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physics and math Formulas

# physics and math Formulas

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physics and math Formulas for grad students
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12/26/2013

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# NIU Physics PhD Candidacy Exam – Standard Formula Sheet

Pauli Matrices
σ
x
=

0 1
1 0

σ
y
=

0 −i
i 0

σ
z
=

1 0
0 −1

Deﬁnite Integrals
For n = non-negative integer,

0
x
n
e
−x
dx = n!

0
x
2n
e
−βx
2
dx =
(2n)!

π
n! (2

β)
2n+1

0
x
2n+1
e
−βx
2
dx =
n!
2 β
n+1
where 0! = 1 and n! = 1 · 2 . . . (n −1) · n.
Stirling’s Approximation:
n! =

2π n
n+1/2
exp

−n +
1
12n
+O(1/n
2
)

ln(n!) = nln(n) −n (for n 1)
Legendre Polynomials:
P
0
(x) = 1, P
1
(x) = x, P
2
(x) = (3x
2
−1)/2, P
3
(x) = (5x
3
−3x)/2,
P
4
(x) = (35x
4
−30x
2
+ 3)/8, P
5
(x) = (63x
5
−70x
3
+ 15x)/8
Spherical Harmonics:
= 0 : Y
0
0
(θ, φ) =

1

= 1 : Y
0
1
(θ, φ) =

3

cos θ Y
±1
1
(θ, φ) = ∓

3

e
±iφ
sinθ
= 2 : Y
0
2
(θ, φ) =

5
16π
(3 cos
2
θ −1) Y
±1
2
(θ, φ) = ∓

15

e
±iφ
sinθ cos θ
Y
±2
2
(θ, φ) =

15
32π
e
±2iφ
sin
2
θ
For all : Y
0

(θ, φ) =

2 + 1

P

(cos θ)
Numerical Constants:
¯h = 1.05 ×10
−27
erg sec = 1.05 ×10
−34
J sec a
0
= 0.529 ×10
−8
cm = 0.529 ×10
−10
m
¯hc = 1.97 ×10
−7
eV m hc = 1.24 ×10
−6
eV m
e = 4.80 ×10
−10
esu = 1.60 ×10
−19
C c = 3.00 ×10
10
cm/sec = 3.00 ×10
8
m/sec

0
= 8.85 ×10
−12
C
2
/N m
2
µ
0
= 4π ×10
−7
N/A
2
m
e
= 9.11 ×10
−28
g = 9.11 ×10
−31
kg = 0.511 MeV/c
2
m
p
= 1.67262 ×10
−24
g = 1.67262 ×10
−27
kg = 938.272 MeV/c
2
m
n
= 1.67492 ×10
−24
g = 1.67492 ×10
−27
kg = 939.565 MeV/c
2
N
0
= 6.02 ×10
23
particles/mole
k
B
= 1.38 ×10
−23
J K
−1
= 1.38 ×10
−16
erg K
−1
= 8.62 ×10
−5
eV K
−1
Spherical Coordinates (r, θ, φ)
Relations to rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates and unit vectors:
x = r sinθ cos φ
y = r sinθ sinφ
z = r cos θ
ˆ x = ˆ r sinθ cos φ +
ˆ
θ cos θ cos φ −
ˆ
φsinφ
ˆ y = ˆ r sinθ sinφ +
ˆ
θ cos θ sinφ +
ˆ
φcos φ
ˆ z = ˆ r cos θ −
ˆ
θ sinθ
r =

x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
θ = tan
−1
(

x
2
+ y
2
/z)
φ = tan
−1
(y/x)
ˆ r = ˆ xsinθ cos φ + ˆ y sinθ sinφ + ˆ z cos θ
ˆ
θ = ˆ xcos θ cos φ + ˆ y cos θ sinφ − ˆ z sinθ
ˆ
φ = −ˆ xsinφ + ˆ y cos φ
Line element: d

= ˆ r dr +
ˆ
θ r dθ +
ˆ
φr sinθ dφ
Volume element: dτ = r
2
sinθ dr dθ dφ

∇f =
∂f
∂r
ˆ r +
1
r
∂f
∂θ
ˆ
θ +
1
r sinθ
∂f
∂φ
ˆ
φ
Divergence:

∇· v =
1
r
2

∂r
(r
2
v
r
) +
1
r sinθ

∂θ
(sinθ v
θ
) +
1
r sinθ
∂v
φ
∂φ
Curl:

∇×v =
1
r sinθ

∂θ
(sinθ v
φ
) −
∂v
θ
∂φ

ˆ r +
1
r

1
sinθ
∂v
r
∂φ

∂r
(r v
φ
)

ˆ
θ
+
1
r

∂r
(r v
θ
) −
∂v
r
∂θ

ˆ
φ
Laplacian: ∇
2
f =
1
r

2
∂r
2
(rf) +
1
r
2
sinθ

∂θ

sinθ
∂f
∂θ

+
1
r
2
sin
2
θ

2
f
∂φ
2
Cylindrical Coordinates (r, φ, z)
Relations to rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates and unit vectors:
x = r cos φ
y = r sinφ
z = z
ˆ x = ˆ r cos φ −
ˆ
φsinφ
ˆ y = ˆ r sinφ +
ˆ
φcos φ
ˆ z = ˆ z
r =

x
2
+ y
2
φ = tan
−1
(y/x)
z = z
ˆ r = ˆ xcos φ + ˆ y sinφ
ˆ
φ = −ˆ xsinφ + ˆ y cos φ
ˆ z = ˆ z
Line element: d

= ˆ r dr +
ˆ
φr dφ + ˆ z dz
Volume element: dτ = r dr dφdz

∇f =
∂f
∂r
ˆ r +
1
r
∂f
∂φ
ˆ
φ +
∂f
∂z
ˆ z
Divergence:

∇· v =
1
r

∂r
(rv
r
) +
1
r
∂v
φ
∂φ
+
∂v
z
∂z
Curl:

∇×v =

1
r
∂v
z
∂φ

∂v
φ
∂z

ˆ r +

∂v
r
∂z

∂v
z
∂r

ˆ
φ +
1
r

∂r
(rv
φ
) −
∂v
r
∂φ

ˆ z
Laplacian: ∇
2
f =
1
r

∂r

r
∂f
∂r

+
1
r
2

2
f
∂φ
2
+

2
f
∂z
2
Vector Formulae
In the following formulae,

A and

B are vector functions and ψ is a scalar function.

∇×(

∇ψ) = 0

∇· (

∇×

A) = 0

∇×(

∇×

A) =

∇(

∇·

A) −∇
2

A

∇(

B) = (

∇)

B + (

B ·

∇)

A +

A×(

∇×

B) +

B ×(

∇×

A)

∇· (

B) =

B · (

∇×

A) −

A· (

∇×

B)

∇×(

B) =

A(

∇·

B) −

B(

∇·

A) + (

B ·

∇)

A−(

∇)

B

∇· (ψ

A) =

∇ψ + ψ

∇·

A

∇×(ψ

A) = ψ

∇×

A−

∇ψ

511 MeV/c2 Spherical Coordinates (r.529 × 10−8 cm = 0.38 × 10−16 erg K−1 = 8.67492 × 10−27 kg = 939.85 × 10−12 C2 /N m2 kB = 1.272 MeV/c2 me = 9.529 × 10−10 m hc = 1.Numerical Constants: ¯ h = 1.05 × 10−27 erg sec = 1.97 × 10−7 eV m 0 e = 4. θ.38 × 10−23 J K−1 = 1.24 × 10−6 eV m µ0 = 4π × 10−7 N/A2 c = 3.05 × 10−34 J sec a0 = 0.60 × 10−19 C = 8.565 MeV/c2 mp = 1.67262 × 10−27 kg = 938.00 × 108 m/sec ¯ hc = 1.80 × 10−10 esu = 1. φ) Relations to rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates and unit vectors: x = r sin θ cos φ y = r sin θ sin φ z = r cos θ r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 θ = tan−1 ( x2 + y 2 /z ) φ = tan−1 (y/x) ˆ cos θ cos φ − φ ˆ sin φ x ˆ = r ˆ sin θ cos φ + θ ˆ cos θ sin φ + φ ˆ cos φ y ˆ = r ˆ sin θ sin φ + θ ˆ sin θ z ˆ= r ˆ cos θ − θ r ˆ= x ˆ sin θ cos φ + y ˆ sin θ sin φ + z ˆ cos θ ˆ= x θ ˆ cos θ cos φ + y ˆ cos θ sin φ − z ˆ sin θ ˆ φ = −x ˆ sin φ + y ˆ cos φ Line element: Volume element: Gradient: Divergence: Curl: ˆ r dθ + φ ˆ r sin θ dφ d = r ˆ dr + θ dτ = r 2 sin θ dr dθ dφ ∇f = ∇·v = 1 ∂f ˆ 1 ∂f ˆ ∂f r ˆ+ θ+ φ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ ∂ 1 ∂ 2 1 1 ∂vφ (r vr ) + (sin θ vθ ) + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ ∂ 1 ∂vr 1 ∂vθ 1 ∂ ˆ (sin θ vφ ) − r ˆ+ − (r vφ ) θ r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r 1 ∂ ∂vr ˆ + φ (r vθ ) − r ∂r ∂θ + 1 ∂2f r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 ∇×v = Laplacian: ∇2 f = 1 ∂2 1 ∂ ∂f (rf ) + 2 sin θ 2 r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ .11 × 10−31 kg = 0.67492 × 10−24 g = 1.11 × 10−28 g = 9.00 × 1010 cm/sec = 3.62 × 10−5 eV K−1 N0 = 6.67262 × 10−24 g = 1.02 × 1023 particles/mole mn = 1.

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