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**Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols*
**

J. E. JAMISON

(2003)

The purpose of this section is to help the reader establish a uniform means of depicting and identifying mainly digitalbased application software functions used for measurement, monitoring, and control. It is done by presenting a designation system including graphic symbols and identiﬁcation codes as well as functional diagramming techniques that were formerly known as the Scientiﬁc Apparatus Manufacturers’ Association (SAMA) system. It must be noted that a signiﬁcant part of this section has been extracted from the revision work of the ISA SP5.1 subcommittee, and much of it has been based on draft working documents being utilized at the time of this writing, documents with which one of the authors has been actively involved. Other portions of this section are based on the author’s experience in the industry and are not any part of the SP5.1 subcommittee proposed forthcoming revision. A disclaimer to any future ISA standards documents is hereby stated: The reader is cautioned that the draft ISA document that provided much of the information in this section has not been approved as of the time of this writing. It cannot be presumed to reflect the position of ISA or any other committee, society, or group.

The intent is to pass along to the reader the best and latest thinking on this subject at this point in time. ISA FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAMMING (EX-SAMA)* Instrument and Control Systems Functional Diagramming Symbol tables are given for use in preparing instrument and control loop functional diagrams, which are not normally shown on process ﬂow diagrams (PFDs) and piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs). They are used to depict monitoring and control loops in functional instrument diagrams, functional logic diagrams, application software diagrams, sketches, and text. They shall be prepared from the following: a) Instrument line symbols b) Instrument functional diagramming symbols c) Mathematical function block symbols Equivalent P&ID Loop, Functional Instrument and Electrical Diagrams See statement of permission in the footnote below. a) P&ID loop schematic:

∗71

LT

**LSH ∗01 Start
**

∗

LSL ∗01

LIC ∗01

**HS 01B-1 Stop H-O-A
**

∗01A ∗01

SP FT FIC ∗01 FV

∗01B-2

HS

HS

∗01

∗01

P

FO

* Used with permission of the Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society.

31

© 2003 by Béla Lipták

2b are never used in P&IDs and are used to help document and diagram logic control designs and narratives. Functional Diagramming Symbol Tables* The symbols used in Table 1. The symbols in Table 1. with permission. and graphs used in this section are in accordance with Draft 4 and are very different from S5.01. truth tables.2 (ANSI/ISAS5. deﬁnitions.01 standard as proposed in the current (as of this writing) Draft 4. including expanded © 2003 by Béla Lipták .32 General Considerations b) Functional instrument diagram: LT *01 FT *01 H/ L A N D A K I HS*1A Auto A N D NOT OR NOT K I HS*1B-1 Start A N D OR A N D Start Pump T A T A HS*1B-2 Stop A N D Overload S R NOT F(x) Reset c) Electrical schematic diagram: START HS-∗01B-1 M1 STOP HS-∗01B-2 LSL-∗01 H 0 HS-∗01A OL M M2 LSH-∗01 Note: There is no equivalent electrical schematic for the process control instrumentation. from Scientiﬁc Apparatus Manufacturers’ Association SAMA Standard PMC 22. hardware and function level for conﬁguration and other purposes. They are given here to illustrate the latest thinking in this area.2.1–1981. Functional Diagramming of Instrument and Control Systems.2a are not normally used on P&IDs but are used to diagram control systems at the *The symbols have been extracted by ISA. The present standard ISA S5.2–1976 [R1992]) is now being revised and rolled into the new ANSI/ISA-5. which is no longer supported by SAMA. Symbols.

2c Use for horizontal diagramming May be rotated 90° Final control element Control valve Insert function symbol identiﬁer from Table 1.2–1976 (R1992). as required to deﬁne controller algorithm. Application information and examples on the use of the binary symbols are given in Section 1. timing functions.2c Use for horizontal diagramming Automatic controller Two-mode controller Insert function symbols. from Table 1. Binary Logic Diagrams. from Table 1.2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 33 TABLE 1.2c (no. logic one (1) is true and logic zero (0) is false.1.2c Use for horizontal diagramming Automatic signal processor Insert function symbol from Table 1. Binary logic switching and memory functions are used in analog or sequential control schemes.01] at the time of this writing) No. and they use the current standard ANSI/ISAS5. as required to deﬁne controller algorithm. from Table 1.01. as required to deﬁne controller algorithm.14) * 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 Manual signal processor (*) = A.12.2c Use for vertical diagramming Automatic controller Two-mode controller Insert function symbols.1k may be used Automatic controller Single-mode controller Discrete device driver Insert function symbols.2c Use for vertical diagramming Automatic controller Three-mode controller Insert function symbols. from Table 1. © 2003 by Béla Lipták .2c Use for vertical diagramming Automatic signal processor Insert function symbol from Table 1.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5.2a Functional Diagramming Symbols—Instrument and Mathematical Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. from Table 1. In truth tables and graphs. 01 Symbol Description Measuring device Input device Readout device Output device Symbols from Tables 1. as required to deﬁne controller algorithm.2c Use for vertical diagramming Automatic controller Two-mode controller Insert function symbols.1h through 1.2c (no. as required to deﬁne controller algorithm. signal transfer Manual auto station T 12 A See statement of permission on page 31. adjustable signal generator (*) = T. 14) Final control element with positioner Control valve with positioner Insert function symbol identiﬁer from Table 1.

34 General Considerations TABLE 1.01. Memory. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A B C X O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 © 2003 by Béla Lipták . Output is true if any input true.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5.2b Instrument and Control System Functional Diagramming Symbols—Binary Logic. Output is true only if all inputs are true. and Time Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. Deﬁnition/Graph O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 OR gate. 01 A B C x A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 02 A B C x A 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 OR O 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A B C X 1 0 A N D O Symbol/Truth Table AND gate.01] at the time of this writing) No.

and Time Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5.01] at the time of this writing) No. Memory. Truth table and graph are for “n” equals 2.1.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. 03 A B C x A 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 ≥n O Symbol/Truth Table Deﬁnition/Graph Qualiﬁed OR gate with greater than or equal to qualiﬁcations.2b Continued Instrument and Control System Functional Diagramming Symbols—Binary Logic. Truth table and graph are for “n” equals 2. Output equals “1” if number of inputs equal to “1” are greater than or equal to “n” inputs. Output equals “1” if number of inputs equal to “1” are greater but not equal to “n” inputs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 A B C X 1 0 O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 (Continued) © 2003 by Béla Lipták . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 04 A B C x A B C X O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >n O Qualiﬁed OR gate with greater than qualiﬁcations.2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 35 TABLE 1.01.

Truth table and graph are for “n” equals 2.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5.2b Continued Instrument and Control System Functional Diagramming Symbols—Binary Logic. 05 A B C x A 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ≤n O Symbol/Truth Table Deﬁnition/Graph Qualiﬁed OR gate with less than or equal to qualiﬁcations.36 General Considerations TABLE 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 06 A B C x A B C X O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 <n O Qualiﬁed OR gate with less than qualiﬁcations. Truth table and graph are for “n” equals 2. Memory. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A B C X 1 0 O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 © 2003 by Béla Lipták . Output equals “1” if number of inputs equal to “1” are less than or equal to “n” inputs. Output equals “1” if number of inputs equal to “1” are less but not equal to “n” inputs.01] at the time of this writing) No.01. and Time Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5.

Memory. and Time Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5.01] at the time of this writing) No.1.2b Continued Instrument and Control System Functional Diagramming Symbols—Binary Logic.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 A B C X 1 0 O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 (Continued) © 2003 by Béla Lipták . Output equals “1” if inputs equal to “1” are equal to “n” inputs. 07 A B C x A 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 B 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 =n O Symbol/Truth Table Deﬁnition/Graph Qualiﬁed OR gate with equal to qualiﬁcations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 08 A B C x A B C X O t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ≠n O Qualiﬁed OR gate with not equal to qualiﬁcations.01.2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 37 TABLE 1. Truth table and graph are for “n” equals 2. Truth table and graph are for “n” equals 2. Output equals “1” if inputs equal to “1” are not equal to “n” inputs.

01. and D equals “0”. and C equals “0”. then output C equals “1”. then outputs C and D change state. If input A changes to “0”.2b Continued Instrument and Control System Functional Diagramming Symbols—Binary Logic.01] at the time of this writing) No. then output D equals “1”. If input B changes to “0”. output D remains “1” until input A equals “1”. If inputs A and B are simultaneously equal to “1”. then output C equals “1”. Output is true if input is false. and D equals “0”. If input B changes to “0”. Outputs C and D are always opposite. then output C equals “1”. and C equals “0”. then C equals “1”. then output D equals “1”. then D equals “1”.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. Outputs C and D are always opposite. and C equals “0”. If input A changes to “0”. If input A equals “1”. Output is false if input is true. If input B equals “1”. output C remains “1” until input B equals “1”. then output C equals “1”. 09 A NOT O Symbol/Truth Table NOT gate. A B C D t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Set dominant memory (“So dominant”). If input A equals “1”. then output D equals “1”. output D remains “1” until input A equals “1”.38 General Considerations TABLE 1. and Time Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. and D equals “0”. and D equals “0”. Memory. and C equals “0”. If input B equals “1”. A 1 0 1 0 t 1 10 A B S R C D 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Deﬁnition/Graph A 1 0 O 0 1 O Basic memory. If inputs A and B are simultaneously equal to “1”. output C remains “1” until input B equals “1”. A B C D t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 B 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 C 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 D 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 11 A B So R C D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 B 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 C 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 D 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 © 2003 by Béla Lipták . and D equals “0”.

Memory. then output D equals “1”. If input A changes to “0”. and D equals “1”. then output C equals “1”. and C equals “0”. and D equals “0”. If inputs A and B are simultaneously equal to “1”. I 1 0 NONE O t t t (Continued) © 2003 by Béla Lipták . Output O changes from “1” to “0” after input I changes from “1” to “0” and has been equal to “0” for time duration “t”. then output C equals “1”. and C equals “0”. Output O changes from “0” to “1” when input “I” changes from “0” to “1”.2b Continued Instrument and Control System Functional Diagramming Symbols—Binary Logic. output D remains “1” until input A equals “1”. If input B equals “1”. output C remains “1” until input B equals “1”. A B C D t 1 13 I t PD O 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pulse duration.01] at the time of this writing) No.1. then output D equals “1”.2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 39 TABLE 1. 12 A B Symbol/Truth Table S Ro C D Deﬁnition/Graph Reset dominant memory (“Ro dominant”). then C equals “0”. and D equals “0”. and Time Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. Output O changes from “0” to “1” and remains “1” for prescribed time duration “t” when input “I” changes from “0” to “1”. If input A equals “1”. 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 B 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 C 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 D 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 NONE I 1 0 O t t t 14 I t DT O Off-time delay. Outputs C and D are always opposite. ﬁxed. If input B changes to “0”.01.

Input “I” changes to “0”. b. variable.2b Continued Instrument and Control System Functional Diagramming Symbols—Binary Logic. Output O changes from “0” to “1” when input “I” changes from “0” to “1”. Reset R changes to “1”. c. 15 I R NONE I t GT O Symbol/Truth Table Deﬁnition/Graph On-time delay. Reset R changes to “1”. Output O remains “1” until a.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5.01] at the time of this writing) No. Output O changes from “0” to “1” after input “I” changes from “0” to “1” and “I” remains “1” for prescribed time duration “t”. Input “I” has equaled “1” for time duration “t”.01. t © 2003 by Béla Lipták . Output O changes from “1” to “0” when a. 1 0 O t t t R 16 I R NONE I t LT O Pulse duration. b. Memory. t 1 0 O t t t R See statement of permission on page 31.40 General Considerations TABLE 1. and Time Functions (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. Input “I” changes from “1” to “0”.

2c Mathematical Function Block Symbols (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. Σ Summation t t 02 Σ/n Average M = X1 + X2 X ….2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 41 TABLE 1.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. t1 t t1 t 05 Division t1 t t1 t ÷ M = X1 / X2 X X1 X2 M Output equals the quotient of the two inputs. 01 Symbol/Function Equation/Graph M = X 1 + X 2 … . M t t 07 X n M= X X n Output is equal to the nth power of the input.01] at the time of this writing) No. 03 ∆ Difference M = X1 − X2 X X1 X2 M Output equals the difference between two inputs. 06 2 X Square M=X X 2 Output is equal to the square of the input. + X n/n M X1 X2 X3 t t Output equals the algebraic sum of the inputs divided by number of inputs.01.1. M Exponential t t (Continued) © 2003 by Béla Lipták .+ X n X Xn X1 X2 M Deﬁnition Output equals the algebraic sum of inputs. t t 04 X Multiplication M = X1 X2 X X1 M X2 Output equals the product of the two inputs.

1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. M t1 t 12 ∫ or I Integral M = (1/TI ) X ∫ X dt M Output varies with the magnitude and time duration of the input. ‘3:1”. 08 Symbol/Function Equation/Graph X M= X M Deﬁnition Output is equal to the square root of the input.42 General Considerations TABLE 1. t1 t t1 t1 t t 11 -K or -P Reverse Proportional M = −KX X Output is inversely proportional to the input.2c Continued Mathematical Function Block Symbols (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. t1 t t1 t 14 ƒ(X) Unspecified Function M = ƒ (X) X M Output is a nonlinear or unspeciﬁed function of the input. Replace “K” with “2:1”. TI. t t 10 K or P Proportional M = KX X M Output is proportional to the input. t t © 2003 by Béla Lipták . the integral time constant. Replace “K” with “1:1” for volume boosters.01] at the time of this writing) No. Function is deﬁned in note or other text.01. for integer gains. etc. derivative time constant. √ Square Root t t 09 n √ n th Root M= X n X M Output is equal to the nth root of the input. TD . t1 t2 t t1 t2 t 13 d/dt or D Derivative M = T D (dX/dt) X M Output is proportional to the time rate of change of the input. Output is proportional to the time integral of the input.

H t1 t t1 t 20 V Velocity Limiter dM/dt = dX/dt (dX/dt ≤ H.2c Continued Mathematical Function Block Symbols (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. Output is a nonlinear or unspeciﬁed time function.01] at the time of this writing) No. M = X 2 for X 1 ≥ X 2 t1 t 17 < Low Select M = X 1 for X 1 ≤ X Output equals lesser of two or more inputs. M ≠ X) dX/dt>H X M dM/dt=H Output equals input as long as the input rate of change does not exceed the limit value that establishes the output rate of change until the output again equals the input. X1 M X2 t1 t t1 t 18 > High Limit M = X1 for X1 ≤ H. M = X2 for X1 ≤ L X X M Output equals the higher of the input or low limit values. t1 t2 t t1 t2 t (Continued) © 2003 by Béla Lipták . H t1 t t1 t 19 < Low Limit M = X1 for X1 ≥ L.01.2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 43 TABLE 1.1. t1 t X 2 . M = X) dM/dt = H (dX/dt ≥ H. ƒ(t) Time Function t1 t t1 t 16 > High Select M = X 1 for X 1 ≥ X 2 . M = X2 for X1 ≥ H X X M Output equals the lower of the input or high limit values. 15 Symbol/Function Equation/Graph M = X ƒ (t) X M Deﬁnition Output equals a nonlinear or unspeciﬁed time function times the input. M = X 2 for X 1 ≤ X 2 X X1 X2 M Output equals greater of two or more inputs.

* is equal to: E – voltage. H – hydraulic O – electromagnetic. P = I. B – binary P – pneumatic. Output changes state when the input is equal to or lower than an arbitrary low limit.2c Continued Mathematical Function Block Symbols (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. D – digital R – resistance.44 General Considerations TABLE 1. b t X M t b t t 25 ∗/∗ Conversion I = P. 26 ∗H High Signal Monitor (State 1) M = 0 @ X < H (State 2) M = 1 @ X ≥ Η X X H State 1 State 2 t1 t t1 27 ∗L Low Signal Monitor (State 1) M = 0 @ X ≤ H (State 2) M = 1 @ X > Η X X L State State 1 2 M Output state is dependent on the value of the input. + Positive Bias b t X M t b t t 22 Negative Bias − M=X−b X M Output is equal to input minus an arbitrary value. A – analog I – current. etc. t t © 2003 by Béla Lipták . Output changes state when the input is equal to or higher than an arbitrary high limit. 21 Symbol/Function Equation/Graph M=X+b X M Deﬁnition Output is equal to input plus an arbitrary value.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5.01.01] at the time of this writing) No. I P t t Output signal type is different from that of input signal. sonic Output state is dependent on the value of the input.

2 Functional Diagrams and Function Symbols 45 TABLE 1.1 [now ANSI/ISA-5. Output changes state when input is equal to or lower than an arbitrary low limit or equal to or higher than an arbitrary high limit.01] at the time of this writing) No. 28 Symbol/Function Equation/Graph (State 1) M = 1 @ X ≤ L (State 2) M = 0 @ L < X < H (State 3) M = 1 @ X ≥ Η X M X H L t t State 1 State 2 State 3 Deﬁnition Output states are dependent on value of input.2c Continued Mathematical Function Block Symbols (proposed for the next revision of ISA S5. ∗HL High/Low Signal Monitor 29 T Transfer (State 1) M = X1 (State 2) M = X2 X X1 M State 2 Output equals input that is selected by transfer. Transfer is actuated by external signal. X2 State 1 t t See statement of permission on page 31.1. © 2003 by Béla Lipták .01.

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