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Contemporary Math I
Using MAPLE or TI-89

Otto Wilke

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Contemporary Math I Using MAPLE or TI-89

Otto Wilke
Texas State Technical College Waco

© 2007 Texas State Technical College Waco
ISBN 978-1-934302-07-1
All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or any portion thereof in any form.
Requests for such permissions should be addressed to:
TSTC Publishing
Texas State Technical College Waco
3801 Campus Drive
Waco, TX 76705
http://publishing.tstc.edu/
Publisher: Mark Long
Graphics specialist: Grace Arsiaga
Editor: Todd Glasscock
Printing production: Bill Evridge
Cover design: Sheri McGee

Manufactured in the United States of America
First edition

Table of Contents
Introduction to Maple...................................................................................................... 1

Getting Started....................................................................................................................1

Operation Symbols............................................................................................................1
Algebraic Operations...................................................................................................... 3

Algebraic Operations: Test Bank Problems....................................................................7
Number Systems........................................................................................................... 10

Number Systems: Test Bank Problems.........................................................................13
Radicals......................................................................................................................... 17

Radicals: Test Bank Problems.........................................................................................19

Sets and Lists................................................................................................................ 23

Sets and Lists: Test Bank Problems................................................................................26
Sets of Numbers............................................................................................................ 28

Sets of Numbers: Test Bank Problems...........................................................................30
Logic .............................................................................................................................. 33

Induction...........................................................................................................................33

Mathematical Induction..................................................................................................33

Deduction..........................................................................................................................34

Scientific Method..............................................................................................................41

Logic Problems.................................................................................................................42

Factoring........................................................................................................................ 44

Factoring: Test Bank Problems.......................................................................................46
Fractions........................................................................................................................ 49

Fractions: Test Bank Problems.......................................................................................52
Complex Numbers......................................................................................................... 54

Complex Numbers: Test Bank Problems......................................................................56
Coordinate Systems..................................................................................................... 59
Exponential Format....................................................................................................... 65
Units and Dimensions................................................................................................... 69

1. Definitions.....................................................................................................................69

2. The SI Units...................................................................................................................69

3. Algebra of Units and Dimensions.............................................................................77

4. Conversion Factors......................................................................................................78

Units and Dimensions: Test Bank Problems................................................................80

Linear Equations........................................................................................................... 83

Linear Equations: Test Bank Problems..........................................................................89
Linear Inequalities......................................................................................................... 96

Linear Inequalities: Test Bank Problems.....................................................................100
Quadratic Equations................................................................................................... 103

Quadratic Equations: Test Bank Problems.................................................................104
Radical Equations....................................................................................................... 107

Radical Equations: Test Bank Problems......................................................................107
Geometric Formulae................................................................................................... 109

Triangles..........................................................................................................................110

Quadrilaterals.................................................................................................................112

Geometric Formulae: Test Bank Problems.................................................................119
Functions..................................................................................................................... 123

Common Functions.......................................................................................................131

Transformation of Functions........................................................................................137

Functions: Test Bank Problems....................................................................................137

Exponential and Logarithmic Equations................................................................... 139

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions: Test Bank Problems................................145
Matrices........................................................................................................................ 149

Matrices: Test Bank Problems.......................................................................................155
Systems of Equations................................................................................................. 159

Matrix Equations............................................................................................................163

Diophantine Equations..................................................................................................165

Simultaneous Equations: Test Bank Problems...........................................................166
Systems of Inequalities.............................................................................................. 170

Simultaneous Inequalities: Test Bank Problems........................................................175
Sequences and Series................................................................................................ 178

Arithmetic Sequences and Series.................................................................................180

Geometric Sequences and Series..................................................................................181

Fibonacci Sequence........................................................................................................183

Sequences: Test Bank Problems...................................................................................184
Probability.................................................................................................................... 187

Probability: Test Bank Problems..................................................................................191
Descriptive Statistics and Regression...................................................................... 194

Statistics and Regression: Test Bank Problems..........................................................196

Percentage Equations................................................................................................ 201

Percentages: Test Bank Problems.................................................................................203
Proportionality............................................................................................................. 204

Proportionality: Test Bank Problems...........................................................................207
Graphs and Tables...................................................................................................... 209

Graphs and Tables: Test Bank Problems.....................................................................213
Trigonometric Functions............................................................................................ 215

Triangles...................................................................................................................... 219
Conic Sections............................................................................................................ 220

Conics: Test Bank Problems..........................................................................................231
Apendix A: Conversion Factors................................................................................. 235
About TSTC Publishing.............................................................................................. 255

Contemporary Math 

Introduction to Maple
Getting Started
Most of the Maple commands in this text correspond to the Classic Worksheet syntax. To open the
Classic Worksheet go to Start—>Programs—>Maple 11—>Classic Worksheet. The prompt is the
> symbol. The cursor is a vertical line, |. The cursor may be positioned by moving the arrow keys
or by clicking the left mouse button. The cursor may not follow page up or page down commands
or scroll up or down.
End all commands with a semicolon or a colon and then press [Enter] to execute the commands.
When a command ends with a colon, execution causes the calculations to be done, but the results
do not appear on the screen. To delay execution until the last of a group of commands, press [ShiftEnter] to move the cursor to the next line.
More than one command may be typed on a line, but each command must end in a colon or
semicolon. Only help commands do not require a colon or semicolon.
Help commands begin with a question mark. For a general help screen, type the ? symbol, and then
press [Enter]. For help with a particular command, type ? followed by the name of the command,
for example, ?factor. A help menu also appears on the title bar.

> ?
>?factor

Operation Symbols
Symbol Operation
+     Addition
-     Subtraction, negation
*     Multiplication
^     Exponentiation
&* Matrix multiplication, non-commutative multiplication
=     Equals
:=   Assignment
%   Last answer
%% Second to last answer 

Contemporary Math

EXAMPLES
> 3+2;

> 5-(-8);#Two adjacent operators must be separated by
parentheses.

> 5^2;

> 3*5/5^2;#Exponentiation first; multiplication & division at the
same #time from left to right.

> #Anything following pound sign on a line is an unexecuted
comment.

Contemporary Math 

Algebraic Operations
An operation is an action. In algebra operations are performed with numbers. Algebraic operations
include addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation. There are other operations in
mathematics. Some will be discussed later.
The four operations discussed here are binary operations, i.e. involving two numbers. Addition
combines two numbers to yield a unique third number called the sum. Operators are symbols that
indicate the operation to be performed. In Maple they are:
+ for addition
- for subtraction
* for multiplication
/ for division
^ for exponentiation
Maple requires all multiplication be explicitly indicated by the * in input. Notice the required *
between the sets of parentheses.
> (3*x*y+4*z)*(2*x-1);

(3 x y + 4 z) (2 x − 1)
> expand(%);
6 x2 y − 3 x y + 8 z x − 4 z

The Maple math output does not print the *. 3*x*y is indicated by the presence of a space between
the characters.
> cat;c*a*t;

cat
cat
Above, cat is the name of a single number, but c a t is the product of three numbers. The numbers
involved in operations are given names:
addend+addend=sum
minuend-subtrahend=difference 

Contemporary Math

factor*factor=product
dividend/divisor=quotient=numerator/denominator
base^exponent=result of exponentiation
Now may be a good time to define some words. A variable is a letter, symbol or word that
represents a number. A numeral in a particular position relative to the decimal point represents
a fixed number. The number represented by a variable differs (varies) from problem to problem.
Below is a list of example variables, separated by commas.
> [x,y,theta,cat,dog,angle[1]];
[ x, y, θ, cat , dog, angle 1 ]

>
> [2,x,2*x,3*sqrt(5),4*x^2*sqrt(y)];
[ 2, x , 2 x , 3 5

( 1/2 )

, 4 x2 y

( 1/2 )

]

An expression is a single term or some terms connected with algebraic operators. Below is a list
of expressions, separated by commas.
> [2,2*x,2*x+3*y,sqrt(5*x)/[4*y]-3.5];
( 1/2 )

( 1/2 )


x
 2, 2 x , 2 x + 3 y , 5

[4 y]


− 3.5 

An equation is an expression which contains an equal sign, =.
> 3*x+2*y=6;

3x+2y=6
An inequality is an expression that contains an inequality symbol, < (less than), > (greater than),
<> (not equal to), <= (less than or equal to), >= (greater than or equal to).
> 3*x+2*y<6;

3x+2y<6
Back to operations... Algebra, like a game, consists of a set of rules that govern what the outcome
of operations must be. To play any game effectively you must know the rules. Four rules govern
addition.
Commutative Rule
The order of addends does not change the sum.

Contemporary Math 

a+b=b+a
3+2=2+3=5
Associative Rule
When adding three (or more) numbers, add any two, then add that sum to a third number.
(a+b)+c=a+(b+c)
2+3+4=(2+3)+4=5+4=2+(3+4)=2+7=9
Additive Identity
The sum of zero and a number is the number.
a+0=a
6+0=6
Additive Inverse
The sum of a number and its negative is zero. The negative of a number is called its additive
inverse.
a+(-a)=0
3+(-3)=0
Rules for multiplication are similar, but include one additional rule, the distributive rule. In Maple,
brackets can sometimes be used to prevent Maple from automatically performing the operation
and showing only the result.
> commutative_rule:=a*b=b*a;[3]*[2]=[2]*[3];associative_rule:=[a*
b]*c=a*[b*c];[3*x]*[y]=[3]*[x*y];[3]*[x*y]=3*x*y;;distributive_r
ule:=a*(b+c)=expand(a*(b+c));[3]*[x+y]=3*x+3*y;multiplicative_id
entity:=[a]*[1]=a;[6]*[1]=6;multiplicative_inverse:=[a]*[1/a]=1;
[6.1]*[[1]/[6.1]]=1;

commutative_rule := a b = a b
[3] [2] = [3] [2]
associative_rule := [ a b ] c = a [ b c ]
[3 x] [y] = [3] [x y]
[3] [x y] = 3 x y
distributive_rule := a ( b + c ) = a b + a c
[3] [x + y] = 3 x + 3 y
multiplicative_identity := [ a ] [ 1 ] = a
[6] [1] = 6
1
multiplicative_inverse := [ a ]   = 1
a
[1] 
[ 6.1 ] 
 = 1
 [ 6.1 ] 

Rules for exponentiation: 

Contemporary Math

> x^m*x^n=x^(m+n);
xm xn = x

(m + n)

> x^m/x^n=x^(m-n);
(m − n)
xm
=x
n
x

If x is not equal to zero:
> [x]^[0]=1;
[x]

[0]

=1

> 0^0;

1
From the previous two rules:
> [x]^[0]/x^n=x^([0]-n);
[0]

[x]
xn

=x

([0] − n)

> 1/x^n=[x]^[-n];[3]^[-1]=1/3;
[ −n ]
1
= [x]
n
x
[ -1 ]
1
[3] =
3

Also:
> (x*y)^n=x^n*y^n;[3*x]^[2]=(3*x)^2;
( x y )n = x n y n

[3 x]

[2]

= 9 x2

> (x/y)^n=x^n/y^n;
n

n
x = x
 
yn
y

Contemporary Math 

> [2/3]^[2]=(2/3)^2;
2
 
3

[2]

=

4
9

> (x^m)^n=x^(m*n);
n

( xm ) = x

(m n)

> [[2]^[2]]^[3]=[2]^[6];
[[2]

[2]

]

[3]

= [2]

[6]

When an algebraic expression involves multiple operations, the operations must be done in the
correct order. First perform exponentiation operations from left to right. Then do multiplication
and division at the same time from left to right. Finally do addition and subtraction at the same time
from left to right. Expressions contained within grouping symbols (usually parentheses) should
done according to the above order.
Maple uses parentheses for grouping symbols. (I only use brackets to prevent Maple from doing all
the work for you.) A horizontal dividing line is also a grouping symbol. Force Maple to evaluate the
numerator and evaluate the denominator before dividing by placing the numerator in parentheses
and placing the denominator in parentheses.
> (`3`-7)/(`2`+5)=(3-7)/(2+5);
3 − 7 -4
=
2+5 7

Algebraic Operations: Test Bank Problems
Problem 101
8 + [ −24 ]
Evaluate 6 + [ −1 ] .

> Answer=(8+(-24))/(6+(-1));evalf(%);
-16
5
Answer = -3.200000000

Answer = 

Contemporary Math

> ?

Problem 102
Evaluate ( 9 + [ −22 ] ) ( 18 + [ −32 ] ) .
> Answer=(9+(-22))*(18+(-32));

Answer = 182

> ?

Problem 103
Evaluate

a+

b
−def
c
when a = 3, b = 22, c = 26, d = 25, e = 9, and f = 32.

Warning, the protected name Chi has been redefined and unprotected
> Answer=3+22/26-25*9*32;evalf(%);

Contemporary Math 

-93550
13
Answer = -7196.153846
Answer =

> ?

Problem 104
f
Evaluate a b + ( c d + e ) when a = 2, b = 3, c = 3, d = 3, e = 1, and f = 5.

> Answer=2*3+(3*3+1)^5;evalf(%);

Answer = 100006
Answer = 100006.

> ?

Contemporary Math 255

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RVSD 02-08
ISBN 978-1-934302-07-1

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