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Problem Session 1|Views: 0|Likes: 0

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04/21/2013

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**Types Language an Automaton Accepts Sound of No Hands Clapping
**

1

Sets vs. We’ve seen distinctions among types: Characters vs. 2 .Types Types or classes are not just important in programming. strings. elements. they are vital in mathematics and automata theory.

Oddity: in the ε-NFA. Characters A common and important distinction in programming languages. ’a’ is of type char. 3 ”a” is of type String. we see arcs labeled by strings (ε in particular) and by characters (ordinary inputs like 0). Especially important: ε is of type String.Strings Vs. .

Characters – (2) It’s not a problem. Similarly. And for any kind of finite automaton. labels of paths are strings. you can mentally coerce the character labels to strings of length 1.Strings Vs. in an ε-NFA. . 4 Example: in Java ”” + ’0’ = ”0”. characters can be coerced to strings.

5 . each treated as a string is 010.Example: Label of a Path ε ε 0 1 0 Concatenation of the labels.

languages) are sets. elements never do. 6 .. Sets can have “members”. Especially. The empty set ∅ is a set. Elements These are always different types. while sets of strings (e.Sets Vs. strings are elements. ε is a string.g.

but for a different reason: Elements cannot have members. 7 . Elements – (2) The empty set is the only set in the world that does not have any members. Notice that strings like ε or 001 do not have members.Sets Vs.

Convenient to use something like {p. Really. The subset construction seems to construct DFA states that are sets of NFA states. 8 . q} for the name of a DFA state.States of an NFA States are always elements. but are elements with names like “Sally” or “q”. the DFA states correspond to sets of NFA states.

Labels of paths from the state state to an accepting state.Language of an Automaton Automata accept strings. but ONE language. EXACTLY the set of strings that the automaton accepts. 9 . many strings. They also accept languages. Thus.

If that were the case.Fallacy We had a number of forum discussions where people took “automaton A accepts language L” to mean that all the strings of L are accepted by A. 1 10 . all languages would be “accepted” by: Start A 0.

Sound of No Hands Clapping People sometimes have trouble with the edge cases of general statements. Example: We know what the sum of integers is. but what if there are 0 integers? Example: we know what it means for a string to have an even number of 0’s. but what if that string is empty? 11 .

. 0..g. What is the sum of no integers? The only sensible choice is the identity for the operation +.e. i. 12 .Sum of Zero Integers We know what the sum of several integers is. e. 4 + 7 + 3.

: sum = 0). i<n. for (i=0. e. we would write. 13 .Programming View If we wanted to sum integers a[i] for i = 0. 1. i++) sum += a[i]. n-1. What is the result if n=0? (Ans.: sum = 0.g.….

Other Operators p OR q OR r? OR of zero propositions = false (the identity for OR). 14 . p*q*r? product of zero numbers = 1 (the identity for multiplication). ”w” ”x” ”y”? concatenation of zero strings = ε (the identity for concatenation). p AND q AND r? AND of zero propositions = true (the identity for AND).

Implies that ε is accepted by this DFA.Example: Concatenation of Zero Strings Suppose the start state is also accepting. the concatenation of zero strings. Start A The path from state A to A has. as label. 15 .

. So ε has an even number of 0’s an even number of 1’s. and so on. 16 .e. The empty string has zero of every symbol.Is 0 Odd or Even? Even. 0 = 2*0 + 0. because the remainder of 0 divided by 2 is 0. I.

” but other theories tend to be singular.Automata – Not a Lady Automaton And let me add one more point – not of mathematics but of diction.” Oddly: the theory is called “automata theory. quantum theory. Examples: String theory. “Automaton” is singular. and its plural is irregular: “automata. 17 .

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