Vibration • Power Spectral Density – mean square value of the signal in the frequency interval ∆f. a waiver is required from SEA 05P1. However.

METHOD 528 • BASIS OF USING RANDOM VIBRATION TESTING • Actual ship environmental data is available and indicates random vibration is the best representation of the environment. • The Alternating Thrust of the propeller is below 1. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 50 .Draft MIL-STD-810G.5 % of mean thrust.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 51 . METHOD 528 • Vibration Environment • Validate the accelerometer's sensitivity before and after testing.Draft MIL-STD-810G.

ACCELEROMETER PROBLEMS © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 52 .

Vibration Standards (.557/.05 = 5.28/.45 =1. (Assuming Mag.6).297/.6 X 2 ≈ 7) © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 53 .2 + 4.6) (.075 = 4.2 test levels exceed ship environment) (.6) = 3. Factor of 2: 3.0 + 5.0) For stern of combatant test levels are 7 times higher than shipboard measurements ( ⅓ (1.

MIL-M-19379.5 within the blade frequency range of 80% to 115% of design RPM. provided the isolation mounts are Navy standard mounts contained in MIL-M-17191. MIL-M-17508. If material is tested for Type I vibrations hard mounted to the test fixture throughout the duration of the test. Type I testing of a particular test item on isolation mounts is valid only for the isolation mount type and configuration used during testing. One of the frequencies selected should be the isolation mount frequency if the test is to be performed on isolation mounts. MIL-M-24476. MIL-M-19863. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 54 . the test is valid for either hard mounted or isolation mounted shipboard installations. or distributed isolation material (DIM). Ensure the transmissibility across the mounts does not exceed 1. testing shall be performed on isolation mounts or hard mounted to the testing machine.Isolation Mountings • For Type I testing of material to be installed shipboard on isolation mounts. • The endurance test is for a total period of two hours at the frequency moist seriously affecting the equipment. or as specified. MIL-M-21649.

Design Power Calculation • • • • • • • • IAI = ω2X F = ma = ω2Xm T(torque) = ω2X2m P(power) = T ω = ω3X3m P = (2Πf)3X2m.5 and greater © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 55 .8 Design RPM ½ Power ≈ 80% Design RPM Record Response Prominences • Output/input = 1. f= RPM/60 P ≈ (RPM) 3 ½ Power ≈ (1/2) ⅓ ≈ 0.

between the mass centerline and the geometric centerline of a rotor. • G = ω е (eccentricity from balance in mm) • е = G/ ω (units of ω are rad/sec) • Note “е” is the distance between the shaft axis and rotor center of gravity. • Mass unbalance occurs when the center of mass of a rotor does not coincide with the rotor’s geometric center. Mass center Geometric center © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 е 56 .Balancing • A process of minimizing the distance. е. • G: balance quality grade in mm/sec.

the total balance quality grade shall not exceed G = 2. the maximum allowable residual unbalance is given by the following formula: • Given: • U = Wе and G = ω е = 2 Πf е • U is the maximum allowable residual unbalance • G is the total balance quality grade (mm/sec) as specified • W is weight of the rotor (lbs) • N is the maximum rotor rpm • е is the eccentricity limit (mm) • It can be shown that • U = 60GW / 2 Π N (lbs – mm) • or U = 6GW/N (oz – in) • For rigid rotors that operate below 1000 rpm. the total balance quality grade shall not exceed G = 1.5 mm/s.0 mm/s.19. see ANSI S2. a balance quality grade of G = 1. For rigid rotors that require low noise. For rigid rotors that operate at 1000 rpm and above.Balance Limits for Rigid Rotors • When balanced as specified. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 57 .0 mm/s can be specified for all speeds. For guidance on balance quality grades of rigid rotors.

• This is a more severe requirement. U(per plane) = 4W/N • What is the balance quality grade. G = 2/3 per plane • G (total) = 2(2/3) = 4/3 mm/sec for two planes • In MIL-STD-167-1A. N in RPM) • In MIL-STD-167-1. G. for this requirement ? • Set 6GW/N = 4W/N . W in lbs. 6G = 4. G(total) has been reduced to 1 mm/sec for noise sensitive rotors. G in mm/sec. Since: • G(total) = ω е (e is ecentricity from balance in mm) • The distance “e” between the shaft axis and the rotor center of gravity has been reduced in MIL-STD-167-1A 58 © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 .Balance Quality Grades • Application of U = 6GW/N (U in oz/sec.

004 mm allowed eccentricity (ω = 2 Π f = 2 Π RPM/60) • For G = 4/3 mm/sec (Old 4W/N requirement) : U = 6GW/N = 6(4/3) 500/6000 = 2/3 oz-in total . е = G/ ω = 4/3/(2 Π6000/60) = (4/3) 1/628 = 0. е. U = 6GW/N = 6(1) 500/6000 = ½ oz-in total.5/(2 Π 6000/60) = 2.Balance Quality Grades • Allowable Unbalance Example • What is the maximum allowable residual unbalance.0016 mm allowed eccentricity.0/(2 Π6000/60) = 0.0021 mm allowed eccentricity • For G = 1. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 59 .25 oz-in total and G = ω е .0 mm/sec . е = G/ ω = 1.0 mm/sec at 6000 RPM? • For G = 2. е = G/ ω = 2. G = ω е . • The lower the balance quality grade. 4/3 and 1.5 mm/sec : U = 6G(W/N) = 6(2. For a 500 lb Rotor which is to be balanced to balance quality grades of 2.5.5/200 Π = 0. U in oz-in.5) 500/6000 = 1. the quieter the rigid rotor because of the small eccentricity. For low noise rigid rotors G= ω е .

Approval Process for Vibration Testing Data Reports Disapprove Approve Certified Government Vibration Testing Approver NAVSEA Test from Certified Manufacturer Tester Test from Certified Contractor Tester Test from Certified Government Tester © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 60 .

or any one. It can occur at any frequency up to those which are more commonly called noise. particularly with regard to structural optimization and high speeds to meet market demands. and it may be rotational (torsional). • It may affect any group of components. there is a tendency for noise and vibration problems to become more pronounced. • As ship design advances. Vibration may be resonant. • Design practice should include elements of model testing. calculation and heuristic deduction from previous experience © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 61 . at one of its natural frequencies or forced.VIBRATION DEFINATIONS • Vibration may be in any linear direction.

• The Vibration Velocity is the speed of movement of this point .being highest as the point passes through its at rest position. It gives good guide to the amount of energy being generated by the vibrating object. This parameter is often used when balancing.VIBRATION DEFINATIONS • The total vertical movement is called the Peak to Peak Displacement of the vibration. This energy usually results in wear and eventual failure. • The amount of energy is proportional to the square of the velocity of vibration. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 62 . Velocity being a good indication of the amount of wear taking place in a machine is used exclusively in monitoring systems. This is an indication of the amount of the amount of lateral movement of the machine and is good indication of the amount of out of balance in a machine when the value is compared to a standard for that machine.

s value is used. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 63 . • The Vibration Frequency is the time taken to complete one cycle .VIBRATION DEFINATIONS • For analysis purposes the r.The shaft below is said to have a fundamental frequency equal to the shaft rotational velocity.m. • For very low speed machines where the velocity is low the displacement may be used instead.

in the theoretical absence of any damping influence © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 64 . • ‗Elastic‘ in this sense means that a displacement or a twist from rest creates a force or torque tending to return the system to its position of rest. or vibrating. will go on swinging. if excited. can build up to an amplitude which is perfectly capable of breaking crankshafts. and which is proportional to the displacement. • An elastic system. once set in motion in this way.SHAFT VIBRATION • Any elastically coupled shaft or other system will have one or more natural frequencies which. about its equilibrium position forever.

• q is the stiffness in newton-metres per radian. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 65 .FUNDAMENTAL OR NATURAL FREQUENCY • The frequency of torsional vibration of a single mass will be Where. and • I is the moment of inertia of the attached mass in kg metres2.

q and I (ors and m). • The essence of control is to adjust these two parameters.FUNDAMENTAL OR NATURAL FREQUENCY • For a transverse or axial vibration Where. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 66 . to achieve a frequency which does not coincide with any of the forcing frequencies. • s is the stiffness in newtons per metre of deflection and m is the mass attached in kg.

• By further analysis it is possible to locate the source of vibration within complex machinery.Vibration frequency • The equation is true only when the majority of the vibration occurs at one frequency. • In reality machines vibrate in a much more complex way with vibration occurring at several frequencies. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 67 . • By analysis of the frequency at which each of the vibrations are occurring it is possible to ascertain whether they are being generated from within the system or externally.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 68 .Vibration spectrum Vibration phase can be defined as the angular relationship between the positions of maximum vibrations and some fixed point on a rotating shaft at any instant.

Vibration effects and types © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 69 .

velocity and displacement is fixed and frequency dependent. • It is not possible to vary any one of these three parameters without affecting another. at any given frequency. each has a constant.VIBRATION PARAMETERS • It is important to understand that with sinusoidal vibration. proportional relationship with the other © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 70 . the relationship between acceleration. and for this reason. velocity and displacement are all linear scalar quantities and in that respect. one must consider all of them simultaneously when specifying or observing sine vibration. • The three parameters of acceleration.

VIBRATION PARAMETERS • In other words. the constant of proportionality between the three parameters is frequency dependent and therefore not the same at different frequencies. • However. if the frequency is held constant. increasing or decreasing the amplitude of any one of the three parameters results in a corresponding proportional increase or decrease in both of the other two parameters. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 71 .

• © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 72 . most engineering calculations utilize the dimensionless unit of g‘s and convert to normal dimensioned units only when required. a g is numerically equal to the acceleration of gravity under standard conditions.Acceleration. however. sinusoidal vibration testing uses the following conventions for measurement of vibration levels. • Acceleration is normally specified and measured in its peak sinusoidal value and is normally expressed in standardized and normalized dimensionless units of g‘s peak. Velocity and Displacement • In general. In fact.

however. • Displacement is usually expressed in normal linear dimensions. In other words.Acceleration. • The second is that velocity has a proportionally increasing (or decreasing) relationship with either displacement or acceleration. it is measured over the total vibration excursion or peak to peak amplitude. The normal units of velocity are inches per second in the English system or millimeters per second in the metric system of units. The normal units of displacement are inches for English or millimeters for the metric system of units. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 73 . velocity is of primary concern to those interested in machinery condition monitoring. Although not often used in vibration testing applications. Velocity and Displacement • Velocity is specified in peak amplitude as well. Velocity is of interest when damping components or back EMF issues are important to the testing. the velocity will increase (or decrease) in direct proportion to the frequency if either of the other parameters are held constant.

Hz © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 74 . these quantities are not independent and are related to each other by the frequency of the vibration. g‘s peak D= displacement. inches per second. along with the frequency of operation. inches. peak to peak V= velocity. Velocity and Displacement • As mentioned previously. Knowing any one of the three parameter levels. peak f = frequency. The sinusoidal equations of motion stated in normal vibration testing units are as follows: • where: g= acceleration. is enough to completely predict the other two levels.Acceleration.

Vibration characteristics © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 75 .

ACCELERATION MEASUREMENT © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 76 .

M. Root mean Square • They are related as follows. • R.S. Peak to peak • 2.Vibration measurements units • There are three different ways of expressing vibration measurements • 1. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 77 . = Peak to Peak / 2.83 • Half peak value = Peak to peak / 2 . Half peak • 3.

octave. order tracking. and time/histogram © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 78 . time capture.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Standard measurement groups include:• • • • • • • FFT. correlation. swept-sine.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Averaging • A wide selection of averaging techniques to improve your signal-to-noise ratio. Both linear and exponential averaging are provided for each mode • Order Tracking • Order tracking is used to evaluate the behavior of rotating machinery. the amplitude profile of specific orders in the map can be analyzed. Combined with a waterfall plot. while vector averaging minimizes noise from synchronous signals. Measurement data is displayed as a function of multiples of the shaft frequency (orders). rather than absolute frequency. rpm is measured © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 79 . RMS averaging reduces signal fluctuations. Peak hold averaging is also available. or "order map" of your data as a function of time or rpm. Using the slice feature. the intensity of individual orders vs. In tracked order mode.

are included. • Averaging choices include exponential time averaging. linear time averaging. type 1-D) and IEC 225-1966. at frequencies up to 40 kHz (single channel) or 20 kHz (two channel). B and C weighting math functions. Broadband sound level is measured and displayed as the last band in the octave graph. Octave analysis is fully compliant with ANSI S1. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 80 .11-1986 (Order 3. and equal confidence averaging. 1/3 and 1/12 octave analysis.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Octave Analysis • Real-time 1/1. peak hold. Switchable analog A-weighting filters. as well as A.

for instance). Statistical analysis capabilities include both probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF). number of samples. • Time/Histogram • The time/histogram measurement group is used to analyze time-domain data. A frequency resolution of up to 2000 points is also provided. Gain is optimized at each point in the measurement. The sample rate. signal amplitude is provided for accurate time domain signal characterization.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Swept-Sine Measurements • Swept-sine mode is ideal for signal analysis that involves high dynamic range or wide frequency spans. A histogram of the time data vs. Auto-ranging can be used with source auto-leveling to maintain a constant input or output level at the device under test (to test response at a specific amplitude. and number of bins can all be adjusted © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 81 . producing up to 145 dB of dynamic range.

For example. or about 9 hours of data at a 256 Hz sample rate. Once captured. any portion of the signal can be played back.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Time Capture • Analog waveforms can be captured at sampling rates of 262 kHz or any binary sub-multiple. allowing to optimize sampling rate and storage for any application. 8 Msamples of memory will capture 32 seconds of time domain data at the maximum 262 kHz sample rate. The convenient Auto-Pan feature lets you display measurement results synchronously with the corresponding portion of the capture buffer to identify important features © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 82 .

• Waterfall traces can be stored every n time records for FFT and order tracking measurements. In octave measurements.VIBRATION MEASUREMENT • Waterfall • Waterfall plots are a convenient way of viewing a time history of data. Any z-axis slice or x-axis record can be saved to disk or displayed separately for analysis. While displaying waterfall plots. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 83 . you can adjust the skew angle to reveal important features. new records can be acquired at a specific time interval or change in rpm. All FFT. Each successive measurement record is plotted along the z-axis making it easy to see trends in the data. the storage interval is in seconds (as fast as every 4 ms). or change the baseline threshold to eliminate low-level clutter. For order tracking measurements. octave and order tracking measurements can be stored in waterfall buffer memory.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT PLOTS Order Tracking Waterfall © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 84 .

FACTORS AFFECTING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • The four elements of importance in ship vibration are: • • Excitation. and • • Damping © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 85 . • • Stiffness. • • Frequency Ratio.

F. • ii) Increase stiffness. stiffness is to be increased rather than decreased when variations in natural frequency are to be accomplished by variations in stiffness. In general. 86 . the excitation may be reduced by changing the propeller unsteady hydrodynamics.REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • i) Reduce exciting force amplitude. K. In propeller-induced ship vibration. Stiffness is defined as spring force per unit deflection. It is not a recommended practice to reduce system stiffness in attempts to reduce vibration. This may involve lines or clearance changes to reduce the non-uniformity of the wake inflow or may involve geometric changes to the propeller itself. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

Note that ω/ωn can be varied by varying either excitation frequency ω or natural frequency ωn. increasing stiffness is the usual and preferred approach. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. the excitation is opposed only by damping. ω/ωn = 1 is the resonant condition. by changing the propeller RPM or its number of blades. or. 87 . ωn is changed by changes in system mass and/or stiffness.REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • iii) Avoid values of frequency ratio near unity. At resonance. The spectrum of ω can be changed by changing the RPM of a relevant rotating machinery source. in the case of propeller-induced vibration.

88 . the vibratory amplitude is approximately damping independent. ζ. Damping of structural systems in general. ζ << 1. ζ is. and of ships in particular.REDUCING VIBRATION PARAMETERS • iv) Increase damping. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. damping is difficult to increase significantly in systems such as ships. in general. except very near resonance. Therefore. Furthermore. is small. the least effective of the four parameters available to the designer for implementing changes in ship vibratory characteristics.

it can be dealt with by isolating the responsible machinery from its base support structure . • Instead of attempting to isolate structure from source vibration . or by controlling the response of ship‘s structure by imposing a counter vibration on it.must operate silently. • Impressing a counter vibration on the source such that the unwanted vibration is cancelled .Vibration mitigation on a naval vessel • It is important to prevent or counter vibrations as it ultimately becomes destructive. • Much vibration can be avoided by careful design and manufacture .for example ensuring that rotating masses on machines are balanced.the response of the structure to that vibration could be sensed and actively controlled using strategically placed transducers and cancellation techniques © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 89 . for operational reasons . • Otherwise .interrupting the path which vibration is transmitted from its source. ‗ Important‘ becomes ‗imperative‘ on naval and other vessels that.

Strategies of naval vibration minimization • Naval designers use finite element and impedance modeling to help designers achieve structures whose natural vibration frequencies are well separated from the excitation frequencies likely to be generated by the ship‘s propulsion and other machinery. may grow to damaging proportions.fed with energy from in phase source of vibrations. • Failure to ensure this can lead to resonances in which structural oscillations . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 90 .

vibration still develops .once the material of choice for absorbing vibration energy .Strategies of naval vibration minimization • If . despite these precautions . • Classic ‗fix' now is to mount them to their base via anti vibration mounts incorporating resilient material.has since been joined by a range of elastomer and other materials. and a number of firms specialize in static and dynamic balancing. Natural rubber . This is called a passive machinery mount/vibration isolator © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 91 .it may be necessary to address the problem by judiciously adding balance weights.

• This is a contradictory requirement. generator . • Nevertheless . while for the latter it needs to be highly resilient.passive mounts can substantially reduce medium or high frequency vibrations.pump etc. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 92 .. • to support and secure the machine in question ( propulsion engine.) and • to isolate vibration source (machine) from the receiver ( base structure) • The former requires the mount to be stiff as possible .– indeed. as soft as possible.Passive vibration isolator • A passive machinery mount/vibration isolator has two roles. so passive dampers tend to be a compromise and are least effective at low frequencies.-typically by some 10dB. Most solid mounts comprise metal/elastomer combinations in which metal most of the stiffness required to support and locate the subject machine while the elastomer absorbs the vibration energy. for maximum effect.

Type of passive vibration isolators © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 93 .

• Thus.the performance of which is optimized for particular frequencies. engineers have devised fluidic/hydraulic. Also available are tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) .Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) • Whilst passive dampers based on resilient materials are often cost effective . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 94 . pneumatic and electro-magnetic systems.their performance can sometimes be bettered by alternative source of resilience.

is fed to a synchronizer module which ensures correct drive speed and phasing. but anti phase to produce a canceling effect. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 95 . • A signal representing engine rev/min sensed by a tacho-graph.electro-mechanical vibration compensators can be more effective.Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) • For low speed engines . These utilize rotating masses electrically driven in synchronism with mechanical out of balance forces.

Electrically operated tuned vibration absorber © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 96 .

to feed counter vibrations into the base structure. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 97 . longitudinally or vertically.Location of the TVA • Units can be selected to counter vibration propagated transversely. • The system can also be beneficial for certain propeller vibration modes .and in those cases it is usually mounted at the thrust block. • Typically a pair would be mounted at specific points near main engine .

the active means which is somewhat analogous to the now well-known ‗anti noise‘ cancellation technique.vibration passing to the base structure is minimized. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 98 .impose vibration on a machinery mount in such away that it cancels the unwanted source vibration . As a result . • In essence .Active vibration isolator • Another approach shown to be effective with slow-turning engines is to supplement passive isolation with the element of active cancellation. -.

• The control loop can be closed by a feed back or feed forward ( anticipatory) term depending on the situation. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 99 .Active vibration isolator system • System requires an electro-mechanical actuator to impose the anti-vibration oscillations. This is converted back to analogue and passed via a power amplifier to the actuator. accelerometer sensors to sense the source of vibration .a central data acquisition /processor/control unit and a power supply. A tachograph fitted to the subject machine provides the necessary revolutions rate reference signal.which then generates an appropriate digital cancellation signal. • Sensor signals are digitized and analyzed by the processor .

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 100 . • State-of –the-art active control systems can provide as much as 20-30 dB attenuation.they can still operate passively. or it can be mounted alongside it so that the active and passive elements are in parallel. including at the low frequencies that defeat passive isolators. • The latter arrangement has the advantage that the active element does not have to bear the source machine‘s weight . should the active component or power fail . • Smart Spring mount fail to a safe condition since.but the inertial actuator has to be powerful enough to overcome the stiffness of the passive mount.in which case it is in series (in line) with the passive resilient element.Active vibration isolator control element • An active control element can be included as a part of the isolator itself .

Active vibration isolator (parallel config) © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 101 .

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 102 . are addressed at the earliest design stage. may be avoided. repeatedly identified by experience as the most important. It is clear that if the vibration problems. it will help to avoid major vibration problems.Concept Design Approach • Concept design is where the vibration avoidance process must begin. If as much as possible can be done in concept design with the simple tools and rules of thumb available at that level. ultimately serious problems. involving great cost in correction efforts. • The focus is on planning for vibration early at the Concept Design stage. where there has been no development of details.

Concept Design Approach • While quantification of all four elements is required in calculating the vibration response level. acceptable results may consistently be achieved with reasonable effort by focusing attention in concept design on two of the four elements. acceptable results may consistently be achieved with reasonable effort by focusing attention in concept design on two of the four elements. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 103 . • While quantification of all four elements is required in calculating the vibration response level. The two of the four elements of importance are excitation and frequency ratio.

within the normal constraints imposed by other design variables. 104 . frequency ratio. and • • Avoid resonances involving active participation of major subsystems in frequency ranges where the dominant excitations are strongest. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. damping) of importance are excitation and frequency ratio.Concept Design Approach • The two of the four elements (excitation. stiffness. The achievement in design of two objectives with regard to these elements has resulted in many successful ships: • • Minimize dominant vibratory excitations.

• But local problems usually involve local structural resonances and often considered as minor problems.. plating panels. • iii) Superstructure fore-and-aft vibration excited by hull girder vertical vibration and/or main propulsion machinery/shafting system longitudinal vibration. etc. as the correction approach by local stiffening may be easily achievable © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • ii) Main machinery/shafting system longitudinal vibration excited by the propeller. • A myriad of local vibrations. antennas. may be encountered on new vessel trials in addition to these three.Attention to vibration design of ships • Experience has shown that attention to vibration in concept design of large ships can usually be paid to the following items: • i) Hull girder vertical vibration excited by the main engine. 105 . such as hand-rails.

106 .DESIGNING OUT VIBRATION © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

Effect of engine vibrations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 107 .

5. Gas turbines are 9. 7. generally considered to give less excitation than diesel engines. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 108 . • Air conditioning systems. • Vortex shedding mechanisms The major sources are the low-speed diesel 8. main engine and the propeller. • Shaft-line dynamics 3. • Maneuvering devices such as transverse propulsion units 6. • Slamming phenomena.typically diesel engines. Typically these may include: 1. • Intakes and exhausts. • Propeller radiated pressures and bearing forces. 2. • The prime movers . 4.Sources of vibration excitation • There are a number of sources of vibration and noise present in a ship or marine vehicle. • Cargo handling and mooring machinery.

• Damaged or worn teeth • Resonance. The great majority of the above create a vibration at a multiple of the fundamental • © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 109 . • Damaged or worn bearings. • loose components • Bending or eccentricity of shafts.Other causes of vibration form prime movers and auxiliaries • Typical causes could be • Š Unbalance. • Electromagnetic effects. • Unequal thermal effects • Aerodynamic forces (turbocharger) • Hydraulic forces • Bad belt drives • Oil whirl • Reciprocating forces. • Misalignment.

110 .Excitation due to slow speed diesel engine • Excitations generated by the engine can be divided into two categories: • 1) Primary excitations. with reference to a certain speed and power • 2) Secondary excitations. which are forces and moments originating from the combustion pressure and the inertia forces of the rotating and reciprocating masses. stemming from a forced vibratory response in a sub-structure. The vibration characteristics of substructures are almost independent of the remaining ship structure © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and they can be calculated in advance and be stated as part of the engine specification. These are characteristics of the engine as such.

111 . split up into four categories:• • External unbalanced moments :These can be classified as unbalanced 1st . 2nd and may be 4th order external moments.Vibration Aspects of Two-stroke Diesel Engines • The vibration characteristics of the twostroke low speed diesel engines can for practical purposes be. which need to be considered only for certain cylinder numbers • • Guide force moments • • Axial vibrations in the shaft system • • Torsional vibrations in the shaft system. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

External unbalanced moments and guide forces © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 112 .

• The dynamic loads are due to forces arising from two sources. 113 . The inertia forces. 1. The fluctuating gas pressure in the cylinder.Diesel engine forces • Diesel engine force components are comprised of static loads (I. 3. loads arising from bolted assembly) and dynamic loads.e. Rotating masses © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 2.

only the 1st order (one cycle per revolution) and the 2nd order (two cycles per revolution) need to be considered. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and then only for engines with a low number of cylinders. to neutralize themselves. • On some large bore engines the 4th external order moment may also have to be examined. 114 . • The inertia forces on engines with more than 6 cylinders tend.External unbalanced moments • The inertia forces originating from the unbalanced rotating and reciprocating masses of the engine create unbalanced external moments although the external forces are zero. more or less. • This can be Mathematically. expressed as follows:• Of these moments.

because they originate solely in the inertia forces on the reciprocating masses. the 1st order moment causes no vibration problems. 115 . • The 1st order moments acts with a frequency corresponding to the engine speed x 1. it is recommendable to evaluate the risk because in rare cases this cylinder configuration may cause vibration levels of a disturbing magnitude © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.1st and 2nd order external moments • The external moments are known as the 1st . • Generally speaking.order moments (acting in both the vertical and horizontal directions) and 2nd order moments (acting in the vertical direction only. For 4-cylinder engines. however.

• The adjustable counter-weights should be positioned so as to make the vertical moment harmless. the horizontal moment will decrease to between 0 and 30% of the value. and the calculation for the specific plant will show whether or not a compensator is necessary. where the 1st order moment may cause resonance with both the vertical and the horizontal hull vibration mode in the normal speed range of the engine. • In rare cases. The 1st order vertical moment will decrease to about 30% of the value. 116 . • With a 1st order moment compensator fitted aft. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • This resonance can be calculated with reasonable accuracy. depending on the position of the node.1st order resonance and solutions • Resonance with a 1st order moment may occur for hull vibrations with 2 and/or 3 nodes. and a 1st order compensator fitted in the chain tightener wheel in order to neutralize the horizontal moment.

117 .1st order vertical & horizontal moment compensator © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

5 and 8-cylinder engines. • In order to control the resulting vibratory responses. a 2nd order compensator can be installed © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Resonance with 4 and 5 node vertical hull girder vibration modes can occur in the normal engine speed range.2nd order resonance • The 2nd order moment acts with a frequency corresponding to twice the engine speed. The 2nd order moment acts in the vertical direction only. • Owing to the magnitude of the 2nd order moment. it is only relevant to compensate this moment on 4. 118 .

synchronized to the correct phase relative to the free moment. completely eliminating the external 2nd order moments. driven from the crank shaft through a separate chain drive • d) Compensators on both the aft and fore ends of the engine.Solutions for 2nd order compensator • Several solutions. if considered unnecessary on the basis of the natural frequency. are available to cope with the 2nd order vertical moment: • a) No compensators. • c) A compensator mounted on the front end. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. where deflections are largest and the compensator. nodal point and size of the 2nd order moment • b) A compensator mounted on the aft end of the engine driven by the main chain drive. • e) An electrically driven compensator. therefore. 119 . will have the greatest effect. from which the most cost-efficient one can be chosen. • This type of compensator needs preparations in the form of an extra seating. prefer-able in the steering gear room.

2nd order moment compensators © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 120 .

2nd order moment compensators © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 121 .

the size of which is found by multiplying the force by the distance to the node. • Due to the positioning of these counter-weights.e. • The counterweights on the chain wheel produce a centrifugal force which creates a moment. 122 .Action of 2nd order compensator • Compensation of an external moment by means of a compensating force is possible if there is an adequate distance from the position where the force is acting to the node of the vibration (i. the direction of the compensating moment will always be opposite to the direction of the external moment © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. an excitation force is inefficient when acting in a node).

transferred through the connecting rod. • When the piston is not exactly in its top or bottom position. 123 . • In a multi-cylinder engine. gas and inertia forces and their resultants form a system of guide force moments containing all orders. the gas force. will have a component acting on the crank-shaft perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. they form a guide force moment.Guide force moments • The so-called guide force moments are caused by the gas force on the piston. together. and by inertia forces. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. Its resultant is acting on the guide shoe and.

The X-moment tends to twist the engine in an X-like shape. tends to rock the engine top in the transverse direction. • The H-type guide force moment.TYPES OF GUIDE FORCES. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The main order of the H-moment is equal to the cylinder number. • The X-type guide force moment is the dominating for engines with more than six cylinders. • Two kinds of guide force moments exist: • The so-called H and X-moments. 124 . which is dominating on engines with less than seven cylinders. and the main order is equal to half the number.

• The top bracing can either be mechanical with frictional connection or hydraulically adjustable © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Guide forces and top bracings • For engines with odd numbers of cylinders. the main orders are mostly the two orders closest to half the number of cylinders. 125 . • In order to counteract the possible impact on the hull from guide force moments. it is recommend the installation of a set of top bracings between the upper gallery of the main engine and the hull structure (casing side).

• 2: Another force at level of the guide plane. As the deflection shape for the H-type is equal for each cylinder the Nth order • H-type guide force moment for an N-cylinder engine with regular firing order is: N • MH(one cylinder). as the guide shoe reciprocates on the guide plane.H-type Guide Force Moment (MH) • Each cylinder unit produces a force couple consisting of: • 1: A force at level of crankshaft centre-line. • The position of the force changes over one revolution. 126 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

e. this force couple may alternatively be applied in those positions with a vertical distance of (LZ). • As the interaction between engine and hull is at the engine seating and the top bracing positions. the length of the connecting rod). • Then the force can be calculated as: • ForceZ =MH /LZ kN © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.H-type Guide Force Moment (MH) • The size of the forces in the force couple is: • Force = MH /L kN • where L is the distance between crankshaft level and the middle position of the guide plane (i. 127 .

however. • A so-called ‖Bi-moment‖ can be calculated • The X-type guide force moment is then defined as: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. as the deflection shape is twisting the engine each cylinder unit does not contribute with equal amount. 128 . • The centre units do not contribute very much whereas the units at each end contributes much.X-type Guide Force Moment (MX) • The X-type guide force moment is calculated based on the same force couple as described.

Alignment of guide forces © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 129 .

Action of the bracings • These bracings act as detunes of the system double bottom and main engine. which means that the natural frequency of the vibration system will be increased to such an extent that resonance occurs above the running range of engine speed and the guide force moments will. therefore. • The mechanical top bracing comprises stiff connections (links) with friction plates and alternatively a hydraulic top bracing. which allow adjustment to the loading conditions of the ship. be harmless. 130 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

131 .Hydraulic and mechanical top bracings © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

it is the relative stiffness between the engine frame and the connected hull structure which has to be considered © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 132 . • therefore. How-ever. it is obvious that an infinitely stiff engine frame cannot be obtained and. • If the engine frame could be assumed to be infinitely stiff. internal moments and forces would not be able to give excitations to the ship‘s structure.Internal forces and moments • It is the responsibility of the engine de-signer to provide the engine frame with sufficient stiffness to cope with the internal forces and moments so that de-flections and corresponding stresses can be kept within acceptable limits.

133 .Internal & external forces and moments © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • There are two main types of these vibrations:• Axial vibrations and • torsional vibrations. • Performance of the system also depends on the response of the system to the oscillations imposed on to the system. • The vibration characteristics may be modified by the impressed effect on it by the remaining system.Secondary forces • These excitation forces are not generated within the engine. 134 . but are resultant of the interaction effect of the prime mover the propeller and the shafting system.

It is these variations that cause the excitation of torsional vibration of the shaft system. where the number of revolutions multiplied by the order of excitation corresponds to the natural frequency © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 135 . i. • The stresses will show peak values at resonances.e.Torsional vibrations • The varying gas pressure in the cylinders during the working cycle and the crankshaft/connecting rod mechanism create a varying torque in the crank-shaft. which may be detrimental to the shaft system. • Torsional vibration causes extra stresses.

136 .Mechanisms of torsional vibrations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

. . . . . . . . . 137 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Based on service experience from a greater number of large ships with engines of different types and cylinder numbers. . . it is possible to give an estimate of the risk of hull vibrations for a specific engine. . . . . likely • above 220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . not relevant • from 60 to 120 . . . . . . . the concept Power Related Unbalance can be used as a guidance. . . . . . . unlikely • from 120 to 220 . . . . stating the external moment relative to the engine power. . . . . the PRU-values have been classified in four groups as follows:• from 0 to 60 . . . • With the PRU-value.Power Related Unbalance (PRU) • To evaluate if there is a risk that 1st and 2nd order external moments will excite disturbing hull vibrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . most likely © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. . . . . . .

or one with a serious imbalance between cylinder loads or timings. • Misfiring in any one cylinder gives rise to resonances that are small or even negligible during the normal operation of plant © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. expecting it to be small. may inadvertently be aggravating a summation of vectors which the designer. • It is important to realize that an engine with one cylinder cut out for any reason. • The absence of firing of one unit significantly changes the whole picture of the propulsion plant vibration behavior. • In general any kind of irregularity in the cylinder firings produces and enlarged vibratory stresses in the components of the propulsion plant. had allowed to remain near the running speed range.Power unbalance and torsional vibration • Designers tend to rely on reasonably correct balance among cylinders. 138 .

but significant orders of n-2. • Torsional vibration can. angular momentum and variable propeller thrust • Torsional vibrations of the entire shaft system are mainly excited by the tangential force T. • However.Coupling of variable torque. If a harmonic angular velocity is superimposed upon the normal uniform rotation of the crank-throw. n-l. 139 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. n+l and n+2 will also appear. excite vibration in the hull through the coupling phenomena present in the connecting rod mechanism and in the propeller. as in the case of torsional vibrations. the reaction forces will not solely be of the same order as the super-imposed torsional vibration. this will cause harmonic forces and moments to occur. • Torsional vibration induced moments and forces due to connecting rod mechanism . due to the connecting rod mechanism.

• The gas pressure of the engine acts through the connecting rod mechanism with a varying torque on each crank throw. exciting torsional vibration in the system with different frequencies © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 140 . the propeller shaft and the propeller are for calculation purposes considered as a system of rotating masses (inertias) interconnected by torsional springs. the intermediate shaft(s).Torsional vibration analysis • The reciprocating and rotating masses of the engine including the crankshaft. the thrust shaft.

Torsional vibration analysis • Potentially the most damaging form of vibration is the torsional mode. the higher the corresponding natural frequency. • There will be as many ‗modes‘ in which the shaft can be induced to vibrate naturally as there are shaft elements. affecting the crankshaft and propeller shafting (or generator shafting). • A node is found where the deflection is zero and the amplitude changes sign. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The more nodes that are present. 141 .

is normally the vibration with order equal to the number of cylinders. causing the largest extra stresses in the shaft line. for certain installations require a torsional vibration damper. 142 . • The main critical order. only torsional vibrations with one and two nodes need to be considered. • This resonance is positioned at the engine speed corresponding to the natural torsional frequency divided by the number of cylinders. • The torsional vibration conditions may.Torsional vibration solutions • In general. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

• The problem arises when the forcing frequencies of the externally applied.MULTINODE SHAFTING OSCILLATION • In the one-node case. or input. so do those aft of the second node. when those masses forward of the first node swing clockwise. when the masses forward of the node swing clockwise. or approach closely. • In the two-node case. those aft of it swing anticlockwise and vice versa. 143 . while those between the two nodes swing anticlockwise. and vice versa. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. one of these natural frequencies. vibration coincide with.

144 .Single and double node shaft excitation © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

11 or 12-cylinder engines • The so-called QPT (Quick Passage of a barred speed range Technique). 145 . is an alternative option to a torsional vibration damper.Torsional vibration solutions • Based on statistics. on a plant equipped with a controllable pitch propeller. • The application of the QPT has to be decided by the engine maker © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. this need may arise for the following types of installation: • • Plants with controllable pitch propeller • • Plants with unusual shafting layout and for special owner/yard requirements • • Plants with 8. The QPT could be implemented in the governor in order to limit the vibratory stresses during the passage of the barred speed range.

• These are usually near the nodes but this depends on the relative shaft diameter. • The most significant shaft sections are those with the steepest change of amplitude on the elastic curve and therefore the highest torque. • Changing the diameter of such a section of shaft will also have a greater effect on the frequency. Changing them would have the greatest effect on frequency. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 146 .Factors affecting amplitude and frequency • The most significant masses in any mode of vibration are those with the greatest amplitude on the corresponding elastic curve. • The most vulnerable shaft sections are those whose combination of torque and diameter induce in them the greatest stress.

147 .Torsional resonance or critical speeds © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

148 . would also probably be distinctly noisy. at mid-stroke. • This would set up in turn a lateral vibration of the piston and hence of the entablature. to control all the possible critical speed. • It is usually difficult.Effect of running the engine at critical RPM • If an engine were run at or near a major critical speed it would sound rough because. • Gearing. • Torsional vibrations can sometimes affect camshafts also © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. and sometimes impossible. if on a shaft section with a high amplitude. so that in a variable speed propulsion engine it is sometimes necessary to ‗bar‘ a range of speeds where vibration is considered too dangerous for continuous operation. the torsional oscillation of the cranks with the biggest amplitude would cause a longitudinal vibration of the connecting rod.

crankshaft balance weights and firing orders. but the principles remain the same. of course. number of propeller blades. the forcing impulses and the resultant stresses by adjusting shaft sizes. detuning couplings and so on. • By using viscous or other dampers. introduce complications in solving them. • Gearing. involving twin input or multiple output gearboxes. 149 . creates further complications—and possibilities. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. Branched systems.Control of stresses during the resonance • Designers can nowadays adjust the frequency of resonance.

Stress limits and barred speed range

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 150

**Stress limits and barred speed range
**

• The classification societies prescribe two limits, Ʈ1, and Ʈ2, for the

torsional stress in the speed range up to 80 per cent of MCR :

**• The lower Ʈ1,: • Determines a stress level which may only be exceeded for a short time, i.e.
**

not during continuous running, which means that the propulsion plant requires a barred speed range of revolutions.

• The upper limit Ʈ2 : • May not be exceeded at all,

**• At engine speeds where the lower limit Ʈ1, is exceeded, it will be necessary
**

to introduce a ―barred speed range‖ in which continuous operation is prohibited.

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 151

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

**Torsional vibration calculations
**

• Four, five and six-cylinder engines, require special attention. On

account of the heavy excitation, the natural frequency of the system with one-node vibration should be situated away from the normal operating speed range, to avoid its effect.

**• This can be achieved by changing the masses and/or the stiffness of
**

the system so as to give a much higher, or much lower, natural frequency, called under-critical or overcritical running, respectively.

**• Owing to the very large variety of possible shafting arrangements that
**

may be used in combination with a specific engine, only detailed torsional vibration calculations of the specific plant can determine whether or not a torsional vibration damper is necessary.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 152

• The purpose of using a torsional damper is to keep engine torque peaks as well as operational irregularities away from the powertrain and connected units.TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPERS • There two type of dampers for torsional vibrations:• The spring mass type • The viscous type. 153 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Torsional dampers are placed behind the engine as vibrational dampers when the powertrain does not include a separating and starting clutch.

**TORSIONAL VIBRATION DAMPERS
**

• A torsional damper ensures ―peace and quiet‖

operation.

**• If the forces operating in the powertrain area were not
**

countered, the powertrain components would also show considerably higher levels of wear.

**• A standard solution today for decoupling torsional
**

vibrations in powertrains is to use a bolt-on torsional damper that builds on the technology in clutch discs with torsional damping.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 154

SPRING MASS TYPE DETUNERS

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 155

**The spring mass type
**

• The torsional damper consists of a set of coil springs

positioned in windows that allow a limited amount of rotary movement between the crankshaft and the transmission input shaft and a friction device.

**• By selecting the right torsional damper size and spring set,
**

characteristic curves can be adjusted to meet the individual needs of specific applications.

**• Vibrational decoupling can therefore be adapted in
**

optimum fashion, and ignition-related rotational irregularities can be reduced.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 156

VISCOUS TYPE DETUNERS © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 157 .

which consist of an inertia ring added to the crankshaft enclosed in a thin layer of highly viscous fluid like silicon.VISCOUS TYPE DETUNERS • The torsional damper is integrated into the respective installation space by a simple adjustment of the external bolt-on area and by selecting the corresponding spline profile to match the drive shaft. • The most famous type of torsional damper used on marine engine of a ship is Viscous type dampers. • The inertia ring is free to rotate and applies a lagging torque on the crankshaft due to its lagging torsional motion. 158 . © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

159 .Torsional vibration nodes © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

in the case of forced torsional vibrations. • Equations of motion of the lumped mass system could be gathered in a common matrix equation: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. it is straightforward to determine vibration torques and stresses. • After that. angular displacements of all masses. after applying equations of motion.Lumped mass system • The continuous shafting system needs to be divided in the so-called lumped mass system where. accompanied mode shapes and. one evaluates natural frequencies. 160 .

velocity and displacement vectors. f denotes the applied load. and θ. expressed with vibration excitation vector. • Forced damped torsional vibration response could be obtained in various ways. On the right hand side. 161 . respectively. By assuming harmonic excitation: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. K is the symmetric stiffness matrix. θ and θ are the angular acceleration.Lumped mass equation • where J is the diagonal inertia matrix. C is the symmetric damping matrix.

t is the time. the system of equations readily transforms into a system of linear algebraic equations with complex coefficients: • Vibration torque amplitudes between the adjacent masses could then be obtained from: © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Lumped mass equation • and harmonic response in the form: • where F is the complex excitation torque amplitude. Ω is the excitation frequency. 162 . and Θ is the complex angular displacement amplitude.

**Estimation of vibration stresses
**

• where kt is the shaft stiffness, (θi+1– θi) is the

amplitude of the shaft element twist, and m is the number of shaft elements. Afterwards, the vibration stresses could be easily determined from

• where d is the shaft element diameter.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 163

Axial vibrations

• When the crank throw is loaded by the gas pressure

through the connecting rod mechanism, the arms of the crank throw deflect in the axial direction of the crankshaft, exciting axial vibrations.

**• Through the thrust bearing, the system is connected to
**

the ship`s hull. Generally, only zero-node axial vibrations are of interest. Thus the effect of the additional bending stresses in the crankshaft and possible vibrations of the ship`s structure due to the reaction force in the thrust bearing are to be considered.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010

Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012

No. 164

Axial vibrations

• An axial damper is fitted as standard to all MC engines minimizing

the effects of the axial vibrations.

**• For an extremely long shaft line in certain large size container
**

vessels, a second axial vibration damper positioned on the intermediate shaft, designed to control the on-node axial vibrations can be applied.

**• Alternating thrust, the excitation for longitudinal vibration of the
**

shafting/main machinery system, occurs at blade rate frequency (Propeller RPM × Blade number N) and its multiples.

**• The fundamental is usually much larger than any of its harmonics,
**

however. Alternating thrust is produced by the blade number circumferential harmonic of the hull wake.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 165

166 .Axial longitudinal vibrations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

Axial vibration frequency and mode • When the crank-throw is loaded by the gas force through the connecting rod mechanism. the arms of the crank throw deflect in the axial direction of the crank-shaft. exciting axial vibrations which. 167 . • For engines with odd numbers of cylinders. the dominating orders are mostly the two orders closest to half the cylinder number. For engines with more than six cylinders. through the thrust bearing. • The dominating order of the axial vibration is equivalent to the number of cylinders for engines with less than seven cylinders. may be transferred to the ship‘s hull. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. the dominating order is equal to half the numbers of cylinders.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Axial vibration damper • These influenced the vibration behavior of the crankshaft. and the superstructure. 168 . • The axial vibration damper alone actually eliminates the problems. the engine frame. and reduces the vibration level in the deck house to below the IS0 recommended values.

• When the crankshaft vibrates axially. the oil in the sides of damping flange circulates inside the casing through a throttling valve provided from one side of the flange to the other. • It consists of a damping flange integrated to the crankshaft and placed near the last main bearing girder.Axial vibration damper • The Axial damper is fitted on the crankshaft of the engine to dampen the shaft generated axial vibration i. parallel to the shaft horizontal line. which gives a damping effect. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The casing is filled with system oil on both side of flanges supplied via small orifice. 169 . inside a cylindrical casing. oscillation of the shaft in forward and aft directions. sealing ring failure etc.e. This oil provides the damping effect. • The casing is provided with high temperature alarm and pressure monitoring alarms located on both sides of damping flanges. They give alarm if one side oil pressure drops more than the set value as a result of low LO supply.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The varying thrust excites the propulsion shafting axially.AXIAL VIBRATIONS AND DAMPERS • The torsional deformation causes changes in the length of the crankshaft which is seen as axial vibration at the free end of the crankshaft. which also causes axial vibration to be seen at the free end of the crankshaft. 170 . which in turn gives a varying thrust. • The torsional vibration also causes the propeller to rotate with varying speed.

axial. and lateral vibrations of the shaft system. • The excitation can be reduced by modifying wake field and propeller design. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. Propeller excitations due to non-uniform wake field • The forces and moments should also be considered when calculating the torsional. 171 .• Excitations due to the propeller working in the non-uniform wake field will be transmitted to the hull either through the shaft system as forces and moments or through the water as pressure fluctuations acting on the hull surface.

Normally. the natural frequency is so high that no dynamic amplification of this mode will occur © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 172 . The masselastic system is used for axial vibration calculations and the mode shapes of the two lowest modes which are of relevance. • For engines more than 6 cylinders main critical resonance with O-node vibration mode below MCR speed. Especially the stiffness of the thrust bearing and its support is very decisive. Its natural frequency is determined by the mass and stiffness of the entire shafting system. The 1 -node vibration mode is normally of less importance.Axial vibration nodes • Axial vibrations are longitudinal shafting vibrations.

173 . propeller excitation is far more difficult to quantify than the excitation from internal machinery sources.Hull Wake • Hull wake is one of the most critical aspects in avoidance of unacceptable ship vibration. • This is because of the complexity of the unsteady hydrodynamics of the propeller operating in the nonuniform hull wake © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. Unfortunately. as manifest in the non-uniform wake in which the propeller must operate. • Propeller-induced vibration problems in general start with unfavorable hull lines in the stern aperture region.

the non-uniform hull wake is the most complicated part. Any treatment of propeller excitation must begin with a consideration of the hull wake. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. it is unfortunate that it is also the most important part.Non-uniform hull wake • In fact. 174 . • Propeller-induced vibration would not be a consideration in ship design if the propeller disk inflow were circumferentially uniform.

• Nominal wake data from model scale measurements in towing tanks are presented either as contour plots or as curves of velocity versus angular position at different radii in the propeller disc. but assume. • For engineering simplification. and x is positive aft. θ. looking forward. 175 . for steady operation. • The position angle. The axial wake velocity vX and tangential wake velocity vT are dimensionless on ship forward speed. U. the basic concepts allow for the circumferential non-uniformity of hull wakes. that wake is time invariant in a ship-fixed coordinate system.Wake field analysis. is taken as positive counterclockwise. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

of course. 176 .Nominal wake distribution • the axial velocity is symmetric in θ about top-dead-center (even function) and the tangential velocity is asymmetric (odd function). exist with twinscrew ships © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. such symmetry in the wake does not. • This is a characteristic of single screw ships due to the transverse symmetry of the hull relative to the propeller disk.

being the combination of the component of the upward flow toward the free surface and any disk inclination relative to the baseline. • This defect is the shadow of the skeg immediately forward. at all radii. 177 . • The dominant axial velocity field of the resultant wake has a substantial defect running vertically through the disk along its vertical centerline.Wake asymmetry • The streamlines are more or less horizontal along the skeg and into the propeller disk. is much smaller. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. The flow components along the steep buttock lines forward of the propeller disk are small. The tangential flow in the propeller disk.

© Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.the blade loading will increase as the blade continues through it and cavitation will occur at the back of the blade( suction side cavitation) .Propeller cavitation and vibration • Each of the blades will be lightly loaded in position 90 – 135 deg ( high axial velocity ). • This variation in cavity volume per unit time makes the largest contribution to propeller-induced vibration of the hull. while in position 0 degree it will be heavily loaded. • The area around 0 deg in Fig 1 is called the wake peak. • In such a wake peak . 178 .the loading will decrease and the cavitation gradually disappears. • When the blade moves out of the wake peak .

Propeller Radiated Signatures • The basis of the development of the propeller induced hull pressure signature is the acceleration of the cavity volumes with respect to time on the propeller blades. • As such. 179 . the hydrodynamic excitation process is a time domain event whose physical processes can better understood through the pressure time series. modified by the self induced component of pressure generation arising from the vibration of the ship structure at the point of interest. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

• © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 180 .Propeller Radiated Signatures • There are blade surface pressure changes which vary from blade to blade in a single revolution and changes from one revolution to the next. the flow field. • These changes are random in nature and result from the interaction of the temporal changes in the flow. this being the sum of the steady inflow field and the seaway induced velocities. and the blade to blade geometric variations due to the manufacturing tolerances of the propeller blades.

wavelet techniques and a double integral analysis of the underlying pressure signature. 181 . Joint Time-frequency analysis. • A number of candidate approaches offer themselves and among these are Short Form Fourier Transforms. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Propeller Radiated Signatures • These changes influence both the general form of the cavity volume variation and the higher frequencies and noise generated from the random perturbations of the topological form of the underlying cavity structure.

• Highly skewed blades have been used for decades on fixed pitch propellers. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.Highly Skewed Propellers • According to one manufacturer . The highly skewed design is characterized by a remarkable backward sweep of the edge in relation to the direction of rotation. but their application on controllable pitch propellers has been fairly limited. 182 .the highly –skewed blade design offers perhaps the most beneficial type of propeller by reducing hull vibration and improving fuel consumption on most types of vessel.

• A skewed propeller will also reduce the dynamic forces absorbed through the propeller shaft. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 183 . where it has been possible to compare conventional with highly skewed blades. • There has been no full scale measurements but it has been experienced that a reduction in propeller induced vibration level of about 50 per cent.Highly Skewed Propellers • On a propeller with sufficient skew on the blades .the duration of the cavitation will be lengthened compared to conventional propeller .This reduces the rate of variation of cavitation with time and therefore vibration.

are clearly not directly related to machinery rotational speeds. they are related to vortex shedding over the sea chest hull opening grills and. therefore. 184 . which commonly manifest themselves in local structural resonant behavior.Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • Vibration induced from the flow over structural discontinuities such as sea chest openings has been a troublesome feature in some ships and has prevented the meeting of localized comfort criteria. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Such vibrations. are Strouhal and Froude number dependent based on ship speed. • Rather.

Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • These have included A-brackets. • Vortex shedding occurs when the fluid flow around the after part of an appendage is separated from the structure at a given Reynolds number and the oscillating pressures cause the elastic structure to vibrate. • The characteristics of these problems were high vibration levels in the ship structure or failure of the structural elements. 185 . extended centre-line skegs and fin appendages fitted to ships to improve course keeping stability. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

may increase the structural excitation. 186 .Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • The shedding frequency is given in terms of Strouhal number and for bodies with rough surfaces at ship scale it is frequently acceptable for estimation purposes to use a value for the Strouhal number of 0. in turn.2. • When structures vibrate in the transverse direction with a frequency at or near the vortex shedding frequency they tend to increase the strength of the shed vorticity which. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

if the vortex shedding frequency is close to the natural frequency of the structure it will move to the frequency of the structure.Vortex Shedding Mechanisms • Furthermore. Then once the vortex shedding frequency is synchronized with the frequency of the structure it will often tend to remain at that frequency even when the flow speed changes over a limited range. the structural profile and its trailing edge shape. 187 . the structural natural frequencies and damping and the interaction between the fluid flow and structural vibrations. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • The dynamic behavior of structures subjected to vortex shedding excitation depends upon the ship speed.

Vortex Shedding Avoidance • Reduction of the vibration amplitudes of the structure caused by vortex shedding may be achieved by: • • Avoidance of resonance between the vortex-induced excitations and the structural natural frequency. • • Reducing response of the structure. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Resonance can be avoided by modifying either the vortex excitation frequency or the structural natural frequency. 188 . • • Lowering the vortex excitation levels.

That may be achieved by increasing the structure‘s stiffness or changing the aspect ratio. 189 .Vortex Shedding Avoidance • Ordinarily the structural natural frequency should be increased sufficiently to avoid resonances with vortex shedding mechanisms. In all cases it is necessary to evaluate the structural natural frequencies and ensure that they are not coincident with the vortex shedding and propeller excitations © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. • Other solutions can be to increase the vortex shedding excitation frequency by changing the structure‘s trailing edge shape.

• The incidence of after-body slamming. most typically the 2-node vertical mode.After-body Slamming • Shock impacts such as slamming also need consideration since as well as generating structural tertiary stresses in the ship structure. This is because the ship‘s entrained wave system increases at higher speed and gives a measure of protection to the hull after-body from the otherwise uninterrupted incidence of the environmental wave system. frequently reduces with increasing ship speed. • In particular after-body slamming can excite resonant conditions in the ship structure . 190 . these events can be disturbing to passengers. in contrast to fore-body slamming. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No.

frequently reduces with increasing ship speed. in contrast to forebody slamming. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 191 . • This is because the ship‘s entrained wave system increases at higher speed and gives a measure of protection to the hull after-body from the otherwise uninterrupted incidence of the environmental wave system.After-body Slamming • The incidence of after-body slamming.

192 . recognizing that the resultant sea state comprises both underlying swell and wind induced wave components which strongly influence the directional slamming threshold. © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. a common characteristic possessed by ships that suffer from after-body slamming is a relatively flat after-body design coupled with relatively small immersion. • Furthermore. the slamming threshold speed is also dependent on the sea state.After-body Slamming • In addition to being a function of reducing ship speed.

the exploration at an early design stage of hull forms that avoid this problem in association with the predicted sea and ship motions is of particular importance © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 193 .After-body Slamming • after-body slamming has been known to occur in sea conditions with wave heights less than 1m. • Consequently.

Thank you for your attention! © Germanischer Lloyd 2010 Propulsion system Integration 13~25/02/2012 No. 194 .