Warp Knitting Basics

March 26,2010

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Weft

Warp

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Warp Knits--the possibilities

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4/20/2013 6 . the latch needle on raschel and crochet machines and the carbine needle on crochet machines.Needle Technology • Until relatively recently warp knitting machines used four types of needle: – – – – The bearded needle The latch needle The compound needle The carbine needle • Bearded and compound needles were used on tricot machines.

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Knitting Technology
• Recently the bearded needle has been dropped and development has focused on the compound needle due to its greater rigidity and ability to withstand higher yarn lapping forces (see Loop formation) than the bearded or latch needle.

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Knitting Technology • Furthermore at the highest speeds (above 2.500 cycles/minute) the issue of latch impact on the hook starts to become a problem with latch needles. • In contrast the compound needle can be closed gently in a controlled manner even at the highest knitting speeds. 4/20/2013 11 .

• Equally the yarn guides are also set rigidly into a horizontal metal bar (the guide bar that runs the full width of the machine). 4/20/2013 12 .Warp Knitting Technology • Warp knitting machines--needles are mounted collectively and rigidly in a horizontal metal bar (the needle bar that runs the full knitting width of the machine).

The front of the machine lies to the right of the diagram. 4/20/2013 13 .Knitting Element Displacements • The diagram summarizes the somewhat confusing displacements made by the guide bar.

Knitting Element Displacements • The diagram shows the individual yarn guides set in a solid bar. 4/20/2013 14 . The front-to-back movements are called swings. which wraps the yarn in the needle hook. The first swing from front to back is followed by a lateral shog: the overlap.

4/20/2013 15 .Knitting Element Displacements • The next movement is a swing from back to front followed by the underlap that may be from 0 to 8 needle spaces depending on the fabric structure being knitted.

Tricot Knitting • In diagram (1.3 a & b) the guide bar swings from the front of the machine (on the right hand side of the diagram) to the back of the machine taking the yarn through the gap between two adjacent needles. 4/20/2013 16 .

At this time the needle bar moves upwards to place the overlap below the open beard on the shank of the needle. This is known as a shog movement.4 c) shows the guide bar moving laterally towards the observer. specifically the overlap that wraps the yarn around the beard of the needle.Tricot Knitting • Diagram (1. • Diagram (1.4 d) shows the second swing in the cycle taking the yarn between adjacent needles back to the front of the machine. 4/20/2013 17 .

Tricot Knitting • Diagram (1. 4/20/2013 18 .5 f) the closed needle passes down through the old loop and the sinkers move backwards to release the old loops so that knock-over can take place.5 e) shows the presser bar moving forward to close all the needles and in (1.

4/20/2013 19 .Tricot Knitting • In figure (1.6 g) the sinker bar moves forward to secure the fabric prior to the needle rising in the next cycle and at this stage the guide bar makes a second shog. this time an overlap which may be of 0 to 8 needle spaces depending on the structure being knitted.

• For this reason it is not a good idea to knit fabrics with few underlaps such as net or lace on a tricot machine. • They are much better knitted on a Raschel machine with a continuous knock-over trick plate. 4/20/2013 20 .Tricot Knitting • The machine type in this series of diagrams is a tricot machine and on this type of machine there is no continuous knock-over surface. • The belly' of the sinker provides support to the fabric by preventing the underlaps from moving downwards.

Tricot Knitting • The diagrams you are about to see illustrate a tricot machine with compound needles. 4/20/2013 21 . • The sequence of events is almost exactly the same as for the bearded needle with the exception that the overlap lays the yarn into the open hook and not onto the beard. and the compound needle is closed by relative displacement between the needle and the closing element.

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Overlap and Underlap • The displacements shown for the needle.Guide Bar Shog. guide bar swing and sinker bar are the same irrespective of the type of fabric being produced by the machine. sliding latch. 4/20/2013 25 .

Overlap and Underlap • The shog movements determine the type of fabric produced and they need to be changed each time the fabric structure is modified. • If there was a failure in the shog displacement and the needle bar moved by less than a full needle pitch then in all likelihood the yarn guides would collide with the needles during the swing movement causing serious damage to the machine.Guide Bar Shog. 4/20/2013 26 . • Crucially the shog movements must place the guides at the centre of the gap between adjacent needles with 100% accuracy every knitting cycle for the entire lifetime of the machine.

Graphical Representation of Warp Knitting Structures 4/20/2013 27 .

i.Warp Knit Structure • Warp knitting is defined as a stitch forming process in which the yarns are supplied to the knitting zone parallel to the selvedge of the fabric. • In warp knitting. 4/20/2013 28 . • In this manner a knitting needle often draws the new yarn loop through the knitted loop formed by another end of yarn in the previous knitting cycle. every knitting needle is supplied with at least one separate yarn. in the direction of the wales.e. • In order to connect the stitches to form a fabric. the yarns are deflected laterally between the needles.

The diagram shows the path taken by the eyelet of one yarn guide traveling through the needle line. This movement wraps the yarn around the needle ready for the knock-over displacement. which is formed by wrapping the yarn around the needle and drawing it through the previously knitted loop. 4/20/2013 29 . making a lateral overlap (shog) and making a return swing.Warp Knit Structure • A warp knitted structure is made up of two parts. • This wrapping of the yarn is called an overlap. The first is the stitch itself.

4/20/2013 30 .Warp Knit Structure • The second part of stitch formation is the length of yarn linking together the stitches and this is termed the underlap. which is formed by the lateral movement of the yarns across the needles.

• The longer the underlap. • The longer the underlap for a given warp the greater the increase in lateral fabric stability. • conversely a shorter underlap reduces the width-wise stability and strength and increases the lengthways stability of the fabric. the more it lies at right angles to the fabric length axis. 4/20/2013 31 .Warp Knit Structure • The length of the underlap is defined in terms of needle spaces.

4/20/2013 32 . • The reciprocating movements of the yarn. it causes a lateral displacement in the root of the stitch due to the warp tension. thicker and denser. alternately to the left and to the right. with the result that the fabric becomes heavier. • When knitting with a longer underlap. cause the stitch of each knitted course to incline in the same direction. therefore.Warp Knit Structure • The length of the underlap also influences the fabric weight. • Since the underlap is connected to the root of the stitch. • The underlap crosses and covers more wales on its way. more yarn has to be supplied to the knitting needles.

Warp Knit Structure • In order to control both the lateral and longitudinal properties. a second set of yarns is usually employed. as well as to produce an improved fabric appearance with erect loops.is the yarn consumption for one rack. The length of the underlap need not necessarily be the same for both sets of yarns. 4/20/2013 33 . The second set is usually moved in the opposite direction to the first in order to help balance the lateral forces on the needles. – Run-in: the yarn consumption during 480 knitted courses – Rack: a working cycle of 480 knitted courses • The run-in ………….

looser fabric – A shorter run-in produces smaller and tighter stitches – With more than one guide bar the ratio of the amount of yarn fed from each warp is termed the run-in ratio 4/20/2013 34 .Warp Knit Structure • For a given machine with a given warp: – A longer run-in produces bigger stitches and a generally slacker.

Lapping Diagrams • With the exception of the very simplest structures. – Lapping diagrams – Numerical representation 4/20/2013 35 . it is too time consuming to represent warp knitted fabric using stitch or loop diagrams. For this reason two methods of fabric representation are commonly used.

4/20/2013 36 .Looping Diagrams Actual Guide Movement • This is the symbolic image of the technological process of lapping. This diagram can also be derived from a stitch chart by not drawing in the stitch legs but only the head and feet of the stitches.

The yarn path in the lapping diagram is rounded off to represent this 4/20/2013 37 .Looping Diagrams • The needle heads are represented on paper as dots. The path of the guide bars is drawn in front of and behind the needles • The yarns will not lie as straight in the fabric as they do when they are conducted through the guide bars and around the needles on the machine.

Looping Diagrams • Each dot represents one needle and each horizontal row of dots a single stitch forming process. 4/20/2013 38 . one course.e. Several rows of dots from bottom to top represent the succession of several stitch-forming processes or courses recording a complete repeat of the fabric structure. i.

4/20/2013 39 .Numerical Notation Related to Chain Link Height • The numerical notation is best understood in relation to the mechanical system that is used to generate the lateral displacements (shogs) of the guide bars.

With a chain link (1). with a chain link (2) by two needle spaces. 4/20/2013 40 . then the movement of the guide bar from the smallest chain link height (0) is only possible towards the left.Numerical Notation Related to Chain Link Height • If the pattern drive is on the right hand side of the machine. the guide bar is moved to the left by one needle space (division). etc.

This guide bar movement is an especially important part of the pattern development. The numbering is done from left to right when the pattern drive is on the left-hand side of the machine. 4/20/2013 41 . 1. therefore. etc. the numbers read from right to left and are entered between each needle space. 4. The lateral movement of the guides is initiated by chain links of various heights marked with 0.Numerical Notation Related to Chain Link Height • On dotted paper. 2. 3.

– The chain should read: 0 1 – In the opposite direction: 1 0 • The smallest repeating unit (repeat) extends over one course: height repeat = 1 stitch. then moves to the left as the roller moves to chain link 1'. 4/20/2013 42 . width repeat = 1 stitch.Chain Link Arrangement • The guide bar is positioned with the follower roller on chain link 0'. It swings back and returns to its starting position (chain link 0'). it swings through.

Even in these fabrics. 4/20/2013 43 . It is used in conjunction with the binding element in-lay' in laces and curtains. the open pillar stitch is more popular as it provides the necessary longitudinal stability and runs freely. though always with a second guide bar.Chain Link Arrangement • Application – Pillar stitch construction can be employed in the production of outerwear and for ribbed velour fabrics (corduroy).

Open and Closed Stitches • The stitch formed has an open or closed character according to the direction of the underlap and overlap motions. then the stitch formed will have an open character 4/20/2013 44 . The underlaps can be of differing magnitudes and directions: – If the underlap and overlap are in opposite directions then the stitch formed would have a closed character – If the underlap and overlap are in the same direction.

Open and Closed Stitches • The stitch is open when the feet do not cross and closed when the feet cross. The structure of a warp knitted fabric depends on the lapping motion of the guide bars. and therefore the structure could be represented by: – Drawing a stitch or stitch chart diagram. which takes time and is difficult – Lapping diagram 4/20/2013 45 .

Different warp knitted structures are produced by varying the magnitude of their lateral displacement. The yarn guides. However. to form a fabric. thus forming a loop. Therefore warp knitted structures can be described by noting the guide bar displacement. must be displaced laterally during knitting. therefore. 4/20/2013 46 .Yarn Threading Plan • In warp knitting a yarn guide wraps the yarn around the needle hook. the yarn guide must wrap the yarn around a different needle during the next course.

swingthrough. overlap and swing-back movement. and this motion is known as lapping.Yarn Threading Plan • The actual guide bar motion consists of an underlap. 4/20/2013 47 .

overlap and swing-back movement of the yarn guide. 4/20/2013 48 .Yarn Threading Plan • The yarn is wrapped around the needle hook due to the swingthrough. made from stitches (overlap) and connecting underlaps. and this forms a stitch. therefore. A warp knitted fabric is.

and on the other side (known as the technical back) only underlaps are visible. 4/20/2013 49 . stitches are visible on one side. Rib and interlock warp knitted structures are produced on double needle bars. and these structures are known as double face fabrics. known as the technical face.Single Bar Structures • A plain warp knitted structure is produced on a single needle bar. • In single face structures (plain). The resulting structures are known as single face fabrics.

the stitches are only interconnected in the direction of the wales.Pillar Lap • A pillar stitch (or chain stitch) is a stitch construction where lapping of a yarn guide takes place over the same needle. 4/20/2013 50 . • As there are no lateral connections between the neighboring wales.

4/20/2013 51 . a fabric is not created. • On a tricot machine the sinkers are unable to control the position of the old loop when there is no underlap (pillar stitch) and so the knitting of pillar stitch on its own is impossible. only chains of disconnected wales.Pillar Lap • Due to the absence of underlaps. • Single bar pillar lap is technically possible only on Raschel machines where the trick plate acts a knock-over bed.

4/20/2013 52 .Pillar Lap • Open or closed pillar stitches can be produced depending on the guide bar movement.

• This stitch creates a textile fabric as the underlaps connect both the courses and the wales.1 and 1 Lap (Tricot Lap) • The laps are executed in alternate overlap and underlap motions on two defined needles. • The simplest of this group of structures is made between two adjacent needles. 4/20/2013 53 .

• The simplest of this group of structures is made between two adjacent needles.1 and 1 Lap (Tricot Lap) • The laps are executed in alternate overlap and underlap motions on two defined needles. 4/20/2013 54 . • This stitch creates a textile fabric as the underlaps connect both the courses and the wales.

1 and 1 Lap (Tricot Lap) • Guide bar motions: • First course: Under 1 needle to the right swing through over 1 needle to the right Swing Back ↓(UL) 1 ↓(OL) 0 4/20/2013 55 .

1 and 1 Lap (Tricot Lap) • Second course: Under 1 needle to the left swing through over 1 needle to the left Swing Through ↓ 1 ↓ 2 4/20/2013 56 .

1 and 1 Lap (Tricot Lap) • Result: • Therefore. 4/20/2013 57 . the diagonal sinker loops are formed. These pull the stitch heads of each alternate row into the same direction. the chain link arrangement is: 1 0 1 2 closed 1 and 1 stitch • As a result of the underlaps.

2 and 1 Lap • Swing through • swing back → 0 • swing through • swing back → 3 • swing through →1 →2 →1 • swing back → 0 4/20/2013 58 .

3 and 1 Lap • Swing through →1 • swing back → 0 • swing through →3 • swing back → 4 • swing through →0 • swing back → 1 • swing through →4 • swing back → 3 4/20/2013 59 .

4 and 1 Lap • Swing through • swing back →0 →1 • swing through • swing back →5 →4 4/20/2013 60 .

Atlas Lap • The atlas construction differs in that the laps are continued over two or more courses in one direction and then return in the other direction to the point where they started. • Lapping movement • 0-1/2-1/3-2/4-3/5-4/3-4/2-3/1-2/ 61 4/20/2013 .

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• video 4/20/2013 63 .

Stitch Diagram and Notation? 4/20/2013 64 .

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