Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq

)

AgCl(s)

(endapan putih)

2 AgCl(s)

2Ag(s) + Cl-(aq)

(endapan hitam/abu-abu)

AgCl(s) + H2O(l)
2 Ag+(aq) + 2NH3(aq)

+ H2O(l)

Ag2O(s) + 2NH4+(aq)

Ag2O(s) + 2NH4+(aq) + HNO3(aq)

2 Ag+(aq) + 2NH3(aq) + H2O(l) (larut)

Ag+(aq) + 2I-(aq)

AgI2(s)

AgI2(s) + KCN(aq)

AgCN(s) + KI(aq)

AgCN(s) + CN-(aq)

[(AgCN)2]-(aq)

(larut)

2 Ag+(aq) + OH-(aq)

Ag2O(s) + H2O(l)

(endapan coklat)

Ag2O(s) + H2O(l)

2 Ag(OH)2(s)

2 Ag(OH)2(s)

2 Ag+(aq) + OH-(aq)

(tidak larut)

Ag2CrO4 (s)

(endapan merah)

2Ag+(aq) + CrO42-(aq)
+

Ag2CrO4 (s) + H

(aq)

Hg22+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)

+

4 Ag

(endapan kuning)

(aq)

+

Cr2O72-(aq) + H2O(l)

Hg2Cl2(s)

(larutan jingga)

(endapan putih)

Hg2Cl2(s) + H2O(l)

(larut sebagian)

Hg22+(aq) + CrO42-(aq)

Hg2CrO4 (s)

(endapan merah)

Hg22+(aq) + 4I-(aq)

[HgI4]2-(aq) + Hg(s)

(endapan hitam)

Hg22+(aq) + NO3-(aq)+ 2NH3(aq) + H2O(l)

Hg.O.Hg

+ 2Hg (s) + 3NH4+(aq)

NH2
NO3

(s)

(end. hitam)

(endapan hitam)
Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)

PbCl2(s)

(endapan putih)

PbCl2(s)

Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)

(larut)

O. larutan coklat tua) .Pb2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) PbI2(s) (endapan kuning) Pb2+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) PbCrO4 (s) (endapan kuning) Bi3+(aq) + 3I-(aq) BiI3(s) (endapan hitam) BiI3(s) + I-(aq) [BiI4]2-(aq) (larutan jingga) Bi3+(aq) + OH-(aq) Bi(OH)3(s) (endapan putih) Bi(OH)3(s) + 3H+(aq) Bi3+(aq) + H2O(l) (sedikit larut) Hg2+(aq) + 2I-(aq) Hg2I2(s) (endapan orange) Hg22+(aq) + 4I-(aq) [HgI4]2-(aq) (larut) 2Hg2+(aq) + NO3-(aq)+ 4NH3(aq) + H2O(l) Hg.Hg(NH2) NO3(s) + 3NH4+(aq) (endapan putih) Cd2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Cd(OH)2(s) (endapan putih) Cd2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Cd(OH)2(s) (tidak larut) Cd2+(aq) + 2NH3(aq) + 2H2O(l) Cd(OH)2(s) + 3NH4+(aq) (endapan putih) Cd(OH)2(s) + 4NH3(aq) [Cd(NH3)4]2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) (larut) Cu2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) (endapan biru) Cu2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Cu(OH)2(s) (tidak larut) Cu2+(aq) + [Fe(CN)6]2-(aq) Cu2[Fe(CN)6] (s) (endapan coklat kemerahan) Cu2+(aq) + 5I-(aq) 2CuI(s) + I3- (endapan putih.

Ferro (Fe2+) FeSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) + Na2SO4(aq) Fe2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Fe2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) (endapan hijau tua) Ferro (Fe2+) FeCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) + 3NaCl(aq) Fe3+(aq) + 3Cl-(aq) + 3Na+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) + 3Na+(aq) + 3Cl-(aq) Fe3+(aq) + 3Cl-(aq) Fe(OH)3(s) (endapan coklat kemerahan) FeCl3(aq) + 3KSCN(aq) Fe(SCN)3(s) + 3KCl(aq) Fe3+(aq) + 3Cl-(aq) + 3K+(aq) + 3SCN-(aq) Fe(SCN)3(s) + 3K+(aq) + 3Cl-(aq) Fe3+(aq) + 3Cl-(aq) Fe(SCN)3(s) (endapan merah darah) Alumunium (Al3+) Al2SO4(aq) + 6NaOH(aq) 2Al(OH)3(s) + Na2SO4(aq) 2Al3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq) + 6Na+(aq) + 6OH-(aq) 2Al(OH) 3(s) + 3SO42-(aq) + 6Na+(aq) 2Al3+(aq) + 6OH-(aq) 2Al(OH) 3(s) Al 3+ (aq) + 3OH-(aq) Al(OH) 3(s) (endapan putih) Al(OH) 3(s) + OH-(aq) [Al(OH)4]-(aq) (larutan putih) Nikel (Ni2+) NiSO4(aq) + 2NH4OH(aq) Ni(OH) 2(s) + (NH4)2 SO4(aq) Ni2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) + 2NH4+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Ni(OH) 2(s) + SO42-(aq) + 2NH4+(aq) Ni2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) Ni(OH) 2(s) (endapan hijau) .

Selanjutya ditambahkan dengan larutan dimetil glioksim maka larutan berubah menjadi merah muda. adapun reaksinya : Ni2+(aq) + Kobal (Co2+) Co(NO3)2(aq) + KCN(aq) Co(CN)2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Co2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq)+ 2K+(aq) + 2CN –(aq) Co(CN)2(s) + 2NO3-(aq)+ 2K+(aq) Co2+(aq) + 2CN –(aq) Co(CN)2(s) (endapan coklat kemerahan) Co(CN)2(s) + 4CN-(aq) [Co(CN)6]4-(aq) (larutan coklat) Seng (Zn2+) ZnSO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) 2+ Zn (aq) + SO42-(aq) + Zn(OH) 2(s) + Na2SO4(aq) + 2Na (aq) + SO42-(aq) + Zn2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 2Na+(aq) Zn(OH) 2(s) (endapan putih) Zn(OH) 2(s) + 2OH-(aq) [Zn(OH)4]2-(aq) (larutan coklat) Barium (Ba2+) BaCl2(aq) + K2CrO4(aq) BaCrO4(s) + 2KCl(aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + CrO4-(aq) BaCrO4(s) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2K+(aq) Ba2+(aq) + CrO4-(aq) BaCrO4(s) (endapan kuning) BaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) BaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + CO3-(aq) BaCO3(s) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) Ba2+(aq) + CO3-(aq) BaCO3(s) (endapan putih) .

Kalsium (Ca2+) Ca2+(aq) + SO4-(aq) CaSO4(s) (endapan putih) CaCl2(aq) + K4[Fe(CN)6](aq) K2Ca[Fe(CN)6](s) + 2KCl(aq) Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2K+(aq) + [Fe(CN)6]4-(aq) K2Ca[Fe(CN)6](s) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2K+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + [Fe(CN)6]4-(aq) K2Ca[Fe(CN)6](s) (endapan kuning) Karbonat (CO2-) Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) + 2Na (aq) + CO3-(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq) + + 2H + 2Cl-(aq) CO3-(aq) + 2H+ 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) (ada gelembung gas) CO2(g) + Ba2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) BaCO3(s) + 2H2O(l) (endapan putih) Na2CO3(aq) + 2AgNO3(aq) Ag2CO3 (s) + 2NaNO3(aq) 2Na+(aq) + CO3-(aq) + 2Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) Ag2CO3 (s) + 2NO3-(aq)+ 2Na+(aq) CO3-(aq) + 2Ag+(aq) Ag2CO3 (s) (endapan putih) Ag2CO3 (s) + 2HNO3(aq) 2AgNO3(aq) + H2CO3 (aq) Ag2CO3 (s) + 2H+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) 2Ag+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) + CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) Ag2CO3 (s) + 2H+(aq) 2Ag+(aq) + CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) (larut) .

(aq) + 2H2O(l) (endapan larut) Nitrat (NO3-) 2NO3-(aq)+ 4H2SO4(aq) + 6Fe2+(aq) 6Fe3+(aq) + 2NO(g) + 4 SO42-(aq) + 4H2O(l) Fe2+(aq) + NO(g) [Fe(NO)]2+(aq) (cincin coklat) Nitrit (NO2-) NO2-(aq) + CH3COOH(aq) HNO2(aq) + CH3COO-(aq) HNO2(aq) + KI(aq) I2(s) + 2NO(g) + 2H2O(l) NO2-(aq) + 2I-(aq) + 2 CH3COOH(aq) + amilum I2(s) + 2NO(g) + CH3COO-(aq) + 2H2O(l) .(aq) BaSO4 (s) (endapan putih) BaSO4 (s) + 2HNO3(aq) 2Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4 (aq) Tiosulfat (S2O32-) Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) + 2Na (aq) + S2O32.(aq) BaSO4 (s) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) Ba2+(aq) + SO42.(aq) + 2H 2NaCl(aq) + H2 S2O3(aq) + (aq) + 2Cl-(aq) S2O32.[Ag(NH3)2]+(aq) + CO3-(aq) Ag2CO3 (s) + 4NH3(aq) (larut) Sulfat (SO42-) Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq) Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + SO42.(aq) + 2H+(aq) 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + S(s) +SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) S(s) +SO2(g) + 2H2O(l) (endapan putih) SO2(g) + Cr2O72-(aq) + 2K+(aq) 2Cr2+(aq) + SO42.

Klorida (Cl-) NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)+ NO3.(aq) + Ag+(aq) 2Na+(aq) + NO3.(aq) + AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) (endapan putih) AgCl(s) + 2NH3(aq) AgCl(s) + NH4NO3(aq) [Fe(NO)]2+(aq) .

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