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The general concept of viscosity is a familiar one. Less mobile liquids such as tar and lubricating oils are said to have greater viscosity than the more mobile liquids such as water and benzene. In general, it may be stated that the flow rate of a liquid is determined by its viscosity. More precisely, the resistance experienced by one layer of liquid in moving past another layer is called the viscosity. A column of liquid in a circular tube can be considered to be made up of concentric layers, or cylinders of liquid. In moving through the tube, the layer nearest the wall remains stationary if wetting of the surface takes place. Each successive inner layer moves past, on the inside, with a velocity that increases as the centre of the tube is approached. It is known as streamline flow and is generally characterised by the absence of eddies and turbulence. The coefficient of viscosity is usually represented by Greek letter Eta (η) and its SI unit is: 1 Pa s = N s m-2 = 1 kg m-1 s-1 The unit viscosity (Pa s) is defined as such viscosity that unit force (1 newton) unit area is required to cause two parallel liquid surfaces of unit area (1 m2) and unit distance (1 m) apart to slide past each other with unit velocity ( 1m s-1). 1 Pa s is defined as the viscosity where a force of 1 Newton is required in order to slide a surface 1 square metre in area past a parallel surface at a velocity of 1 metre per second, with the surfaces separated by a fluid film 1 metre thick. This definition may be expressed by the equation.
F ∆x S ∆v
Nm = Pa s m m s −1
∆v difference of velocity
The old unit was poise. 1 poise = 100 centipoise = 1 g cm-1 s-1 = 0.1 kg m-1 s-1 Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of the liquid and its density at the same temperature:
1 stokes = 1 cm2 s-1 = 10-4 m2 s-1
The SI unit is: m2 s-1. The old unit was:
The table below shows some viscosities of liquids at 20 0C: Liquid Acetone Benzene
η (kg m-1 s-1)
This is determined as the relative viscosity. r is the radius of the tube.001980 0. Water at 20 0C is usually used as the reference liquid. and V is the volume of the liquid in cubic centimetres. The method of determining viscosity with this instrument consists of measuring the time for a known volume of the liquid (the volume c contained between the marks A and B) to flow through the capillary b (of known length and radius) under the influence of gravity.001194 0. The usual procedure is to determine the viscosity relative to a reference substance at a selected temperature. A simple form of this instrument is shown in figure 1. Poiseuille obtained the following equation applicable to the Ostwald procedure: η= π r4 p t 8V l Figure 1. l is the length of the capillary in centimetres.001005 The Ostwald viscosimeter can be used for the determination of viscosity. To obtain the relative viscosity of a substance at a given temperature. The equation may be determined experimentally for a given viscosimeter so that the absolute viscosity can be calculated. it is necessary to measure its time of flow at the temperature and the corresponding time of flow for the same volume of water (or another reference liquid) in the 2 . t is the time of flow in seconds.Ethanol Nitrobenzene Water Ostwald viscosimeter 0. The liquid gathers in a which is about three times greater than the volume of c. Ostwald viscosimeter where p is hydrostatic pressure on the liquid (proportional to the density ρ).
• The outer glass cylinder b serves as a constant temperature bath. Mark B is equidistant between A and C. The ball is timed as it rolls and slides through the liquid. The Ostwald procedure is not suitable for the determination of the viscosity of highly and moderately viscous liquids.same viscosimeter at 25 0C. it follows the ratio of viscosities is given by the following equation: η1 ρ1 t1 = η2 ρ2 t 2 η1 = ρ1 t1 η2 ρ2 t 2 If substance 2 is the reference liquid. • The horizontal position is controlled by screws g and bubble balance f. The procedure often used for these is the falling ball method.05 0C. It uses the correlation between viscosity and the time it takes for a ball to fall a defined distance through the liquid. Falling ball viscosimeter The falling ball viscosimeter measures the viscosity of transparent liquids. • Stoppers j and k and both covers l enclose the liquid tightly. This is adjusted precisely by the screw i. assign η2 a value of unity. 3 . • Thermometer d measures the temperature of the bath to 0. Since the pressure of a liquid in a viscosimeter of this type is proportional to its density. The main part of the instrument is a glass measuring tube and a ball. and since the terms r. V and l in the Poiseuille equation are the same for both liquids. The upper closure has a capillary feature to avoid air bubbles. • The measuring tube is fastened to the stand e so that its axis is inclined to the vertical by 10 0. Then η1 is calculated by substitution of the densities and the flow times. A thermostat and pump use the inlet/outlet tubes c to keep it filled with a liquid at constant temperature. • Axis h enables the cylinder b to turn around by 180 0 to let the ball return to the initial position. The sample is in a slightly inclined cylindrical measuring tube. • There are three marks on the inner glass tube.
two from nickel-iron alloy and two from wolfram.ρ2) t where K = ρ1 = ρ2 = t = ball constant in mPa s cm3 g-1 s-1 density of the ball in g cm-3 density of the liquid. Dynamic viscosity η may be converted to kinematic viscosity ν by using the following equation ν = η /ρ ν kinematic viscosity in mm2 s-1 ( 1 mm2 s-1 = 1 cSt) 4 . Falling ball viscosimeter The easily changeable thermometer enables precise temperature control.6 to 75000 mPa s can be measured. The dynamic viscosity η (in mPa s) is calculated using the following equation η = K(ρ1.Figure 2.05 0C for temperatures between 10 0C and 80 0C. to be measured at the test temperature in g cm-3 falling time of the ball in seconds Determined viscosities η are given in units mPa s (cP) and must be completed by stating the sample temperature. The temperature in the jacket around the measuring tube must be maintained to within ± 0. The standard set of six balls contains two made from glass. The sample should be at rest in the measuring tube at the test temperature for at least 15 minutes before measurement is started. Thus samples with viscosities in the range from 0.
spacegrant. J.com/viscosity.onlineconversion.W.org/publications/R/R069-e85. D.com/reference/viscosity.html http://www.H. A Wiley International Edition.B.oiml.spacegrant. p. Brennan.η dynamic viscosity in mPa s ρ density of the liquid sample ( g cm-3 = 103 kg m-3) Authors: Jelka Sodja Božič.H.htm http://www.html http://xtronics. D. Experimental Physical Chemistry. Daniels. Laboratory manual of Physical Chemistry.edu/class_acts/ViscosityTe.htm http://www. A laboratory of manual of Experiments in Physical Chemistry.hawaii.edu/hbase/pfric. H. S.edu/class_acts/Viscosity. p.gsu.Knight Fundamentals of Physical Chemistry. Crockford. 55 2. F.27. John Willey1956. Tipper. C. Crockford. p.oiml. 1967. McGraw-Hill Book Company.pdf http://www.phy-astr. Graw-Hill Publishing company. 1941. 49 3.pdf Reference text books: 1.html http://www. Knowel. 414 5 .hawaii. 19 4. Tomaž Ogrin Institution: Jozef Stefan Institute For further information see: http://en.wikipedia.org/publications/D/D017-e87.F.1964. p.org/wiki/Viscosity http://hyperphysics.
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