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Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses

Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses

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Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses
Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses

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GODS AN D GODDE S S E S
second edition

michael jordan

For Beatrice Elizabeth Jordan

Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses, Second Edition Copyright © 2004, 1993 by Michael Jordan All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jordan, Michael, 1941– Dictionary of gods and godesses / Michael Jordan.– 2nd ed. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Encyclopedia of gods. c1993. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8160-5923-3 1. Gods–Dictionaries. 2. Goddesses–Dictionaries. I. Jordan, Michael, 1941– Encyclopedia of gods. II. Title. BL473.J67 2004 202'.11'03–dc22 2004013028 Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com Text design by David Strelecky Cover design by Cathy Rincon Printed in the United States of America VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

CONTENTS
6
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION v INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION vii CHRONOLOGY OF THE PRINCIPAL RELIGIONS AND CULTURES COVERED IN THIS BOOK xiii DICTIONARY OF GODS AND GODDESSES 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY 361 INDEX 367

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
6
It is explained in the introduction to this volume that no database of deities worldwide can ever hope to be comprehensive. There are just too many regional variations amongst the larger religion blocks and, equally, a vast number of very localized cults, each with its own idiosyncratic pantheons of gods and goddesses. The intention of the first edition was to cover all the major theaters of belief as extensively as was feasible at the time, with the primary object of including most of the names of deities that the student was likely to come across while traveling to religious and archaeological sites around the world, or researching in museums and libraries. This meant that much attention was paid to the living polytheistic religions, including Hindu, Buddhist, Taoist, and Shinto. It was also thought constructive to include as many names as possible from Ancient Near Eastern, Egyptian, Classical Roman and Greek, Norse, Celtic, and Germanic pantheons since, in recent decades, there has been a resurgence of interest in many of these among “alternative religion” movements. As a result of these decisions, certain geographical areas were under-represented in the first edition. Most notably they included the Pacific islands of Hawaii, Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia, along with Australia and New Zealand with the venerated traditions of the Australian Aborigines and the Maori. All of these cultures are richly endowed with deities. In recent years some specialized reference works, focusing on the “Pacific traditions,” have been published and the additional entries in the book draw on valuable resources of information that were not all widely available when the first edition was compiled. Away from the southern hemisphere cultures, two specific new entries deserve mention. Helen of Troy was omitted from the first edition because she is widely regarded as having been a mortal queen made famous through Homeric legend. According to the great Greek historian Hesiod, however, Helen was a goddess and as such worthy of inclusion here. And, in response to widespread interest in the history of the Knights Templar, I have included an entry on Baphomet, the medieval deity allegedly worshiped by that order of knights. The chronology section has been re-worked and the bibliography substantially expanded to incorporate a large number of titles that have been published since the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Gods, while retaining the details of older references. Many of the newer titles are currently in print and widely available in bookstores and from online sources. Numerous cross-references and a comprehensive index have been added to this edition to allow easy access to the information.

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the same fears have beset them and they have all attempted to explain the mysteries and allay the fears in the same way—through the worship of gods. the deities become more clearly defined.INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION 6 In compiling a book like Encyclopedia of Gods. Primitive peoples attribute to all of nature. Thus we find a goddess of childbirth. But why does the human spirit harbor such a need for gods? The beginnings of an answer to this question may be found in the beliefs of the simplest cultures. not only responsible for different areas of worldly control. and also by the way patterns repeat themselves—almost every culture has its creator gods. These spirits may be poorly defined. everything which exists in a physical state. and be represented as animals or other living things. a spiritual identity that is ever-present but unseen. We come to know them by their appearances. talk. a god of blacksmiths or sailors. but also directing their powers toward good or evil. the natural world is a puzzling and frightening place. by their style of dress. technology and history. birds and animals become detached from their temporal “shells” and take on progressively more abstract associations. trees. that a world measured purely in spiritual dimensions has been identified for at least 60. We know. As the scope of their responsibilities broadens. conjured or appeased by the special powers placed upon certain individuals of the tribe. enjoy sexual relations.” “old man of rocks” and “reindeer child. exhibit anger. a god of storms. sorrow. gods whose duty it is to protect the home.000 years—it may have been present as an innate part of the human psyche since the very beginnings of consciousness. one is struck both by the enormous number and variety of deities that occur in different religions around the world. more “human” personalities. the shamans or wise ones. The same mysteries have puzzled people on every continent. Again it necessitates a return to the template provided in the most simple religions. by the attributes they carry. but they are endowed with human form and human habits: they walk. The social infrastructure of the spirit world may also closely mirror our own: thus deities become arranged in hierarchical orders known as pantheons and may be separated into groups. gods concerned with a locally important aspect of the weather. To explain the precise significance in our lives of gods and goddesses is more complicated because it may alter according to environment and according to the stage of social and economic development. goddesses of fertility. rocks. Thus one finds in simple shamanistic faiths such characters as “cloud man” and “grass woman. beyond reasonable doubt. joy.” As this animistic style of religion develops. vii . Yet some of their animistic traits persist and they may still be identified in inanimate symbols and devices. Without the benefit of science. mischief and so on. even a deity concerned with the proper use of pots and pans. the rather vague ethereal spirits of clouds.

In parallel with the Mesopotamian cultures. In such instances. The demise of these ancient orders came in 539 BC when the Persians under Cyrus conquered Babylon. there exist significant ancestral personalities who have clearly been deified and are treated entirely as gods and goddesses e. such as those of Greece and Rome. In some religions. It should be noted. often of a tribal nature. the influence of Babylon continued through the neo-Babylonian period of biblical notoriety. will be well known to most readers. personalities that might correctly be regarded as demigods have an entry here. With some interruptions. They influenced much cross-fertilization of culture in the ancient Near East.500 entries of deities derived from both ancient and contemporary cultures. Although certain cultures. the commencement of a journey.viii Introduction to the First Edition steered by great invisible forces. gods are iconic figures whose “pedigree” belongs exclusively in the heavens. and some historical background may be useful. logic dictates that mankind’s activities affect the object not only in its physical state but also in its spiritual dimension. The Old Babylonian era began at about the end of the second millennium BC and was marked largely by the influence of the lawmaking king Hammurabi. The names of many deities changed at the same time. to govern the order of life and to provide answers to conundrums which science and the modern temporal world cannot resolve. If every object in nature has a spiritual identity. Their hegemony was brief and was replaced by the Greek influences of Alexander the Great and his Macedonian Empire in the fourth century BC. introducing the new religion of Islam to an area which had seen strong. there are no entries for Jesus Christ or the prophet Muhammad. however. were less a compact culture than a loose-knit and widely traveled people who shared a common language. others will be less familiar. Thus the approval of the relevant spirit must be obtained before the slaughter of game. The Hittite Empire arose in the mountainous region of what is now Turkey and its period of influence was comparatively short-lived. Responsibility for our actions is taken from us and given into the hands of an all-powerful. and it is certainly true of the occidental religions. The Sumerians were the first high civilization to inhabit Mesopotamia. which may be considered to act as its protector or guardian. the Sumerian god Dumuzi or the Norse god Balder. the building of a house. the felling of a tree. that of Egypt survived more or less intact from sometime before 3000 BC until the end of the Roman Empire period. The Hurrians. if unseen being. though from the first century AD. therefore. They are distinct and separate from humankind. A demigod is defined here as a personality who was once mortal but has been elevated to the celestial ranks. influence from Zoroastrianism. The Romans under Pompey came in the first century BC. In the mythologies of other cultures. . Generally speaking. until roughly two hundred years before the birth of Christ. Muslim expansionism took over key areas of Syrio-Palestine and Persia in the seventh century AD. The need to expiate our activities has persisted down the millennia: the prime role of gods is still to protect. In the twenty-fourth century BC they were taken over by the Akkadians under Sargon and the style of writing changed to a Semitic cuneiform. to steer. that while Gautama Buddha is included. It does not generally include personalities regarded as demigods. closely linked with the Hittite Empire. most notably Buddhism. all deities are perceived as having once been mortal beings whose pursuit of excellence and enlightenment has elevated them ever higher through a series of spheres or planes toward perfection. Their style of cuneiform writing was only deciphered a few years ago and much of their history and circumstance is still not properly known.g. demons or mythical heroes. This encyclopedia contains more than 2. if shortlived.

The word may.and South American religions discussed. Their culture is better recorded through the Icelandic Eddaic literature. perhaps in the Mycenaean age which began circa 1600 BC. though established on parts of the Pacific coast of Peru in the fifth century BC. Eventually the term for sunrise is adopted as the proper name of a deity who is the apotheosis of that phenomenon. refer only to a phenomenon. The Incas. but precisely when that change in usage has taken place is unknown. such as the sunrise. Celtic culture was effectively a spent force in Europe by the first century BC with the defeat of the Gaulish rebellion under Vercingetorix. began their major period of influence in the eighth century AD. her deities were probably well established in much earlier times. with whom the Nordic Icelandic culture is most closely associated. It was introduced to China in the first century and to Japan as late as the sixth century AD. Greece was the pioneer and. Buddhism began in northern India with the teachings of Gautama Buddha in about 500 BC. started their rise to prominence about a hundred years earlier but were largely contemporary with the Incas. Cortez routing the Aztec capital in 1521 and Pizarro taking Peru twelve years later. Rarely is the period of rever- . although known properly from about 800 BC. at first.” They are slow to evolve. reached its peak during the seventh century AD and then waned in influence as the Toltec Empire began to flourish. did not begin serious cultural expansion for several hundred years and their brief empire period commenced in 1438 AD. To assist in placing the various cultures in a chronological perspective. sometimes over many centuries. in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Likewise they may be highly tenacious. The Celts were never literate and names of deities are known only from Romano-Celtic inscriptions and the questionably accurate writings of Christian monks. Almost all their sacred literature was destroyed. whose civilization arose in the fourth century BC. a chart is provided on page xiii. but its influence continued in Ireland until Christianization in the fifth century AD. Elsewhere in Europe the Celtic gods were probably taking substance as early as the late Bronze Age in central Europe (circa 900 BC) but they come under historical scrutiny only from about 400 BC. These pre-Columbian cultures came to an abrupt end with the arrival of the Conquistadors. Rome seems largely to have borrowed deities from Greece and renamed them. in Mexico. Her influence collapsed with the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410 AD. often deriving from the personality of an older god or goddess.Introduction to the First Edition ix under Roman provincial rule. coincidental with the rise of the city states. the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The Vikings. between 300 BC and 300 AD swelled the ranks of deities and the process of enlargement continued with the more recent literature of the Puranas and the development of Tantrism. the makeup of its religion becomes increasingly confused. The development of the two great epic poems. deities do not emerge “overnight. Of the major Meso. Hinduism took shape perhaps as early as 1700 BC with the migration of Aryan peoples from the southern steppes of Russia into the subcontinent. The classical religions of Greece and Rome supplanted those of the ancient world as the dominant occidental faiths. In India. Frequently a name is recognizable from a list or a text but it is not possible to say with certainty whether that word reflects an object of worship or some more secular notion. Though now associated more with the Far East. but their deities are often modeled on older Germanic gods who probably held sway from at least the first or second centuries AD. their worship dwindling imperceptibly. It is notoriously difficult to pinpoint the moment in time at which a personality or a title first becomes identifiable as a deity. the earliest is that of the Mayans. The Aztecs. With rare exceptions.

Also included is the role of the deity in the pantheon—whether he or she is perceived as a creator.g. or taking more specific responsibility. Less than true syncretizations. Entries for deities who may be regarded as being. Attributes may be of particular importance in identifying deities from large and complex pantheons such as those found in Hinduism and Buddhism. Two types of entry are employed in the encyclopedia. His or her immediate genealogy is listed since gods and goddesses are invariably considered to have celestial parents. from “source to sink. When mythology plays a significant part in the understanding or makeup of the personality. cosmic events and other such heavenly activities. It should be noted that the term “Akkadian-Babylonian” is taken to mean that period influenced by the Akkadian and Babylonian hegemonies. The deeds of spirit beings are recorded in word-of-mouth stories. Thus the chronology can never be precise and is frequently the subject of disagreement between scholars. a prince or a warrior. The remainder are treated in less detail. Where dates are given for a “known period of worship. and art references are given. and those associated with the earth and its well-being. In all cases the information includes the original cultural source. Yoruba or Navajo. which may be best explained as reincarnations in which a divine being has been born into the world to save it from danger and to restore order during some particular moment of disruption. recognized is given in [square brackets]. Thus deities of fertility. Apart from the distinctions outlined below. Two or more deities may be combined into a hybrid. or by a tribal identity e. Sumerian. though many of the entries in large pantheons such as those of Hinduism and Buddhism are probably on a level of importance equal to that of Christian saints. The modern geographical area of the world in which the deity is. Mythology plays a significant role in sustaining a religion and its personalities. These deities may appear in a number of physical forms or emanations in order to perform different roles i.” clear-cut. Obviously when cultures merged. but often only the title of the dominant figure remains for the record. a god of concepts like fertility or death. Babylonian. Entries are in alphabetical order. This is particularly appropriate in . and each entry is listed under the name by which the deity is most commonly known. weather.g. Generally such hybridized deities are not given space. such deities retain the hyphenated names of the original personalities. such as for the well-being of a maize crop.x Introduction to the First Edition ence for a deity. symbols.e. by a cultural movement e. domestic affairs and death are generally earth-bound and are described as chthonic. Because of the once enormous number of animistic spirits. agriculture. Distinction is drawn between sky and astral personalities who are perceived to live in the regions above the temporal world and who are generally concerned with climate. siblings and offspring. a process of merging or syncretization frequently takes place when deities who exhibit similar roles become redundant and join forces as a single personality. without breakdown into ethnic or cultural groups. some deities were also superseded.” these are to be regarded as an approximate guide only. Sometimes variations are described as avataras. or having been. Hindu or Buddhist. particularly among the broad mass of cultures which are essentially non-literate. Information which may be of use in recognizing a god or goddess from iconography. the deities listed here are treated equably. during which texts were composed in the Semitic Akkadian language. such as dress. a lover. as an ascetic. Sometimes a compound name may give a clue to this process. the sea. or has been. its outlines may be included and the literary source identified. sacred animals and other attributes is also provided when known. of major significance within their cultural area are headed by BOLD CAPITALS and are accorded a more detailed coverage in the text. This may sometimes be reflected by a language e.g.

these are included. Many thousands more find their place in the Chinese pantheons. When a name originates in a script form other than Roman. those Mayan gods listed as God A. Because of the numbers involved. particularly where there has been Greek influence. There are exceptions: the Loeb translations of Greek authors. it makes no claim to be exhaustive. It should be noted that in ancient Near Eastern pantheons. the code name may be noted at the end of an entry. a literal English translation of the meaning is given and alternative names and spellings may also be included under “synonyms” or at the end of the entry. Spellings are generally those incorporated in the source refer- ence works cited in the bibliography. the reader will usually find that an entry exists for that deity. the sound sh is transcribed as ˇ s. the Greek god Asklepios may. Thus there are accountable geographical gaps in what might otherwise be a more complete survey. in some other works. sh is transcribed as s. Generally. for instance. the volume of potential entries would make this an unrealistic objective. In too many instances ethnologists have simply not bothered to investigate local faiths before they have been corrupted or obliterated by the more universal modern religions. . Where cross-references to other deities seem appropriate. Aside from the reservations already stated. the word Greek appears in [square brackets] as part of a heading: this applies to a number of Hellenized Egyptian deities whose Greek-style names are more commonly used.000. In many instances. tend to use “Romanized” spellings. though many people will prefer to employ the Anglicized pronunciation of names like Zeus. One should always be aware that our presentday knowledge of the names and personalities of deities is strictly governed. be entered as Asclepius. but changing the name. either because none are provided or because we cannot decipher them. But if a deity is named without explanation. included. are described as being “in excess of 10. When it is generally assumed that a codenamed figure is the same as a fully identified deity. Thus Zeus becomes Jupiter and Aphrodite is re-named Venus. e. The gods of Hatti (Hittite). the name given is the Hellenized version. In all cases z should be pronounced like the French j in jardin.” There are at least as many deities known to Japanese Shintoism. If a form of a name is specific to a certain language or culture.g. the nearest phonetic equivalent is provided in the spelling. as Seth in the story of Horus and vice versa. the original Egyptian name is then given at the end of the entry. God B and so on. a c placed before the vowel sounds e or i is pronounced soft. however. Although Encyclopedia of Gods represents the most comprehensive worldwide listing of deities available in a single volume. like an s. For illustration. no attempt has been made to indicate that a god mentioned in another’s entry has an entry of his or her own. Sanskrit.g. but the iconic form is so well represented that academic circles have provided code letters e. and that in Baltic and some African languages. In some cases we have no names for figures depicted in art. Wherever applicable. Primitive societies have often been reluctant to speak the names of deities to outsiders for fear of divine—or missionary—reprisal. All significant avataras or incarnations of a deity are. The volume therefore includes those names which a student or enthusiast of iconography or mythology would reasonably need to explore and which a casual reader or traveler might encounter in texts or inscriptions. Where applicable. retaining more or less all the original personality. this is also stated. The Romans were particularly prone to adopt Greek and Celtic deities.Introduction to the First Edition xi the case of the Hindu pantheon where the effect would be to incorporate very large numbers of names representing little more than a fusion of two personalities detailed elsewhere in the encyclopedia. for example. The reader should be aware that other reference sources may interpret phonetics differently and it is worth exploring possible alternative spellings if an entry is not immediately found.

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Chronology of the Principal Religions and Cultures Covered in This Book CULTURE 3000 BC 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 AD 500 1000 1500 2000 SUMERIAN EGYPTIAN AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL AKKADIANBABYLONIAN HINDU HITTITEHURRIAN GREEK HEBREW MAYAN CELTIC BUDDHIST ROMAN AFRICAN YORUBA POLYNESIAN NORDICICELANDIC CHRISTIAN INCA AZTEC NZ MAORI ISLAMIC ESTIMATED HISTORY KNOWN HISTORY .

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Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Color: red. Physician god. Abhimukhi (friendly disposed) Abeona Goddess of passage. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Linked with the goddess ADEONA. Minor attendant spirits. 2. Color: yellow. Hindu (Puranic). Desert god. One of twelve deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. Consort of the sun ˇ AMAS ˇ. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes. Derived from the Mesopotamian model of ENKI/EA. A benevolent naksatra or astral deity. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. 1 . Roman. Also AYA. Known from inscriptions in the Garonne valley of southwestern France and thought to be associated with apple trees. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) and western Semitic. Abhijit (victorious) Abandinus God of unknown affinities. Accounted among a series of SMAN-BLA (medicine buddhas).A 6 A-a Sun goddess. god S Abgal 1. A’as ˇ God of wisdom. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Cambridge. Minor goddess. Associated with ENKI and residing in the Abzu or primeval water. Attributes: book and staff. Romano-Celtic (British). Abhijnaraja Abellio Tree god. Minor goddess of fortune. England. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Known from the Palmyrian desert regions as a tutelary god of Bedouins and camel drivers. The name appears in an inscription at Godmanchester. daughter of DAKSA and consort of CANDRA (SOMA). A’as ˇ keeps the tablets of fate. she is concerned with the safe going-out and coming-in of a child. Hittite and Hurrian.

She was celebrated in the Larentalia festival on 23 December. which was also a feast of the dead. The ritual was preceded by four weeks of total silence in the area. thus symbolizing plants emerging from the earth’s soil. Roman. hail and frost. including their possessions and products. Mayan (Yucatec. derives from her name. Believed in some traditions to be the mother of the LARES. staff and sword. Roman. Acacila Animistic spirit. Tutelary god. Also a dikpala or guardian of the northeastern quarter. HACHACYUM. the “deep. She continued in French mythology after the Roman occupation. God of wine. Traditionally driven away in an annual expulsion ritual by firing guns and shouting loudly. Abu Minor vegetation god. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The brother of the creator god . West African. Minor goddess. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Color: blue. but also the mother of the god HERCULES and the adopted mother of Romulus. as a lady who enters houses in the night. Abonsam Malevolent spirit. Buddhist (Mahayana). classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. and he was replaced in Akkadian times by APSU. lotus. Acan Abundantia Minor fertility goddess. The abonsam was finally driven into the sea. Acca Larentia Obscure mother goddess. Identified with the local brew. Color: white. bringing prosperity. Said to have sprung from the head of the god ENKI. made from fermented honey to which the bark of the balche tree has been added. Ac Yanto (our helper) God of white men. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Acala (immovable) 1. the founder of Rome. The personification of abundance. Acat Abzu Primordial deity of underground waters.” associated with many rivers. including rain. Romano-Celtic (Continental European). etc. emptying houses of furniture and beating the interiors with sticks. Responsible for the creation of European immigrants. Recognized by tribes in the Gold Coast. One of a group of vaguely defined beings who control the weather. balche.2 Abnoba Abnoba Forest and river goddess. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). The name “Avon. His center of cult is at Eridu (southern Mesopotamia).” Mesopotamian (Sumerian). 2. God of tattooers. Known locally from the Black Forest region of Germany. One of twelve deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. Aymara Indian [Peru and Bolivia—Titicaca Basin]. Attributes: jewel. Attributes: staff on a lotus.

One of the deities collectively classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. Occasionally the subject of a sacred marriage ceremony in parts of Mesopotamia and Syria. At Mari [Syria] he enjoyed a major cult following. His name in Akkadian cuneiform means “wind. ORIGIN Minor goddess. Roman. The embodiment of the concept of emptiness. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts including Atrahasis. He is considered by some authorities to be identical with Vaharaja and Vajrasattva. ˇKUR (Sumerian).” His animal is the bull. SYNONYMS Ramman (thunder). inscriptions. Weather god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1900 BC or earlier to circa 200 BC. astral symbolism. . He may carry a scimitar embellished with a single panther head and his symbol is the lightning fork often fixed upon a pair of pincers. etc. Adhimuktivasita (control of confidence) Minor goddess. Acolnahuacatl Minor chthonic underworld god. One of the deities collectively classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. One of twelve deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes.Adibuddha 3 Acchupta (untouched) Goddess of learning. stelae. Color: white. Adeona Goddess of passage. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. Buddhist. In human form he is depicted wearing horned headdress and tiered skirt or robe decorated with Adibuddha (the primeval buddha) The original BUDDHA. Adad is derived from the older (Sumerian) model of Is ˇ kur. Svayambhu (self-enlightened). His father is the supreme sky god ANU . See ABEONA. Adhimukticarya ADAD (wind) Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Adamas Primordial creator being. His image. ART REFERENCES reliefs. Acolmiztli (shoulder-lion) Minor chthonic underworld god. Color: red. Epithets include Svabhava (self-creating). sitting on a lotus leaf. Buddhist. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He is described as a benevolent giver of life in the fields but is also a more violent storm god. Attributes: red lotus and staff. glyptics. Gnostic Christian (Nassene). Jain [India]. The primordial force in the cosmos from whom the five DHYANIBUDDHAS arose. is often carried by other Buddhist deities. See also HADAD [Syrian]. One of a group of twelve VASITAS or goddesses personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Recognized locally in Phrygia [northwestern Turkey] as an androgynous force in the cosmos. Attribute: flower bud. IS CENTER(S) OF CULT Karakara and at Aleppo and Mari [Syria].

Attributes: those of Vis ˇnu. Also ATTIS (Phrygian).4 Adidharma Adidharma (the primeval law) Primordial goddess. Greek. Fertility and vegetation god. Also Vaikunthanatha. having become saturated with ferrous oxide. These numbered six in Vedic times but later increased to twelve. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. He was honored in a spring festival when priests in effeminate costume gashed themselves with knives. He is the consort of APHRODITE. Other legends account her as the mother of the rain god INDRA. Also an epithet for SURYA. mordial goddess ADITI. He appears as a youthful deity. Paramapathanatha. Aditya (descendant of Aditi) Collective name for sun gods. Aditi (the free one) Archaic mother goddess. She disappears largely from later Hindu traditions. Particularly worshiped in Lamaism. Hindu (Vedic). No other consort is mentioned in the literature. In Hellenic tradition he is the son of the mythical Cyprian king Cinyras and his mother is MYRRHA. CENTER(S) OF CULT mainly at Berytus and Aphaca. BHAGA. Tradition has it that he was killed by a boar during a hunting expedition and is condemned to the underworld for six months of each year. The river Adonis [Nahr Ibrahim] is sacred to him largely because its waters flow red after heavy winter rains. Semitic). VARUNA. According to the Rg Veda Aditi is said to be the wife of KASYAPA or of BRAHMA and mother of the ADITYAS. Probably derived from a local . etc. ATUNIS (Etruscan). No human physical features are drawn. Hellenized Phrygian [northwestern Turkey]. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). ARYAMAN. Frequently depicted nude and sometimes carrying a lyre. though she is sometimes identified in the guise of a cow. Probably very similar to NARAYANA. She is also accounted as the mother of HARI. The sons of the pri- Adrastea Mountain goddess. ART REFERENCES sculptures. Attributes: two or more lotuses. a group of minor gods including MITRA. Conventionally perceived as Vis ˇ nu seated on the coils of the serpent SESA (Adisesa) and attended by two wives. glyptics. Attributes: cup and knife. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 200 BC (Seleucid period) to circa AD 400. An ugly figure who is depicted on the Kypselos Chest being throttled by the goddess of justice DIKE. ORIGIN Adimurti (the primeval personification) ˇ NU. Adonis is modeled on the Mesopotamian dying vegetation god DUMUZI (Hebrew: Tammuz). during which the earth’s vegetation parches and dies under the summer sun and drought. DAKSA and Anisa. Hellenic name adopted predominantly in Phoenician and Syrian culture and based on an old western Semitic deity [Lebanon and Syria]. plaques. LITERARY SOURCES various literary texts (few inscriptions). Aditi is also perceived as a guardian goddess who brings prosperity and who can free her devotees from problems and clear away obstacles. ADONIS (lord) Adikia Goddess of injustice. Hindu (Epic Form or avatara of the god VIS and Puranic). According to Hesiod he is also the son of Phoenix and Alphesiboea. votive stelae. SYNONYMS Adon (lord. she is the SAKTI of ADIBUDDHA.

son of LIR and Aobh was. There are references in literature to Saxons sacrificing captives. ART REFERENCES various monumental carvings and inscriptions. A lesser known AESIR god of Asgard concerned with the moods of the sea and their implications for mariners. God of the ocean. . the waves of the sea. Known from inscriptions in Greece from circa 400 BC as a deity who defends the righteous. Of uncertain status. Aengus fell in love with a maiden whose identity he sought in vain.AENGUS 5 Anatolian mountain deity. daughter of the king of Cannaught. according to tradition. turned into a swan by his stepmother. It is uncertain whether she bears any link with the Celtic goddess ANDRASTA. Also Aiakos.” perhaps an allusion to the caldrons of mead which were thought to come from under the sea (see also the Celtic deities DAGDA and GOBNIU). created mankind. CENTER(S) OF CULT none known but probably enjoyed sanctuaries along the west coast of Norway and elsewhere in Nordic region. Aeacos is also the consort of Psamathe and father of Phocos. Prose Edda (Snorri). AEGIR (water) Icelandic (Nordic). who lived on Loch Bel Dragon in the shape of a swan with 150 attendant swans. SYNONYMS Mac Oc. AENGUS Celtic (Irish). Aed mac Lir. Aeacos Chthonic underworld god. Aoife. before setting sail for home. in antiquity. SYNONYMS none known. Known from inscriptions. ART REFERENCES runic inscriptions. Historia Danica (Saxo). Cycles of Kings. The personification of grass fires and whirlwinds who. As he wasted away. One of three judges of Hades assessing the souls of the dead entering the underworld (see also MINOS and RHADAMANTHOS). reliefs in metal and stone. Lugbara [Lake Albert. Linked in uncertain manner to the goddess RAN he was believed to have sired nine children. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP The son of the DAGDA by “the wife of Elcmar” (one of the kings of Tara) who may have been the goddess BOANN. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Aed Chthonic underworld god. Adro Tutelary god. Aengus Oc. Viking period (circa AD 700) but probably earlier. According to legend. his father and mother made enquiries until they located Caer. East Africa]. circa 500 BC or earlier until Christianization circa AD 400. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. through to Christianization (circa AD 1100). CENTER(S) OF CULT Brugh na Boinne (Valley of the Boyne). LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. Thought to live in the vicinity of rivers with many wives and children. Aengus lived in the Valley of the Boyne and was closely linked with the ancient funerary tumuli in the region. Celtic (Irish). probably to Aegir.” Aegir is also depicted in some poetry as the “ale brewer. In the Theogony (Hesiod). who were possibly giantesses. Identified by Plato as the son of ZEUS and Aigina. The river Eider was known to the Vikings as “Aegir’s Door. Greco-Roman.

Othin occupies Valaskjalf. finally to be cleansed by the rising waters of the sea before being born anew. the VANIR. The hexagonal Temple of Winds. The major race of sky gods in Norse religion. he is the consort of AURORA and the father of six sons. said to have presented the winds in a leather bag to the hero Odysseus. he assembles slain mortal heroes. Known only from inscriptions. Spirit of fair dealing. In mythology the Aesir exist in a realm known as Asgard. CORUS the northwest wind. Greek. . The gods live in great halls. Aericura Chthonic underworld god. other art objects etc. Aeolus God of storms and winds. Attributes include the caduceus (winged scepter). particularly at Uppsala in Sweden. are the Frost Giants. Historia Danica (Saxo). known particularly from the second century BC. SYNONYMS none known. though. The Aesir follow a common pattern whereby cultures establish a “senior” pantheon of great gods which usually number seven or twelve. Some of these are creator gods but do not necessarily include the archetypal founders of the cosmos. AESIR Icelandic (Nordic). BOREAS the north wind. the great wolf who will catch and swallow the sun at the day of doom. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout areas of Nordic influence.6 Aeolos Aengus eventually found her and he also changed into a bird. Valhall. The Aesir fought a primal battle with a rival group of gods. Their constant enemies. still stands at Athens. According to legend his home was the Aeolian Island [Lipari Island]. and to have given the sail to seafarers. one of a number of heavens perceived in Nordic and Germanic lore. ART REFERENCES engraving on stone and weapons. and in a separate building. Roman. Romano-Celtic. the All-Father (see also the Koryak Siberian deity QUIKINN. Ragnarok. In one legend he is married to EOS and is the father of six sons. and Fenrir. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) but developed earlier. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. various classical authors. Aequitas Minor god. NOTUS the southwest wind.A’QU) and probably are. These warriors will one day serve to defend Asgard in the final onslaught against the established order by the frost giants and other adversaries. AQUILO the west wind. Roman. the various directional winds. and which is dedicated to Aeolos. Developed from the Greek deity ASKLEPIOS and introduced into Rome in 293 BC as a plague god. Prose Edda (Snorri). and earth will be consumed by fire. One of the sons of POSEIDON. the symbol of modern medicine. Eurus the east wind and ZEPHYRUS the south wind. derived from a Germanic pantheon established in prehistory. At that time it is foretold that the gods of Asgard will perish. the Midgard Serpent. Derived from the Greek storm god AEOLOS. on each side of which is depicted a flying figure of one of the winds. The twelve Aesir gods are headed by OTHIN. roofed with silver. until Christianization (circa AD 1100) and in some instances beyond. in part. Roman. Aesculapius God of healing. ORIGIN Aeolos God of storms and winds. a huge sea snake encircling the Nordic lands.

One of the groups under the general title of BHAVANAVASI (dwelling in places). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1500 BC onward and still recognized. ORIGIN Creator god. In a destructive capacity he is seen as an ˇ IVA. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Fon [Benin. West Africa]. but later becomes identified as the consort of Agathe Tyche (see TYCHE). Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. He is also a guardian or aspect of the god S dikpala of the southeastern quarter. Agnikumara God. CENTER(S) OF CULT known throughout areas of Hindu influence. Known from Palmyra and linked with the sun god Yarhibol. Agu’gux AGNI (fire) Hindu [India]. of Dyaus and PRTHIVI. They have a youthful appearance and are associated with rain and thunder. probably out of concern lest certain less popular deities be neglected or forgotten. Aleut [Aleutian Islands]. They were the subject of altar inscriptions. In Hesiod’s Epic Cycle he is also described as the father of OURANOS. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs in metal and stone. alternatively. His consort is Svaha and. or a chariot drawn by red horses or parrots. Vehicles: a she-goat. Libations were made regularly to this deity after meals and he was regarded as a friendly household guardian. Ah Bolon Dz’acab (many generations) Chthonic fertility god. Greco-Roman. Attributes: seven arms and sometimes the head of a goat. God of fire. Known locally from Alexandria and depicted in the form of a snake. Greco-Roman. Greco-Roman. Possibly a vegetation avatara of . Agathos Daimon (good demon) God of fortune. May have originated as an androgynous fertility spirit. God of the sacrificial fire and the intercessor between gods and mankind. The cult continued into Hellenic times and was later extended to Rome. carrying a wide variety of objects. SYNONYMS none. Revered by hunters in the savannah regions. particularly in Athens. The name given to the Christian god under Russian Orthodox influence.Ah Bolon Dz’acab 7 Aether Primordial god of light. Attributes include a sickle moon. Age God of animals. Agni is the son of KASYAPA and ADITI or. Also strongly linked with agriculture and young crops. Agnostos Theos Aglibol Moon god. he is the father of the god SKANDA. The unknown god(s) usually addressed in the plural form. A god identified with rain and thunder. LITERARY SOURCES Rg Veda and other texts. Color: red. the son of E REBOS (darkness) and N YX (night) who overthrew these archetypal deities of chaos. A remote cosmic deity. In ancient hymns he is said to have been born in wood as the embryo life force of all trees and plants and he emerges when wood is rubbed together. according to some texts. Jain [India].

Chi Chac Chob. Said to be carried through the underworld at night on the shoulders of the god Sucunyum. Also Ah Kin Xocbiltun. God G. The deity responsible for protecting the unripe maize. The patron deities of apiarists still invoked in parts of the Yucatan. Responsible for the safe delivery of women. Ah Mun Ah Hulneb (he of the spear thrower) God of war. Ah Muzencab Ah Kin (he of the sun) Sun god. Ah Kumix Uinicob Ah Cuxtal (come to life) God of birth. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He is invoked to cure illness and to bring wives to bachelors. Also Acan Chob (Lacandon). Maize god. He is said to eat the sun during an eclipse. Ah Ciliz God of solar eclipses. P’izlimtec. Attributes include a square third eye subtended by a loop. Ah Chun Caan (he of the base of the sky) Local god. The tutelary deity of the city of Merida. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Ah Cancun Hunting god. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. A deity of ambivalent personality. Mayan (Yucatec. also the aged sun god in the sky. powers of evil associated with darkness. Attendant water gods. Ah Kin Xoc God of poetry. Mayan (Yucatec. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Kinich Ahau. the young suitor of the moon goddess Acna. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. a strong Roman nose. Also God K. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Also Acanum. but also protects mankind from the Bee gods. but at other times attends upon the sun god. Regarded as a great singer and musician since most Mayan poetry is sung or chanted. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He is feared as the bringer of drought. a squint and incisor teeth filed to a T-shape. They are thought to be represented iconographically on the tops and bottoms of stone columns at the site of Chichen Itza as aged men with long beards and . One of a number of deities in Mayan religion identified with the hunt and the protection of animals. The four diminutive deities which take over from the giant AH PATNAR UINICOB deities during the dry season. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He may appear as a hummingbird and is considered by some authorities to be an avatara of the sun god. Ah Kin is prayed to at sunrise and rituals include the burning of incense. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Attributes include a leaf-like ornament worn in the nose.8 Ah Cancun the iguana god ITZAM NA. Mayan (Yucatec. Mentioned in the Vienna Dictionary. serving him meals. The local guardian deity of the city of Cozumel. Mayan (Yucatec. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Mayan (Lacandon.

SYNONYMS none. Rituals included animal sacrifice. circa AD 400. Also Ah Uincir Kopot. Mayan (Lacandon. They wear loin cloths with distinctive cross-hatching. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of a number of deities in Mayan religion identified with the hunt and the protection of animals. completing an eight-day rain ceremony. the god of darkness. Also recognized in Roman Mithraism. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Ah Uincir Dz’acab God of healing. circa 1500 BC to end of Roman Empire period. The end of the dry season is marked on May 3. the central figure in Mithraism. by implication. AHURA MAZDA Ah Tabai Hunting god. a wild bull. Four huge deities who pour water on to the earth from jars. In Persian religion he becomes the god of light and truth in the Zoroastrian concept of dualism. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. .AHURA MAZDA 9 upraised arms. He lives on the tops of hills and climbs into the clouds before it rains. When it escaped. Ahriman Chthonic god of darkness. MITHRA. Also ARIMANIUS (Roman). Aha (grandmother) River spirit. Ah Patnar Uinicob (owners of the jars men) Attendant water gods. Ahura Mazda is not mentioned in Roman Mithraic inscriptions but he is. LITERARY SOURCES Avestia. he is depicted as having male and female identities. ant and snake. The antagonist of AHURA MAZDA. and his attendant. ART REFERENCES various sculptures and reliefs. His chief attendant god is MITHRA(S) and his adversary is AHRIMAN. Ahura Mazda is considered to be a reclining figure on whom Mithras attends. each concerned with the healing of their respective sexes. Yakut [central Siberia]. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout ancient Near East during Persian and Roman Empire periods. god of light. including the scorpion. to drink the blood of the bull slain by Mithra in the primeval legend of dualistic conflict (see Mithra). Mithras was charged with finding and slaying it. The bull’s blood fell to earth and from the drops life formed. Zoroastrian (Farsi-Persian). Ahura Mazda probably originates as the Hindu Vedic god VARUNA. classical Mesoamerican) [eastern Guatemala]. if he had succeeded he would have prevented life from forming on earth. Prisca). God of light. Mayan (Yucatec. In the Mithraeum in Rome (S. Mayan (Chorti. was confined to a cave by MITHRAS. Ah Peku Thunder god. The guardian and apotheosis of rivers. Ahriman is said to have tried to persuade his attendant animals. In another legend he tried to thwart Ahura Mazda by sending a flood to destroy the world. Ah Uuc Ticab Chthonic god. According to tradition his first creation. The name is a modern derivation of the original Avestan title ANGRU MAINYU. Persian [Iran]. The patron of herbalists and concerned with the preparation of remedies. Minor fertility and vegetation deity.

10 Ahurani Although never popular among the civilian population. jewel. Yakut [central Siberia]. In Japanese Buddhism this deity becomes the god Kokuzo. Ajaya (invincible) Minor goddess. Zoroastrian (Persian). the earth goddess. Mochica Indian (pre-Columbian South America) [northern coast of Peru]. According to mythology he was a rival suitor for Deianeira who became the wife of HERAKLES. Also Khagarbha. A river of the . Yoruba [Nigeria. a sanctuary on the Danube was dedicated to Mithras (and Ahura Mazda) in an effort to sustain military power in the empire. In AD 307. Probably originated as a jaguar god but came to rule the destinies of the world. Aji-Shiki-Taka-Hiko-Ne Rain god. Aje Goddess of wealth. Akasagarbha (essence of the sky) Aides See HADES. Greek. These are the responsibility of Ajalamo. Buddhist (Mahayana). Invoked by ordinary people to bring prosperity and children. Ai Apaec Supreme god.” Color: green. Attributes: book. Shinto [Japan]. According to legend. Ajysyt Maternal spirit. He was thought to live like ordinary people and could reveal himself as man or god at will. The deity who oversees the lying-in of an expectant mother and who brings the child’s soul to the child-bed. though it always enjoyed a greater following in the east than in the west. He is depicted in anthropomorphic form. while that of horned cattle is female. Akelos River god. He was the consort of Melpomene and his daughters were allegedly the sirenes. He lives in the “womb of the sky. One of the RAIJIN deities whose name is often linked with that of KAMO-WAKA-IKAZUCHI. Yoruba [Nigeria. Celtic (Irish). An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. Ajalamo God of unborn children. The term ajysyt can also apply to a male spirit. was sent down with ODUDUWA. but with huge fangs and a cat-like wrinkled face with whiskers coming from his nose. in creation mythology. Ahurani (mistress of Ahura) Fertility goddess. West Africa]. May have an association with horses. Water libations were a key part of the ritual. in some vague mythological realm there exist rows of shelves with spirits of the unborn. West Africa]. It was one symptom of the more general Roman return to sun worship. The son of OKEANOS and TETHYS. thus the ajysyt that oversees the birth of horses is male. Aine Obscure sky or sun goddess. He received sacrificial victims hurled from the top of a high cliff. One of the BODHISATTVAS or spiritual meditation buddhas. She is thought to appear as a fowl scratching the earth and. Astral god. Buddhist (Mahayana) and Lamaist [Tibet]. Mithraism spread under Flavius and was widespread among the Roman military. lotus and sun disc.

and staff. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. One of a group of twelve DHARANIS. Probably stemming from the pre-Dynastic period. She is regarded as a goddess of justice and a guardian deity of women. Controls the interface between eastern and western horizons of the underworld. ORIGIN Akeru Pluralistic chthonic earth gods. Ghanaian [West Africa]. A product of the ADIBUDDHA who represents the branch of the cosmos concerned with consciousness. Aker provides a safe course for the barque of the sun god during its passage through the underworld at night. MANJUSRI. He may be seen as the socket holding the boat’s mast. Ibo [eastern Nigeria. See also AMITABHA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC to present. Egyptian. central Africa]. The keeper of the underworld ferry boat. Buddhist. Ngombe [Democratic Republic of Congo. Emanations include HERUKA. Chthonic fertility goddess. three monkish robes and staff. Aken Chthonic underworld god. The second dhyanibuddha or meditation buddha. One of five mystic spiritual counterparts of a human buddha in Vajrayana Buddhism. Her temple is the Mbari which contains a cult statue depicting the goddess seated with a child in her arms and adorned with . Malevolent deities who can seize and imprison the souls of the deceased. Color: blue. Attributes include bell. Known from the Old Kingdom (circa 2700 BC onward). A popular deity who is also goddess of the underworld linked with a cult of the dead (which rest in her womb). prayer wheel and sword. AKSOBHYA (imperturbable) Aker Chthonic earth god of passage. and all that is in it. He originates from the blue mantra HUM and lives in the eastern paradise Abhirati. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. AMOGHASIDDHI. Color: red. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. paintings.Ala 11 same name runs into the Ionian Sea. Represented by opposite facing pairs of human or lion heads. Also Achlae (Etrurian). Known in the region around Accra where she has had a celebrated oracular shrine. Ala Akongo Creator god. Egyptian. He is also considered benevolent against snake bites. Attributes include bull horns. Vajraheruka. Egyptian. Attributes: basket with jewels. West Africa]. Buddhist [India]. SYNONYMS Vajrasana. also jewel. RATNASAMBHAVA and VAIROCANA. lotus. form and substance. VAJRAPANI and a large number of minor names. Aksobhya may also be a tutelary deity in Lamaism [Tibet] in which case his attributes are similar. His SAKTI is LOCANA and he is normally accompanied by two elephants. Aksayajnana-Karmanda (undecaying knowledge of Karma) Deification of literature. Akonadi Oracular goddess. and is the guardian of the gate through which the king passes into the underworld. The supreme deity considered to have given the world.

Alk’unta’m Alatangana Creator god. ALLAH Nabataean and Arabic. Alad Udug Lama Collective name of guardian deities. Vague spirits who accompany major deities and dispense good fortune. Bella Coola Indian [British Columbia. Tacitus describes the worship of twin gods by the Naharvali tribe. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 300 BC until present. ANI. Alisanus. ART REFERENCES none. VAJRAPANI and a large number of minor names. Derived from the western Semitic god Il. Goddess of passage. ORIGIN Alaunus Local god. LITERARY SOURCES Qur’an. the other is SA. They are identified at Houseteads (Northumberland) in a shrine to Mars Thincsus. Nunuso’ mikeeqone’im. AMOGHASIDDHI. West Africa]. Sun god. Ana. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). their priests dressed in effeminate costume (see also the Phrygian deity ATTIS). Linked closely with SENX.12 Alad Udug Lama the crescent moon. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). An annual yam festival is celebrated in her honor. Concerned with the health of the unborn child. Also Alisonus. She is flanked by attendant deities. SYNONYMS none. Known from areas around Mannheim and Salzburg. CENTER(S) OF CULT Mecca [Saudi Arabia]. Romano-Celtic (Continental European). He was identified by the Greeks as HYPSISTOS (the highest). ALATANGANA created land from swamp and placed vegetation on earth. From Germanic times we have a La Tene urn with pictures of paired men on horseback and linked by a wooden beam. See also AMITABHA. Germanic and possibly Icelandic (Nordic). Canada]. both are of equal significance. Alisanos Alalu Primordial god. The archetypal deity who precedes AN(U) in the formation of the cosmos. Romano-Celtic (British). Also Ale. She enjoys a profusion of local shrines which are well supplied with votive offerings. One of two creator deities. RATNASAMBHAVA and VAIROCANA. Alemona Alaisiagae Minor goddesses. Local chthonic earth god. Kono [eastern Guinea. Serious crimes including murder are considered to be offenses against her. Known only from inscription in the region of the Côte d’Or and associated with the land. The Alcis are twin deities (brothers) known only as sons of the sky gods. . Alcis Unknown status. who can turn into a mosquito. Roman. The Romans syncretized him with MERCURIUS. His mother is a cannibal woman. They may have been worshiped in forest sanctuaries along the northern coast of Europe. Hittite and Hurrian.

CENTER(S) OF CULT Ise Naiku shrine. ˇModeled on the Mesopotamian goddess ERES KIGAL and possibly also equating with ARSAY in Canaanite mythology. Mentioned in prebend documents from the Hellenistic period at Uruk and thought to be the consort of the god PAPSUKKAL. See also ATARS God of agriculture. ART REFERENCES sculptures and paintings. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. At Ta’if she was symbolized in the form of a white granite stone. SYNONYMS Shinmei. Amas ˇ agnul Fertility goddess. his sacred animal is the bull. Also Arad-Ama-arhus. Depicted wearing jewels. she was born from his left eye. Sun goddess. Tensho-Ko-Daijin. many others throughout Japan. Named by the prophet Muhammad as the one true god and given a hundred names or epithets in the Qur’an. Western Semitic. Etruscan. . No representation of Allah is made in art. with APHRODITE. Allatu(m) Chthonic underworld goddess. According to mythology she and Susano-Wo are obliged to join each other in order to survive. Also arguably a goddess of sexual love. the final name remains a mystery. Attributes include lightning bolts and a sinuate weapon. A son of DON and brother of GWYDION. according to Herodotus who called her Alilat. The central figure of Shintoism and the ancestral deity of the imperial house. The modern Welsh name for a farmer is amaethwr. he is known from a limited number of Welsh texts and was engaged in a mythical battle against the ARAWN. Alpanu Chthonic underworld goddess. Amat-Ama-arhus. O-Hiru-Me-No-Muchi. Amaethon Allat (goddess) Astral and tutelary goddess. Worshiped by the Saba tribe. the storm god. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). etc. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). One of the daughters of the primordial god IZANAGI and said to be his favorite offspring. circa AD 600 or earlier until present. At Palmyra she was regularly invoked as a domestic guardian either as Allat or ASTARTE with whom she is closely linked. Recognized by the Carthaginians as Allatu. Kojiki (Japanese sacred texts). In Hellenic times she became syncretized with ATHENA or.AMATERASU-O-MI-KAMI 13 The creator god of Islam. Pre-Islamic northern and central Arabian. ninety-nine of which are known to mankind and accounted on the rosary beads. One of the three daughters of ALLAH. AMATERASU-O-MI-KAMI Shinto [Japan]. Perceived in preIslamic times as the creator of the earth and water. LITERARY SOURCES Nihongi. ˇ AMAIN. a loose cloak and sandals but otherwise naked. Ama-arhus Fertility goddess. Celtic (Welsh). Associated with ploughing and husbandry. She is the sibling of SUSANO-WO. Mentioned in texts as being among the pantheon at Uruk in Hellenistic times but also found as an earlier manifestation of the god GULA. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Almaqah Tutelary astral god.

The birth of the two deities is considered to mark the transition between cosmic and material genesis. one of the eight deities of the OGDOAD and representing hidden power. In that context she is depicted anthropomorphically but with the head of a snake. The lure is the “perfect divine mirror” in which she sees her reflection. He was born alone. She is sometimes equated with NEITH. Shinto [Japan]. deity especially called on at times of royal accession. He is strongly instrumental in fashioning the “perfect divine mirror” with which the sun goddess. Also Ma-Hiko-Tsu-No-Kami. Originally his identity . Shinto [Japan]. LITERARY SOURCES Kojiki (Japanese sacred text). Amaterasu refuses to be sullied and obstinately hides herself away in a cave. A remote and vague figure of whom no images are ever made and toward whom no cult is directed. As a fertility goddess she was largely eclipsed by the goddess MUT. The most important of the star KAMI said to have been executed by the god FUTSU-NUSHI because he would not be pacified during the process of cosmic genesis. circa AD 600 until present. AMATERASU. Shinto [Japan]. the god of river mouths and estuaries. Ame-No-Kagase-Wo Astral deity. AME-NO-MINAKA-NUSHI-NOKAMI (the deity master of the august center of heaven) Shinto [Japan]. Depicted as a one-eyed ithyphallic god comparable to the Greek Cyclopes. Though powerful she does not always succeed and is often subject to attack. and her attributes may include the red crown of the Delta. Amaunet seems to have a taken a role as an early consort of AMUN. She has been arguably identified with the god VAIROCANA in Buddhist religion. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. Hers tends to be a monotheistic cult in which all other deities take a subservient place. She is shown in reliefs and as the subject of a notable statue from the Record Hall of Tuthmosis III at the Karnak complex of Thebes. where she was recognized as a benign protective The highest deity of the Shinto pantheon and the first to emerge in Takama-No-Hara (the plain of high heaven) when heaven and earth were fashioned. Ame-No-Mi-Kumari-No-Kami Water goddess. ART REFERENCES none. Ama-Tsu-Mara God of smiths. the creator goddess of Sais. is lured from her cave. she is known as the “heavenly water divider” and her cult is linked with that of KuniNo-Mi-Kumari-No-Kami. It requires the combined diplomacy and craft of many other deities to persuade her to come out. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Amaunet (the hidden one) Fertility goddess. Egyptian (Upper). SYNONYMS none significant. Supreme god.14 Ama-Tsu-Mara Susano-Wo ascends with her to heaven but is thrown out after trying to enter her house and committing various excesses. resides in the ninth heaven and has always hidden himself from mortal eyes. One of the daughters of MINATO-NO-KAMI. She is also the tutelary goddess of the emperor. The Ise Naiku sanctuary is visited by about five million devotees each year and Amaterasu takes pride of place in every family shrine. His name only appears once in the Kojiki and never in the Nihongi. Sometimes her shrines are placed adjacent to those of Susano-Wo.

Buddhist (Japanese). TAKA-MI-MISUBI-NO-KAMI and KAMI-MISUBI-NO-KAMI. Egyptian. Ame-Waka-Hiko (heavenly young prince) God. The fifth of the deities to emerge in the heavens. monk’s robe and water jar. named in both the sacred texts of Shintoism. according to tradition. His name is linked closely with those of two other lesser primordial beings. Amimitl Minor god of lakes and fish hunters. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. The so-called “devourer of the millions. His punishment was to be slain by an arrow fired from the “heavenly true deer bow. Shinto [Japan]. She plays a part in enticing the sun goddess. Color: red. One of the deities collectively classed as the MIXCOATLCAMAXTLI complex. but probably strongly influenced by Chinese religion. Ame-No-Toko-Tachi-No-Kami standing eternally in heaven) (deity Primordial being. One of two star apotheoses who are. According to tradition he was sent to earth on a vital mission but became preoccupied with a number of mortal women. Ame-No-Tanabata-Hime-No-Mikoto Astral goddess of weavers. the Kojiki and Nihongi. lotus. Also Shokujo. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC to present. Amida Primordial deity. Her partner is HIKOBOSHI. Attributes: lock of hair. Her name is generally abbreviated to Tanabata. Buddhist [India]. The cult may have been influenced by Iranian light religions. A product of the Adibuddha who represents the branch of the cosmos concerned with consciousness. Born from a reed floating in the primeval waters. Am-Heh Chthonic underworld god.” . He originates from the red mantra HRIH and lives in the western paradise Sukhavati. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. Shinto [Japan]. Shinto [Japan]. Shinto [Japan]. deeply in love with each other. SYNONYMS Vajradharma and possibly Amitayaus. the title of a festival in honor of the goddess which became a national event in Japan in AD 755. The festival later became merged with the Tibetan Bon Ullumbana festival of the dead. from her cave using the perfect divine mirror. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. AMITABHA ORIGIN (of unmeasured splendor) Ame-No-Uzume Goddess of dancers. The Japanese equivalent of AMITABHA recognized from the eleventh and twelfth centuries AD. His SAKTI is PANDARA and he is normally accompanied by two peacocks. See also UMASHI-ASHI-KABI-HIKO-JI-NO-KAMI. AMATERASU. One of five mystic spiritual counterparts of a human buddha in Vajrayana Buddhism.” Depicted with the head of a hound. A minor deity said to inhabit a lake of fire. paintings.AMITABHA 15 may have been strongly influenced by Chinese religion. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. forgot his purpose and did not report back to heaven. The fourth dhyanibuddha or meditation buddha.

paintings. A significant deity who allegedly consumes the dead if their hearts are found weighed down with guilt in the Judgment Hall of the Two Truths during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony. A variety of AVALOKITESVARA. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. Buddhist. He originates from the green mantra HUM and lives in the northern paradise. MANJUSRI and many other minor names. eight or twenty hands. whose clitoris was an anthill. Hindu-Dravidian. Amma (2) Creator god. a jackal. Later. Egyptian. the trunk and fore-limbs of a lion and the hind part of a hippopotamus. See also THOTH and MAAT. Dogon [Mali. God. lotus. Attributes include lightning bolts. She is said to have generated the cosmic egg in the sea of milk from which the major gods BRAHMA. ˇ NU and S V IS One of five mystic spiritual counterparts of a human buddha in Vajrayana Buddhism. Known from southern India. Attributes: staff and sometimes seven-headed snake. Black people were created from sunlight and white from moonlight. Ammut has a fearsome aspect and sits alongside forty-two juror gods named in the Book of the Dead. Amoghapasa Amma (1) Local tutelary god. bell. Emanations include PADMAPANI. he impregnated her and produced the first creature. Ammut (devouress of the dead) Chthonic underworld goddess. Attributes: arrow. rosary. He created the moon in similar fashion but used brass. He first created the sun by baking a clay pot until it was white hot and coiling a band of copper around it eight times.16 Amm Amitabha is also taken as a tutelary god in Lamaism [Tibet] in which case his attributes include bell. RATNASAMBHAVA and VAIROCANA. Depicted with the head of a crocodile. depicted with one head and six. His SAKTI is ARYA-TARA and he is normally accompanied by two GARUDAS or dwarfs. having circumcised the earth goddess. Also revered as a weather god. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. Color: green. The tutelary deity of the Qataban tribe. Known locally from east central India and worshiped by the Dravidian tribe of Telugu. West Africa]. ˇ IVA were born. Next he fertilized her with rain to engender plant life and finally became the father of mankind. See also AKSOBHYA. The fifth dhyanibuddha or meditation buddha. Amoghasiddhi is also taken as a tutelary deity in Lamaism [Tibet] . noose. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. jewel and three monkish robes. Dravidian (Tamil). staff and tiger skin. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC to present. SYNONYMS Kharmaheruka. A product of the ADIBUDDHA who represents the branch of the cosmos concerned with consciousness. AMOGHASIDDHI. AMOGHASIDDHI (unfailing power) Buddhist [India]. prayer wheel. ORIGIN Ammavaru Primordial mother goddess. Amm Moon god.

from the middle of the sixteenth century BC onward. three monkish robes and prayer wheel. reliefs. AMUN (the hidden one) Egypt. bow and torch. According to tradition he awoke the goddess Psyche with a kiss. Roman. Considered to calm stormy seas. further sanctuaries were built beyond the first Nile cataract at Amada. He is generally regarded as a god with great sexual attributes. Amun is symbolized chiefly by a ram with curved horns. Though depicted anthropomorphically. traveling in a boat made of mussels.” In the New Kingdom. the Book of the Dead. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts from the end of Dynasty V (2494-2345 BC).AMUN 17 in which case his attributes include bell. SYNONYMS Amun kem-atef (snake god). Developed from the Greek god EROS. Amor God of love. The popular epithet Cupid was only applied by poets. Soleb. Supreme creator god. Amun was drawn as a manifestation of the ancient sun god of Heliopolis. She was among those present at the birth of APOLLO. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Amun is a sun god. temple hymns. Depicted as a winged youth. ART REFERENCES many portraits on temple walls. Amun kamutef (fertility god). lord of the sky and king of the Egyptian world. many other textual references. Amphion God. probably preDynastic but historically circa 2400 BC to end of Egyptian period (circa AD 400). At Thebes he was revered as a snake deity with attendant connotations of immortality and endless renewal. Luxor Temple south of Karnak dedicated to the ithyphallic form of Amun kamutef. unseen but everywhere. Gebel Barkal and Abu Simbel. Amphitrite Sea goddess. Attributes include arrows. RATNASAMBHAVA and VAIROCANA. obelisks including notably that of Queen Hatshepsut. In addition to the major temples at Luxor. Greek. Amun’s ithyphallic form probably came from the notion that because he was “first formed” of the gods. AMITABHA. The Temple of Queen Hatsepsut at Deir elBahari bears a relief of her mother impregnated .” He was also regarded as being the father of each pharaoh. mysterious of form. The Nile goose is also sacred to him. statues. See also AKSOBHYA. He is a god regarded as hidden but spreading throughout the cosmos. CENTER(S) OF CULT Thebes (Luxor)—Great Temple of Amun at Karnak. According to Theogony (Hesiod). the Great Harris Papyrus. He is portrayed as a pharaoh. Emanations include Visvapani and many other minor names. in temple hymns other deities describe him as “hidden of aspect. with blue skin and wearing a modius (turban) surmounted by two tall plumes of feathers symbolic of dominance over both Upper and Lower Egypt. one of the fifty daughters of NEREUS and DORIS. etc. He is perceived as a primeval deity present in chaos at the creation of the cosmos and is therefore also one of the eight deities of the OGDOAD coupled with the goddess AMAUNET and representing hidden power. which effectively raised his prestige still further and earned him the title “king of the gods. he could not have a father and therefore had to impregnate his own mother. Greek. stelae. Theban variant on the god POLYDEUKES. As a member of the Ogdoad he has the head of a snake.

Her influence extended through eastern Europe.” According to legends. the god “created” by Amenhotep IV. took the earth. A similar scene exists in the Temple of Amenhotep III at Luxor. K IS He is believed to have formed the basis for the Anala (fire) Attendant god. Amurru Mountain god. A minor consort of ATHIRAT whose attributes include a shepherd’s crook and who was probably worshiped by herders. Persian [Iran]. Anaitis Fertility goddess. leading to the eventual contest between Amun and ATEN. Known mainly from inscriptions. heaven and earth were once inseparable until An and Ki bore a son. In Sumerian creation mythology An is the supreme being and. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP An (2) Possibly a female principle of the creator god AN. Amun’s eclipse was short-lived and he returned to prominence until the end of Egyptian history. identified as the son of ANS ˇ AR. In pre-Christian Armenia. the center of her cult was at Acilisena where noble families regularly surrendered their daughters to service as cultic prostitutes. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). His main sanctuary is the Eanna temple. An is always a remote shadowy figure who occasionally lends a hand to tilt the balance of fate but otherwise tends to be out of touch with the day-to-day affairs of heaven and earth. and contains several processions honoring Amun. . with his chthonic female principle. After the Semitic takeover of Sumer by Sargon the Great circa 2500 BC. Early iconography suggests a celestial sky goddess in the form of a cow whose udders produce rain and who becomes ANTU(m) in the Akkadian pantheon. ENLIL. ˇ AR and in some texts. god of the air. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts including Sumerian creation accounts. CENTER(S) OF CULT Unug [modern Warka]. Patron god of Unug (Erech in the Vetus Testamentum). The Great Hall of Hypostyle is filled with wall paintings of Amun and the pharaoh. Enlil supersedes him as supreme national god of the Sumerian city states. and the Babylonian epic Enuma Elis ˇ. Ki. KI. An is also paired with the goddess NAMMU by whom he fathered ENKI. He is identified in some texts as the “bull of heaven.18 Amurru by Amun. By the twelfth century BC the Amun priesthood was a powerful force in Egypt. Hindu (Puranic). circa 3500 BC to 2000 BC but continuing as Babylonian creator god (see Anu) until 100 BC or later. in company with Enlil. SYNONYMS ANU (Akkadian). Also MARTU. calendar and is arguably first represented in bovine form having been derived from the old herders’ pantheon. Also. (Sumerian) [Iraq]. ART REFERENCES none known but probably represented symbolically on seals and seal impressions from third millennium onward. The head of the older generation of gods. who cleaved heaven and earth in two. AN (1) (sky) ORIGIN Mesopotamian Supreme creator god. Western Semitic. is the founder of the cosmos. An carried away heaven. One of a group of eight Vasu deities answering to the god INDRA.

” She may be one of a triad of goddesses with ATHIRAT and As ˇ era. Greek. ART REFERENCES named specifically in Egyptian hieroglyphic on a stele from Bethsan. ˇ amra stele describes her as “Antit. One of a group of twelve DHARANIS. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP From prehistoric times (circa 2500 BC) until AD 200 or later. One of a group of eight emancipated “lords of knowledge” or ˇ IVA. Often she wears a coiffure similar to that of the Egyptian goddess HATHOR. battle-ax and shield. Depicted holding a spindle. LITERARY SOURCES Ugaritic texts from Ras ˇ amra. She cleaved and winnowed. Bella Coola Indian [British Columbia. a capacity in which she was adopted by Egypt from the end of the Middle Kingdom (early eighteenth century BC) and particularly through the Hyksos Dynasty when she was prominent in Lower Egypt. Anat is described variously as “mother of the gods” and “mistress of the sky. Hindu (Puranic). S ORIGIN with breasts and vaginal area prominent. The Ras S queen of heaven and mistress of all the gods. She buried it and caught up with his slayer. SYNONYMS Anath. burned and ground Mot in a curious variation of a common theme associated elsewhere with gods of vegetation (see OSIRIS). to take appropriate retribution. Considered to be a universal presence. She also features in the Legend of Aqhat. Lebanon and Syria]. Mot. The sister of BAAL. Color: green. Lady of the Mountain. A sanctuary was dedicated to her at Tanis and she was identified as a daughter of the sun god RE with warlike attributes of lance. Anantamukhi (with the face of Ananta) Deification of literature. Said to oversee the arrival and departure of the salmon in the rivers. with whom at times she has been closely linked.” she indulged in orgies of violence “wading up to her thighs in blood and gore. Anat searched out the body of Baal. described on various other votive inscriptions. Buddhist. Anantesa Minor deity. Ananta Snake god. after the primordial battle between good and evil in the guise of Baal and MOT. Fertility and war goddess. various offering lists. VIDYESVARAS considered to be aspects of S ANAT Canaanite and Phoenician [northern Israel. Rameses III adopted her as his “shield” in battle. ˇ amra] and genCENTER(S) OF CULT Ugarit [Ras S erally in places down the corn-growing coastal regions of the eastern Mediterranean. she is a youthful and aggressive goddess of war. Antit (Egyptian). clay plaques etc. . She lives in a cave called Nuskesiu’tsta. Anaulikutsai’x River goddess. In the classic Canaanite confrontation legend.” In addition to her fertility role.Anaulikutsai’x 19 Ananke Goddess of destiny. She impressed Rameses II whose daughter was called Bin-Anat (daughter of Anat). Anat is primarily a fertility goddess.” Known as the “virgin Anat. Hindu (Puranic). Attributes: staff and water jar with treasure. In art she is usually depicted naked. Canada]. in which she sends an eagle to slay the youth when he refuses to give her his magical bow. One of a group of seven snake deities or MAHANAGAS.

Local tribal deity. See also Osiris. See also ANDRASTA. Also Adrastea. Egyptian (Lower). Identified as residing in the highest heaven and sometimes depicted with two faces. Roman writer Dio Cassius. though a deity called Andraste is mentioned by the Animistic fertility spirit. One of a group of eight VASU deities answering to the god INDRA. Romano-Celtic (Continental European). Her name seems to have derived either from artos (bear) or ar (ploughed land). Romano-Celtic (British). See also AHRIMAN. Anila (wind) Attendant god. Minor deity in anthropomorphic form known from the Pyramid Texts. He was revered at Busiris where he clearly heralded the cult of Osiris. Anextiomarus Ancamna Water goddess. In early Pyramid Texts. Etruscan. . Celtic (Gallic). God of uncertain affinities but linked with APOLLO. Known only from inscriptions at Trier. which was collected by Anjea and kept in a hollow tree or some such sanctuary until the time came to instill it into another child in the womb. Australia and believed to place mud babies in the wombs of pregnant women. Andjety Chthonic underworld god. The grandmother of a newly born infant buried the afterbirth. Regarded as a god of justice and an oracular source attending the moon god AMM. the feathers are replaced by a bicornuate uterus. Anhouri Minor god. A deity whose mummy was allegedly kept at Tanis. The name may also be linked to the goddess Andarta. equating possibly with the Roman god JANUS. Identified with the ninth nome (district). Anjea Andrasta Goddess of war. Patron goddess of the Vocontii tribe. Romano-Celtic (British). Andarta Fertility goddess (probable). Hindu (Puranic). Queensland. crook and flail. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. The original Zoroastrian name of the chief antagonist of AHURA MAZDA. The patron goddess of the Iceni tribe. Angru Mainyu (evil spirit) Chthonic underworld god of darkness. Persian [Iran]. Australasia. The warrior queen Boudicca is reported to have prayed to her before battle and she was the recipient of human sacrifice.20 Anbay Anbay Local tutelary god. Responsible for rebirth in the afterlife and regarded as a consort of several fertility goddesses. Egyptian. Andrasta does not appear in Celtic Gaul. Known to tribesmen on the Pennefather River. Ani Sky god. Attributes: high conical crown (similar to the atef crown of Osiris) decorated with two tall plumes.

to circa 200 BC. ART REFERENCES glyptics. Allegedly she saved the plebeians from famine in their conflict with the patricians in ancient Roman mythology. Anti is known from Middle Kingdom coffin texts (circa 2000 BC). etc. Roman.Anu (1) 21 Ankalamman Guardian goddess. One of six ADITYA descendants of ADITI. Depicted as a falcon. Egyptian (Upper). Anna Perenna Protective goddess. ANUNITU. Hindu (Puranic). standing on a crescent-shaped barque. Anti Anna Kuari Local vegetation goddess. Known particularly in southern India where she wards off demons. Ans ˇ ar is linked with heaven while Kis ˇ ar is identified with earth. Alternatively she is an aspect of KALI. Creator goddess. The consort of the god of heaven. Indian. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2000 BC. LITERARY SOURCES Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ and documents relating to the akitu festival. her later pre-eminence possibly attributable to identification with the Greek goddess HERA. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil). and in the other a container of payasa (sweetened milk and rice). ANU. Ans ˇ ar Primordial deity. Guardian deity. Derived from . she was a dominant feature of the Babylonian akitu festival until as recently as 200 BC. Hindu (Puranic). she was believed to endow riches on the sacrificer and to ensure plentiful harvest while living in his house in the form of a child. SYNONYMS Antum. Worshiped by the Oraon tribe of Chota Nagpur. and who in turn K IS created ANU. or a human with a falcon’s head. ORIGIN Annamurti ˇ NU. though the cosmogony has been altered to suit a separate tradition. Ansa Minor sun god. ANTU Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. Seems to have become assimilated with HORUS and was one of the protectors of the eastern sky in which the sun rises. A shrine at Srirangam in southern India contains two-armed bronze images of the god. Consort of ANTU(m). According to some texts he is also responsible for the decapitation of the goddess HATHOR in a conflict for the throne of Egypt. Attributes: a ball of rice in one hand. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Mentioned in the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ as one of a pair of offspring (with Anu (1) Creator god. The Form of the god V IS patron deity of kitchens and food. stone carvings. ˇ AR) of LAHMU and LAHAMU. but evolving from prehistory. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). CENTER(S) OF CULT Uruk and Babylon. An openair festival dedicated to her was held on March 15 each year in a grove lying to the north of Rome. The recipient of human sacrifice in the spring months. Antu is a Babylonian goddess derived from the older Sumerian KI.

headless. Khenty-seh-netjer (chief of the gods’ pavilion). ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Anukis [Greek] The parentage of Anubis is confused but the most popular notion seems to place him as a son of RE and of NEPHTHYS or ISIS. vation of bodies being scavenged from shallow graves and the desire to protect them from such a fate by manifesting Anubis as a dog himself. The god of mortuaries. circa 2700 BC (but extending from pre-Dynastic times) until end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. CENTER(S) OF CULT the necropolis at Memphis and elsewhere. Also Anuket (Egyptian). “he who is upon the mountain. . SYNONYMS Imy-ut (he who is in the mortuary).” Anubis was perceived to superintend the embalming of kings and courtiers in the mortuary and the subsequent binding with linen bandages.” Also Ana. The imagery of a dog probably originated from obser- Birth goddess. another. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. Depicted anthropomorphically wearing a turban (modius) with ostrich feathers. Anu (2) Chthonic mother goddess. ANUBIS [Greek] Egyptian. His symbol in the context of mortuary god is an animal skin. Tepydju-ef (he who is upon the mountain). ART REFERENCES tomb effigies. suggesting that she is connected with birth and midwifery. Minor deity with cult centers in lower Nubia and at Elephantine. wall paintings. Her sacred animal is the gazelle. which darkened it. but she also demonstrates a malignant aspect as a strangler (see HATHOR). funerary texts and hymns. Neb-ta-djeser (lord of the sacred land). Twin hills near Killarney in Munster are called “The Paps of Anu. Celtic (Irish). statuettes etc. Anu features strongly in the akitu festival in Babylon. ears pricked and long tail hanging.22 Anu (2) the older Sumerian god AN. and he is sometimes known as the “claimer of hearts. Her portrait appears in the Temple of Rameses II at Beit-et-Wali where she suckles the pharaoh. The Book of the Dead has him standing by the scales in which the heart is weighed in the Hall of the Two Truths. hence one epithet for Anubis—“chief of the westerners”. He wears a collar with magical connotations. Closely associated with fertility and the primordial mother of the TUATHA DE DANANN. ZEUS. Uruk and other cities until the Hellenic period and possibly as late as 200 BC. His coat color is thought to be black because of the color of the corpse after the embalming process. and with OURANOS. The main cemetery sites are on the west bank of the Nile where the sun sets. In the Greco-Roman period he became a cosmic deity of earth and sky somewhat removed from his older function. Khenty-imentiu (chief of the westerners). Anukis lives in the cataracts of the Lower Nile. and of KHNUM and SATIS. Some of his later pre-eminence may be attributable to identification with the Greek god of heaven. Anubis takes the form of a black dog or jackal usually in a lying down or crouching position. She is variously the daughter of RE.” conjures an image of Anubis watching over the cemeteries from the high escarpments. Egyptian (Upper). At the subsequent funeral ceremony of the Opening of the Mouth the priest wore a jackal headdress. and the use of black tar to seal the bindings. Mortuary god. dripping blood and tied to a pole. Less often he appears in human form with a canine head.

club. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Hindu (Puranic). Polynesian. God of fresh water. all of whom rule over different aspects of space above the upper world. A benevolent NAKSATRA or astral deity. lance. the sea god. AnuMate is perceived as the god responsible for the “space of cold death” and in fact all of the group are envisaged as deities ruling over realms of great cold. Hindu (Vedic). the sister of TANGAROA. He provides water in arid regions and suppresses rebellions. Mentioned in the Rg Veda. Teso [Uganda. 3. One of a group of eight VASU deities answering to the god INDRA. Her attendant animal is a lion. etc]. Also Akuj. he is described as “golden in appearance. God. Attributes: Aondo Creator god. Hindu (Puranic). Buddhist (Mahayana). rod. Known from at least 2500 BC until circa 200 BC (in Babylon). The apotheosis of a pile of stones marking the top of a pass or some other critical point on a route invoked by travelers with small offerings to strengthen them on their journey. drum. Aparajita (unconquered) 1. The Anunnaki originate as chthonic fertility deities but later feature as the seven fearsome judges of the underworld who ˇ KIGAL and who are answer to Kur and ERES responsible for passing sentences of death including that placed on the goddess INANA. Hindu (Puranic). hook. Apam Napat (grandchild of the water) 1. Form of DURGA. roars with the thunder which heralds his storms and is the creator of the earth. 2. Attributes: bell. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. shield. Attributes: hook and plough. One of the sons of RANGINUI by Pokoharua. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). He belongs to a group of deities engendered at the time of creation that includes ANU-MATE. Hindu (Puranic). Apa Attendant god. Apacita Guardian spirit. See also ANTU. They are often closely identified with the IGIGI. Persian [Iran]. bowl. prayer wheel.Aparajita 23 Anu-Mate God of space. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Tiv [central Nigeria. sword and trident. rosary. Anu-Matao. Anu-Whakarere and Anu-Whakatoro. An abstract principle who lives in the sky. He . West Africa].” Apap Creator god. Anuradha Minor goddess of fortune. sends the sun each morning. Regarded as a benevolent sky god who brings the rain to parched land. One of the eleven EKADASARUDRAS or forms of RUDRA. Anunnaki Children and courtiers of the god of heaven. Anunitu Mother goddess. lotus. East Africa]. Goddess. God of fresh water. Minor god. 2.

his main sanctuary was contained in a vast religious complex and center of pilgrimage at Musawwarat-es-Sufra. Theogony and Hymn to Aphrodite (Hesiod). a daughter of ZEUS. Aphrodisias Fertility goddess. SYNONYMS equating with I S ˇ TORETH (Phoenician). Aphrodite is one of the major goddesses of the Greek Homeric pantheon. Apedemak War god. according to Strabo. the Parthenon frieze and other contemporary sculpture. noose and staff. ART REFERENCES Bronze Age statuettes (Cyprus). Attributes: bell. Depicted with the head of a lion and a human body. votive stelae. he acts as an intermediary between the supreme god and . identified from circa 1300 BC (evolving from an earlier prehistoric Asiatic model). She possesses a girdle with magical properties. In the Iliad.24 Apedemak arrow. including ARES. VENUS (Roman). ASTARTE (Syrian). Aphrodite rescues Paris from his fight with Menelaus and returns him to the arms of HELEN in Troy. Carian [southwestern Turkey]. Goddess. CENTER(S) OF CULT Paphos. temple hymns. shield. more than a thousand cultic prostitutes. Equating with the Greek goddess APHRODITE. and the Corinthian sanctuary enjoyed. The living personification of the creator god PTAH in Memphis. hook. holding a scepter embellished with a seated lion at the tip. ˇ TAR (Akkadian). She is the consort of HEPHAISTOS and occasional mistress of other deities. An Egyptianized deity. She stands or treads on the god GANESA. image of RATNASAMBHAVA . Immediate predecessors to the Hellenic model seem to be present in the Mycenaean period particularly at the Kition sanctuary. is the first of many such erotic interpretations. Her sacred animal is the goat. Color: yellow. Through liaison with the herdsman Anchises she bore Aeneas who is said to have carried his father to safety on his back during the sack of Troy. in some contexts. Her name derives from the Greek word for the sexual act. APHRODITE (foam-born) ORIGIN Greek and Cypriot. Egyptian. She is perceived. As with her Mesopotamian predecessors she is a goddess of war and victory. The famed statue of the goddess from Cnidos (circa 340 BC). depicting her naked. as being androgynous and even bearded (see also ARTEMIS). Corinth and elsewhere on Greek mainland. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Apis Bull god. north of the sixth Nile cataract. Sacred animals include cattle and the African elephant. A S Dione. Cytherea. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad and Odyssey (Homer). snake and sword. In Hellenic art Aphrodite is particularly drawn wearing fine clothes and jewelry. 4. according to legend born as a cosmic deity from the foam of the ocean after her father OURANOS was castrated by KRONOS and his genitals were hurled into the sea. The Paphos sanctuary definitely suggests Phoenician inspiration. Aphrodite seems clearly to have evolved from the Phoenician or Mesopotamian model of a goddess of love and one of her strongest early cults was on the island of Cyprus. until Christianization (circa AD 400) and later. particularly Hymn of Sappho. Amathus and Kition (Cyprus). Goddess of sexual love. The temple at Paphos once dispensed model phalli and lumps of salt to cultic pilgrims. In other accounts she is of a “younger” generation. Sudanese (Meroe). Buddhist (Mahayana).

a famed but lost statue from Delos. huge statues of Apis supported the temple of Ptah in Memphis. Etruscan. The paean dance of healing which is particularly known from the Hyakinthia festival at Amyklai (Sparta) is closely identified with the Apollo cult. killing the many children of Niobe who had boasted of them to the chagrin of Leto. He became. Theogony and Hymn to Apollo (Hesiod). Attributes include a staff and laurel twig. Delos. Apollo holding the three Charites in his right hand. improbably. possibly with early links to Lycia in Asia Minor (Hittite) and to Minoan Crete. See also SARAPIS. who engendered him in a lightning flash. God of hunting and healing. ART REFERENCES the Parthenon frieze.APOLLO 25 mankind. Between its horns are surmounted the sun disc (or. the moon) and the uraeus (snake symbol). but otherwise naked. He epitomizes the transition between adolescence and manhood in Greek male society. etc]. all mountains being sacred to the South American Indians. At Delos it appears secondary to that of Artemis. The apotheosis of an Andean mountain. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1300 BC and earlier until Christianization (circa AD 400) and probably later. Apo (lord) Mountain god. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. No cult is identifiably addressed to this deity. He fought and slew the Delphic . the king paced alongside the charging bull to renew his strength. Apollo and DAPHNE. various other temple hymns. Atepomarus (Celtic). The bull is depicted as wholly black apart from a small white triangle on the forehead. Not only is he a god of healing but also of pestilence. at the end of which each was mummified and interred in huge sarcophagi. The cult of the bull is very ancient and is attested in Egypt from at least 3000 BC. and it bears vulture wings. In a ritual of virility. His mother is LETO who wandered the world in great suffering until she chanced on the island of Delos where she found refuge. He is the father of ASKLEPIOS. In the former capacity he was at times merciless. and he is continually associated with purification rites and oracles. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad and Odyssey (Homer). His mother is ISIS. According to the Greek writer Herodotus. Pylo-Delphi and many other sanctuaries throughout the Greek world. ORIGIN One of the major Greek deities always perceived as a god who epitomizes youthful masculinity. and Apollo is often portrayed as part of a triad with Leto and ARTEMIS. He is depicted partly cloaked and wearing a laurel leaf. At Delphi his sanctuary is central to the complex. SYNONYMS Apellon (pre-Homeric). Generally a distant rather than an intimate and approachable god. other contemporary sculpture and painting. He is also pictured with lions. APOLLO Greek and possibly cultures in Asia Minor. the Belvedere Apollo triumphing over the Python. in later times. which were placed in catacombs at the necropolis at Seqqara. CENTER(S) OF CULT Aplu Weather god. The bull also has strong underworld connections. Literature often presents Apollo in a dual aspect of fearsome hunter and gracious player of the lyre. Generally Apollo is drawn as a god of hunters carrying a bow and arrow and associated with a stag or roe. The average life of an Apis bull was fourteen years. the god of healing. the patron god of poets and leader of the Muses (daughters of ZEUS).

deity who is recognized in the sounds of the trees. but in both cases himself became subject to general laws of morality and suffered temporary banishment. Roman. by ENKI. The name implies an altar or holy place. Buddhist. The two tribes share the same pantheon of deities. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Accompanied by four minor deities. Aranyani Minor goddess of woodlands. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Hindu (Vedic). Arawn Chthonic underworld god. Aranyani is an elusive. A’ra Local tutelary god. He equates with GWYNN AP NUDD. Suk and Pokot [Kenya and Uganda. Arachne Minor goddess. She is a benign figure. a similar deity known in South Wales. to challenge Hafgan in exchange for a gift of pigs. Aquilo Weather god. Roman. Apollo is strongly associated with the mystical number seven (almost certainly a Mesopotamian concept). sweet-scented and unwilling to destroy unless severely provoked. Apsu God of underground primeval waters. Possibly having evolved from a primitive animistic guardian spirit of animals. who establishes his own abode above the deeps. Apsaras Water spirits. Apsu is killed. Arawa Moon goddess. Identified as musicians and protective deities of gamblers bringing good fortune. suggesting that the altars were stained with the blood of sacrifices. prince of Dyfed. They may also bring insanity. In Ugaritic inscriptions he is referred to as ˇ EP of the Arrow (see Res RES ˇep). Attributes: standing wearing a monkish garment and carrying book and sword. His chief underworld opponent is Hafgan and he bribes P WYLL . but its Arabic root also means to dye. Aralo Local god of agriculture. The leader of the phantom hunt seen chasing a white stag with a pack of red-eared hounds. Also a collective name for the five buddhas. Celtic (Welsh). Known from inscriptions at Bostra [near Damascus]. while sleeping. probably children. Color: yellow or red. Apsu’s death triggered the cosmic challenge between the forces of MARDUK and TIAMAT. Pre-Christian Georgian. particularly at dusk. rarely seen.26 Apsaras python and the Olympic Cyclopes. East Africa]. . God of the west winds. Probably derived from the Armenian god ARAY. Derived from the Sumerian ABZU. Concerned with the craft of weaving. A BODHISATTVA or spiritual meditation buddha. Hindu (Vedic). In the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ. Arawa is the daughter of the creator god TORORUT and his consort SETA. Apollo was widely revered under various local synonyms by the Celts. Arapacana God. Originally a DHARANI of MANJUSRI who became deified.

Probably derived locally from the Greek ARES. His attendant animal is the bull. Buddhist (Vajrayana). A tutelary deity of eunuchs in India. hatchet. Ardra Minor goddess of misfortune. Attributes: blue lotus and staff. cup. Primordial creator gods. Color: green. The Archons are the original creators of mortal man. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 100 to AD 400 and probably persisting later. Also Ammaiappan (Tamil). The material was banned under the censorship of the early Christian fathers. noose. Greek). A malevolent NAKSATRA or astral deity. mirror. West Africa]. Naranari. Known only from inscriptions and figurines in the Ardennes region. moon disc. sword and trident. Identified by the Romans with the goddess DIANA. The god S with his SAKTI as a single being. Hindu (Puranic). Arduinna Goddess of forests and hunting. both forming part of the Nag Hammadi collection written down during the third or fourth century AD and probably owing much to Greek philosophy. lute. Plutarch identifies him as the embodiment of HADES. Arcismati (brilliant) Minor goddess. SYNONYMS eksousiai (authorities. (left side) ax. CENTER(S) OF CULT undefined cells within the area of early Christian influence. Attributes: (right side) blue lotus. .Areimanios 27 Aray War god. LITERARY SOURCES Nag Hammadi codices. Depicted riding on the back of a wild boar and presumed to be a guardian deity of boars. covered with skin. Pre-Christian Armenian. he did not possess a soul. ˇ IVA combined God. skin. though in the form in which they contrived him. He is considered to have created mankind from clay and blood. Bambuti [Congo. Ardhanari(svara) woman) (the lord being half ARCHON(S) (rulers) ORIGIN Gnostic Christian (eastern Mediterranean]. ART REFERENCES none. May appear as three-headed. Romano-Celtic (Continental European). pestle. Arebati Creator god. One of several deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. In iconography the left side of the image is female and the right male. Worshiped by a pigmy tribe living along the banks of the river Ituri. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Hindu (Puranic). The Gnostic cosmogony argues that the God of Israel was not the original or sole creator but was a product of other older tyrannical forces who were eventually defeated in the conflict of light and dark. The main literary texts include the Hypostasis of the Archons. Probably derived from the Persian deity AHRIMAN. sacred rope and trident. Greek. Areimanios Chthonic underworld god. Some traditions suggests that he was also a dying-andrising god. rosary. pitcher. The Archons are the primordial celestial rulers of the cosmos. and the treatise on The Origin of the World.

LITERARY SOURCES chiefly Iliad (Homer) and Theogony (Hesiod). a celebrated statue by Alkamenes. who allegedly lived in Thrace. ART REFERENCES the Parthenon frieze. until slain by HERAKLES. the grandsons of Ares. but also identified as the conˇ UB. Greek. Its teeth. the son of ZEUS and HERA. Ares’ sons were even more barbaric than he. As a warrior god he is contrasted with the more prominent and successful goddess ATHENA who fought and vanquished him in a war between the gods. See also AREIMANIOS. He appeared in Egyptian sanctuaries during the Greco-Roman period and seems to have been of benevolent nature.” His war chariot is pulled by Phobos (fear) and Deimos (terror). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Arianrhod Chthonic earth goddess. germinated and sprang up as warriors. SYNONYMS none. ARES (throng of war) ORIGIN Ariadne Goddess of vegetation. Probably the head sort of the weather god TES of the Hittite state pantheon. Roman. Mentioned in the Mabinogion texts as the possible daughter of Beli. There is little detail because the religious center of Arinna is known . Also Ari-hes-nefer (Egyptian). Possibly derived from an unnamed Minoan goddess identified on Crete. who promptly turned on each other in mortal combat. but probably from earlier times. of human skulls. Responsible for initiation of souls in the otherworld in the tower of Caer Sidi. Probably significant circa 700 BC to AD 400 as an attendant of ISIS. thus paving the way to establish Thebes in an atmosphere of peace and harmony. God of War. HARMONIA. which he sowed in the earth. given by ZEUS. Although Athena stands for victory in battle through glory and honor. In the eyes of Zeus he is “the most hateful of gods. Greek. CENTER(S) OF CULT no sanctuaries known until Roman times. Ares is a lesser known member of the Olympic pantheon of great gods. and through her fathered a daughter. Egyptian (Nubian).28 Arensnuphis Arensnuphis [Greek] Local god of uncertain affinities. Her crown. Celtic (Welsh). Hittite and Hurrian. other contemporary sculpture. the goddess consort of HEPHAISTOS. was proposing a temple constructed Arimanius Chthonic underworld god. There is also a sanctuary known from Philae in Greece where he is linked with Isis. Ares entered into a brief liaison with APHRODITE. until Christianization (circa AD 400). According to Homer and Hesiod she is a daughter of MINOS and a consort of DIONYSOS. whom Kadmos later married. May have taken androgynous form. Arinna (sun goddess) Solar deity. Kyknos was a ferocious killer who. Tradition has it that she was wooed and then deserted by the hero Theseus. when a temple was dedicated in the Agora in Athens. is the Corona Borealis. consort of DON and mother of LLEW LLAW GYFFES and Dylan. circa 800 BC. Ares epitomizes the evil and more brutal aspects of warfare. Another notorious son of Ares was the dragon slain by Kadmos as he sought to found the city of Thebes. Depicted in anthropomorphic form wearing a plumed crown or in the form of a lion.

Chief spirit of the underworld. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until circa AD 1900. but may also appear carrying a sword and shield. Pre-Christian Georgian. and had seven brothers. Chthonic underworld goddess. Arom appears to have been significant only to a tribe known as the Kam in the southern Hindukush. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. though he was considered to live in the lower world and rule over a nebulous group of spirits. Romano-Celtic (British). ART REFERENCES none positively identified though possibly the subject of wooden icons. Arnemetia Water goddess. Of ancient origin. Aristaios God of herdsmen. LITERARY SOURCES The Yakut (Jochelson). A deity known only from inscriptions.Arsay 29 only from texts. ORIGIN Arma Minor moon god. Hittite and Hurrian. ARSAN DUOLAI (terrible dweller of the underground world) Yakut [eastern Siberia]. According to epic creation texts. Inuit (North American). Allegedly responsible for ˇ NU to take his VISVARUPA form but requesting V IS also identified as a minor incarnation or avatara of Vis ˇ nu. Little is known of this animistic god. Arsay Arnakua’gsak Animistic spirit. his father is INDRA. The cult continued for many centuries at Kyrene [Libya]. SYNONYMS none. possibly also equating with ALLATUM. To these subterranean deities horned cattle were slaughtered. The sun goddess was also perceived to be a paramount chthonic or earth goddess. Armaz Supreme god. Depicted as a warrior deity clad in golden armor. she is the third daughter of BAAL at Ugarit (Ras ˇ amra). in which capacity they were recipients of horse sacrifice. Also NARA. Arom Minor god of contractual agreements. Arjuna appears in the Mahabharata epic. Depicted winged and wearing a sickle moon surmounted on a horned helmet. wearing jewels and wielding a sword. The “Old Woman of the Sea” who supplies all the physical needs of the Eskimo from the ocean. worshiped by peasants as a guardian of herds and beekeepers. Greek. Arjuna (silvery) Heroic god. The consort of Autonoe. She becomes largely syncretized with the Hurrian goddess HEBAT. S . the Abasy. Epic and Puranic). Hindu (Vedic. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Western Semitic (Canaanite). He was honored by sacrifice of a male goat on the occasion of a peace treaty. One of the princely sons of the mythical Pandu family. He generally appears with the warrior god BHIMA. Abasy also lived in the upper world. Attributes: usually depicted bearing a bow received from AGNI the fire god.

A contrary character study in the Odyssey pictures her more positively as a virgin goddess chasing and killing boars and hinds over the hills and fields. She is also a goddess of blood sacrifice. He equates with Ruda elsewhere in northern Arabia. CENTER(S) OF CULT Antioch-near-Pisidia. In her earliest pre-Homeric form the Mistress of Animals “suckles the young of every wild creature that roams the fields. when arguably much of her ethos was transferred to the Virgin Mary. Iliad (Homer). ART REFERENCES cultic statues. but known extensively through western Asia. she is linked with bears. Perge. She was honored in the sanctuary on Delos with its celebrated Horn Altar from circa 700 BC. SYNONYMS Potnia Theron (mistress of the animals). By Homeric times the ferocity of this prehistoric element has waned in favor of a more timid image of a young girl dominated robustly by her stepmother HERA. Color: green. Magnesia-on-the-Maeander. She presides over nature and over the initiation rituals of young girls. Both figures enjoyed major sanctuaries at Ephesus. A cruel element emerged in a different sense as she threatened any maiden who turned to the role of wife. fleet of foot and in company with a band of nymphs. Artio of Muri Fertility goddess and guardian spirit of bears. Ephesus [Turkey]. A bronze depicts her offering fruit to a bear.000. Pamphylia. ARTEMIS Greek. and more in keeping with the old Semitic personality. To the Greeks she was the daughter of ZEUS and LETO. a mother goddess. One of a group of four. Locally worshiped at Palmyra where he personifies the evening star. In Greek mythology the androgynous aspect was firmly discounted. Her temple at Ephesus dates from the fourth century BC and is ranked among the seven wonders of the world. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 800 BC and earlier until Christianization (circa AD 400) and probably later. She became syncretized with the .30 Arsu Arsu Astraltutelary god. Principally goddess of animals and hunting. The cult statues were carried in Arthapratisamvit Goddess of logical analysis. procession on May 25 among a congregation of up to 30. she is also the goddess of birth. Attributes: jewel and noose. Associated in Palmyra with horses or camels. Delos. a torch and a pointed cap. a feature depicted dramatically in the statue of Artemis of Ephesus. She seems also to be a goddess of prosperity and harvest. but in Greek-speaking Asia.” As a huntress she uses a bow and arrows. Known only from inscriptions and sculptures in the Berne region of Switzerland. Romano-Celtic (Continental European). ORIGIN Artemis is a deity of very ancient origins who survived and attracted great popularity in both Asia Minor and Greece into Christian times. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts (earlier Asian models). most notably the multi-breasted figures at Ephesus. As an Asiatic goddess Artemis was often drawn winged and standing between wild animals. in company with his brother AZIZOS who is the morning star. etc. Theogony (Hesiod). In this context she generally appears equipped with boots. She is also a strongly androgynous figure. Paradoxically. Buddhist (Vajrayana).

Her name is often abbreviated to TARA and she originates from the TAM bija or seed. she represents the goddess of the dead and she is also goddess of truth. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Cult center Ku’ara. A major deity revered over a wide area of Akan. Aruru Mother goddess. then Canaanite and possibly Phoenician [Lebanon from Tyre northwards. Also VASYA-TARA. Aryaman (companion) Minor sun god. Color: green. Arundhati (faithfulness) Astral goddess. One of six ADITYA sons of the goddess ADITI. Syria]. In Vedic times. ˇ ERAH AS Amorite. Celtic (Gallic).” . Mother goddess. Asalluha Minor god. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). sprinkling the blood on the ground. Also Artemis Brauronia. See also NINHURSAG Asar Equestrian god. Depicted anthropomorphically. Arya-Tara (the honorable Tara) Goddess. Arvernus Local tribal deity. Ashanti [Ghana. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian) ˜ A. Also Asase Efua (Fante). The SAKTI of AMOGHASIDDHI. In Babylonian times he became largely syncretized with MARDUK. SYNONYMS ATHIRAT. ˇ amra] and hill CENTER(S) OF CULT Ugarit [Ras S shrines throughout the corn-growing coastal region of the eastern Mediterranean. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from prehistoric times circa third millennium BC until Christianization (circa AD 400). Known from the Early Dynastic Period. Linked with rituals of exorcism. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Known only from inscriptions at Palmyra. Attributes: begging bowls. Epithets include “lord of Libya. Egyptian (western Sahara). Hindu (Puranic). two lotuses and prayer wheel. Buddhist. Attributes: green lotus and staff. occasionally hawk-headed. Asase Yaa Chthonic fertility goddess. West Africa]. She has no temples or priests but days (Thursdays) are set aside in her honor and no ploughing is permitted. God of the Arverni. the god of formal hospitality. Personification of the morning star and the wife of all risis or inspired sons of BRAHMA though particularly associated with Vasistha. As the womb of the earth.ˇ ERAH AS 31 Roman god Mercury as Mercury Artaios. By tradition a farmer sacrifices a cockerel to her each year to ensure a good harvest.and Fante-speaking Ghana. ORIGIN As ˇ Local fertility god. A son of ENKI who apparently acts as a messenger and reporter to his father. By inference a benign god of oases and other fertile areas of the desert. Attributes: club.

He was reared by the centaur Charon and fathered two sons. Kos. the Canaanite creator god. The as ˇ rah represented the presence of the mother goddess. Asira Local god. Gan [district around Accra. Aisklapios. As ˇerah is the great mother goddess of Canaan. she attempts to place one of her own offspring on the throne. West Africa]. worshiped at Taima and influenced strongly by Egyptian culture. Catalogues (Hesiod). These two tribes share the same pantheon. Asis Sun god. Western Semitic (Canaanite) ˇ amra) and Hittite. She intercedes with Il when Baal wishes to build a palace of his own yet. Her colors are red and white. Coronis. LITERARY SOURCES Ugaritic texts from Ras ˇ amra. East Africa]. She is described as the “creatress of the gods” and the matron of a number of other goddesses who oversee the natural world. the Asklepeion in Pergamon. particularly The Legend of Baal and Anat. circa 800 BC or earlier to Christianization (circa AD 400). Asklepios lived effectively as a mortal and died as such. ART REFERENCES Ashiakle Goddess of wealth. Also As ˇerdus (Hittite). More familiar from . The younger brother of the supreme god of heaven TORORUT. He was nonetheless regarded as a deity. ART REFERENCES various sculptures. god of the sea. Identified in Ugaritic (Ras S texts as an unfaithful consort of ELKUNIRSA. who were also physicians. Asis becomes the supreme creator god. Podaleirios and Machaon. SYNONYMS Asklapios. Ghana. S Vetus Testamentum. Known as “Lady As ˇerah of the sea. It may have stimulated large numbers of rank-and-file to abandon or take a strongly ambivalent attitude toward Yhwhism. CENTER(S) OF CULT Epidauros. In Nandi [Kenya] religion. Its popularity with large numbers of Israelites is beyond dispute. and is said to have had many sons. she was born in the ocean and came to land in a canoe. but once extensively represented. She is also ambiguous in her attitude to BAAL. when he is vanquished. Suk and Pokot [Kenya and Uganda.” she seems to have lived close by the place of IL. God of physicians and healing. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP As ˇ ertu Fertility goddess. the as ˇerah seems to have been a carved wooden pillar which formed the focal point of worship in conjunction with a stone massebah. The son of APOLLO and a mortal consort. ASKLEPIOS Greek. See also SALM. It is As ˇerah who gave her name to the hill shrines under the trees which were vilified by the writers of the biblical prophetic books such as Ezekiel. but because of its pagan connotations and particularly its representation of the mother goddess linked with rituals of fertility. Translated as “grove” in the King James English version. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad (Homer). The daughter of N AI . Mentioned only in name by the Babylonian king Nabonidus. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian.32 As ˇ ertu none surviving. the as ˇ erah became one of the major irritations of the prophets and other religious leaders of the tribes during the period of the Israelite kingship.

Known only from inscriptions. Asklepios is symbolized by a rod with twin snakes coiled around it. She is concerned with the abundance of grain in the fields. Astaphaios Primordial deity. Aslesa(s) (adherence) Minor goddess of misfortune. she hanged herself and her body disappeared. Eight deities who are varieties of the goddess CAMUNDA. Known only from regions of central Greece as one of the sons of POSEIDON. Physicians on Kos formed into a guild. Western Semitic. The Epidauros sanctuary became an influential place of pilgrimage by the sick and infirm in classical times. Also As ˇrat (Akkadian). Asopos Local river god. Probably a corruption of the Semitic ATHIRAT or ˇ ERAH. Also mentioned in Babylonian texts from AS the Hellenistic period. he replaces MARDUK as the hero. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Asokottamasri (the great beauty of Asoka) Physician god. Hittite and Hurrian. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes. As ˇ ratum Fertility goddess. but when the heavenly creatures were found unable to make use of their products. Astamatara Generic term for a group of mother goddesses. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). According to creation accounts. Accounted among one of a series of medicine buddhas or SMAN-BLA in Lamaism. The national deity of Assyria. Astabi Deity. often malevolent. the . There is scant mention of As ˇpalis from Melite in Phthia and she is probably a local version of ARTEMIS.Astaphaios 33 modern usage is his daughter. Gnostic Christian. Hindu (Puranic). Color: red. Assur Tutelary god. the goddess HYGIEIA (health). He is also represented in his sanctuaries by a captive snake. In the Assyrian copies of the creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ . humankind was created to provide an outlet for their services. According to legend he met his death at the hand of ZEUS for presuming to bring a mortal being back from death. sent as its protectress by the gods ENLIL and ENKI. As ˇ palis Hunting goddess. Attributes: ears of corn sprouting from her shoulders. A malevolent NAKSATRA or astral deity. Greek (Beotian). As ˇ nan Vegetation goddess. As in certain Artemis mythology. One of the androgynous principles born to YALDABAOTH. Western Semitic (Canaanite). daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). the Asklepiadai (sons of Asklepios). Minor deity probably known to the Sumerians from circa 3500 BC or earlier. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). the celestial children of A N . she and the cattle god LAHAR were first intended to serve the needs of the Annunaki. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet].

The latter may have rays emanating. plaques. ORIGIN The goddess of the evening star. concerned with the protection of houses and their environs.34 Astar prime parent. Goddess of sheep herders equating with the Phoenician goddess ASTARTE. Byblos. One of the groups under the general title of BHVANAVASI (dwelling in places). Her animal is the sphinx. Also a plural form of the name As ˇtoreth and used as a collective name for goddesses (cf. In Hellenic times she became largely syncretized with the Greek goddess APHRODITE. As ˇtoreth equates with the Syrian goddess ASTARTE. As ˇ taroth Fertility goddess. She is usually depicted wearing a horned headdress. Lebanon]. Ethiopian. predominantly Phoenician [Lebanon and Syria]. of war and of sexual love. Asurakumara God. in the Egyptian style. She is also his consort. Ascalon. Survived from the Mesopotamian model of IS in Christian times as the mother of fairies. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1200 BC or earlier until circa 200 BC. She is often represented by baetyls or stone stelae. by some authors. ART REFERENCES various sculptures. Astlik Astral goddess. Carthage. ˇ TORETH. SYNONYMS As ˇ tarat. IS ˇ TAR and A S ˇ ERAH. wears a crown of cows’ horns enclosing a sun disc. Jain [India]. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from circa 1500 BC or earlier until circa 200 BC. Inscriptions from the fifth century BC in her major temple at Sidon suggest she was perˇ AMIN. CENTER(S) OF CULT predominantly Tyre. Shinto [Japan]. one of many in Shintoism. Vetus Testamentum. Western Semitic. SYNONYMS A S CENTER(S) OF CULT Palestine coastal region including Jerusalem. LITERARY SOURCES mainly inscriptions. A guardian deity. The name is said. BAAL). Biblical references include I Kings 11. Identified in Axum Empire inscriptions from circa AD 200-400. See also A S Astar Astral god. Asuha-No-Kami God of courtyards. A first century BC inscription in a sanctuary dedicated to Aphrodite at Delos identifies the “holy Syrian goddess.5 and II Kings 23. ART REFERENCES sculptures.” Astarte is typically depicted naked and. ˇ TORETH AS Palestinian and Philistine [Israel. ˇ TAROTH. Kition [Cyprus]. Fertility goddess. . votive stelae. also Sidon. Eryx [Sicily] and Malta. ˇ TAR. Derived ˇ TAR. LITERARY SOURCES inscriptions. ruling the seven heavens of chaos in gnostic mythology.13. Fertility goddess. Attart (Ugarit). typically. glyptics. ORIGIN ASTARTE (star) western Semitic. as goddess of both love and war. to be synonymous with As ˇ taroth. personifyceived as an emanation of BAAL S ing his divine power. both being modeled on the Mesopotamian IS She was adopted. which typically appears on either side of her throne. etc. Pre-Christian Armenian. Solomon is said to have built a temple in her honor near Jerusalem.

Attributes: book. A benevolent NAKSATRA. Identified in the opening of the Rg Veda. At Dura and Hierapolis (Hera-Atargatis). Also Asvini and Asvinyau. the antagonists of the DEVA gods. He causes disasters such as epidemics and earthquakes if his laws and rites are disobeyed. She sometimes carries a rudder or wears the mural crown of a city guardian. she personifies blind folly leading to disaster. Asvins Physician gods. A daughter of ZEUS. and by the third century BC her cult had reached Egypt. Atargatis Mother goddess. West Africa]. Pre-Islamic northern and central Arabian. Greek. where she is associated with dolphins. Worshiped particularly by the Is ˇ amme tribe. Asuras Sky gods. Asvayujau (harnessing horses) Minor goddess of fortune. vessel with herbs and water jar. Ataecina Local chthonic underworld goddess. Atargatis is also a fish goddess depicted like a mermaid and in most of her cult centers she enjoyed a sacred lake stocked with fish. they become demonic in later Hinduism. She enjoyed major cults at Khirbet Tannur. and at Khirbet Brak. Ate Minor goddess of misfortune. Known from circa 800 BC and identified in letters of the Assyrian kings Es ˇ arhaddon and Assurbanipal. Also Allat. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). May be synonymous with the Arab goddess ALLAT whose cult was centered on Palmyra. Polynesian. but in later times Her earliest consort is DUS she is linked with the Syrian storm god HADAD. she tended to overshadow Hadad. Ghana. his body divided vertically. Known from inscriptions in the Tagus region. Gan [district around Accra. . Astral deity of uncertain gender. but revered widely among other Arabs. where she is depicted as the vegetation goddess in nine sepa- Atea Supreme god. There are hints of sky affinities in some depictions. where the Romans identified her with the goddess PROSERPINA. ˇARA. Statues of Hadad and Hera-Atargatis were carried in twice-yearly processions to the sea from Hierapolis. or astral deity. Northern Syrian. with a sign of the zodiac or a nimbus-like veil. Atars ˇ amain (morning star of heaven) Ataa Naa Nyongmo Creator god. Depicted in a chariot drawn by horses or birds. Twin gods owning horses. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). She often carries a cornucopia linking her with the goddess TYCHE (fortune) and may commonly be flanked by lions. RomanoIberian. which suggests some links with sun symbolism. Greek writers of the Hellenic period describe her as a “radiate” goddess. Hindu (Vedic). The father of the gods depicted as a hybrid. Hindu (Vedic). the sons of VIVASVAN and SARANYU. He engendered the earth and also controls the sun and the rain.Atea 35 They have a youthful appearance and are associated with rain and thunder. rate variations.

ORIGIN . In the tradition of the Hervey Islands. the god of light. northeastern Africa]. el-Amarna and other sanctuaries in the Nile valley. Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III. he is the firstborn son of the primordial mother VARI-MA-TE-TAKERE. Also AVATEA. It acted as a contentious rival to the cult of Amun-Re at Karnak. distinct from Atum or Re. Akhenaten first built a sanctuary to Aten adjacent to that of AMUN in the Karnak complex at Thebes. like the rays of the sun.36 ATEN the left half being fishy and the right half of human form. Very little detail of the cult survives. All the temples to Aten were later destroyed. LITERARY SOURCES various papyri. eclipsing all others. It began as a winged sun disc with outstretched arms. He is largely comparable to TANE. The iconography of Aten is very distinctive. was revered as a numen in his own right. Wakea. One of his queens. was also a staunch Aten worshiper. His influence had been growing under several pharaohs including Amenhotep II. Akhenaten ruled from el-Amarna for the remainder of his reign. circa 2000 BC until late in Egyptian history. CENTER(S) OF CULT chiefly at Thebes but also at Heliopolis. Where the latter Atete Fertility goddess. The elevation of Aten was influenced by politics (the strength of the Amun-Re priesthood was becoming excessive). After a short existence low down in the world coconut living immediately above his mother. from circa 2000 BC and possibly earlier. inscriptions and coffin texts. who initiated a cult of Aten at Heliopolis. It was open to the sky (and the rays of Aten) and the main ceremonials took place at dawn. Aten rose to ultimate supremacy for a brief period during the reign of Amenhotep IV who renamed himself Akhenaten in honor of the god. Creator sun god. point toward a royal personage they hold the ankh symbol of life. The god is never drawn in human or animal form. During Akhenaten’s reign from 1379 BC Aten became the supreme god of Egypt. he moved to the opening of the upper world. or knowledge of. the god. She was assimilated into the Christian cult of the Virgin Mary. SYNONYMS Aton. The festival is known as Astar yo Mariam (Epiphany of Mary). as was most of his iconography. each of which ends in a human hand. ART REFERENCES monument at Giza. but of little influence after 1362 BC. and it is notable that Akhenaten alone had access to. Memphis. but this was refined into a sun disc embellished with the uraeus (see WADJET) and subtended by thin arms. where a huge sanctuary was constructed. Kafa [Ethiopia. ATEN (the sun disc) Egyptian. The main cult center was to the north of Thebes on the east bank of the Nile at el-Amarna. wall paintings at Karnak and el-Amarna. ATHENA Greek. Nefertiti. which Akhenaten suppressed. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 800 BC and earlier until Christianization (circa AD 400) and later. Goddess of war and patron defender of many Greek cities. Vatea. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Aten. the sun as a disc. but is probably the subject of an ancient fertility rite performed by women who collect various sacred plants and throw them into the river. Aten worship was also undeniably the result of a growing interest in the concept of a single creator god and was the first arguable demonstration of monotheism.

According to Hesiod. Sparta.Atropos 37 Athene. and she is depicted holding a pair of scales. Her symbol is the aigis—the skin of a sacrificial goat. One of a group of nine deities. A goddess of battle and allegedly a snake goddess. She also acts as a moderating influence in Achilles’ conflict with Agamemnon. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. MINERVA (Roman). One of the group classed as the Mixcoatlcamaxtli complex. See also A S Aticandika (exceedingly great) Distinct form of the goddess DURGA. Atonatiuh and Chalchiutonatiuh. She is also associated with ship-building and with domestic crafts including wool work and spinning— Athenian women have traditionally woven the peplos at the Panathenaia festival. The sun deity representing the fourth of the five world ages each of which lasted for 2. and Diomedes against ARES. PALLAS ATHENAE (maiden goddess of Athens). particularly that grown by tradition on the Acropolis. one of the daughters of ZEUS and THEMIS. The olive tree is sacred to her. According to legend she offered the olive to mankind. According to tradition. Atlahua Minor god of lakes and fish hunters. Also 4(Atl). Pre-Homeric Greek. ART REFERENCES the Parthenon frieze and other sculptures and iconography throughout the Greek world. Atropos Goddess of fate. Assigned to water and presided over by CHALCHIUHTLICUE. Illustrated by the “Stone of the Four Suns” [Yale Peabody Museum].028 heavenly years. Western Semitic (Canaanite). the unturning inevitability of death.” Atl Athena is a principal goddess of the Greek pantheon and. She is responsible for the final part of a mortal life. while supporting such heroes as Perseus against the Gorgon monster. CENTER(S) OF CULT Athens but also Argos. whose oil was given to the victors in the Panathenaia festival. In legend she is the destroyer of Ajax and lures Hector to his death. known as the “nine durgas. Larisa (Thessaly). she is a deity who also stands for discipline against the more unruly conduct of such as HERMES and POSEIDON. Creator god. the age ended in a cataclysmic destruction caused by a deluge during which all the human population were turned into fish. The name of the plant Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) derives from her. the most notable instance of her characteristic ability for self-control. the daughter of METIS (wisdom) born fully armed from the head of ZEUS. ˇ ERAH. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. including notably the Athena of Phidias (Varvakeion) and the metope of Olympia in which she assists HERAKLES to support the sky. Gortyn. each heavenly year being fifty-two terrestrial years. SYNONYMS identified as the daughter-in-law of the king of heaven. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad and Odyssey (Homer). Athirat Fertility goddess. Hindu (Puranic). Her most famed sanctuary is the Parthenon. She is also known from pre-Islamic southern Arabia as a consort of the moon god AMM. according to Hesiod. One of an ancient trio of MOIRAI with LACHESIS and KLOTHO. In Old Babylonian texts of Hammurabi she is . Lindos and Ilion (Homer’s Troy). Theogony and Hymn to Pallas Athene (Hesiod).

The day sacred to Attis was March 22 when a pine tree was carried into the Temple of Cybele and decorated with flowers and models of Attis. especially Virgil. ORIGIN Atua I Kafika Supreme god. he attempts to usurp the dead BAAL but proves inadequate to fill the god’s throne.38 Attar Attar God of the morning star. In alternative traditions. Sun god and creator god. In Christian times the Easter festival took over the date of the Attis rites. Another legend suggests he was conceived immaculately by the demigoddess NANA when she placed a ripe almond in her bosom.” is either his mother or purely his consort. or arrived on the back of a turtle from foreign parts. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP . Polynesian [Tikopia]. all gods. Polynesian [Tikopia]. and later Roman. or arrived on the back of a turtle from foreign parts. One of a pair with Atua Fafine when the land of Tikopia was pulled up from the bottom of the ocean. the “great mother. Regarded as an intercessor rather than as ultimate creator or controller. SYNONYMS Atum-Re. he was sometimes worshiped as a rain god. CENTER(S) OF CULT Anatolian region and later throughout Greek and Roman areas of culture. ART REFERENCES wall paintings particularly in New Kingdom tombs in the Valley of the Kings (Thebes). Vegetation god. They may have been there from the outset. They engendered five sons. They engendered five sons. Western Semitic. His female counterpart is the Phoenician ASTARTE. In Canaanite legend. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC and probably earlier until circa AD 400. votive inscriptions. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. They may have been there from the outset. ATUM Egyptian. One of a pair with ATUA I RAROPUKA when the land of Tikopia was pulled up from the bottom of the ocean. He is considered to have originated as a shepherd. ATTIS Phrygia [northwestern Turkey]. The latter legend became enshrined in spring rites during which Greek. The cult was brought to Rome in 204 BC when the stone symbolizing the presence of CYBELE (the Roman version of her name) was Atua I Raropuka Creator being. LITERARY SOURCES Roman writers. KYBELE. Attis is a “dying and rising” fertility god modeled on the Mesopotamian DUMUZI. Atua Fafine Creator being. CENTER(S) OF CULT Heliopolis. he castrated himself under a pine tree to offer his vitality to Kybele. Old Kingdom (circa 2700 BC) to end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400). priests (Galli) wearing effeminate costumes castrated themselves or gashed themselves with knives and offered blood sacrifices to the goddess by burying them in the earth. fied as Dhu-S carried from Pessinus and installed in the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. Also probably identiˇ amani in more southerly regions. SYNONYMS none specific. In semi-arid regions of western Asia where irrigation is essential. contemporary sculpture. In a more popular alternative. all gods. The main center of cult was at Pessinus (Phrygia). Polynesian [Tikopia]. According to one legend he met his death gored by a wild boar.

coffin texts. He is divided vertically with his left side fishy and his right side human. Atum is generally represented in human form and often wears a crown which combines those of Upper and Lower Egypt. Roman. One of the most important deities of the Mahayana sect of Buddhism. etc. His SAKTI is PANDARA and his attendant animal is a lion. rosary. It acts as an intercessor between the sun god and his priests in Heliopolis. Vari-Ma-Te-Takere plucked a piece from her right side to engender Avatea. Atum is one of several interpretations of the major creator god of Egypt whose company is the product of a fragmented pre-Dynastic tribal history. Derived from the Greek deity EOS. who is half man. An attendant of the sun god. Avatea Moon god. Known from circa 350 BC onward in local inscriptions. the ENNEAD. Known only from votive inscriptions and largely restricted to the Rhineland. linked with fertility and involved in the activity of the heavenly bath house. Atum shared Heliopolis with another sun god. In cosmic mythology he is a creator deity. image of Amitabha (topmost pyramidal head). who also constitute ian cosmos. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. Aufaniae Collective name for a group of mother goddesses. Auseklis (morning star) Minor astral god. The god was self-created from the primeval ocean and by masturbating he produced the next two great deities of the Egyptˇ U and TEFNUT. Aurora Goddess of the dawn. Mnevis or Mer-wer. Both Atum and Re are represented by a divine black bull. Atum was regarded as the progenitor of the Egyptian pharaohs. half fish. Attributes: blue lotus.Avatea 39 LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. According to tradition. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC to present. In Lamaism he is the tutelary ˇ NU in Hinduism god of Tibet. Pre-Christian Latvian. NOTE: in Chinese Buddhism he is represented by the goddess Kuan-Tin. He equates with V IS and bears links with PADMAPANI. SYNONYMS nineteen other forms listed. S the beginnings of the pantheon of nine Heliopolis deities. sometimes arranged in a pyramid. See also ADONIS. The firstborn offspring of the great mother VARI-MATE-TAKERE and the elder sibling of TINIRAU. AVALOKITESVARA (merciful lord) Buddhist [India]. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. wearing the sun disc and uraeus or snake between its horns. Many forms of Avalokitesvara exist which may include varieties with up to eleven heads. Bodhisattva or buddhadesignate. lotus. . sword and water jar. snake and lizard. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. Etruscan. Celtic (Continental European). RE and eventually became joined with him as Atum-Re or Re-Atum. He is the father of gods and humankind. lion. and in Japanese by KWANNON. paintings. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. ORIGIN Atunis God. Color: white or red. Book of the Dead. He is represented as various animals including the bull.

40 Aveta and is said to live in the coconut of the world. He was also venerated separately in Syria as god of the morning star. Derived from the Sumerian model of . in company with his brother ARSU. Ayurvasita (control of life) Minor goddess. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Fon [Benin. immediately above the home of Tinirau. France. Wakea (Hawaiian). One of a group of twelve VASITAS or goddesses personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Fon [Benin. Color: whitish red. Hindu. Singhalese [Sri Lanka]. Aveta Goddess of birth and midwifery. in company with the astral god Monimos. Plague god. Ayaba Hearth goddess. Buddhist. Azizos Astral tutelary god. which he engendered by tossing pieces of his skin into the primeval ocean. A deity of fields and woodlands who is still revered as a guardian of crops and a protector against plague. The models show the goddess with infants at the breast and apparently she is concerned especially with nursing mothers. in a sitting position. A model of this minor deity was made out of parts of the plant as a harvest fetish and kept for a year before being burned in a ritual to ensure a good potato harvest. The androgynous creator of heaven and earth and of all life. were placed on the beaches and fishermen and local elders sacrificed to them annually to ensure a good season of catches. Local god of growth. See also URU’N AJY TOYO’N. where he personifies the morning star. Also Vatea. Attributes: image of Amidabuddha and jewel. god of the trees. The sister of LOKO. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Yakut [central Siberia]. who is the evening star. West Africa]. he was assigned to the opening of the upper world. Ayyappan Axo-Mama Goddess of potato crops. After a temporary period existing low down in the shell. Known mainly from clay figurines found at Toulon-sur-Allier. ˇ AMAS ˇ ERIDA. Particularly recognized in the Kerala region. Locally worshiped at Palmyra. Ayiyanayaka Avrikiti God of fishermen. Awonawilona Creator god. Associated with horses or camels. Pueblo Indian (Zuni) [Mesoamerica]. West Africa]. The figure is often accompanied by a small lapdog. South American Indian [Peru]. whose wood is burned in the home to cook food. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Statues of this deity. Aya Mother goddess. Consort of the sun god S ˇ whose S marriage was celebrated at New Year in Babylon. Ayi’-Uru’n Toyo’n (lord bright creator) Creator spirit.

HADAD. Baal is 41 . A group of eight divine beings. the name ba comes to represent the spirituality of a deity. and ZHONG-LI QUAN. Otherwise generally down the corn-bearing coastal plain of the eastern Mediterranean. and seven midwife goddesses. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2000 BC or earlier to 200 BC. Baal may have originated in pre-agricultural times as god of storms and rain. He is the son of DAGAN and in turn is the father of seven storm gods. Ba Xian Collective name for gods. once mortal. As ˇdod during Philistine period. A fertility deity from early in Egyptian religion invoked particularly at Mendes. a model calf recently discovered there may also symbolize Baal. Taoist (Chinese). often represented in an animal. The Ba Xian are probably the most widely revered. Lebanon and later Egyptian]. LU DONG-BIN. Baal-Sidon and BaalTyre [Lebanon]. ORIGIN Ba (2) Ram god. the SASURATUM.g. Memphis [Egypt]. including Baal-Hazor. SYNONYMS Aliyn Baal. LI TIE-GUAI. ZHANG GUO-LAO. Many people carry amulets and other charms in the form of the symbols of these deities. e. or the mortal manifestation of a god as pharaoh. The eight gods are Cao Guo-jiu. ˇ amra and CENTER ( S ) OF CULT Ugarit [Ras S Jebel el Aqra]. who achieved immortality through their exemplary lifestyles. HAN XIANGZI. HE XIAN-GU. particularly the legends of Baal and Ras S ANAT and Baal and MOT. Vegetation deity and national god. Vetus Testamentum. He is considered to have been worshiped from at least the nineteenth century BC. LITERARY SOURCES Ugaritic creation texts from ˇ amra. Egyptian (Lower). In a later cult. Later he became a vegetation god concerned with fertility of the land. Chinese. ˇ amra has a ART REFERENCES a stele from Ras S seated god with bull horns which is thought to be either Baal or IL. She is identified in some texts as the daughter of the god HUANG TI. the Baalim of the Vetus Testamentum. BAAL (lord) Western Semitic (Canaanite) [northern Israel. There are many such groups in Chinese religious belief. LAN CAI-HE. the bull.B 6 Ba (1) Goddess of drought.

but became extensively revered in places as far apart as Cyprus and Carthage. he dies. Victory was celebrated at the autumn festival of New Year in the month of Tis ˇ ri pending the arrival of the rains. Epithets include “bearer of thunder. Probably of Canaanite origin. but as a Punic deity [Carthage] he was allied with SATURNUS. or more specifically the god Yamm. . Baal lives in a vast and opulent palace on a ˇ apan. where Gudea built her a temple. Baal became assimilated in the Palestine region with ZEUS and JUPITER. Baal is said to have sired a bull calf. the guarantee of his power in absence. In the Greco-Roman period. but the legend of his demise and restoration was never equated with that of OSIRIS. Probably originated in Canaanite culture as a god of rain and vegetation. with the help of weapons made by divine craftsmen (see also OTHIN). Other local variations of mountain deities include Baal Hermon and Baal Brathy. At Karatepe his name appears at the head of a list of national deities and on Seleucid coinage he is depicted wearing a half-moon crown and carrying a radiate sun disc. a patron deity of mariners.” ˇ amin is first mentioned in a fourteenth cenBaal S tury BC treaty between the Hittite king Suppiluliuma and Nigmadu II of Ugarit. Sister of the goddess Anat. By Hellenic times he equated with ZEUS in the Greek pantheon and the Romans ˇ amem. annually. and a hole in the floor of his palace through which he waters the earth. probably have a fertility function. Baal-zebul (VT) derives from Baal and zbl meaning prince. according to inscription. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). According to one text his servants are in the form of seven pages and eight boars. Western Semitic (Phoenician).” Josephus confirms that his cult existed at the time of Solomon. Probably of Canaanite origin and closely equating ˇ AMIN. identified him as Caelus (sky). of a god constantly and energetically engaged with the forces of disorder. “built by Yehemilk. Also Baal-S Baal Sapon Local tutelary god. According to Ugaritic texts he with BAAL S lives on a mountain in the north of Phoenicia known as Saphan.10-11 describes six years of harvest followed by a seventh year in which the land must lie fallow). Western Semitic (Phoenician). Western Semitic (Phoenician). Baba Fertility goddess. Baal Malage Local tutelary god. all of which. Also Bau. before descending to the underworld to challenge the forces of chaos in the form of the ˇ TAR). he reflects the confrontation theme. like his daughters. closely equating with ˇ AMIN and known only from inscriptions. He had a major sanctuary at Byblos. which may have served as a beacon for mariners. is god Mot (see also INANA/IS restored through the efforts of Anat and in the seventh year kills Mot (VT Exodus 23. From the mid-sixteenth century BC in the Egyptian New Kingdom. the god of seed-sowing. Old connotations of a mountain called S weather god remain in the texts which describe the voice of Baal as being like thunder. Other epithets include “lord of eternity” and he may also have been god of storms at sea. Locally worshiped in Lagas ˇ . BAAL S ˇ amin (lord of heaven) Baal S Head of the pantheon. from the powers of chaos in the form of the sea and the river tyrannies. PIDRAY daughter of mist and Tallay daughter of showers. It is a combat that causes his temporary ill-fortune but from which. first established in ancient Near Eastern religions.42 Baal Malage said to have gained his kingship in primeval times wrested. he emerges triumphant. Baal enjoyed a significant cult following.

DIONYSOS (Greek). Hindu [northern Indian]. She confronts the Irish hero Cu Chulainn before a battle and terrifies him by turning into Badb Catha. Egyptian. his penis serves variously as the mast on the underworld ferry boat. Hobnil is also a patron deity of beekeepers. Capable of changing shape at will. the daughter of Kadmos. As god of wine and intoxication. One of the aspects of the MORRIGAN. Badb War goddess. Bacabs Attendant gods. Known from inscription at Cirta [Constantine]. ART REFERENCES LITERARY SOURCES sculptures and reliefs. A SAKTI and one of the seven SAPTAMATARAS (mothers) who in later Hinduism became regarded as of evil intent. God of wine and intoxication. In Roman mythology his parents are JUPITER and SEMELE. Babi is seen as a violent and hostile deity whose presence can be highly dangerous during the ceremony of the Weighing of the Heart in the Hall of the Two Truths (see also A MMUT ). BACCHUS Roman. Bacchus was worshiped extensively and commanded a number of festivals including the Liberalia and Bacchanalia. Bacchus is modeled closely on the Greek god DIONYSOS. One of a group of ten ˇ IVA. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Roman world. Bacax Local god. Zac Cimi (black) in the west and Hozanek (yellow) in the south. Particularly recognized in Bengal. Depicted as an ithyphallic male baboon. fauns and satyrs. Hindu. Four deities identified with points of the compass and colors. Known from as early as the Old Kingdom (circa 2700 BC). Celtic (Irish). A god active in the darkness. the crow and harbinger of death. who became deified only after her death by fire on Olympus. SYNONYMS LIBER.Bagala 43 Babi Malevolent god. . These possess strongly phallic connotations and on occasions the god was represented by a model phallus. Roman-North African. He is also frequently drawn riding in a chariot pulled by leopards. Aeneid (Virgil) etc. thought to have been worshiped as a cave god. and the bolt on heaven’s doors. Closely associated with sexual virility in the underworld. circa 400 BC to AD 400. A rare example of a named deity from this region. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Bagala (power of cruelty) Goddess. thus Hobnil (red) resides in the east. Conversely he can also act in a protective capacity. He is depicted as a youthful figure wearing an ivy or grape crown and carrying a wand or thyrsus. Bacchus grew up through childhood with a wet-nurse Ino (LEUKOTHEA). Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. MAHAVIDYAS personifying the SAKTI of S Aspects include VIRARATRI. Badi Mata Mother goddess. Babi is ithyphallic. nymphs. attacking children during puberty. As a youth he was entrusted to the satyr Silenus. his court includes the female Bacchantes. Can Tzicnal (white) in the north. where each carries the image of the ruling god for the incoming year on his back. They are also identified as the Toliloch (opossum actors) in the Codex Dresden.

mythology. principally by the Wiradyuri and Kamilaroi groups of aborigines in the southeast of Australia. There seem to have been no elaborate sanctuaries but rather an abundance of simple shrines always placed close to water. . KRSNA in child form (see Krsna). conceived when she was raped from behind by an obscure demonic entity in the shape of a ram who violated her while she was milking cows by a lakeside. Bagisht God of flood waters and prosperity. Poorly defined spirits who protect individuals in daily life. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Mayan (Yucatec. Four balam stand at the cardinal points around a village to guard against dangerous animals. His voice is represented when the “bull roarer” native instrument is swung and. West African. The god was celebrated at the main festivals of the Kafir agricultural year and received sacrificial portions of meat. Buddhist. In other aboriginal traditions he is known as Twanyrika. Balam (jaguar) Guardian deities. Messenger goddess. from antiquity. The son of the supreme goddess DISANI. One of the twenty-four SASANADEVATAS. Byamee KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP SYNONYMS Baiame is a creator god. Urartian [Armenia]. Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. He is the father of DARAMULUM and is identified in the heavens by the Southern Cross. which he incorporated into human beings. Color: red.44 Bagba Bagba Animistic spirit. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Biame. Fetish who allegedly controls the wind and rain and whose shaman keeps the winds locked in a huge pot. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Balakrsna God. They also protect the four sides of a milpa (smallholding) against thieves. Attributes: book and banner with jewel. Of vague affinity but generally of youthful appearance. according to Balaparamita (perfection of strength) Philosophical deity. He fashioned two men and a woman from the red earth of Australia. revered as the supreme being and instrument of good. Attributes: book and rosary. he first created animals during the Dreamtime and then gathered them all together in order to select various of their characteristics. Jain [India]. The consort of the creator god HALDI. Seated upon a lotus throne. BAIAME ORIGIN Australian aboriginal. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Mother goddess. Bala (girl) 1. showed them the plants that they could eat with safety and created laws for them to follow. Also Opkulu. His chief consort is generally referred to as BIRRAHGNOOLOO. Bagisht is said to have been born in the current of the Prasun river whereupon the turbulent waters became smooth-flowing and parted to allow the infant to reach the bank. 2. One of a group of twelve PARAMITAS. Bagvarti Tutelary goddess.

with RAMA. There are separate suggestions that Balder traveled the road to the underworld ruled by HEL in company with many other slain warriors. He is the son of VASUDEVA and DEVAKI. runic inscriptions. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP AD 700 (possibly earlier) through to Christianization (circa AD 1100). CENTER(S) OF CULT unknown. lotus. pestle. There is no evidence of a Germanic precedent for Balder and he is probably of purely Norse extraction. his power was removed by V IS in his avatara of VAMANA. Baltis Local goddess. The ˇ NU son of Virocana. implying that he met his death in a wider combat. and Balarama light. Hindu (Epic and Incarnation of the god V IS Puranic). SYNONYMS Baldr. defines Balder as a warrior slain by a magic sword in a battle of jealous rivalry between him and Hoder for the hand of the goddess NANNA. Epithets included Ananda (joy).Baltis 45 Balarama (strength of Rama) ˇ NU. Balder is the spotless “good” god. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. plough. It is also impossible to relate Balder to the dying and rising gods found in other religions (DUMUZI. since there is no suggestion of his return from Hel’s kingdom of the dead. the “shining one. The latter enjoys similar characteristics to Krsna but fails to attract the same popularity. rarely standing alone. Pre-Islamic Arabian. Krsna grew to be dark-skinned. in contrast. club. According to Snorri’s account. She had omitted the mistletoe as being too small and insignificant and so. one black. shield and sword. ART REFERENCES stone carvings. drinking cup. as the seventh. Bala-Sakti Goddess. or. using the blind god HODER as his instrument. BALDER (lord) Icelandic (Nordic). In Jainism he is known as Baladeva. though born from the womb of ROHINI. Known from Carrhae in western Mesopotamia and identified as the apotheosis of the planet Venus. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India].” OTHIN’s favored second son. Jointly with KRSNA (his brother). he is identified as the eighth avatara (incarnation) of Vis ˇnu. Baldaeg (Anglo-Saxon). etc. He is the father of the god FORSETI. May have originated in Vedic times as an agricultural fertility deity. TELEPINU. noose and rosary. OSIRIS. ORIGIN Bali Demonic god. fan palm. To ensure their safety against a demon king. The consort of Balarama is REVATI and his sons are Nisatha and Ulmuka. Often accompanied by a geometric magical diagram or yantra. Youthful deity who presides over six CAKRAS or prayer wheels. He is usually depicted on the right side of Krsna. Saxo. though there is an implication that he will be released by Hel at Ragnarok. Attributes: arrow. Prose Edda (Snorri). He lives in a hall named Breidablik. Attributes: book. pitcher. The dying god.). Balder was made invulnerable to injury or death by his mother FRIGG who had extracted a promise from “all things” not to harm him. one white. prayer wheel. Attempts have been made to cast him as a copy of Christ but these seem wholly unfounded. Legend describes how Vis ˇnu impregnated the belly of the goddess Devaki with two hairs. they were transferred before birth to Rohini. LOKI caused Balder’s death by guiding Hoder’s hand and turning a sprig of mistletoe into a lethal dart. honey pot. Historia Danica (Saxo). hook. .

Medb and MAEVE. after which they fell into disgrace. Known as the “god who blows the waves. and into birds and animals. Baphomet A medieval deity allegedly worshiped in secret by the Knights Templar. and Baphomet was adopted subsequently as the tutelary deity of the quasi-magical Ordo Templi Orientis organization founded by the twentieth-century English occultist Aleister Crowley. Bangputys Sea god. he had a cult following and was associated in some way with pain or spiritual anguish affecting the king. a star above the eyes. Described by its critics as a source and initiator of evil. He is generally depicted in anthropomorphic form. The name may be a corruption of the Islamic founder and prophet. He is the father of HARPOKRATES. Celtic (Irish). Mahomet. but its etymology remains unclear. his consort is the fish goddess HATMEHYT. Egyptian. In a publication entitled Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum he gave the deity the form either of a severed head with two faces. female breasts.46 Banba Banba Fertility goddess. Fodla. Baphomet is known from the fourteenth century or possibly earlier. Possibly concerned with arbitration. or of a black cat. See also BADB. Banga God of clear waters. Pre-Christian Lithuanian. ERIU. According to limited references . a reptilian belly surmounted by snakes and goat-like hoofs. This imagery was depicted by the nineteenth-century romantic interpreter of occultism Eliphas Levi. but his cult is centered on Mendes in the Delta region of Lower Egypt [Tell et-Ruba] and is closely linked with the mother of Rameses III. One of seven gods invoked at daybreak. Alternative imagery has been of an androgynous Satanic goat sitting astride the world with a flaming torch located between the horns. some authorities have placed the idol of Baphomet at the center of initiation and other magical rituals once practiced by the Templars. Also a goddess of war capable of changing shape from girl to hag. One of the aspects of the MORRIGAN. He is placed in some accounts in Upper Egypt on the island of Seheil at the first Nile cataract. Banebdjedet Ram god. Ngbandi [northern Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic]. among the Pyramid Texts. According to tradition (Chester Beatty I papyrus) he was called upon to intercede in the contest for the Egyptian kingdoms between HORUS and SETH. Merri in Paris. In part it was this tradition that brought charges of heresy against the Templars at the end of the thirteenth and start of the fourteenth centuries. Egyptian (Lower). bearded or unshaven. The image of Baphomet was romanticized during the nineteenth century by the German antiquarian Josef von Hammer-Purgstall. The precise nature of any idolatory is unknown. The bearded figure is depicted in the church of St. though there are unsubstantiated claims that the image was modeled androgynously on that of ARTEMIS of Ephesus. but with the head of a ram.” Ba-Pef Chthonic underworld god. A name of the “Sovereignty of Ireland” to whom the king was married in symbolic ceremony. the creator deity of white-skinned people. An obscure malevolent deity known from the Old Kingdom (circa 2700 BC) in which he may have enjoyed a priesthood.

symbolizing the protectresses of north and south respectively. papyrus illustrations. Buddhist and Lamaist [Tibet]. Egyptian (Upper). Bars ˇ amin Weather or sky god. Stands with one foot on a horse and one on a man. Probably derived from the Semitic god BAAL ˇ AMIN. Also Bata. containing mummified animals. The name probably derives from the remedial plant balsam. Texts recounting battles may describe the pharaoh’s enemies being slaughtered like the victims of Bastet. Thus she is first depicted as a lioness. The judge of souls. LITERARY SOURCES Middle Kingdom coffin texts etc. Feline goddess associated with the vengeance of the sun god. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2700 BC to the end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400). Known locally from Priene and largely became syncretized with ATARGATIS. Bat Cow goddess of fertility. but is often the subject of Egyptian period jewelry. for a while she may have rivaled Hathor in Lower Egypt but by the time of the New Kingdom (sixteenth century BC) her influence had waned. . Basamum God of healing. SYNONYMS none. In the sanctuary of Khafre at Giza. Color: red. One of a group of eight DHARMAPALA with terrible appearance and royal attire. May appear with three eyes. the “rage in his eye. Western Semitic (Syrian). KYBELE. including amulets and ritual sistrum rattles. In Hellenic times she is partly syncretized with ARTEMIS. and then in the guise of a cat from circa 1000 BC onward when she becomes more peace- Beg-Tse (concealed coat of mail) God of war. Bastet is the daughter of the sun god RE and is regarded as his instrument of vengeance. The cat was considered sacred to her and cat cemeteries. Ossetian [Caucasus region]. wall paintings. She may be represented on the Narmer Palette (Cairo Museum) which commemorates the unification of the two kingdoms. She was probably well known in the Old Kingdom (circa 2700 BC onward). fire. Pre-Christian Armenian.” Alternatively she is the eldest daughter of AMUN. Her name involves the hieroglyph for a sealed alabaster jar containing perfume. Associated principally with Upper Egypt. CENTER(S) OF CULT Bubastis in the Delta region of Lower Egypt and probably at the Karnak temple complex in Upper Egypt. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. skin and sword. etc. Attributes: banner. directing them either to paradise or to oblivion. She has a son. S able in character. ORIGIN Baubo Mother goddess.Beg-Tse 47 Barastar Chthonic underworld god. her name is engraved on the facade with that of the goddess HATHOR. the lion-headed god MIHOS. Bat is only rarely found in large sculptures and paintings. ART REFERENCES sculptures. Also Cam-srin. have been found at various sites. BASTET Egyptian. Depicted as a cow or anthropomorphically with bovine ears and horns.

set on May 1. he was sometimes worshiped as Apollo Belenus. Invoked by fishermen to ensure plentiful catches. Pastoral deity concerned with light. Fon [Benin. Belenus bears many similarities with the Greek deity APOLLO as a god of light. Known as the “Scribe of the Earth. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until Christianization (circa AD 400) and in some circumstances much later. ˇ TIN-ANA. Though appearing more often as a purely Celtic god.” Belili Goddess. Model horses were found at the Gaul site. the start of the “warm season. Known in Babylon and probably modeled on NINHURSAG ˜ A.48 Behanzin Behanzin Fish god. solar worship and healing. Christian era in the festival of Beltine or Cetshamain. A local deity in the Orissa province synonymous with BOORA PENNU. stone carvings and reliefs.” The name also appears at Palmyra as the tutelary creator god whose attributes include lightning and an eagle. West Africa]. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Belet-Ili (lady of the gods) BELENUS Celtic (Continental European and probably Irish). According to some authors he is the horned god of the north equating to CERNUNNOS. Belatucadros War god. Ausonius. Bel Generic title meaning “lord. Celtic (British). sun and healing. and the name occurs in the Vetus Testamentum. Indian (Khond). See GES Bella Pennu Considered to be one of the oldest of the Celtic gods thus far recognized. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). . ART REFERENCES horse statuettes. votive inscriptions. a fourth century poet from the Bordeaux region. SYNONYMS Apollo Belenus.” The rites involved lighting huge bonfires and driving cattle between them as a protection against disease. Ausonius. Celebrated long into the Sun god. ORIGIN Mother goddess. mentions Belenus sanctuaries in Aquitaine.” Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Herodian. Tertullian refers to them in Austria. CENTER(S) OF CULT mainly sanctuaries in northern Italy (Aquileia) and southwestern Gaul (Aquitaine). Bile (Irish). Sabine [Côte d’Or]. The New Year festival of akitu in Babylon included a ceremony of “leading Bel by the hand. Belet-Seri Chthonic underworld goddess. The Babylonian god MARDUK was often addressed as Bel. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Herodian places others in northern Italy. The Romans syncretized him with the god MARS. for example at the thermal spring sanctuary at St. It marked the season when cattle were liberated after winter to graze the open pastures. Roman writers—Tertullian. Cycles of Kings. The recorder of the dead entering the otherworld. and in this guise became associated with horses which are well-attested as sun symbols in the Celtic Bronze Age.

walls of birth houses. appearing in art from circa 1500 BC and probably earlier. CENTER(S) OF CULT no specific sanctuaries. A deity mentioned in Pyramid Texts . ATUM. Roman. He appears in the Old Kingdom as a yellow wagtail but later becomes a heron. Worshiped by the Khonds in Bengal. Rome refused officially to recognize the cult until the third century AD. Attributes: boots. Bera Pennu Vegetation goddess. Egyptian (Upper). Appeared in Athens during the Peloponnesian War. after days of festivities. Shinto [Japan]. sometimes in the fork of a tree. until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. but a household god and generally associated with birthplaces. The first known temple dedicated to Ma-Bellona by the Romans is dated to 296 BC. LITERARY SOURCES none significant. are often coiled around her statues. Hellenized and linked stylistically with ARTEMIS as a huntress. Her priesthood is both Shinto and Buddhist and she is closely linked with the goddess SARASVATI. The sacrificial victim or meriah was youthful. BES ORIGIN Egyptian. curved ivory batons from Middle Period. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). (circa twenty-fifth century BC) and linked with the sun god of Heliopolis. He is also said to have been self-created from the primeval ocean and is sometimes a symbol of rebirth in the afterlife. ART REFERENCES walls of temples at Thebes.BES 49 Bellona Mother goddess and goddess of war. Guardian deity of women in labor. SYNONYMS none. One of seven deities classed as gods of fortune and the only goddess in the group. He or she was generally strangled. Because of this. Beltiya (my lady) Generic title of goddess. In other instances the victim was cut up alive. Bendis Mother goddess. Benu may have augmented the Greek classical tradition of the Phoenix. wearing the conical white crown of Upper Egypt with two slender feathers pointing backwards from its crest. Benten-San Goddess of luck. offering the blood on the goddess’s altars. including those of royalty. torch and pointed cap. and as a protection against disease and infirmity. married couples are reluctant to visit her shrines together. Thracian. Because of its violent nature. Bellona was attended by Asiatic priests who performed frenzied dances and gashed themselves with swords. is often addressed as Beltiya. A popular deity with many sanctuaries dedicated to her. She becomes syncretized with the Cappadocian mother goddess MA. ZARPANITUM (SARPANITUM). Northern Indian. Snakes. the consort of the Babylonian god MARDUK. or purchased from impoverished families for the purpose. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Benu Transmuted bird-like form of a sun god. often kept for years as a holy person before death and was always either the offspring of a previous sacrificial victim. she is a patron of music and holds a biwa instrument in her hand. believed to stand for jealousy. particularly of the spice turmeric. She was the recipient of human sacrifice to ensure good harvest.

linked with the cult of dogs and BHAIRAVA. Generally seated.13. A so-called ugra aspect. Attributes: blue dant of S lotus. daughter of D AKSA and wife of C ANDRA (S OMA ). He is also sometimes drawn as a musician with a tambourine. prayer wheel and trident. one of a group of ˇ iva. In Lamaism he is the fifth in a series of manusibuddhas. Bhagavan (the lord) Tutelary god. As a god of birth. Also Apabharanis. fruit. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). He possesses a lion’s mane. Worshiped by the Bhils and other tribes as the original creator spirit and a judge of the dead ˇ NU and KRSNA. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). from the time of the Roman occupation. Bhairava (terrible) ˇ IVA. including that mentioned in Genesis 38. Also Bhairon. Guardian deity of doorways. a thick body. Minor sun god. Bhadra (auspicious) Minor goddess. rosary and trident. Attributes: hook and noose. Also an epithet of V IS Bhagwan. but essentially benign deity whose ugliness wards off evil. tail and usually has his mouth open and tongue protruding. Attributes: two lotuses. Northern and central Indian. One of six ADITYAS. sons of the goddess ADITI. he appears in the mode of a soldier wearing a short military tunic. Western Semitic (Phoenician). ears. sometimes with a bowl. There is no evidence of links with the historical place names.13. He appears more regularly on Ugarit [Ras S inscriptions from the end of the seventh century BC and enjoyed considerable popularity during the neo-Babylonian period. Bes appears with a large-bearded and barely human face. He wears a plumed crown and often wields a short sword. the incarnation of women’s . Aspects and epithets include Kalaratri. KSETRAPALA and MAHAKALA. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Probably of Aramaean or Syrian origin. Attenˇ IVA. Consort: SIDDHI. In Vedic times. Bethel is mentioned in the Biblical text of Jeremiah 48. Bes was adopted by Greco-Roman culture. MAHAVIDYAS personifying the SAKTI of S Bethel Local tutelary god. A malevolent NAKSATRA . good fortune in marriage. Attributes: fruit. Bes often carries the SA symbol of protection. Hindu Minor frightful form of the god S (Puranic and later). The Greeks depicted him in strongly ithyphallic guise with a disproportionately large and erect penis and. Bharani (bearing) Bhaga (the dispenser of fortune) Minor goddess of misfortune. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes and a row of small curls fringing the forehead. Color: blue or gold. implying that some Israelites acknowledged this deity.50 Bethel A dwarfish and hideous. Accounted among one of a series of medicine buddhas known as a SMAN-BLA in Tibet. First mentioned in a fourteenth century treaty between the Hittite king Suppiluliuma and Nigmadu II of ˇ amra]. short arms and short bandy legs. generally depicted in simˇ iva but with up to five heads and ten ilar style to S ˇ iva’s arms and said to have been born from S blood. Also soul. Bhaisajyaguru (supreme physician) Physician god. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). He is generally present at births exerting a protective influence.

and staff. Modern Hindu. VAYU-. lute. Minor goddess. Also Bhimasena. Color: yellow. Bhumidevi is often depicted standing on the left (occasionally right) hand of the VARAHA avatara of Vis ˇ nu.” An emanation of AMITABHA. Three-eyed. Attributes: snakes in the hair. the mother of the BUDDHA. lotus. In the north she is known as PUSTI. Usually associated with the goddess SARASVATI. staff. MAHI. Evolved from the writings of the nineteenth century Bengali. Shrines are designed in the form of a map of India. A generic name given to deities of youthful appearance who are arranged in ten groups all with the suffix -kumara. Buddhist (Varyana). He is a son of the god of the winds VAYU. Thus AGNI-. STANITA-. DIK-. DVIPA-. The so-called “yellow Tara. a rough stone icon. trident and water jar.Bhutadamara 51 Bharat Mata (Mother India) Mother goddess. worshiped as ˇ NU. Bhutadamara (tumult of demons) God. Epic and Puranic). Bhumi Devata Bhavanavasi Gods. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Worshiped by many primitive tribes. 2. Attribute: image of Amitabha. pot with vegetables and water jar. Guardian deity of fields. ASURA-. BHUMI. May be depicted reclining on the Hindu goddess APARAJITA. Buddhist (Mahayana). UDADHI-. A prince of the mythical Pandu family and one of the heroes of the Mahabharata epic. Her son is Naraka. The second wife of V IS KRSNA). Threeeyed. Bhumi (the earth on which all things are formed) Bharati Minor goddess of sacrifices. In later times a form of V IS Bhrkuti-Tara (she who frowns) Mother goddess. She is often depicted sitting on a lotus throne with bared breasts. VASUDHARA and Zami-Mata. He is perceived as a god of immense strength and great cruelty. Vegetation goddess. An attendant of BUDDAKEPALA. Also identified as a female BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate. Common attribute: a staff. Indian. Buddhist (Mahayana). Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Bhumiya (guardian of fields) Fertility god. NAGA-. Twelve personifications of the spiritual spheres through which a BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate passes in his quest for perfection of knowledge. Jain [India]. Warrior god. In Lamaism particularly. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. which separates him from the heroic figure of ARJUNA. Attributes: blue lotus. Attribute: a club. Also JANGULI and VAJRATARA. pomegranate. VIDYUT-. Hindu (Vedic. Also regarded as a consort of GANESA. PRTHIVI. Bhudevi. a cruel form of TARA. lotus. Bhumidevi (the earth goddess) Fertility goddess. Collective name for a group of deities. Bhima (terrible) 1. with whom he is linked in the epic. pot with herbs. his brother. Bhima is usually depicted wielding a sword and a club. SUPARNA-. She is invoked to appear on the sacrificial field before a ritual. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic) [northern India]. Also Bhu. rosary. Hindu (Epic and Puranic) ˇ NU (or [southern India]. .

Her eldest son is DARAMULUM or Gayandi. Greek. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). The most significant include AVALOKITESVARA. cuckolded by the Dagda who sent him away on an errand for nine months. China and Japan]. he appears as a warrior clad in full armor holding a spear in one hand and a toy pagoda. He is considered to be a god of wisdom. Three-eyed. She is recognized by several aboriginal clans as the chief consort of BAIAME. MAITREYA and MANJUSRI. Attended by a lion. Bi-har Guardian deity. Any one of the earlier stages of a future buddha . The mother of Angus mac Og. Aspects include Siddharatri. identified as a “tower of treasure” in the other. alternatively of a minor local deity Elcmar. sword and trident. Birrahgnooloo Creator goddess. Color: white. Bishamon God of luck.52 Bhutamata Bhutamata (mother of goblins) Terrible goddess. Celtic (Irish). Revered as the all-mother of humankind and creator of living things on earth. The Taoist counterpart of the Buddhist deity SAMANTABHADRA. regarded as an intermediary between Baiame and humankind. Birdu Minor chthonic underworld god. Hindu. He has been linked with the Buddhist god Vaisravana (KUBERA). Attributes: arrow. She is one of the consorts of the DAGDA. staff. knife. Bhuvanesvari (lady of the spheres) Goddess. Taoist (Chinese). A frightful form of PARVATI. One of the guardian maharajas protecting against demons. . Depicted wearing regal dress and trappings. Usually depicted upon a white elephant. god of strength. Boann (she of the white cows) River goddess. Bia Goddess of force. the creator god. Tibet. Consort of MANUNGAL and syncretized with NERGAL. The daughter of the underworld goddess STYX and the sister of KRATOS. See also AENGUS. Attributes: hook and noose. Attribute: phallus (on the head). One of a group of ten MAHAVIDYAS personifying the SAKTI ˇ IVA. shield and sword. her role largely parallels that of Baiame. Bo Hsian God. One of seven deities concerned with fortune. including a crown. Shinto [Japan]. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Accompanied by a lion. The local goddess of the river Boyne. Traditions suggest that during the Dreamtime she planted vegetation as she moved Bodhisattva (one whose essence is perfect knowledge) Generic title for a buddha-designate. Also an epithet applied to several godof S desses. bow. fashioning creatures from clay and breathing spirit into human beings. Buddhist [northern India. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Australian aboriginal. through the primordial world.

had a son called Bor. Identified with winter frosts. He controlled the storm which destroyed the Persian fleet sailing against Athens. The cup over which oaths were sworn was known as the “cup of Bragi” and he was seen as a poet and orator in the hall of the slain. Often found in company with AEGIR. according to Snorri. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). she became syncretized with the Virgin Mary after Christianization. until Christianization (circa AD 1100). Hindu [northern India]. Boreas Bolon Ti Ku Chthonic underworld gods. Prose Edda (Snorri). leader) Nordic (Icelandic). the goddess who keeps the apples of immortality for the gods of Asgard. Valhalla. Also Borr. According to the Theogony (Hesiod).BRAGI 53 Boldogasszony Tutelary goddess. . in turn. who licked salty ice blocks and released a second individual called BURI. Until recently this deity was the subject of sacrifice in notorious meriah rituals. Pre-Islamic Berber [Tunisia]. Greek and also Roman. SYNONYMS described as “the long bearded one.” Bombay Kamayan Local disease goddess. God of the north wind. A collective term for a group of nine deities not otherwise clearly defined.” CENTER(S) OF CULT none known. The guardian deity of women and children. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. Particularly worshiped at Gaya. he is the son of EOS and Astraeos and is of Thracian origin: “ . Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. In the creation account. Pre-Christian Hungarian. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Boora Pennu God of light. They are probably still invoked by modern Mexican Indians. Nordic (Icelandic). Bragi is possibly also a pseudonym for Othin himself. VILI and VE. Ymir was nourished by the milk of the cow Audhumla. BRAGI (poet. . which involved violent human sacrifice. Bonchor Tutelary god. Indian (Khond). when Thracian Boreas huddles the thick clouds. said by Snorri to be a son of OTHIN and consort of IDUNN. See also Othin. God of poetry. . He A Viking deity. Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier. Identified with several therapeutic springs and mineral baths. Borvo God of healing. Bor. engendered the AESIR gods OTHIN. a living creature called Ymir was formed in the misty void of Ginnungagap. ART REFERENCES none known but probably the subject of anonymous carvings. Probably recognized as a creator deity. A local deity in the Orissa province who created the earth goddess TARI PENNU as his consort and through her engendered the other great gods. Bor Archetypal god.

by whom he fathered the living world. or kalpa. but some sources identify the goddess of speech. In another grouping one of nine NAVASAKTIS or mothers. One source describes how the beautiful goddess SATARUPA was formed from half of Brahma’s own self but that. Brahma is one of a trinity With V IS ˇ NU and S of supreme creator deities in the Hindu pantheon. and with four hands. ˇ iva decapitated There was once a fifth which S with the thumb of his left hand. probably because he is identified solely with the primordial account of creation. Legend describes how he created himself from the primeval waters using the power of his own desire. He also has a second consort. a spoon or a string of pearls. In Buddhist tradition he is also one of a group of DHARMAPALA with terrible appearance and royal attire. SARASVATI. It is said that incest with his daughter is also partly responsible for Brahma’s limited worship. sometimes with one of them raised in blessing or promise. wearing a white robe or a loin cloth with a sacred cord across the shoulder. Elsewhere he emerges as a fish. Alternative legend credits him with a daughter. the milkmaid GAYATRI. Each day. each of 360 days and nights. Originally the title referred to the power of occult utterances which became associated with the priests or Brahmans. CENTER(S) OF CULT restricted since circa AD 700 to two sanctuaries—at Lake Puskana in Rajputana. Brahmani Mother goddess. He may also carry a staff and an alms dish. Creator god. and at Idar near Mount Abu. Brahma is generally less popular than Vis ˇ nu or ˇ Siva. According to one legendary source he was created from the right side of the primordial creator force. or as a tortoise. within which he fashioned the sky. He may be depicted with red or pink skin. His sacred animal is the goose. His life is anticipated as a hundred heavenly years. 2. His consort is generally the goddess of wisdom. Reliefs. Vach. the universe is destroyed and rebuilt. ORIGIN ˇ IVA. The Ramayana also describes him in the form of a boar which raises the earth on its tusks. By contrast the Mahabharata accounts him born from a lotus in the navel of Vis ˇ nu. Brahma is depicted with four heads. Negative aspects of Brahma include drunkenness and duplicity. SYNONYMS many epithets including Abjaja. His four heads resulted. Vach.320. but properly from Ramayana epic and from Puranic texts. The two halves of the shell became heaven and earth. Other attributes include a water pot indicating prosperity.54 BRAHMA BRAHMA (the creator) Hindu [India]. KAMALASANA. LITERARY SOURCES mentioned in Rg Veda. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). As a god of knowledge he often carries the Vedas (earliest Sanskrit mythology said to have sprung from his head) in one of his hands. often bearded. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC or earlier until present day. is equal to 4. A SAKTI who in later Hinduism became one of the group of eight ASTAMATARAS or mothers. He thought a seed into existence which grew into a golden egg and from which he emerged after a year. Astakarna. Brahma’s current age is said to be fifty-one and after each of his years. facing in four directions. Abjayoni. in an attempt to prevent him looking on his daughter with incestuous desire. she circled around him. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally in bronze but also in stone.000 earthly years. She is attended by a goose and wears a .

which coincided with the beginning of lactation in ewes and was regarded in Scotland as the date on which Brigit deposed the blue-faced hag of winter (see CAILLEACH BHEUR). In Vedic texts he appears as a priest. on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. having become Lord of Ireland. bow. including Caelestis Brigantia. Britannia Tutelary goddess. Brigit of Kildare. The personification of the planet Jupiter. Epic and Puranic). various inscriptions. but in Irish mythology she became the midwife to the Virgin Mary. Celtic (Irish). West Africa]. Romano-Celtic (British). A major Celtic pastoral deity. staff and water jar. Concerned with the supply of food from the land. Buadza BRIGIT (exalted one) ORIGIN Celtic (Continental European and Irish). She was originally celebrated on February 1 in the festival of Imbolc. Gan [district around Accra. In a carved stone relief at Birrens. he sides with the Fomorians in the Battle of Moytura and is defeated. It is also akin to Brhati which means “exalted one” in Sanskrit. rosary. The goddess of the Brigantes in the West Riding of Yorkshire. His consort is the goddess TARA and his son is Kaca. . described as a “wise woman. She became the symbol of the British Empire after being partly syncretized with the Roman war goddess MINERVA. Northumberland. CENTER(S) OF CULT various sanctuaries throughout area of Celtic influence. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Brhaspati (lord of prayer) Astral god. prehistoric times until Christianization (circa AD 1100) and after. Cycles of Kings. Ghana. Brigit. Banfile (poetess). label. She is frequently associated with water and herding. Brigantia Tutelary goddess. there is an altar inscribed to various deities. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. trident and water jar. At Corbridge. There is no record that a Christian saint ever actually existed. who lived from AD 450-523 and founded the first female Christian community in Ireland. The Christian calendar adopted the same date for the Feast of St. she is depicted with the attributes of MINERVA. The genia loci of Britain who first appears on the coinage of Antoninus Pius in the second century AD. book. Fertility goddess. The name can be traced into many Irish and European place names. ax (golden). She may also bear links with the goddess BRIGIT. God of the wind. Also Brahmi. Also regarded as a storm god. rosary. Also Olila. Attributes: book.Buadza 55 yellow robe. ART REFERENCES stone carvings. The son of Angiras and the guru of the later Hindu pantheon. SYNONYMS Brigid. the daughter of the DAGDA. The son of ERIU and of the Fomorian king Elatha. Color: golden yellow. Hindu (Vedic. He is therefore part TUATHA DE DANAAN by parentage but. Bres Macelatha Vegetation god. He rides in a chariot drawn by eight horses. Considered to be almost identical with BRAHMA. Romano-Celtic (British). Bride.” Brigit became “Christianized” as St. Attributes: arrow. She became identified with CAELESTIS.

56 BUDDHA BUDDHA (enlightened)
Buddhist [India]. The founder of Buddhism. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC to present day. SYNONYMS Gautama, Siddharta. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures, paintings etc. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts.
ORIGIN

Buddhalocana (Buddha’s eye)
Goddess. Buddhist (Shingon). A female buddha (see LOCANA).

Buddhi (perception)
1. Minor goddess. Hindu (Puranic). Sometimes identified as consort of the MAHA-GANAPATI form of the elephant god GANESA, depicted seated on his knee. 2. Minor goddess. Jain.

The deity is regarded as having been an historical figure, born at Kapilavastu near Gorakhpur. He died at Kusinagara in circa 486 BC. His father was SUDDHODANA of the Sakya clan, his mother was MAYA and his wife YASODHARA. Buddha is, in certain respects, the equal of the ˇ NU. He is generally depicted with Hindu god V IS shaven or cropped head and may be crowned. The hair may be tightly curled. His color attribute is gold. By tradition, he preached his first sermon at Mrgadava in Sarnath near Varanasi where, after a visit in 1956 by the Dalai Lama, an enclosure of gazelles was erected.

Budha (awakening)
1. Astral god. Hindu (Vedic, Epic and Puranic). The personification of the planet Mercury. The son of SOMA (CANDRA) and TARA or ROHINI. Depicted in a chariot drawn by eight horses or lions (sometimes a single lion). Color: yellow. Attributes: bow, club, rosary, shield and sword. Also Candraja and Candrasuta. 2. Astral god. Buddhist. The personification of the planet Mercury. Stands on a lotus. Attributes: bow and arrow.

Buddhabodhiprabhavasita (control of the light of the knowledge of the Buddha)
Minor goddess. Buddhist. One of a group of twelve VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Color: yellow. Attributes: prayer wheel on a jeweled banner.

Bugid Y Aiba
God of war. Puerto Rico and Haiti. Classed as one of the ZEMIS. The local Indians have believed that the deity can give them strength. When they smoke in a ritual ceremony in honor of the god, their arms increase in size. He will also restore failed eyesight.

Buddhakapala (Buddha’s skullcap)
God. Buddhist (Mahayana). A significant emanation of AKSOBHYA. Alternatively a form of HERUKA. His SAKTI is CITRASENA. Color: blue-black. Attributes: club, cup, drum, image of Aksobhya and knife.

Buk
River goddess. Nuer [Sudan]. A guardian against attack by crocodiles, she is invoked by the sacrifice of a goat. Known as the “daughter of the fireflies.”

Buriyas

57

Buluc Chabtan
God of war. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Associated with human sacrifice and depicted with a characteristic black line encircling the eye and extending down the cheek. Also God F.

Buri
Archetypal god. Nordic (Icelandic). According to Snorri, one of two primordial beings. Ymir was formed from the misty void of Ginnungagap, and Buri emerged from the blocks of salty ice on which the cosmic cow Audhumla fed. He had a son, BOR, who engendered the AESIR gods OTHIN, VILI and VE. Also Bori.

Bumba
Creator god. Boshongo (Bantu) [southern Africa]. The progenitor of the world out of chaos. When he experienced stomachache he vomited the earth, sun, moon and, finally, all living things, including mankind.

Buriyas
Tutelary war god. Kassite [Iran]. He was invoked by the Kassite armies which overthrew Babylonia in the sixteenth century BC.

C 6
Cacoch
Creator god. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. According to tradition he engendered the water lily from which sprang all the other deities of the Mayan pantheon. He is also portrayed as a messenger of the creator god HACHACYUM. Also Kacoch. (Samhain). She brings the snow until the goddess BRIGIT deposes her and she eventually turns to stone on April 30 (Beltine). In later times the mythical, witch-like figure of “Black Annis” probably derived from her.

Cakra (wheel)
Embodiment of the creator’s mind. Hindu. Emerging in the form of a six-spoked wheel (less frequently eight) which also epitomizes the passage of time, and is a symbol of wholeness and protection. ˇ NU and KRSNA, the Particularly associated with V IS cakra is a common attribute held by many deities. It is probably of great antiquity since it is known from the time of the Indus Valley civilization (prior to 1700 BC). In Jainism and Buddhism it is the “wheel of the law” which leads to perfection.

Caelestis
Moon goddess. Carthaginian [North Africa]. The Romanized form of the Punic goddess TANIT. Elsewhere she became syncretized into the cult of APHRODITE-VENUS. Annual games were held in her honor. She was brought to Rome in the form of an abstract block of stone (like that of KYBELE from Pessinus) and became popular there during the early part of the third century AD; in this guise she was known as the “mighty protectress of the Tarpeian hill.”

Cakresvari (lady of the cakra)
Goddess of learning. Jain [India]. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. Also one of the twenty-four SASANADEVATA or messenger goddesses.

Cagn
Creator god. Kalahari bushmen [southern Africa]. The progenitor of all life on earth.

Cailleach Bheur
Goddess of winter. Celtic (Scottish). Depicted as a blue-faced hag who is reborn on October 31

Camaxtli
God. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. See also MIXCOATL-CAMAXTLI.

58

Candesvari

59

Camulos
War god. Celtic (British). Probably the deity from which the name of Camulodunum [Colchester, England] derives. Known from inscriptions and coinage bearing the symbol of a boar.

Candanayika (mistress of the fierce)
Goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A distinct form of DURGA and one of a group of nine NAVADURGAS (“nine durgas”).

Candarosana Camunda
1. Goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A distinct form of DURGA. The name is said to be a contraction of the names of the demonic beings Camda and Munda killed by her. She is also recognized among the SAPTAMATARA and ASTAMATARA mothers as well as sometimes being regarded as a NAVASAKTI. She stands variously on a lion, an owl and a corpse. Attributes: a large and varied assortment of objects are held. Three-eyed. Also YAMI. 2. Goddess. Buddhist. She stands upon a corpse. Color: red. Attributes: cup and knife. God. Buddhist (Mahayana). A form of the god AKSOBHYA. Color: yellow. Attributes: noose, skin and sword.

Candarupa
Goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A distinct form of DURGA and one of a group of nine NAVADURGAS (“nine durgas”).

Candavati
Goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A distinct form of DURGA and one of a group of nine NAVADURGAS (“nine durgas”).

Canda (violent)
Terrible goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A distinct form of DURGA and one of a group of nine NAVADURGAS (“nine durgas”). Canda, with Munda, was also one of the demons killed by a form of Durga known as CAMUNDA (contraction of the two demonic names). She is depicted with a large number of attributes. Also a form of MAHISASURAMARDINI.

Candelifera
Minor goddess of birth. Roman. Responsible for bringing the newborn child into the light. Usually associated with LUCINA and CARMENTES.

Candesvara Candali (outcast woman)
Goddess of terrifying appearance. BuddhistLamaist [Tibet]. One of a group of eight GAURI goddesses. Color: red or blue. Attributes: flames.

(the lord of Canda)

Minor god. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A benevoˇ IVA. Also an attendant on S ˇ iva, said lent aspect of S to have been a youthful cowherd. He sits on a lotus throne. Attributes: arrow, ax, bow, club, crown, hatchet, noose, rosary, snake, trident and water jar.

Candamius
Astral god. Romano-Iberian. Known from inscriptions and place-names in northern Spain and syncretized with Jupiter.

Candesvari (fierce lady)
Minor goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). She stands upon a corpse. Color: yellow. Attributes: grass and an antelope.

60 Candika Candika (fierce)
Goddess of desire. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). May be included among the SAPTAMATARAS or ASTAMATARAS (mothers).

Cao Guo-jiu
Immortal being. Taoist (Chinese). One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology, he was once a mortal being who achieved immortality through his lifestyle. The tutelary god of actors. Attributes include musical rattles or castanets. See also BA XIAN.

Candogra (fierce and terrible)
Goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A distinct form of DURGA and one of a group of nine NAVADURGAS (“nine durgas”).

Carcika (repetitive chant)
Goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). Color: red. Attributes: cup and knife.

Candra
1. Planet god. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Personified by the moon and also seen as a dikpala or guardian of the northern direction. Consorts include KAUMUDI, TARA and the NAKSATRAS or astral goddesses. His son is BUDHA. He drives in a chariot drawn by ten white horses. Color: white. Attributes: club, lotus, sacred rope and prayer wheel. The term candra usually refers to the cup containing the sacrificial yellow beverage SOMA, often a synonym for the deity. Candra is also the apotheosis of the pale yellow moon disc. 2. Planet god. Buddhist. Attended by a goose. Color: white. Attributes: moon disc on a lotus.

Cariociecus
War god. Romano-Iberian. Syncretized with the god MARS.

Carmentes
Minor goddess of birth. Roman. Responsible for bringing the newborn child into the light. Usually associated with LUCINA and CANDELIFERA.

Cathubodua
War goddess. Celtic (Continental European). Known only from inscriptions and probably comparable with the Irish Celtic Badb Catha. See also MORRIGAN.

Candrasekhara (moon crested)
ˇ IVA . Hindu (Puranic). Form of the god S Portrayed standing stiffly upright and wearing snake jewelry with the moon on the left side of his headdress. Attributes: ax and an antelope.

Caturmurti
God. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). The specific form of Vis ˇ nu with four faces. Also the synˇ IVA and Surya. cretization of BRAHMA, V IS ˇ NU, S

Cankilikkaruppan chain)

(the black man of the

Cauri
Goddess of terrifying appearance. Buddhist and Lamaist [Tibet]. One of a group of eight GAURI goddesses. Color: yellow. Attribute: noose.

Local god. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil). Worshiped in southern India.

CERNUNNOS

61

Cautha
Sun god. Etruscan. Attributes include a sun disc crown and fire in each hand. He is depicted rising from the sea.

Ce Acatl
Minor creator god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the QUETZALCOATL complex. Also (1) Acatl.

underworld PROSERPINA who was abducted by PLUTO. She became foster-mother to Triptolemus, an ill-fated king in the mold of the Mesopotamian Dumuzi, depicted in the classical Greek Eleusinian Mysteries. As the embodiment of vegetation, Ceres neglects the natural world during the period that her daughter remains below ground with Pluto (winter), but restores nature annually when Proserpina is returned to her. Ceres was worshiped through the festivals of Thesmophoria and Cerealia in sanctuaries throughout the Greco-Roman empires.

Cenkalaniyammal

(lady of the red paddyfield)

Local goddess. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil). Guardian of paddyfields in southern India.

Ceridwen
Goddess of inspiration. Celtic (Welsh). Depicted as the hag-aspect of the mother goddess, she is the consort of TEGID FOEL. Her children are Creirwy (daughter) and Afagddu (son). She allegedly prepares the caldron of knowledge.

Centeocihuatl
Maize goddess. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Represented at various sites including Tula [Hidalgo]. According to the codices Borgia, Cospi and Fejervery-Mayer she is also one of four temple deities. Also Centeotl.

CERNUNNOS
Celtic (mainly Gallic). Fertility and chthonic god. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until circa AD 1000. SYNONYMS none. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. ART REFERENCES Gundestrup Bowl; monumental stone work and relief carvings. LITERARY SOURCES votive inscriptions.
ORIGIN

CERES
Roman. Mother goddess. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 400 BC to AD 400. SYNONYMS DEMETER (Greek). CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Roman world. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil), etc.
ORIGIN

Ceres is arguably the most recent model of the “great mother” whose predecessors include INANA, ˇTAR, ARTEMIS, KYBELE and Demeter on whom IS she is directly modeled. She is the daughter of KRONOS (Cronus) and RHEA and one of the more important consorts of JUPITER. Her daughter in the upper world, KORE, is the goddess of the

Cernunnos appears to have been recognized in the region of Gaul which is now central France. He is typically drawn as a man bearing the antlers of a stag, not necessarily representing an animal spirit but a deity closely involved with animals and one which can transform instantly into animal shape. In the Celtic world, horns and antlers were generally regarded as symbols of virility and fertility. On the Celtic Gundestrup Bowl from

62 Cghene
Denmark, Cernunnos is attended by a boar—an animal revered by the Celts for its speed, pugnacity and magical connotations—and on the same vessel he seems to be associated with a bull. This latter link reappears on a stone relief from Reims. Cernunnos is also depicted in association with snakes, sometimes bearing rams’ horns, as on a stone relief found at Cirencester in England. His legs may be replaced by snakes, and at Sommerecourt [Haute Marne] a relief was found depicting the god in company with an unnamed goddess holding a basket and feeding a snake. The snake symbolism is generally associated with rejuvenation. Other reliefs show him holding purses of money. burning torches, symbolizing their power to withhold as well as dispense rain. See also TLALOC.

Chac Uayab Xoc
Fish god. Mayan (Yucatec, classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Known as the “great demon shark,” he feeds on the bodies of drowned fishermen, but also provides catches.

Chaitanya
Mendicant god. Hindu (Puranic). A deified mortal who became one of the many incarnations ˇ NU. Born at Nadiya in AD 1484, he of the god V IS died at Puri in 1527. Chaitanya was a sickly child who, according to legend, was left to his fate, hanging in a tree to die, but was revived by the gods and thus became deified. He was married twice before adopting a strict ascetic existence at the age of twenty-four, from which time he traveled extensively, eventually settling in the holy city of Benares. He is remembered as a great social reformer. His main sanctuary at Nadiya includes a small statue of KRSNA to whom he devoted himself.

Cghene
Creator god. Isoko [southern Nigeria, West Africa]. An abstract being who is embodied by a mediator in the form of a sacred wooden totem, the Oyise. The god has no temples or priests.

Chac
Rain god(s). Mayan (Yucatec, classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Not part of the hierarchy of Mayan gods, but worshiped with great devotion at local level. Originally there was a god, Chaac, who was of huge size and who taught mankind agriculture. He was regarded as the god of thunder, lightning, rain and bread, and of milpas (smallholdings) and their produce. Also God B. Later, four leading Chacs become recognized, each with different colors and directions. They are known popularly as the Ah Hoyaob (sprinklers or urinators), since the rain falls from between their legs. They are regarded as musicians and their sacred animals are frogs and tortoises. Attributes include a long pendulous nose, a scroll beneath the eye and a thin, ribbon-like object projecting from a corner of the mouth, which may be toothless. They may also hold

Chalchiuhtlatonal (jade glowing)
God of water. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the Tlaloc complex, generally concerned with rain, agriculture and fertility.

CHALCHIUHTLICUE (her skirt is of jade)
Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Water goddess. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 750 to AD 1500 but probably much earlier. SYNONYMS none.
ORIGIN

Chang Hs’ien

63

CENTER(S) OF CULT

worshiped widely but chiefly

Chalmecatl
Minor chthonic underworld god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex.

at Teotihuacan.
ART REFERENCES

stone sculptures, murals, codex pre-Columbian codices.

illustrations.
LITERARY SOURCES

Featuring strongly in creation mythology, Chalchiuhtlicue presided over the fourth of the world ages which terminated in a great deluge. She is the tutelary deity of the fourth of the thirteen heavens identified at the time of the Spanish conquest, Ilhuicatl Citlalicue (the heaven of the star-skirted goddess). She takes the role of a vegetation goddess responsible for the flowering and fruiting of the green world, particularly maize; she also takes responsibility for such natural phenomena as whirlpools. The consort of the rain god TLALOC and one of the group classed as the Tlaloc complex, she is particularly invoked as a guardian goddess of young women and is responsible for unpredictable events. A huge statue, three meters high, was discovered at Teotihuacan, and a larger, unfinished statue, allegedly of the goddess and weighing approximately 200 tons (now in Mexico City), was found on the slopes of the Tlaloc mountain. Attributes include a rattle on a baton, and her dress is adorned with waterlilies.

Chamer
God of death. Mayan (Chorti, classical Mesoamerican) [eastern Guatemala]. Appears as a skeleton dressed in white. His consort is Xtabai. Attributes include a scythe with a bone blade, probably copied from the traditions of Christian immigrants.

Chang Fei
God of war. Chinese. The counterpart of the god KUAN TI and often linked iconographically with him and the god LIU PEI, Chang Fei rules over the dark half of the year—autumn and winter. Like the seasons he represents he is characterized by drunkenness and wildness. According to tradition he was wounded by his subordinates while in a drunken stupor. He is depicted with a black face, a bushy beard and wild staring eyes giving him a ferocious appearance.

Chang Hs’ien Chalchiutonatiuh
Aztec. See ATL. Guardian god of children. Chinese. According to tradition he was the mortal king of Szechuan killed by the founder of the Sung dynasty. His wife was captured and forced to become a concubine in the imperial palace. She was discovered by the emperor kneeling before a picture of her deceased husband which she identified as a local deity, “the immortal Chang who gives children.” This triggered the cult which began locally in Szechuan circa AD 100. Chang Hs’ien is depicted holding a bow made of mulberry wood and either aiming an arrow at the star Tien Kou, the socalled celestial dog which threatens the earth, or aiming the empty bow at a rat (see ERH LANG).

Chalchiutotolin (jade turkey)
God of penitence. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex.

Chalmecacihuilt (chalman lady)
Minor chthonic underworld goddess. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex.

classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Before the communist takeover of China. Buddhist. Greco-Roman. Exorcised spirits were trapped in jars which were stored in the cellars.64 Chang Tao Ling Chang Tao Ling God of the afterlife. Euphrosine and Thalea) who then become the Charites in the Roman pantheon. Chi Sung Tzu Chaob (carrying off) Rain god. Chantico (in the house) Hearth goddess. Attributes include a hank of cotton or cloth. Wind god(s). is said to have flooded the world in a previous cycle. Having drunk the contents at the age of 123. will bring about the end of the current world with earthquakes and tempests when the last of the Lacandon people dies. He is depicted riding upon a tiger and brandishing a sword. They will blow so hard that they blast the monkeys out of the trees. Chaos Primordial deity. personifies the empty space which existed before the formation of the cosmos. The names of two are identified. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. the gods of exorcism lived in a sanctuary on the Dragon Tiger mountain in Kiangsi province. NYX. By tradition he vanquished the five poisonous animals—the centipede. One of eight USNISA deities apparently connected with the guardian sky deities or dikpalas. Ix Hun Tah Nok (lady unique owner of the cloth). They live in the four cardinal directions and. snake. The amorphous male power who. according to tradition. Hunaunic in the east and Chikinkuh in the West. The reflection of the goddess SANJNA. She sends the rain for Itzam Na and. with the female presence. Mayan (Lacandon. as an iguana. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Ix Hun Tah Dz’ib (lady unique owner of the paintbrush). The consort of HEPHAISTOS. Greek. Attribute: parasol. The consort of the creator god ITZAM NA and the mother of the BACABS. Taoist (Chinese). Chattrosnisa (with an umbrella) God. scorpion. Also IX CHEBEL YAX. The head of the heavenly Ministry of Exorcism. A household guardian deity personified by hearth fires. Later the name becomes more familiar as the GRATIAE or Graces (Aglaia. consort of SURYA and mother of the astral deity SANI. Charis Minor goddess. She invented the art of weaving and is the patroness of weavers. Color: white. he ascended to heaven. and allegedly the first head of the Taoist church. She also paints the earth. Chemosh See KEMOS. One of the deities collectively classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. spider and toad—placing their venom in a flask in which he concocted the elixir of life. Chinese. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). the leaves of certain plants and the crest of the woodpecker red with her paintbrush. Chibirias Chthonic earth goddess. . IX ZACAL NOK (lady cloth-weaver). Chaya (shadow) Goddess.

Chu Jung

65

Chiccan
Rain gods. Mayan (Chorti, classical Mesoamerican) [eastern Guatemala]. Giant reptilian deities whose blood is cold and who evolved from snakes. They form a quartet, each living at the bottom of a deep lake situated in the four cardinal directions. They are believed to churn the waters which rise as clouds. The AH PATNAR UINICOB gods then beat the rain from the clouds with stone axes.

Chiconahui Itzcuintli-Chantico
God of lapidiaries. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].

Chikara
Sky god. Korekore (Shona-speaking) [northern Zimbabwe, southern Africa]. He has a son, NOSENGA.

Chicomecohuatl
Maize goddess. Aztec and postclassical Mesoamerican. [Mexico]. Her festival was held in September when a young girl was sacrificed having taken on the role of the deity for a period of time during the celebrations. She was decapitated on a heap of maize fruits and her blood was collected in a large bowl before being poured over a wooden figurine of the goddess. Finally the victim’s skin was flayed off and worn by a dancing priest. See also XILONEN.

(decapitated) Goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A headless form of D URGA . Also one of a group of ten M AHAVIDYAS , goddesses of great knowledge ˇ IVA . She may be personifying the SAKTI of S depicted holding her head in her hands. Aspects include VIRARATRI. Attributes: scimitar, skull. Also Chinnamasta.

Chinnamastaka

Chiuke
Sky god. Ibo [Nigeria, West Africa]. Regarded as a creator god.

Chicomexochitl
God of painters. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Also described as a god of solar pleasure.

Chors
Sun god. Pre-Christian Slav [Balkans]. Identified from the Nestor Chronicle. Attributes include horns and a canine head.

Chiconahui
Hearth goddess. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. A household guardian deity personified by hearth fires. One of the deities collectively classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex.

Chos-Skyon

(protector)

Tutelary guardian deity. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. One of a group of gods of fearsome appearance who wear royal apparel. Rides a white elephant. Color: blue. Attributes: knife and noose.

Chiconahuiehecatl
Minor creator god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the QUETZALCOATL complex.

Chu Jung
God of fire. Chinese. Also the heavenly executioner.

66 Chul Tatic Chites Vaneg Chul Tatic Chites Vaneg creator of man)
(holy father,
SYNONYMS

none. none specific. codex illustrations, stone pre-Columbian codices.

CENTER(S) OF CULT ART REFERENCES

Creator god. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Thought to be the Mayan name of the Christian god.

carvings.
LITERARY SOURCES

Chung K’uei
God of the afterlife. Taoist (Chinese). He belongs to the heavenly “ministry of exorcism” and, though not the most senior (he is subservient to CHANG TAO LING), is probably the most popular within the category. He was originally a mortal working as a physician in the eighth century AD. He is depicted with a fearsome face, said to be so terrible that it can drive away any demonic spirit who dares to oppose him. He is engaged in combat using a sword and a fan on which is written a magical formula to ward off evil. Symbolic peaches are suspended from his hat and a bat circles his head representing happiness.

Not strictly a goddess, but significant enough in Aztec cosmogony to be included here. According to tradition she was created in the form of a huge alligator-like monster by the underworld deities MICTLANTECUHLTI and MICTECACIHUATL. She may equate with TLALTECUHTLI, the toad-like earth monster torn apart to form heaven and earth. According to one tradition she emerged from the primordial waters and engaged in a fierce struggle with the sun god TEZCATLIPOCA during which he tore off her lower jaw to prevent her sinking back into the depths and she bit off his right foot. The mountains are said to be the scaly ridges of her skin.

Cipactonal
Creator god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the OMETEOTL complex.

Cihuacoatl-Quilaztli
Creator goddess. Aztec (classical Mesomerican) [Mexico]. Using a magical vessel, she grinds bone fragments obtained from previous generations of mankind in earlier world ages into a powder. The gods then commit self-sacrifice, allowing their blood to drip into the vessel. From the resulting mix, the human race of the fifth sun is formed.

Cit Chac Coh
God of war. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Identified as a red puma.

Citlalatonac (glowing star) Cinxia
Minor goddess of marriage. Roman. Concerned with the proper dress of the bride. Creator god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the OMETEOTL complex. His consort is CITLALICUE. Between them they created the stars of the night sky.

CIPACTLI (great earth mother)
Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Primordial goddess. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 750 until AD 1500, but probably much earlier.
ORIGIN

Citlalicue (her skirt is a star)
Creator goddess. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the Ometeotl complex. Her consort is Citlala-

COATLICUE

67

tonac. Between them they created the stars of the night sky.

absolute use of power. Under Hadrian the term clementia temporum (mildness of the times) came into common usage.

Citra (bright)
Minor goddess of misfortune. Hindu (epic and Puranic). A malevolent NAKSATRA or astral deity; daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA).

COATLICUE
ORIGIN

(the serpent-skirted goddess)

Citrasena

(having a bright spear)

Goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). The SAKTI of BUDDHAKAPALA.

(control of thinking) Minor goddess. Buddhist. One of a group of twelve VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Color: white. Attribute: staff.

Cittavasita

Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Mother goddess. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 750 to AD 1500 and probably much earlier. SYNONYMS Coatlicue-Chimalman (Valley of Mexico). CENTER(S) OF CULT Tenochtitlan. ART REFERENCES stone sculptures, murals, codex illustrations. LITERARY SOURCES pre-Columbian codices. The creator goddess of the earth and mankind and the female aspect of OMETEOTL. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. She has 400 sons, the stars of the southern sky, and is the mother of the goddess COYOLXAUHQUI. Later, as a widow, she was impregnated by a ball of feathers as she was sweeping the “serpent mountain” of Coatepec near Tula. Her other children decapitated her as punishment for her dishonor, but she gave birth to the sun god HUITZILOPOCHTLI who subsequently slew Coyolxauhqui and her brothers, thus banishing night for day. The Great Temple at Tenochtitlan commemorates this primordial battle. Coatlicue is known iconographically from a colossal headless statue dated to the late Aztec period, circa AD 1300, which stands in Mexico City. The hands and feet are clawed and the figure bears a necklace of human hands and hearts with a skull pendant. A skirt is formed from snakes and two snakes arising from the neck meet to form a face. Down her back hang thirteen leather cords festooned with snails. According to tradition Coatlicue feeds off human corpses. She is also recognized as the patron deity of florists.

Cizin

(stench) God of death. Mayan (Yucatec and other tribes, classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The most important death god in the Mayan cultural area. Said to live in Metnal, the Yucatec place of death, and to burn the souls of the dead. He first burns the mouth and anus and, when the soul complains, douses it with water. When the soul complains of this treatment, he burns it again until there is nothing left. It then goes to the god Sicunyum who spits on his hands and cleanses it, after which it is free to go where it chooses. Attributes of Cizin include a fleshless nose and lower jaw, or the entire head may be depicted as a skull. Spine and ribs are often showing. He wears a collar with death eyes between lines of hair and a long bone hangs from one earlobe. His body is painted with black and particularly yellow spots (the Mayan color of death).

Clementia
Minor goddess. Roman. Generally invoked to protect the common man against the emperor’s

68 Coca-Mama Coca-Mama
Goddess of the coca plant. South American Indian [Peru]. Minor goddess who oversees the harvest of the coca crop. Models of the deity were made from the leaves of the plant and kept for a year before being burned in a ritual to ensure a good coca harvest.

Colop U Uichkin

(tears out the eye of the sun)

Sky god. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Said to live in the midst of the sky, but with a night avatara of the same name who lives in the underworld land of the dead, Metnal, and who is the bringer of disease.

Cocidius
Hunting goddess. Celtic (British). Northern British deity depicted in stone relief at Risingham (Yorkshire).

Condatis
River god. Celtic (British). Northern British deity with stone votive inscriptions located in County Durham.

Cocijo
Rain god. Zapotec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Known to have been worshiped by the Monte Alban culture of Zapotec-speaking peoples in the Valley of Oaxaca.

Contrebis
Local god. Romano-Celtic (British). Identified from an inscription at Lancaster in conjunction with another deity, IALONUS.

Corus Co(co)chimetl
(soporific) Minor god of merchants and commerce. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the deities collectively classed as the YACATECUHTLI complex.
God of wind. Roman. Specifically the deity responsible for the northwest winds.

COVENTINA
Romano-Celtic (British). Tutelary and water goddess of uncertain affinities. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 200 BC until AD 500 or later. SYNONYMS none known. CENTER(S) OF CULT sacred spring near the Roman fort of Brocolitia [Carrawburgh] on Hadrian’s Wall. ART REFERENCES monumental carvings and bas reliefs. LITERARY SOURCES monumental inscriptions.
ORIGIN

Col

(black one)

Rain god. Nuer [Sudan]. He brings rain and thunderstorms. Souls of people killed by lightning have been described as colwic. Also Chol.

Colel Cab

(mistress of the earth)

Chthonic earth goddess. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. This may be another title for the IX ZACAL NOK aspect of the goddess CHIBIRIAS.

Little is known of Coventina other than that she was a purely local British goddess of some

Cybele

69

importance. She is best observed from the period of the Roman occupation, at which time she shows a classical influence but is clearly Celtic in origin. On one bas relief found at Carrawburgh her name is associated with three nymphs holding vessels with issuing streams of water; on another she is pictured as a water nymph on a leaf, pouring water from a vessel. Her Carrawburgh sanctuary, which followed a simple, unroofed design similar to that of a small Romano-Celtic temple, was sited beside a well fed by a sacred spring and was associated with the Roman fort of Brocolitia. The well attests to a cult involving a ritual shaft and water, into which more than 13,000 Roman coins had been thrown dating to the reign of Gratian (AD 407), indicating Coventina’s long-standing popularity. Incense-burners to “Coventina Augusta” have been discovered from the late period. In addition to money, pearls and pins were thrown into the well as votive offerings, the pins possibly implying a role in childbirth. Models of a dog (linked to the Greco-Roman physician Aesculapius) and a horse (a distinct fertility symbol) had also been deposited. Less significant and probably dumped when the temple was desecrated by Christians were a skull, altars and other carved stones. There is no evidence of connection with a severed head cult.

suggests his sister was an ally whom he was unable to save, so he decapitated her and threw her head into the sky, where she became the moon. She was represented in the Great Temple at Tenochtitlan, where she was depicted in front of successive Huitzilopochtli pyramids. She is also a hearth deity within the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex.

Cratos
God of strength. Greek. See KRATOS.

Cum Hau
Chthonic god of death. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of several names for a death god listed in the codices.

Cunda
Goddess. Buddhist [eastern Bengal and Tibet]. An emanation of Vajrasattva or Vairocana. A female BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate. Also seen separately as a deification of literature, one of a group of twelve DHARANIS. She may stand upon a man. Color: white or green. Very large variety of attributes. Also Aryacunda.

Cunina Coyolxauhqui (golden bells)
Astral goddess. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. A deification and incarnation (avatara) of the moon. According to tradition she is the half-sister of the sun god HUITZILOPOCHTLI. The god sprang, fully armed, from his decapitated mother, COATLICUE, and engaged all his enemies who, by inference, are the 400 astral gods, his half-brothers. He slew his sister and hurled her from the top of a mountain. Alternative tradition Minor goddess of infants. Roman. Responsible for guarding the cradle.

Cupid

See AMOR.

Cybele
Mother goddess. Romanized name. See also KYBELE.

D 6
Dabog
Sun god. Slav [Balkans and southern Russia]. References found in inscriptions from Kiev. After Christianization he was reduced to a diabolic personality.

Dadimunda
Tutelary god. Singhalese Buddhist [Sri Lanka]. An attendant on the god UPULVAN to whom he acted as treasurer. The guardian of Buddhism in Sri Lanka. His sacred animal is an elephant. Also Devata bandara.

ognized in parts of Mesopotamia where he ˇ alas acquired the consort S ˇ . Worshiped mainly at Gaza and As ˇdod, but also the supreme god of the Philistines. Known in biblical references as Dagon (Judges 16.23). Mentioned in the apocryphal Book of Maccabees. The cult is thought to have continued until circa 150 BC. Israelite misinterpretation of the Ugaritic root Dagan led to the assumption that he was a fish god, therefore attributes include a fish tail.

Dagan (3)
Local supreme god. Kafir [Afghanistan]. This god bears no relation to the Semitic god Dagan, but is known by several synonyms including Dagon, Doghan and Deogan. He has been identified in several villages in the south of the Kafir region [southern Nuristan]. “Dagan” may be less a proper name than a title of respect.

Dagan (1)
Grain and fertility god. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Generally linked with ANU in giving status to cities e.g. the dedications by the ninth-century BC Assyrian king Assur-nasir-apli at Kalakh. Cult centers existed at Tuttul and Terqa.

DAGDA (the good god) Dagan (2)
Grain and fertility god. Western Semitic (Canaanite and Phoenician). The father of BAAL in Ugaritic creation epics. A major sanctuary was built in his honor at Mari [Syria] and he was recCeltic (Irish). Father of the tribe. from prehistoric times until after Christianization circa AD 400. SYNONYMS Ruad ro-fhessa (lord of perfect knowledge); Eochaid Ollathair (all-father). CENTER(S) OF CULT Tara, etc.
ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP

70

Damkina

71

possibly various stone carvings, Romano-Celtic and earlier. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions; Cycles of Kings.
ART REFERENCES

The Dagda is a strictly Irish tribal god not found among the Continental Celts. He is regarded in a general sense as the protector and benefactor of the people, not “good” in a moral sense but in a practical fashion—“good at anything.” A father figure who led the deities of Ireland against the Fir Bolg in the First Battle of Moytura (see TUATHA DE DANANN). He has no exclusive roles, but in mythology enters a ritualized union with fertility goddesses including MORRIGAN and BOANN. He is the father of BRIGIT and of AENGUS Mac Oc (young god). Dagda is represented in literature as possessing immense strength and a prodigious appetite (see also THOR). Drawn by Christian writers as a boorish and grotesque character, which may be inaccurate, his weapon is a huge club which can slay nine men at a stroke and which was once drawn on a ceremonial cart. He owns a bronze “caldron of abundance” with magical properties of wisdom and rejuvenation, symbol of Irish prosperity. The Dagda may be the subject of a vast naked figure armed with a club cut in chalk at Cerne Abbas in Dorset, England, and probably created during the Romano-Celtic period.

He also holds a hammer in his right hand. In depictions there is often a mouse nibbling at one of the rice bales. Small gold icons of the god may be carried as talismans of wealth. According to tradition, when Daikoku’s hammer is shaken, money falls out in great profusion. In western Japan he is also syncretized with the god of rice paddies, TA -N O -K AMI , and thus becomes the god of agriculture and farmers. He may have developed from the Buddhist god MAHAKALA.

Daksa (skilled and able)
Sun god. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). The son of BRAHMA and ADITI, he is an ADITYA and demiurge. His consort is PRASUTI, and he is said to have had up to sixty daughters. He appears in ˇ IVA as the main conflict with his son-in-law S ˇ iva’s consort SATI (accounted as offender against S one of his daughters), who was so insulted by Daksa that she committed suicide by jumping ˇ iva took revenge by decapitatinto a ritual fire. S ing Daksa but later, after intercession from other gods, Brahma brought him back to life, giving him the substitute head of a sacrificial goat. Attribute: head of a goat. Also PRAJAPATI.

Damgalnuna
Mother goddess. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). She first appears as a consort of ENLIL and, as Mesopotamian traditions progress, becomes associated with EA and the mother of the Babylonian god MARDUK. Also DAMKINA (Akkadian).

Dagon

See DAGAN (2).

Daikoku
God of luck. Shinto [Japan]. One of seven gods of fortune in Shintoism and often linked with the god EBISU. Originally a god of kitchens, he became a deity concerned with happiness. He is depicted as a fat, well-to-do figure seated on two rice bales and carrying a sack on his back.

Damkina
Goddess. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Consort of Ea. See also DAMGALNUNA.

72 Danaparamita Danaparamita
Philosophical deity. Buddhist. One of twelve PARAMITA deities and a spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. Color: reddish white. Attributes: an ear of rice and a banner with pearl. linked with the Daphnephoria festivals honoring APOLLO. Tradition has it that she was changed into the laurel to avoid sexual submission to the god.

Daramulum DANU (1)
Celtic (Irish). Founding goddess. prehistoric times until after Christianization circa AD 400. SYNONYMS ANU; DON (Welsh). CENTER(S) OF CULT various sanctuaries. ART REFERENCES none known. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions; Cycles of Kings; History of Races etc; Mabinogion (Welsh).
ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP

Creator god. Australian aboriginal. Otherwise known as Gayandi he is the son of BAIAME and BIRRAHGNOOLOO and is worshiped principally by the Wiradyuri and Kamilaroi groups of aborigines in the southeast of Australia, who regard him as an intermediary between his father, the supreme being, and the human race. To an extent this role may have developed through Christian missionary influence.

Danu is the leader and progenitress of the Irish pantheon, the TUATHA DE DANANN. Otherwise she is a remote and barely defined figure. She equates closely with the Welsh goddess Don and may have been perceived originally as a fertility and vegetation spirit.

Darawigal
Personification of evil. Australian aboriginal. This demonic deity stands opposed to BAIAME, the creator spirit who represents good in the world. He is generally recognized as an offspring of Baiame who once lived in the sky but fell from grace during the Dreamtime and was sent to the underworld as its ruler. From there he now dispenses death and sickness.

Danu (2) Primordial goddess. Hindu (Vedic). The word Danu is used to describe the primeval waters and this deity is probably their embodiment. She is known as the mother of the demonic personality VRTRA, who engages in combat with, and is defeated by, the rain god INDRA. In later Hinduism she is perceived as a daughter of DAKSA and the consort of KASYAPA.

Datin
God. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Frequently mentioned in inscriptions, but of uncertain function.

Daya (compassion) Daphne
Oracular goddess. Greek. A number of oracular shrines were dedicated to her in various places in Asia Minor, including Antiocheia, Mopsuestia (Cilicia), Sura and Patara (Lycia), Telmessos (Caria). Represented by the laurel Daphne she is Goddess. Hindu (Puranic) A SAKTI of Acyuta ˇ NU. (never falling), a minor aspect of the god V IS

Decima
Goddess of birth. Roman. Generally linked with the goddess NONA, she is responsible for watching

Priene. The daughter of the god of light AHURA MAZDA. Gela. Cnidos. Dena Goddess. For the remaining three she must return and live as mistress of Hades. where the legends provided a stimulus for the Eleusinian Mysteries. One of the most reasonable interpretations of the legend is that the three months when Persephone or Kore is in absence represent the three dry summer months when vegetation in the Mediterranean region shrivels away and when traditionally the grain was stored in underground silos. terracottas showing votary priestesses holding piglets. Siris and Lokroi. abducts her. The Demeter cult was practiced in many places. however. Demeter undergoes a yearly conflict with H ADES and a search for her lost daughter. Vegetation and mother goddess. When the rains come in autumn the youthful aspect of Demeter returns. The sacrifice of young virgins to Demeter is reported but unsubstantiated. . As she picks one particular bloom the earth opens and the underworld god. HEBAT and TELEPINU). MORTA. from circa 800 BC but probably earlier until Christianization (circa AD 400). Particularly at Eleusis. The gods. Dedwen God of riches and incense. Demeter searches the world for her daughter and neglects its prosperity in so doing. daughter of Demeter and ZEUS. to form of trio of fate goddesses. the PARCAE. She may only enter the air above for nine months of the year. or arguably her alter ego. Nubian. By Homeric times Demeter was a goddess of vegetation and death. since the personality of the missing maiden goddess PERSEPHONE or KORE (girl) is virtually inextricable from that of Demeter. In later times the two were joined by the goddess of death. LITERARY SOURCES Hymn to Demeter and Theogony (Hesiod). There also took place a women’s festival of Thesmophoria. Virtually unknown Egyptianized deity to whom sanctuaries were dedicated by Tuthmosis III and who may have brought gifts from southern regions.Dena 73 over the critical months of gestation. The legends of Demeter and Persephone account for seasons of dearth and growth in the fields. Also Dedun. Usually found in anthropomorphic form but occasionally depicted as a lion. often with a high degree of secrecy and with initiation rituals. DEMETER (mother) Greek. because she has tasted the pomegranate of Hades and is thus bound to the underworld. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Greek world including Agrigentum. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Demeter displays a complex personality which may be the result of syncretization in prehistoric times between a goddess of the corn and one of the underworld. There are strong parallels with Mesopotamian and Hittite-Hurrian legend (see INANA and DUMUZI. Persephone. In ancient Athens the dead were titled demetreioi and corn was traditionally scattered on new graves. seeing that catastrophe beckons. when pigs were buried alive in pits or megara. gathers flowers in a meadow surrounded by attendant OKEANIDES. There are conditions attached to her release. intervene and HERMES is sent to fetch the girl. Hades. Arguably the most famous cult center is Eleusis. SYNONYMS Damater (Dorian). Persian [Iran]. ART REFERENCES various sculptures.

Buddhist (Mahayana). Devananda (delight of the gods) Goddess. General attributes: conch. before transferring Balarama to the womb of the goddess ROHINI and Krsna to Yasoda. Derived from the Syrian model of ATARGATIS and worshiped locally. His daughter is the moon goddess. Western Semitic (Phoenician). Deverra Minor goddess of birth. and S Devi (the goddess) Devaki (divine) Mother goddess. Devi evolved as a major goddess out of the older notion of mother and vegetation goddesses. The mother of Mahavira. the term deva is generally applied to deities not ˇNU included in the chief triad of BRAHMA. V IS of his avataras in Devaki’s womb (in the form of hairs from his head). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Nuer and Dinka [Sudan]. Nanda. Roman. the wife of a cowherd. Dhanada Goddess. Originally. One of the emanations of the DHYANIBUDDHA AMOGHASIDDHI. also a form of the goddess TARA. hook. Devaki bore eight sons. . in the Rg Veda. Devasena (heavenly host) Goddess. Daughter of Devaka and consort of the mythical king VASUDEVA. Attribute: lotus in the left hand. One of the consorts of SKANDA who normally stands to his left. In Dinka religion he is a storm and fertility god bringing lightning and rain. Romano-Iberian. Dercetius Mountain god. Derceto Mother goddess. Goddess epitomizing the active female principle. In later Hinduism. prayer wheel and trident. divided into three groups of eleven. Hindu (Puranic). She sits upon a moon throne with an unnamed animal in attendance. Hindu (Puranic). Hindu (Epic and Puranic).74 Deng Deng Sky god. in her capacity as the consort of a god or DEVA. Devi is also the generic name given to a female deity. thirty or thirty-three devas are indicated. BHUMIDEVI. Considered to be a foreign deity in the Nuer pantheon and a bringer of disease. V IS ˇ IVA. In order to save ˇNU implanted the “seed” the remaining two. A guardian of newborn children. Symbolized by a broom used to sweep away evil influences. She is seen more as an abstract principle who will nevertheless respond directly to worshipers’ prayers. Her brother Kamsa believed that the eighth child would kill him and he slaughtered the first six sons. An epithet for the planet god JUPITER. By the fifth century AD she appears in many forms as the active (feminine) aspect or power of male deities. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). Devapurohita Astral god. Jain [India]. noose. including KRSNA and BALARAMA. Deva (the god) Generic name of a god. See also SRI(DEVI).

Depicted with four heads and setting the law wheel in motion. Dhanistha (very rich) Minor goddess of misfortune. he is thought to be Kama reincarnated after his death at ˇ IVA. Attributes: book. As KANTATMAN (PRADYUMNA). Offerings are due to him at dusk in the northeastern quarter. stone and metal sculptures. plough. Buddhist.Dharmadhatuvagisvara 75 Color: green. Only as the religion evolved did he become identified as an avatara. Also dharini. blue lotus. Dharmadhatuvagisvara (earth) 1. god VIS In Vedic mythology Dhanvantari carried the ambrosia created from the primeval ocean of milk. sword and water jar. LITERARY SOURCES epic texts including Ramayana and Mahabharata. According to tradition he is the consort of thirteen daughters of DAKSA and the father of Yudhisthra. Puranic texts. noose and rosary. 2. Also Kantatman. bow. Also regarded as a minor avatara of ˇNU. SYNONYMS Dharme. In later tradition a minor incarnation or avatara of the ˇNU. A malevolent NAKSATRA or astral deity. 300 until KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP present. In Bengali tradition Dharme (probably of the same derivation) has been annually engaged in a sacred marriage to the earth at the time of year when a tree known as the sal is blossoming. . Birds are sacrificed in a sacred grove after which the tribe repairs to the hut of the village shaman and the marriage is enacted between the priest and his wife. Attributes: two bowls containing ambrosia. staff. Goddess. A variety of MANJUSRI and therefore an emanation of AMITABHA. but also see the Rg Veda. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). He brought medical science to mankind. Attributes: lotus. One of a group of eight VASU deities answering to the god INDRA. Various other epithets and existhe hands of S tences are attributed to this deity. Collective name for a group of deities. none specific. The god of law who originates as a creator god and one of the sons of Brahma. image of Amoghasiddhi. Color: reddish-white. but almost certainly derives from the dharmas or archetypal patterns of society identified in the Rg Veda. rosary and spear. also closely associated with medicine. image of Amitabha on crown. book. Hindu (Puranic). daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). of short mystical religious text used as a charm. Epic and Puranic). Dhanvantari (traveling through an arc) Sun god. appearing as a bull standing for the V IS redemption of souls. bell. Consort of PARASURAMA and an avatara of the goddess LAKSMI. Also SRAVISTHA. Hindu (Vedic. hook. followed by a sexual free-for-all. Attributes: arrow. Hindu (Puranic). He is the guardian deity of hospitals which are usually in the vicinity of a sanctuary of Vis ˇ nu. Buddhist. DHARMA ORIGIN (justice) circa AD Hindu [India]. CENTER(S) OF CULT ART REFERENCES Dhara (supporting) Attendant god. Twelve personifications of a particular kind Dharani God of the law.

all of whom take the role of sun gods was. lotus rosary and waterjar. Also the name given to a bowl of fermented drink or soma. Attributes: book and staff.76 Dharmakirtisagaraghosa Dharmakirtisagaraghosa (sound of the ocean of the glory of the law) Physician god. Dharmavasita (control of law) Minor goddess. The son of Uttanapada. Color: white. A deity who appears late in Hinduism and equates with PRTHIVI or BHUMIDEVI. Also Dhatr. cup. (firmness) Goddess. Accounted among one of a series of medicine buddhas known as a SMAN-BLA in Lamaism. Attributes: prayer wheel. Aspects include Darunaratri S AKTI of S . Darti Awwal. Hindu (Puranic). Buddhist and particularly Lamaist [Tibet]. Color: whitish-red. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). According to some authors she is the consort of THAKUR DEO. rosary. One of a group of four PRATISAMVITS. the description of a kind of fixed icon. including Dhatar. Also one of a nium BC. Buddhist. Buddhist. Jain [India]. Attributes: noose and staff with crook. They wear royal apparel but are of terrible appearance and are considered to be the guardians of the law. Attributes: two lotuses. Dhruva Dharti Mata Mother goddess. A minor deity with no significant role or attributes. One of a group of ten M AHAVIDYAS personifying the ˇ IVA . Dhatar (creator) Sun god. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes. Color: red. Color: white. Also Dhartri Mai. Dharmapala Collective name for a group of eight tutelary deities. One of a group of twelve VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Attribute: lute. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Hindu (Vedic). An avatara of V IS group of Vasu deities answering to the god INDRA. General attributes: ax. in later times. knife and snake. enlarged to twelve. Dharmamegha (cloud of the law) Minor goddess. An original Vedic list of six descendants of the goddess ADITI or Adityas. In different context. Dhumavati (smoky) Goddess. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Color: golden. Dhrtarastra (his empire is firm) Minor god. a star in the constellation of Ursa Minor which was the pole star in the last millenˇNU. (immovable) Astral god. Dhisana Minor goddess of prosperity. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. One of twelve deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. spear and water jar. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Color: blue. Attributes: water jar on a red lotus. One of the dikpalas or guardians of the easterly direction. Hindu (Puranic). Dhrti Dharmapratisamvit (analysis of nature) Goddess of nature analysis. Associated with the acquisition of wealth.

Dhyanibuddhasakti Collective name for a group of goddesses. Common attributes include a cup and knife. Attribute: a pomegranate. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP . Color: yellow. Attributes: club. The five SAKTIS of the Dhyanibuddhas. Roman. Generally modeled on the Greek goddess ARTEMIS. An emanation of the ADIBUDDHA and generally regarded as one of a group of five representing the cosmic elements. Dhvajagrakeyura (ring on a banner) Goddess. Buddhist (Vajrayana). prehistoric times until Christianization circa AD 400. image of Aksobhya. Color: reddish-blue. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A PARAMITA and spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. When the five are represented as a group. Buddhist. Attribute: a censer. Dhyanibuddha General name of a spiritual or meditation buddha. Attributes: banner with jewel. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. A manifestation ˇ IVA in which his body is smeared with ash. Dhupatara (incense-Tara) Minor goddess. Attributes: skull in the hand and garland of skulls. their common attribute is a staff on a lotus. sword. noose. Dhupa (incense) Mother goddess. Physician god. Dhumorna (smoke) Goddess. Living in the forests. sword and tusks. she is a huntress and protector of animals. The mystic counterpart of a human buddha. Three-headed and three-eyed. staff. who is also regarded as one of the personifications of the goddess Sakti. One of the ASTAMATARA mothers. Buddhist. took over the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. DIANCECHT Dhvajosnisa God. of S Diana Moon goddess. Dhumravati T errible goddess. An emanation of AKSOBHYA. Hindu (Puranic). She sits on a sun throne. prayer wheel. Buddhist (Mahayana). southwestern quarter. Attributes: banner with jewel.DIANCECHT 77 (night of frustration). SYNONYMS none known. she had a sanctuary on the Aventine Hill in Rome and. Color: black. The consort of YAMA. and white lotus. Dhyanaparamita (perfection in meditation) Philosophical deity. An USNISA deity apparently connected with the guardian deities or dikpalas in the Celtic (Irish). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Color: dark blue. Dhurjati (with matted hair) God. also the guardian of virginity. Color: darkish sky blue. tiger skin and trident. Buddhist (Mahayana). Attribute: a censer. black or yellow. Buddhist. pestle. under Roman rule.

He possesses the skills to make every warrior whole again and is referred to as having made a silver arm for the god NUADU who was injured in the legendary Battle of Moytura and who subsequently took the epithet Nuadu argatlam (Nuada of the silver arm). They have youthful appearance and are associated with rain and thunder. Thus the three main elements of Shilluk life are contained in their religious beginnings—men (sky). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from circa 1500 BC and probably earlier through to Christianization circa AD 400. Dictynna Mother goddess. Shilluk [Sudan]. A god of whom limited description is given but who was clearly one of the more important members of the TUATHA DE DANANN band of Celtic deities in Ireland. Said to be the grandfather of LUG. Ayia Irini (Keos). ART REFERENCES chiefly Attic wine amphorae circa sixth century BC. cows (earth) and crocodiles (water). Cycles of Kings. Associated with cholera. The consort of Ugra and mother of SANTANA. Cretan. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). He is depicted in the guise of a gentleman farmer wearing cap and sword and mounted on a horse. SYNONYMS Deunysos. The SAKTI of Yogambara. who married the crocodile goddess NYAKAYA. Tradition has it that he first set free the sun. One of the groups under the general title of BHAVANAVASI (dwelling in places). The daughter of ZEUS. Zonnysos. God of wine and intoxication. . or driving a cart. LITERARY SOURCES Hymn to Dionysos (fragmentary—Homer). Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. LIBER. Attribute: a bowl. She became syncretized with the Greek goddess RHEA. BACCHUS (Roman). Worshiped locally at Bardvan. Dike Goddess of justice. Mortally wounded Tuatha were bathed and revived in Diancecht’s sacred well. causing divine retribution. DIONYSOS Greek. ORIGIN Didi Thakrun Plague goddess. Omara. CENTER(S) OF CULT ART REFERENCES Digambara (naked) Goddess. monumental carvings and reliefs. ADIKIA. Jain [India]. sent by the creator god. Hindu [northern India]. Diksa (initiation) Goddess. Catalogues (Hesiod).78 Diang none specifically known. Diang Cow goddess. She is depicted on the Kypselos chest as an attractive woman strangling an ugly goddess of injustice. the Shilluk perceive Diang as the consort of the first human. CENTER(S) OF CULT Pylos. Living along the west bank of the Nile. Also the name of the Buddhist Tantric initiation ceremony. Depicted as a maiden whom men violently abuse in the streets but who is honored by the gods and who reports to her father on the misdeeds of mankind. Her son is Okwa. Dikkumara God. NOTE: Digambara is also an epithet of the goddess KALI in Hindu religion. Greek. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. Pre-Christian Latvian. Slane. Dievs Sky god.

. No details available. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP origins uncertain and still persisting in parts today. meaning wailing (see Tammuz). he is not a fertility god and the phallic symbolism is purely that of sexual arousal and carousal. See also POLYDEUKES. an Agrionia festival (Dorian-Aeolic) and most recently the Athenian celebration of Katagogia which marked the legend of Dionysos emerging from the sea and during which a ship was carried or drawn on wheels. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Other than in the opening of the Homeric epic material. Dioskouroi Twin gods. Greek women traditionally searched for Dionysos and it is possible that the Roman name Bacchus is of Semitic origin. Dionysos scarcely appears in literature. Attribute: a torch. Greek. Dionysos is the son of SEMELE and there is some argument that the cult originated in Phrygia or Lydia linked to that of KYBELE and traveled via Mycenaean culture with sanctuaries in such places as Pylos and Keos. SYNONYMS Disni (Prasun region). intoxicated frenzy encouraged by festivals of wine-drinking. There was a major wine-drinking festival (Ionic-Attic) known as the Anthesteria. Buddhist (Mahayana). He has a retinue of male. particularly at the village of Shtiwe (Prasun). Color: blue or red. Although a gigantic phallus was carried in rituals honoring Dionysos. Consort of the god NIRRTI. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). ORIGIN Dipa (personification of the oil-lamp) Goddess of light. Dirghadevi (long goddess) Goddess. Consort of ˇ IVA in his terrible aspect of BHIMA and mother of S the minor god Sarga (creation). Considered to be among the group of A STAMATARAS (mothers). Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Color: yellow. One of a minor group of buddhas. Roman. Greater and Lesser Dionysia festivals with strongly phallic connotations and the sacrifice of goats. Color: yellow. Dipankara (light causer) Deity. Dipa Tara (lamp Tara) Minor goddess. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. DISANI Kafir [Afghanistan—southern Hindukush]. Attributes: none in particular.DISANI 79 Dionysos is a deity associated with a curious form of mass. phallic satyrs wearing animal masks and joined by female maenads. Disa (the ten directions of space) Goddess. Modeled on the Greek god HADES. Supreme fertility and mother goddess. Attribute: a lamp. Dis Pater Chthonic underworld god. Dipti (brightness) Minor goddess. Dizeile. Other authors have suggested that the personality of Dionysos emerged from Thrace and extended to Homeric Greece but this argument is now out of favor. Hindu (Puranic). CENTER ( S ) OF CULT throughout the Kafir region.

Her home is said to be Sudrem. . Epic and Puranic). BAGISHT. As goddess of death. Disani receives the prayers of women whose menfolk are about to go into combat. butter and cheese. Attributes: blue lotus. See also Aditi. They were the subject of a sacrificial ritual in autumn and have strong fertility connotations as vegetation and fertility deities. They are identified in the Sigrdrifumal (Poetic Edda) and include the Valkyries and Norns of Germanic mythology. In her role as vegetation deity. Her cult centers seem to have been connected with the villages of Shtiwe. In conflict with this role she also inadvertently slaughtered her own son by decapitation. Roman. She also plays the role of huntress. as a golden tree. Divona Fertility goddess. The daughter of DAKSA. Modeled on the Greek deity ERIS. Significant in the legions. Roman. particularly revered by the Prasun people. She also sows. Some Kati Myths and Hymns (1951). Disciplina Minor goddess. Nordic (Icelandic) and Germanic. She can appear as a wild goat from whose footprints spring the shoots of wheat. or more usually milk. armed with a bow and quiver. Morgenstierne G. The Kafirs of the Hindukush (1896). known particularly from the second century BC. As a fertility goddess she is a guardian of cattle. Other legends place her as the daughter of the god SUDREM. she tills the land. Disani is also a benign and comforting goddess of death who carries the deceased into the House of the Great Mother. child and fruit. Sacrifice is in the form of a goat. Legend has it that she lives in a golden fortress with seven doors and seven roads radiating from it. Bagramatal and Kamdesh.S. Alternatively she emerged from a sacred lake into which a sun disc had fallen. Celtic (Gallic). She is perceived in human form. with streams of milk pouring from her breasts. and symbolically as a tree (see I NANA ) whose roots embody the underworld Nirmali.80 Disciplina ART REFERENCES LITERARY SOURCES large wooden sculptures. witnessed in the religions of many other agricultural and pastoral societies. Disani is the most important goddess of the Hindukush. Hindu (Vedic. She has a son. Legend has it that she emerged from the right breast of the creator god IMRA. She is the consort of Imra and other major deities in the pantheon and therefore bears strong fertility and maternal connotations. Diti Goddess. Robertson G. which gave rise to an annual spring rite of the dying god. Discordia Minor goddess of dissent. Associated with water and known only from inscriptions. a consort of ADITI (in the Rg Veda) or KASYAPA and the mother of a race of demons. or of INDR and the goddess Nangi-Wutr. conceived when she was raped by a demon. threshes and winnows grain. Disir Collective name for guardian goddesses. Disani is the protectress of the bonds of kinship and family loyalty.

Dogumrik Local guardian and warrior god. Dogumrik is the herdsman to the daughters of the god IMRA and possibly a localized equivalent of the god MON. Known from the village of Shtiwe in the southeastern Hindukush. Depicted bearded and standing upon a bull. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Navaho [USA]. Attributes include a double ax and lightning. Depicted as an antelope with twisted horns. See also ANUKIS.Duillae 81 Djila’qons Sea goddess. RomanoIberian. Don Mother goddess. Doudoun God of Nile cataracts. Songhai [Niger valley. Attribute: a banner. Also Dodonu. According to legend. Dongo Storm god. he lives on an island to the southwest of Munster and is responsible for the passage of the dead toward the otherworld. Sea goddess. Canada]. He wears a buckskin mask painted with a horizontal yellow band to represent the evening sky and eight vertical black stripes to represent rain. An old woman who lives at the head of a major inlet in Haida territory and controls all the creatures of the sea. Doris Dolichenus Weather god. Germanic. Comparable with the MATRES in Gaul. Dsahadoldza (fringe mouth) Chthonic god of earth and water. Celtic (Irish). The creator of thunderbolts. Western Semitic (Syrian). One of a group of GAURI. The priest impersonating the god has one side of his body painted red and the other side black. Donar Storm god. His consorts are Sati and Anuket. Dombi Goddess of terrifying appearance. Described in the Mabinogion as the progenitress of the Welsh pantheon. Donn Chthonic underworld god. Equates with the Irish goddess DANU. The day name Donnerstag in modern German equates with Thursday. Duillae Fertility and vegetation goddesses. West Africa]. a corruption of Thor’s day. See also THOR. Modeled on the Egyptian ram god KHNUM. As the celestial smith he forges lightning and strikes a huge bell with his ax to generate thunder. Buddhist. Nubian. Color: red or blue. In Hesiod’s Theogony her children include AMPHITRITE and THETIS among many minor figures. which are perceived as stone ax-heads. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island. The god of thunder whose symbol is either a hammer or an ax. Greek. Daughter of OKEANOS and TETHYS and consort of NEREUS. Celtic (Welsh). . He became syncretized with the Roman god JUPITER. A number of deities are known under this title.

Agni-Durga (eightarmed). LITERARY SOURCES chiefly Ramayana and Mahabharata epics and Puranic texts. Dumuzi is particularly associated with the date palm.82 Dulha Deo Dulha Deo Minor god of the bridegroom. Vengeful warrior goddess. the gods and including the conch shell of V IS ˇ trident of SIVA. the bow of RAMA and the sudarshan . glyptics. Equates with the Babylonian-Akkadian god NERGAL. Tammuz (Hebrew). ART REFERENCES plaques. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Hindu. as popularly understood. Color: green. One of several deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. Iconographically. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. whose earliest role in Hindu mythology is to fight and conquer demons but who also personifies the SAKTI or female aspect of any male deity. She has eight or ten arms. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 400 (but probably known from earlier times) until present. Shakti. His worshipers were chiefly women but his cult was very widespread and as late as Biblical times there are references to women “weeping for Tammuz. In Syriac tradition he is the son of the mortal father Kautar (Aramaic: Kos ˇ ar). is a male deity who in mythical times was the tutelary god of the city of Bad-tibira between Lagas ˇ and Uruk in southern Mesopotamia. Reliefs. APARAJITA (unconquered). It is believed that there was also a goddess Dumuzi from Kinunir near Lagas ˇ . which accounts for the seasonal demise of the green world to drought. are modeled. ORIGIN Dur Chthonic underworld god. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally bronze but also stone. SYNONYMS KUMARI. He is commanded by Inana (who is herself ˇ KIGAL) to under a pledge to the goddess ERES enter the underworld for a period of each year. DURGA Hindu (Puranic) [India]. each bearing a weapon presented to her by different ˇNU. See also KOTAR. DUMUZI Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. He is the first “dying and rising” god to be historically recorded by name. Shepherd and vegetation god. Durga is depicted as a beautiful golden-skinned woman who rides upon a lion or a tiger. etc. Attribute: an ax hanging from a tree.” It may be argued that Dumuzi is the model on which later gods including ADONIS Durga is one of the angry and aggressive aspects of the goddess Sakti. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts including the Inana’s Descent and the Death of Dumuzi. but mentioned by name in Vedic literature. Kassite [Iran]. underworld god. SYNONYMS Damn. Ama-usum-gal-ana. Durangama (going far away) Minor goddess. ORIGIN Dumuzi. The two became syncretized as the single male personality who occupies a special place in the Sumerian pantheon as the consort of the goddess INANA. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. votive stelae. Attributes: staff on a great lotus. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3500 BC or earlier to circa 200 BC.

In Hellenic times he was the subject of inscriptions at Delos and (heaven father) ORIGIN Hindu (Vedic) [India]. In this capacity her most important festival is the Durga Puja. Creator god. possibly because he was brought into India by the Aryan . for whom farming was precarious. while in southern India she is revered more in her warlike and murderous aspect. Buddhist (Mahayana). Jain [India]. SYNONYMS the Sanskrit dyaus is derived from the Indo-European root which also gives Deus (Roman). placed heaven and earth in conjunction with one another and generally preserved the cosmic order. She may wear a necklace of skulls. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1500 BC or earlier until present. GANESA and KARTTIKEYA. who are said to be her children. LITERARY SOURCES Rg-veda and other Vedic texts. They are of youthful appearance and associated with rain and thunder. She is also linked with the fertility of crops. ˇ ara. LAKSMI. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Western Semitic (Nabataean). Between them they created the rest of the Vedic pantheon. who never achieved comparable to BAAL S Dus ˇ ara’s popularity among the nomadic Nabataeans. He was represented by a black obelisk at Petra. ˇ AMIN. celebrated at harvest time. Dyaus pitar is a creator god associated with the goddess Prthivi. Attributes include a vine stem. etc. In general Durga is perceived in northern India as the gentle bride epitomizing family unity. She is depicted flanked by four other deities. Dus ˇ ara (‘the one’ of s ˇara) Local tutelary god. Dus-S Duzhi Local god of uncertain affinities. These gifts extend to her the power of the eight or ten gods. Regarded as a supreme deity. She is associated with the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains and is often depicted slaughtering the buffalo-demon MAHISA by thrusting her trident into his body. CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. DYAUS PITAR Durjaya (unconquerable) Minor goddess. One of the groups under the general title of BHAVANAVASI (dwelling in places). An attendant of the god BUDDHAKAPALA. Dvipakumara God. Sacrifice was in the form of a male goat. Durga takes the role of a mother ˇ iva and becomes partly goddess and consort of S syncretized with PARVATI. In a contrasting aspect in later Hindu traditions. the primordial couple are normally addressed as Dyavaprthivi. TYR (German). Dyaus is overshadowed and superseded by the rain god INDRA in later Hindu tradition. during which devotees persistently make obscene gestures and comments to stimulate her fecundity. Sacred animals are the eagle and panther. Known only from an altar stone which was generally erected beside that of the water god BAGISHT.DYAUS PITAR 83 (spoked disc) of KRSNA. ZEUS (Greek). ART REFERENCES none. SARASVATI. Miletus and he was equated with DIONYSOS. Also Dus ˇ ares. Associated with vegetation and fertility in the Hauran region from about 312 BC until circa AD 500.

Korekore (Shona) [northern Zimbabwe. Her sacred creatures are mythical golden sunbirds. a pair of which were actually discovered in Zimbabwe. dry environment. She is depicted wearing goatskins and bearing a cornucopia holding magical substances. Dzivaguru Chthonic mother goddess. probably modeled on swallows. southern Africa]. Originally . bleak climate and who needed a supreme deity more relevant to a hot.84 Dzivaguru settlers from the north who had been used to a cold. said to have ruled both heaven and earth and lived in a palace by a sacred lake near Dande.

Known from the area of Castille and syncretized with the local Roman deity Jupiter Solutorius. God of primordial waters. The name does not appear in the classical sacred texts Nihongi and Kojiki. ENKI (Sumerian). but Ebisu is known to have been worshiped in ancient times among fishermen. God of sweet water and of wisdom. the Popol Vuh. Identified in the sacred Maya book the Popol Vuh. One of the major deities in the old BabylonianAkkadian pantheon who evolved from the model of Enki. Also Tzacol. Shinto [Japan]. Epic Of Gilgames ˇ. The consort of the goddess E ALOM and the father of GUKUMATZ who equates with the Aztec QUETZALCOATL. His consort is DAMKINA and his temple is the Apsu house or E-engurra in Eridu (lost). He is depicted as a fat. Babylon. smiling and bearded fisherman holding a fishing rod in one hand and a sea bream in the other. CENTER(S) OF CULT Eridu. ART REFERENCES glyptics and other carvings. Nergal and Eres ˇkigal etc. Her son is GUKUMATZ. the counterpart of the Aztec god QUETZALCOATL. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts including Enuma Elis ˇ. By the neoBabylonian period his popularity as a major deity had waned and he was relegated to the role of father of the god MARDUK. Also Bitol. Mayan (Quiche. The most popular of seven gods of fortune recognized in Shintoism and frequently linked with the god DAIKOKU. Eacus Weather god. E Quaholom (begetter of children) Primeval creator god. The consort of E QUAHOLOM.E 6 E Alom (conceiver of children) Primeval creator goddess. Romano-Iberian. classical Mesoamerican) [Guatemala highlands]. Mayan (Quiche. SYNONYMS Ea-s ˇ arru. From about the sixteenth century his character changed and he became a deity associated with profit. Thus he is a patron of 85 . classical Mesoamerican) [Guatemalan highlands]. ORIGIN God of luck. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1900 BC to circa 200 BC. identified in the sacred Maya book. Ebisu EA Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq].

EILEITHYIA ORIGIN (the coming) Egres Fertility god. . Responsible for the proper nourishment of the child. A syncretization of EHECATL and QUETZALCOATL. Egeria Fertility goddess.86 Edeke commerce and his picture hangs in most establishments. The deity responsible for the turnip crop. Assigned to the air or wind and presided over by QUETZALCOATL. Goddess of birth. Eee-A-O (Yao) Primordial being. Karelian [Finland]. Gnostic Christian. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. to whose complex of deities he belongs. each of which lasted for 2028 heavenly years. Greek and previously Mycenaean. A number of springs and lakes were sacred to her. He is perceived as residing in the west (codices Borgia and Vaticanus B). He is the deity who rules over the ninth of the thirteen heavens. He does not join the rest of the Shinto pantheon in the great October festival at Izumo because he is deaf. Ehecatonatiuh. who took the part of JUPITER. Edeke God of disasters. Teso [Uganda. Edeke is propitiated during times of famine and plague. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1500 BC until Christianization (circa AD 400). In a separate tradition. EhecatlQuetzalcoatl executed the monstrous god XOLOTL when he declined to offer his blood in self-sacrifice for the creation of mankind. CENTER(S) OF CULT chiefly in Crete where there exists an early (Mycenaean) cave sanctuary at Amnisos. each heavenly year being fifty-two terrestrial years. Also Akras. Roman. He may also be identified with Fudo. He is perhaps syncretized with the gods HIRUKO and KOTO-SHIRO-NUSHI. SYNONYMS Eleuthyia (possibly original Minoan). The first of the androgynous principles born to YALDABAOTH. His festival is celebrated concurrently in his own temple. Ehecatl Creator god. According to tradition. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Deity of oak trees whose priestess enacted an annual sacred marriage with the king of Rome. the age ended in a cataclysmic destruction caused by hurricanes. Itztapal Nanatzcayan (where the stone slabs crash together). Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl Edusa Minor god of infants. one of four gods who support the lowest heaven at each cardinal point. The sun deity representing the second of the five world ages. Roman. the prime parent. East Africa]. ruling the seven heavens of chaos in gnostic mythology. The festival is a variation of that celebrating the marriage of ZEUS and HERA which took place in Athens. The antagonist of the creator god APAP. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. Illustrated by the “Stone of the Four Suns” [Yale Peabody Museum]. Ilithyia (Roman). All humanity turned into monkeys. the god of knowledge. Primordial god. and in the region of Lakonia. Also (4) Ehecatl.

she assisted at the birth of APOLLO. blue lotus. but with a single eye. He has a distinctive downwardly projecting lower lip. One of a group of emancipated VIDYESVARAS (lords of ˇ IVA. Her role is later largely superseded by ARTEMIS. One of a group of emancipated VIDYESVARAS (lords of ˇ IVA. Ek Chuah God of merchants. Other attributes include a Ekarudra Minor deity. he is typically depicted painted black. Ekanetra Eji Ogbe Tutelary god. noose.EL 87 LITERARY SOURCES Theogony and Hymn to Apollo (Hesiod). each typically represented with sixteen arms. moon disc and tiger skin. Eileithyia is called upon specifically to ease the pain and danger of childbirth. bell. . cup. skull. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). The daughter of ZEUS and THEMIS and the sister of Horae. DIKE and EUNOMIA. hook. carrying strap in his headdress and sometimes a pack on his back. Also the deity responsible for the cacao crop. Color: blue. bow. Ekajata (she who has but one chignon) Eirene Goddess of peace. Three-eyed. sword and tiger skin. Greek. Buddhist (Varjayana). book. She may have one or twelve heads. but with normal eyes.) Probably of Putun origin. She is an emanation of AKSOBHYA and a form of TARA. conch. See also HOURS. image of AMITABHA on the crown. EL ORIGIN Western Semitic regions and Israel (northern Hebrew tribes) [Syria. The name is also used in a plural collective sense (reflecting the practice of women in a neighborhood coming together to assist at childbirth). knife. Occasionally found attending the goddess Khadirayani-Tara. staff. Also God M. West Africa]. ax. Common attributes include ax. He may also bear a scorpion’s tail. In Sparta there was allegedly a running track at the end of which was a temple to Eileithyia. horseshoe shapes around each eye and a highly elongated nose. Yoruba [Nigeria. Ekadasarudra Collective name for a group of gods. The eleven forms of the god RUDRA. She offers happiness and removes personal obstacles. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). (on e-eyed) Minor deity. Hindu. knowledge) considered to be aspects of S Virtually identical with EKANETRA . (The cacao bean was traditionally the standard currency throughout Mesoamerica. Primarily worshiped by women. Lebanon and Israel]. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Goddess of good fortune. The daughter of ZEUS and HERA and the sibling of HEBE and ARES. It was said that the cries of labor summoned her presence. knowledge) considered to be aspects of S Virtually identical with EKARUDRA. Creator god. The so-called “king” of the pantheon and mentioned in a legend of the dove which is a symbol of prosperity. except for a red area around the lips and chin. Attributes: arrow.

LITERARY SOURCES Vetus Testamentum. His name became Hellenized as Heliogabalos. Western Semitic (Canaanite) and Hittite. et elyon (most high god). probably emulating the Canaanite precedent. One of the NAVASAKTI or astral deities. Allegedly borrowed and modified from the Canaanite god IL. The Hebrew term ELOHIM may denote an “upper tier” of great gods while ELIM applies to a lower order of deities. NOTE: Biblical traditions were carried by the southern state of Judah. According to some Ugaritic (Ras S not the original creator but the offspring of an older principal. His consort is As ˇerdus ˇ ERTU). In Biblical texts the word el comes to be used in a descriptive sense as a qualifying epithet meaning “lord. EL-EB translates as “god the father. Probably originating as a mountain deity with strong solar links. The impression is given that El is a distant. Israel was unwilling to part with the name against pressure from the southern state of Judah (see YHWH). The voice of El is said to be like thunder. Derived from the Babylonian-Akkadian god ELLIL. Ellel Creator god. His cult was based on the town of Emesa [Homs]. Also Ellaiyamman. Syrian. Found in the Vetus Testamentum and distinguishing the lower order of gods from the great deities. In some texts the god EL (IL) is not the original being but is preceded by a father figure. the clouds are his chariot and he waters the mountains from heaven. but the name fell into disuse after suppression of Israel by Tiglathpileser II (Assyria). ˇ amra) texts. Qum’ Ran texts. CENTER(S) OF CULT Tirzah. Il. hear. et sadday (god of the mountain). vaguely defined figure perceived in human form—“he” is able to see. et olam (everlasting god). El was apparently symbolized in Israel from circa 922 BC again by the bull calf (I Kings 12). Hittite and Hurrian. S Dan and many local hill shrines. A goddess guarding boundaries of villages and fields. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. EL-EB (god of the father). 700 BC. SYNONYMS El’eb Primordial god. His sacred animal is the eagle. (Canaanite: A S Ellaman (lady of the boundary) Goddess of passage. Elkunirsa Creator god. et betel (god of storms). black stone obelisk. ART REFERENCES none extant other than from later artists. represented by the bull and revered by the Hebrew tribes who settled northern Palestine. Western Semitic (Canaanite). walk and touch—though no images in human form seem to have been created. where he was worshiped in the form of a dome-shaped. Judaic.” Possibly El came to represent the sum of all the creator spirits of the northern tribes. Elim Collective term for gods. . Bethel. IL [southern Arabian].88 Elagabal KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2500 BC to Elagabal (lord of the mountain) Local tutelary god. Modeled on the creator god of the Canaanites.” See also YALDABAOTH. ˇ amaria. ELOHIM.

He is also god of canals. NUDIMMUD (image fashioner). glyptics. Eloai Primordial being. god of sweet water. votive stelae.” ENKI Eme’mqut Animistic spirit. In creation mythology he is . placed in charge of the sacred rivers Tigris and Euphrates by the god ENKI. Probably the recipient of pig sacrifice. In Babylonian times he becomes the son of EA and is syncretized with ADAD. Gnostic Christian. Endouellicus Chthonic oracular and healing god. conflict. He is identified with the abundance of the earth and with summer. sheep folds and stables. An unidentified deity who is depicted iconographically with a plough may well be Emes ˇ. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). As god of water in its capacity to nourish the earth. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Emes ˇ was created at the wish of ENLIL to take responsibility on earth for woods. QUIKINN. He is usually represented as a figure in typical horned headdress and tiered skirt with two streams of water Enbilulu River god. See Emes ˇ Vegetation god. ruling the seven heavens of chaos in Gnostic mythology. Tuareg [central Sudan]. Akkadian). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Enki is one of the major Sumerian deities. the prime parent. Creator god. See also ENLIL. RomanoIberian. Judaic. ELIM. SYNONYMS EA (god of the deep. Also IS Emeli Hin Creator god. A generic title meaning “my lord. Center(s) of worship probably at Eridu (Abu ˇ ahrain). (lord of the soul) ORIGIN Mesopotamian (Sumerian) [Iraq]. He leads the Sumerian pantheon particularly in times of ˇ UM (Akkadian). but known only from literature. His consort is DAMKINA and his sanctuary at Eridu is E-engurra. Siberian Koryak. Found in the Vetus Testamentum and distinguishing the higher order of great gods from the minor deities. The son of AN and NAMMU. S ART REFERENCES plaques. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3500 BC to circa 1750 BC. Elohim Collective term for gods. The second of the androgynous principles born to YALDABAOTH. irrigation and farming. Known from the Portuguese region. Lugalabzu(ak) (owner of the deeps). temple hymns etc.ENKI 89 Ellil Creator god. he is considered by some to be a late entry to the pantheon. god of wisdom. Endursaga (lofty mace) Herald god. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Enki and the World Order. fields.A’QU. Also applied to the Israelite god YHWH. Lugal-id(ak) (owner of the river). LITERARY SOURCES creation epics including Atrahasis.

KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3500 BC or earlier to circa 1750 BC. at times. in his honor. he was the most important god of southern Mesopotamia during the third millennium BC. Machiavellian character. His importance was such that the tutelary gods of other cities “traveled” to Nippur with offerings to Enlil. Enmesarra Chthonic god of the law. but also at Eridu and Ur. ART REFERENCES plaques. Nunamnir. LITERARY SOURCES creation texts. at times. According to texts he controls the me’s or divine rules. He was seen as manifesting himself in both benevolence and destructive violence.90 Enkimdu (Tigris and Euphrates) springing from his shoulders or from a vase and including leaping fish. thus signifying clouds rising from the waters. Enki is perceived to fill the Tigris and Euphrates with sacred sweet water. His foot may rest on an ibex. as serious adversaries. He is said to have made the pick-ax. His consort is NINLIL who was impregnated by the “waters of Enlil” to create the moon god NANNA. the Ekur sanctuary was built (not re-discovered). In the Sumerian creation epic Enki set out in a boat to avenge the ˇ KIGAL. the latter personified in the dragon Kur. See also ENBILULU. Dur Kurigalzu. having been one of three principal deities engaged in the primordial battle between good and evil. Ninhursag ˜ a and ENLIL are variously drawn. He is also seen in a heroic light. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). According to one legend. particularly the Lament of Ur and Creation of the Hoe. ENLIL ORIGIN (lord wind?) Mesopotamian (Sumerian) [Iraq]. Enlil is the son of the primordial AN and KI. (In the Akkadian pantheon his consort becomes MULLILTU. Enki generated the plants from his semen and inside his body until it made him ill. Enlil created several deities concerned with overseeing the natural world. temple hymns including the Hymn to Enlil. According to the “Hymn to Enlil” he works alone and unaided. . Kur abduction by Kur of the goddess ERES fought back with huge stones. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). SYNONYMS CENTER(S) OF CULT Enkimdu God of canals and ditches. God of the air. or by a horned crown on a pedestal. being superseded respectively by MARDUK and ASSUR. The tutelary deity of Nippur where. whereupon Ninhursag ˜a placed him in her own vagina and gave birth to his progeny. etc. NIN-SAR (by NINHURSAG (by NINKURRA) and UTTU (by NINMAH). The running of day-to-day affairs is left to him and in the creation mythology he organized the earth and established law and order. Nippur. Ilu. He also appoints various other minor deities to their duties in connection with the well-being of the natural world. “caused the good day to come forth” and “brought forth seed from the earth. Enki is a complex and. In his more destructive aspect he allowed the birth goddess to kill at birth and was responsible for miscarriage in cows and ewes. Because of his peculiarly national status he became downgraded in the Babylonian and Assyrian pantheons. INANA. Illil.” He was invoked to bless his cities and ensure prosperity and abundance. In creation mythology he is given his task by the god ENKI. Among his offspring are ˜ A).) He is depicted in horned headdress and tiered skirt. Additionally he is god of artists and craftsmen. He may also hold the eagle-like Imdugud (thunder) bird. NIN-IMMA AS ˇALLUHA. votive stelae and glyptics. ELLIL.

cows. S SETH and NEPHTHYS. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). See also AURORA. apparently a misreading of Suen. his offspring. The name is a corruption. The spirit of the dawn. Hellenized Indo-European. the storm god son of POSEIDON. Hesiod accounts her as the consort of Astraeos. He is identified with the abundance of the earth and with the winter period. and her tears are the morning dew. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Thus. Enten was given specific the minor god EMES responsibility for the fertility of ewes. goats. she bore six children who represent the various winds. GEB. the center of the sun-worshiping cult in Lower Egypt. Celtic (Gallic). CENTER(S) OF CULT probably originating from Alesia in Gaul but spreading extensively. The nine major deities enumerated and given their genealogy by the priesthood of Heliopolis. the archaic form of SIN. Jointly responsible for the creation of mankind. donkeys.” Probably a number of the obscure folk customs surrounding Easter and still practiced in England trace back to her worship. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 400 BC and probably earlier until Christianization (circa AD 400). Pandora. but which also included the benevolent spirit of hope. Epimetheus Minor creator god. Fertility goddess of spring. The consort of AEOLOS. Other Egyptian cult centers possessed similar pantheons though not necessarily including the same list of deities. whom the gods had cautioned him to avoid. for example. Horse goddess with fertility connotations. East Africa]. Created by ENLIL as a guardian deity of farmers alongside ˇ . NUT. OSIRIS. One of the four sons of I APETOS and Klymene (Titan). Anglo-Saxon. Comprising the sun god ATUM (or Atum-Re) and ˇ U. She is the daughter of . Enundu Plague god. and the sister of HELIOS (sun) and SELENE (moon). Egyptian (Lower). Enten Fertility god. the god PTAH presided at Thebes.EPONA 91 Ennead The Heliopolis pantheon. diseases and sufferings of humanity. Greek and Roman. In separate tradition she is the mother of Memnon who was slain at Troy. ORIGIN Eos Sky goddess. TEFNUT. Her curiosity caused her to open the box belonging to JUPITER in which he had placed all the vices. The attendant and throne-bearer of ENLIL (ELLIL). Epimetheus’ strongest claim to fame lies in his liaison with the first mortal woman. including Rome. The derivation of “Easter. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and BabylonianAkkadian). A god identified with smallpox and propitiated with the sacrifice of a goat. Eostre Ennugi God. ISIS. birds and other animals. Gishu [Uganda. SYNONYMS none. EPONA (mare) Enzu God. HYPERION and THEA. and the brother of P ROMETHEUS .

the god of wisdom. the underworld goddess renders her a corpse for three days until she is revived through the intervention of ENKI. Her consort is also identified as GUGULANA. Arguably. LITERARY SOURCES inscriptions. Luxeuil. ORIGIN Eres ˇ kigal is the consort of NERGAL and queen of the underworld. In other circumstances Epona figurines are found associated with burial grounds such as La Horgue au Sablon illustrating the common link. She also holds cornucopiae. Greco-Roman. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3500 BC or earlier to 200 BC or later. Associated with a celestial dog. ˇ KIGAL (the great below) ERES Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. She is arguably the only Celtic goddess to have been worshiped in Rome itself and her popularity was spread throughout the regions of Roman occupation (see also MORRIGAN). Erh Lang was once honored with a sanctuary in Beijing (Peking). ART REFERENCES plaques. etc. Allerey and Saulon-la-Chapelle. glyptics. She is also the mother of NINAZU. in preHomeric mythology. In legend Eres ˇ kigal is challenged by Inana but after judgment by the seven Annunaki. A popular equestrian goddess closely allied with the Celtic trade in. votive stelae. well attested in ancient and modern cults. LITERARY SOURCES creation epics and other texts including Inana’s Descent and the Death of Dumuzi. linked with dogs and birds. Santanay and others where sometimes she is alone with horse(s) and sometimes is depicted with the “mothers” (see MATRES). Concerned with healing and with the fertility of domestic animals. various monumental carvings. Erh Lang (master) Tutelary deity. His attributes include a bow which he is Erebos Primordial deity. The cult probably originated from Alesia in the heartland of Gallic resistance and location of Vercingetorix’s final stand against Julius Caesar. and domestic use of. Chinese. She was particularly worshiped by Roman cavalry regiments. According to some texts she was once a sky goddess who was abducted by the monstrous deity Kur. he formed an incestuous liaison .92 Erebos stone and bronze statuettes (mainly Luxembourg and Côte d’Or). At Armançon she rides in a cart reminiscent of the “tour” of other northern fertility goddesses (see NERTHUS). usually riding side-saddle or merely in association with horses.g. ART REFERENCES with his mother to create the first elements of the cosmos. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. Epona may also be enshrined close to thermal springs under which circumstance she often appears naked like a water nymph e. Epona is also. She lives in the palace of Ganzir and equates with the Greek PERSE PHONE. SYNONYMS ALLATU(M). Chthonic underworld goddess. Armançon and Essay (Côte d’Or). Engendered by CHAOS and NYX. on occasion. According to tradition he and the dog saved the city from flooding. Epona is typically depicted with mares and foals. Eres ˇ kigal may be seen as a dark alter ego of the goddess INANA and is identified in some texts as her elder sibling. sheaves of corn and other fruits suggesting an ancillary role as a vegetation goddess. between fertility and death. horses. Votive inscriptions have been found at Allerey. AETHER (light) and Hemera (day). In western Semitic pantheons Eres ˇ kigal becomes Allatu. Jabreilles. Her festival was celebrated on December 18.

Greek. and those from his left became women. and into birds and animals. and the mother of HORKOS (oath). Ket [Siberian]. One of the children of AETHER and Hemera in the pre-Homeric cosmos. West Africa]. She is depicted throwing the apple of discord among guests at a wedding. circa 1000 BC. Also AMOR (Roman). Also a warrior goddess. whoever has sworn a false oath.Eshu 93 depicted drawing. Devotees . their heads covered with snake-locks and bearing torches from the underworld. Known chiefly from the Erra Epic. and is an expert archer. his cult center is Emeslam in the city of Kutha (lost). He carries a bow. A malevolent deity with the head and nose of a dog and the body of a man. Listed in Hesiod’s Theogony as one of three archetypal beings with CHAOS and GAIA. Erkilek Hunting god. Greco-Roman. In Roman mythology she becomes DISCORDIA. An ancient deity regarded as the attendant and messenger of the creator god OLODUMARE. offering it “to the fairest” to provoke argument. She may be equated with a wrathful DEMETER who is sometimes given the epithet Erinys. Described as an old man with a long black beard. See also BADB. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). with arrows contained in a quiver. The rat is a sign of impending wealth and therefore the drawing of an empty bow at the rat is a sign which invokes wealth of children. One of the deities who were known as the “Sovereignty of Ireland” and wedded symbolically to a mortal king. Inuit [North America]. Es Creator god. Erra God of war. and arrows. In Babylonian times he is identified as a plague god. Those tossed from his right hand became men. By implication she may also have been a grim maternal figure who engendered all horses. Erua See ZARPANITU(M). In the Iliad they are described as those “who beneath the earth punish dead men. Celtic (Irish). Eriu Fertility goddess. An aspect of the MORRIGAN. According to legend she was a consort of POSEIDON by whom she bore the fabulous horse Areon. Yoruba [Nigeria. Erinys Chthonic goddess of wrath. Eire and Erin are corruptions of her name. in which case the arrows are not included. Eros Primordial deity.” In Roman mythology they are the Furies. The consort of ARES. The dog may be replaced by a rat. he fashioned the first humans from clay. he is also the god of raids. Erinys appears in the collective form of three Erinyes. Eshu Itinerant god. Closely identified with the god NERGAL. He passes among mortal people assessing character and meting out punishment. riots and scorched earth. Eris Goddess of dissent or strife. She is patroness of the royal seat of Uisnech in County Meath. Greek. capable of changing shape from girl to hag. the god of war.

One of the sons of EOS. One of the children of ZEUS and THEMIS. See also HOURS. Goddess of order. Known first from the Iron Age levels at Sidon. His name further became linked with the mother goddess CAELESTIS.94 Es ˇ mun are identified by necklaces of black or brown beads. Probably regarded as the most powerful deity in the Navaho pantheon. West Africa]. Eunomia Estsanatlehi (woman that changes) Fertility goddess. with the physician god ASKLEPIOS. One carving [Trier] identifies Esus felling a tree with birds in the branches (see also INANA). she has powers of endless self-rejuvenation. her siblings include the Horae. of the home of the gods holding a set of keys. Es ˇ mun God of healing. Also the mother of Bellepheron. though she is accounted as the consort of GLAUKOS. She is also the consort of the sun god TSOHANOAI and the mother of the war god NAYENEZGANI. A fearsome deity who stands at the gates . Esu God of passage. DIKE and EIRENE. Western Semitic (Phoenician). Mentioned by the Roman writer Lucan but otherwise virtually unknown. Eurynome Sea goddess. He is known for his trickery. sending the gentle rains of summer and the warm thawing winds of spring. He may have originated as a tree god. Greco-Roman. Greek. Particularly known from Sparta and later Romanized as Eurus. fathered by POSEIDON. she was created from a small turquoise image into which life was infused through a ritual of the great gods and she is the sister of the goddess YOLKAI ESTAN. She is said to live in the west and is benevolent in nature. his cult spread as far as Carthage. but her cult center was apparently at Phigaleia (Arcadia). Elsewhere he is associated with three cranes and a bull. According to tradition. Esus God of war. Euros God of the east winds. Celtic (Continental European). in Hellenic times. Greek. Cyprus and Sardinia. Possibly became syncretized with the god MELQART and. Navaho [USA]. The daughter of Nisos and mother of the Graces. Edo [Benin and Nigeria. Little else is known.

TELIKO. He was given many of the attributes of the Greek god PAN including horns and legs of a goat. Bambara [Mali. Faivarongo God of mariners. West Africa]. Gai [Ivory Coast. the Chuilo and the Nyaio. Also known as the “grandsire of the ocean. Roman. Consort of FAUNA with guardianship of woods and plants.” He is closely linked with the chthonic god TIFENUA and the sky god ATUA I KAFIKA. Faraguvol Votive god. Roman. Fe Faro River god. The eldest son of a being known as Ariki Kafika Tuisifo. he is a patron and guardian of seafarers and is also regarded as the origin of the royal Tikopian lineage. According to legend Faro came to earth after a long period of drought during which most of the living things died. They use a special mask which is created anew each year. Puerto Rico and Haiti. classed as a ZEMI. Polynesian [Tikopia]. West Africa].F 6 Fabulinus Minor god of infants. The Nyaio were eventually defeated and Fe became specifically the god of the Chuilo people. The being represented. He also gave mankind the gift of speech. Responsible for the first words of the child. He is also the progenitor of fish stocks in the river Niger. beings. His chief adversary is the god of the desert wind. Consort of FAUNUS with guardianship of woods and plants. Fauna Minor vegetation goddess. The deified trunk of a tree which is carried to a tribal chief and presented. is considered to wander about and can escape from a closed bag or sack. Faunus Minor vegetation god. Faro is propitiated annually by a Komo society of men in a ritual of dancing. Roman. Regarded as the deity who brought order to the world at the time of creation. By tradition he arbitrated a dispute between two tribes. He is propitiated by 95 . He impregnated himself and gave birth to twins who were the first human Tutelary god.

KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) or earlier to Christianization (circa AD 1100). Flaitheas Fides Minor god. denoting their acceptance as consort of the goddess. Symbolized by a pair of covered hands. Feng Po may be depicted in human form as an old man with a white beard.96 Fe’e means of a dance in which a terrifying mask is worn. Practically nothing is known about Fjorgyn. LITERARY SOURCES scant mention in various Icelandic codices. or in the guise of a dragon with the head of a bird or a deer. Polynesian. Roman. or had a brother by the same name (Fjorgyn). Celtic (Irish). A sanctuary was dedicated to him in Rome circa 254 BC. Fe’e God of the dead. Bena Lulua [Democratic Republic of Congo. Fidi Mukullu Creator god. May also have been married to. tools and weapons. She may therefore be lord by a different name. A name applied to the “Sovereignty of Ireland. ORIGIN Fei Lian See FENG PO. Described as the “Count of the Wind. central Africa]. Part of the principle of Polynesian religion that every deity has a superior and and inferior who have either bested. Chinese. Roman. Linked with agricultural prosperity. he has strong links with the sea. Known particularly from the second century BC. FJORGYN Nordic (Icelandic) region. Snorri Sturluson suggests that a god Fjorgvin (Fjorgynn) may have been the father of the goddess FRIGG. Identified with faith and loyalty. Felicitas Minor god. Feng Bo. Early fertility goddess. Fjorgyn is referred to by Snorri in Skaldskaparmal.” which he releases from a sack. SYNONYMS possibly lord. the other at some mythical time. but probably the subject of anonymous carvings. though it is suggested that she is the mother of THOR.” By tradition Irish rulers-designate were offered a cup called the dergflaith to drink from. The sun and moon were engendered from his cheeks. Roman. or been bested by. Consort of ZEPHYRUS and chiefly worshiped by young girls with offerings . Feng Po Sky god. Also Fei Lian. He provides mankind Flora Goddess of flowers. She is mentioned in the Voluspa of the Poetic Edda and is probably the model for the Wagnerian character Erda. with food. CENTER(S) OF CULT none known. Fei Lien. Tutelary goddess. He was originally regarded as malevolent and the antagonist of the god Shen Yi. ART REFERENCES none known. Perceived as a giant cuttlefish who was once subdued by the god of deep underground rocks.

ART REFERENCES stone carvings. A goddess of love concerned with affairs of the heart. . Forseti owned a gold and silver hall. holding her three main attributes. symbolized by the boar (see FRIGG). SYNONYMS none confirmed. involving a seeress and divination. Fertility god. partly in an oracular context. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier. Closely associated with death. CENTER(S) OF CULT principally in Sweden and Norway. including gods and elves. until after Christianization (circa AD 1100). England. Icelandic codices. Said to be able to take the shape of a falcon and fly great distances. seior. Associated with a form of witchcraft. Prose: Edda (Snorri). She is depicted carrying a globe. according to some legends she received half of those slain in battle (see OTHIN). Historia Danica (Saxo). Forseti God of unknown status. were celebrated in the spring months from April 28 to early May and known as Floralia. Fortuna Goddess of good fortune. and reputed to have enjoyed sexual liaisons with many suitors. A weeping goddess with tears of gold. but spread throughout the Nordic region. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier. she wears a necklace with ritual significance. with strongly sexual overtones but also identified with the dead. and was a good law maker and arbiter of disputes. the Brisingamen. Also Fosite (Friesian). Lytir (Sweden). Syr (sow). Her major festivals. the temple of Fortuna Redux was built by Domitian to celebrate his victories in Germany. but possibly including Frodi (Denmark). Nordic (Icelandic). She is depicted in a well-known stone carving in Gloucester Museum. SYNONYMS Gefn (giver). According to an Icelandic list of dwellings of the gods. until Christianization (circa AD 1100). Her main symbol is the wheel of fate which she may stand upon and Renaissance artists tended to depict her thus. CENTER(S) OF CULT Uppsala (Sweden). Mardoll.FREYR 97 of fruit and flowers. Glitnir. inscriptions. FREYR (lord) Possibly Swedish or Germanic but extending throughout the Nordic region with lowest popularity in Iceland. She also rides upon a boar with golden bristles. Roman. Among her more celebrated sanctuaries in Rome. YNG or ING. ORIGIN FREYJA (lady) ORIGIN Nordic (Icelandic) or Germanic. A deity who particularly appealed to women. Much sought after by giants. Skialf. various place names. the Hildeswin. possibly Thorgerda in some parts of the north. Thrandheim (Norway) and various temples and shrines throughout the Nordic countries (none surviving). She probably evolved from the model of the Greek goddess TYCHE. and daughter of NJORD. ART REFERENCES LITERARY SOURCES stone carvings. Frigg and Freyja are possibly separate aspects of a single divine principle. marriage and prosperity. twin sister and/or wife of FREYR. She drives a chariot pulled by two cats and is said to roam at night in the form of a she-goat. Freyja is one of the most popular of the deities in Asgard. Fertility and vegetation goddess. rudder and cornucopiae. A VANIR goddess. Horn. A god of Asgard said by Snorri to be the son of BALDER and NANNA.

ORIGIN Fukurokuju God of luck. SYNONYMS Frija (Germanic). Adam of Bremen. prosperity and peace of the world. wealth and longevity. represented in the cult temple at Uppsala by a dramatically ithyphallic statue. The twin of FREYJA and one of the children of NJORD. one of the centers of a horse cult with which he was also strongly identified. Fujin God of winds. and concerned with the fertility. Historia Danica (Saxo). CENTER(S) OF CULT various around Nordic region. One of the VANIR gods inhabiting Asgard. inscriptions. Saxo implies that she had been the unfaithful spouse but generally she was revered as a regal consort and “queen of heaven. inscriptions. He is often linked in iconography with TSAI SHEN. until Christianization (circa AD 1100). a liaison interpreted by some as representing the marriage of a sky god with the earth resulting in the harvest. Freyr enjoys very ancient links with the boar. The senior AESIR goddess living in Asgard. according to the writer Adam of Bremen. Shinto [Japan]. Mother goddess. considered to possess protective powers. which signify his official position. Shinto [Japan]. Chinese. The Freyr cult was possibly accompanied by a sacred marriage and he was regarded as the progenitor of the royal Swedish Ynglinge dynasty. Usually depicted with his son. is the origin of Friday. Freyr is also associated with a ship cult based on the notion of a phantom vessel. . bald and with a prominent high forehead. and wearing blue robes. Prose Edda (Snorri). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier. FRIGG Nordic (Icelandic) or Germanic. Prose Edda (Snorri). the statue of Freyr was carried around the countryside in a covered wagon with an attendant priestess to bless the seasons. consort of OTHIN and mother of BALDER. ART REFERENCES LITERARY SOURCES stone carvings. Skidbladnir or Skioblaonir. Depicted carrying a sack on his shoulder which contains the four winds. Icelandic codices. Married to the giantess Gerd. Frija. One of seven deities in Shintoism concerned with fortune. A sacred stable is described at Thrandheim. god of wealth. god of longevity. He is depicted as a little old man. According to the Flateyjarbok (Icelandic). Fu Shen God of luck. Historia Danica (Saxo). She may also have headed a group of shadowy female deities to whom carved stones were often erected in preChristian Europe (Roman matrones) associated with fertility and protection of the household. A weeping goddess occasionally described as taking the shape of a falcon (see FREYJA). He was. He is allegedly a Chinese hermit who lived during the Sung dynasty and whose name means happiness.98 FRIGG LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. large enough to hold all the gods but small enough to fold into a man’s pocket. She is thought to have been closely concerned with childbirth and midwifery.” The Germanic version of her name. and SHOU LAO. place names. place names. and he had a sacred animal with golden bristles called Gullinborsti. Such stones are generally found in the Rhineland. Other festivals may have included a ritual drama in which male attendants dressed in effeminate costumes.

pushed forward the perfect divine mirror. recited the sacred liturgy and begged Amaterasu never again to hide her face. Linked with the god TAKE-MIKA-DZUCHI– NO-KAMI. Shinto [Japan]. A tutelary deity of swordsmen and judoka artists. . He collected together various magical objects. Shinto [Japan]. cave could begin. Futo-Tama is more specifically the ancestor of the Imba clan in Japan.Futsu-Nushi-No-Kami 99 He carries a book of sacred teachings tied to his staff. One of two deities who made the way clear for Prince NINIGI to descend to earth and begin the imperial dynasty. A significant deity in mythology because he took part in the divination and ritual necessary before the process of drawing the sun goddess AMATERASU out of her God of war. Identified in the second Merseburg Charm as an attendant of the goddess FRIGG and possibly her sister. Other occasional attributes include a crane. deer or tortoise. Fulla Minor goddess. Germanic. Futsu-Nushi-No-Kami Futo-Tama Ancestral god. The guardian of Prince NINIGI. ancestor of the imperial dynasty.

Gaia is an ancient pre-Hellenic goddess who was mainly revered in Attica. Ge. Aristophanes. Probably concerned with chance or fortune and known from Palmyrene inscriptions. but she maintained a role presiding over marriage and the taking of oaths. Thought to have been syncretized ultimately with the Greek goddess TYCHE. through liaison with Ouranos. CENTER(S) OF CULT oracle at Delphi. red or gold. Archetypal earth mother. Attributes: blue lotus. Western Semitic and Punic (Carthaginian). LITERARY SOURCES Theogony. the primordial beings of the cosmos. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. She was invoked by tossing salt on to a sacred flame. Agamemnon cries to Zeus: “May Zeus. all highest and first of gods. and from the Vetus Testamentum in place names such as Baal-Gad and Midal-Gad. Gaia was later superseded by other divinities. By consorting with the underworld she created the monstrous Typhon. lotus and wishing tree in a vase. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Gabjauja Corn goddess. she also engendered the race of TITANS. book. one of the creations of AETHER and Hedera. be 100 . Gaganaganja (treasury of ether) God. She had an oracle at Delphi that predated that of APOLLO. SYNONYMS Gaea.G 6 Gabija Fire goddess. In the Iliad. According to tradition. Through the encouragement of EROS she became the mother of PONTOS (sea) and OURANOS (heaven). Terra. She was degraded to an evil demonic presence after Christianization. Pre-Christian Lithuanian. Color: yellow. Popular across a wide area of Syrio-Palestine and Anatolia in preBiblical times. Gad God of uncertain status. jewel. Perceived as a placid and resilient goddess generally with some apathy to the goings-on around her in the tale of beginnings. Hymn to Gaia in the so-called Homeric hymns (Hesiod). circa 1500 BC until Christianization (circa AD 400). Buddhist. GAIA (earth) Greek. She is the primordial essence of the earth. One of a group of BODHISATTVAS (buddha-designates). Pre-Christian Lithuanian.

God. Color: green. Color: red. LITERARY SOURCES late Mahabharata recensions and Brihaddharma-Purana etc. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 400 onward until present. Galla Minor underworld gods. Buddhist (Mahayana). Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. The more commonly recognized name of the elephant god GANESA. Attribute: conch with sandalwood resin. Hindu (Puranic). God of wisdom and prudence. Ganaskidi (humpback) Gajavahana God. God. the corn mother whose daughter is KORE. Attributes: cockerel and spear. plenty and of mists. According to tradition he is the apotheosis of a bighorn sheep. The SAKTI of GANAPATI.GANESA 101 witness first. Ganesa is god of wisdom and art. Attendants of the ˇ KIGAL. the penitent thrusts a hook into his back and is suspended from it on the day when the sun enters Aries. GANESA (lord of hosts) Ganapati (lord of hosts) 1. Worshiped particularly by the Bhils. and he carries a staff. Gal Bapsi (‘hook’ god) Local god. that appears as a deformity. ORIGIN Ganapatihrdaya (the heart of Ganapati) Minor goddess. Her attributes include fruit and cornucopiae. Gandha (odor) Goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). May also be a VIDYADEVI. Attribute: conch with sandalwood resin. Navaho [USA]. In Lamaism one of the group of MATARAS (mothers). a benign deity generally assumed to offer help when invoked to . filled out with a twig frame.” In Hellenic times Gaia became Da-meter or DEMETER. Reliefs. A form of SKANDA who has an elephant as a vehicle. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally bronze but also stone. God of harvests. The name of a deity influenced by the Hindu god Ganesa. CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. a canyon with many ruined cliff dwellings north of San Juan. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil). He is said to live at Depehahatil. SYNONYMS GANAPATI. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. goddess ERES Gandha Tara (fragrance-Tara) Minor goddess. then Gaia and Helios and the Furies underground who punish men for having broken oaths. Depicted riding upon a rat or mouse and carrying an assortment of attributes. 2. Also Gallu. One of sixteen SASANADEVATAS headed by the goddess SARASVATI. Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. Gandhari (of Ghandhara) Goddess of learning. His priest wears a blue mask with no hair fringe but with a spruce crown and collar. Jain [India]. To expiate sins. He has a black bag on his back. Mainly from southern India. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Buddhist (Mahayana). particularly favored in western India. the corn spirit.

she is the tutelary mother goddess of Lagas ˇ. Said to have been born from an egg. She is also the second consort of VIS ˇ IVA. Attributes: fly whisk. His mother. moving house or opening a new business. His mother S vowed to secure a head for him from the first passing creature. is said to His father is S have created him from the scurf of her skin. His sacred animal is the bandicoot. noose. lotus and nectar. Khoi (Hottentot) [Namibia. Another account suggests that Parvati took Ganesa to show him off to the gods but that SANI (Saturn) burned his head to ashes and the elephant’s head was provided to save his life by a ˇ NU. up to five heads) and a trunk (which removes obstacles). Color: white. sometimes bearing one tusk. horse-head. Originally depicted as a solar deity. Tarksya. Mount or vahana of VAJRAPANI. Guardian deity of the Ganges. Garuda (the devourer) Archaic sun god and divine vehicle. she is the sister of PARVATI and the consort ˇ NU and AGNI. Gangir Goddess. less frequently. ˇ IVA. He has four arms which can carry a large number of attributes but particularly a shell. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). known chiefly at Lagas ˇ . He barred the way to his father whereupon ˇ iva inadvertently decapitated him. Ganga is regarded as a symbol of purity and of S is frequently depicted with Brahma washing the ˇ NU TRIVIKRAMA. the son of Vinata and KASYAPA. The daughter of the sky god AN. He may have originated as a fertility god and as a YAKSA (local forest deity). her fall. The elder daughter of HIMAVAN and MENA. on a stout or obese body (which contains the universe). Three-eyed and three-headed. Ganga River goddess. which he devours. Epithets include Amrtaharana. Attributes: conch. She may be linked with the north German goddess GEFJON. a mace and a water-lily. South Germanic. PARVATI. Garutman. Invoked by the Suebi tribe to bring prosperity. He is depicted in human form with an elephant’s head (or. Attributes: flower. a discus. Also. and more properly. skin and staff. Gatumdug Fertility goddess. 2. Also a who became the deified mount of V IS chief adversary of nagas (snake-like demons). According to raised foot of VIS tradition she was a heavenly river brought to earth ˇ iva in his hair to soften the shock of and caught by S Gaunab Malevolent god of darkness. lotus and water jar. Hindu (Vedic). southern Africa]. He is called upon before going on a journey. Garuda evolved into a bird-like human hybrid ˇ NU. Buddhist. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Garmangabis Tutelary goddess. but may also bear the attributes of Vis ˇ nu. The chief adversary . club. In early depictions Garuda has a parrot’s beak. Hegir-Nuna. According to one legend his elephant head was gained after his mother had put him outside the house to guard the doorstep while she took a bath. One of the seven daughters of the goddess Baba. which happened to be an elephant. She rides on a fish or water monster. compassionate VIS Ganesa’s great popularity results in frequent appearance in temples devoted to other Hindu deities. Hindu (Puranic).102 Ganga overcome difficulties. Sculptures are sometimes painted red. He is also a common household guardian made popular by his gentle nature.

his penis is often erect and extended toward her. lying on the ground with his arms stretched in opposite directions: “one to the sky. Attribute: a hook. one to the earth. Her attendant Mahesvara. forest garland. As Horus’s father. Also Gefiun. Also a SAKTI of ˇ IVA.” When drawn with Nut. Three-eyed. consigning Gaunab to the so-called “black heaven. He was engaged in a primordial struggle for supremacy during which Tsunigoab was wounded but eventually triumphed. a minor aspect of S animal is a lion or a wolf. 2. Gayatri Personification of a hymn. In a less benign context. He is also a god concerned with judgment in the dispute between HORUS and SETH. One of the AESIR deities and an attendant of the goddess FRIGG according to tradition mentioned by Snorri in the Edda. who is a sky goddess. the offspring of S generation” deity of the ENNEAD in Heliopolis and. mirror. image of GANESA. Messenger goddess. The name of a popular hymn in the Rg Veda. Geb reputedly snatches the souls of the dead and may imprison them against passing into the afterlife. An epithet of PARVATI as a goddess of the corn. Consort of the god VARUNA. said to have been created at the churning of the ocean of milk. Gauri Gautama Buddha See BUDDHA. She bore four giant sons whom she turned into oxen and used them to plough a tract of land which was then towed out to sea to become Zeeland (Sjaeland). Geb is a vegetation god. particularly called upon for protection against scorpion stings. Goddess. Also the name of one. Germanic and Nordic (Icelandic). Gefjon Goddess of agriculture. trident and water jar.” none specific but often associated with tombs. lotus. She is also said to have founded a royal Danish dynasty. . becomes the father of ISIS and OSIRIS in the Heliopolis genealogy. rosary. A SASANADEVATA. Geb appears on papyri from the New Kingdom typically wearing the crown of Lower Egypt. NOTE: Gauri-Tara is a distinct minor Buddhist Mahayana goddess. Goddess. etc. SYNONYMS Seb (erroneous). and therefore continued to protect each rightful heir to the crown of Egypt. Jain [India]. Attributes: fish. ˇ U and TEFNUT. Chthonic or earth god. as the brother and consort of NUT. is a “third Geb. dedicated to the sun. he presided over his crowning. ART REFERENCES paintings in Valley of the Kings. One of eight GAURIS of terrible appearance. Attributes: head and noose. He may also be accompanied by a goose (his sign in hieroglyphic). Also Varuni. Color: white. Hindu. of the consorts of BRAHMA. CENTER(S) OF CULT (whitish brilliant) 1. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Old Kingdom (circa 2600 BC) to end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400). See also SARASVATI. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). Buddhist. Also one of sixteen VIDYADEVIS or goddesses of learning headed by SARASVATI. GEB ORIGIN (earth) Egyptian. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid and coffin texts. New Kingdom religious papyri including the Papyrus of Tentamun.Gefjon 103 of the creator god TSUNIGOAB. possibly the second. 3. He is also seen as a god of healing. frequently colored green and with greenery sprouting from him.

Ghantakarna (ears like bells) God of healing. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). he is propitiated with offerings of vegetables and is symbolized by special trees planted near the house. Ghentu Minor god. Gishu [Uganda. Sometimes considered to be an aspect of AHURA MAZDA. the genius loci. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). and hammer. Ges ˇ tin-Ana Chthonic goddess. Geus Urvan Cattle god. Gerra God of fire. Color: white. Ghantapani (bell in hand) God.” this minor goddess is involved in the account of Dumuzi trying to escape from his fate at the hands of INANA ˇ KIGAL. One of a group of eight GAURIS. Genius God of men. Attribute: a bell. the counterpart of J UNO . Derived from the Sumerian GIBIL. An emanation of Vajrasattva. Persian [Iran]. Gibil Fire god. Associated with the smallpox god ENUNDU. Gibini Geus Tasan Cattle god. By the Akkadian period he becomes known as GERRA. Attributes: staff with bell. One of the group of dhyanibodhisattva (meditation BUDDHAS). Hindu. The so-called “heavenly grape-vine. Roman. Persian [Iran]. Buddhist. Plague god. Attributes: bell with noose. The personification of creativity and strength in mortal males. Roman religion also dictated that every place had its guardian spirit. An ˇ IVA. According to legend he was sacrificed by the great gods and his blood was used in the creation of mankind. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). . NOTE: there is also a poorly defined goddess Ghantakarni. he is the son of ANU and ANUNITU and becomes largely syncretized with both ERRA and NERGAL. East Africa]. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). worshiped as a guardian against attendant of S diseases of the skin. Ghasmari (voracious) Goddess of terrifying appearance. In her house he is changed into and ERES a gazelle before being caught and finally transported to the underworld. Color: green. The son of AN and KI.104 Gemini Gemini See DIOSKOUROI. Known in northern India as the god who “sends the itch. The guardian of cattle who appears in the guise of a cow.” Ges ˇ tu Minor god of intellect. The sister of DUMUZI and consort of Ningisida. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). The creator of cattle. Buddhist (Mahayana).

CENTER(S) OF CULT none specifically known. West Africa]. She is said to enter the house of a dying person. Cycles of Kings. Gish is associated chiefly with the villages of Kamdesh and Shtiwe but has been worshiped throughout the Kafir region with the sacrifice of hornless oxen. He slaughters with great efficiency but is considered lacking in graces and intellect. the Na tri dee dana (three gods of skill). His home is a fortress of steel atop a mythical walnut tree propped up by his mother which provides nourishment and strength for his warriors. stitching her up with a needle. The consort of the sun god LISA and the mother of a large number of minor astral deities. Known chiefly among the Kati people in the southern Hindukush. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP early times until Christianization. Attributes: Indian gong and lute. ART REFERENCES various monumental sculptures and inscriptions. One of a group of Astamataras (mothers). . Gobniu forms part of a triad of deities. Gleti Moon goddess. Glaukos Gish God of war. a deity skilful in brazing. A feast was given in his honor if the outcome was successful. dived into the ocean and remained there as a guardian deity of fishermen and their nets. Gobniu is known chiefly for his skills as a metal smith and in brewing the immortal beer of the gods. Allegedly an impoverished fisherman who ate a sea-grass with magical properties. SYNONYMS Goibniu. Fon [Benin. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and BabylonianAkkadian). Gita Mother goddess. Sea god. GOBNIU (smith) Celtic (Irish). dressed in a white gown. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. she carried him for eighteen months before he wrenched himself from her belly. GOVANNON (Welsh).GOBNIU 105 Giltine Goddess of death. God of skills including alebrewing. In his brewing activities he uses a vast bronze caldron. the gletivi. See Nin-giszida. Pre-Christian Lithuanian. Color: red. One of the offspring of the creator god IMRA. ORIGIN Giszida God. The rainbow is a sling with which he carries his quiver. Roman. Also Giwish. circa AD 400. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. He fashions invincible magic weapons for the TUATHA DE DANANN. Greek. See also PROTEUS. and Luchta. particularly prior to combat. Glaucus Sea god. and suffocate them. See also GLAUKOS. Gish seems partly modeled on the Aryan (Vedic) god INDRA (see also INDR). with Credne. His consort is the goddess SANJU. emerging in a generally boorish light (see also THOR). See also NINGISZIDA. who became the stars of heaven. his mother is named as Utr. a copy of which was housed in various sanctuaries and was apparently at times associated with the ritual slaughter of kings of Ireland. Kafir [Afghanistan].

Grismadevi (goddess of summer) Seasonal goddess. Lamaist [Tibet]. Three-headed. Romano-Celtic (Continental Europe). Roman. lotus and staff. Grannus God of healing. Also an attendant of SRIDEVI. Grannus became syncretized with the Roman god APOLLO as Apollo Grannus.” Most are goddesses e. Kafir [Afghanistan]. including sites at Aix-laChapelle. An avatara of S shiped among cow-herders and the founder of the gorakhnathi sect in Nepal. Attributes: ax and cup. but otherwise naked. . India. paws and fins. Grdhrasya (face of a vulture) Minor goddess. CAMUNDA. and as far distant as the Danube basin. Gujo Tutelary guardian deity. Govannon God of skills. He may have been a local consort of the messenger goddess Zhiwu. A god of whom there is nothing other than a passing reference from among the extinct southern Hindukush tribe of Pachags. See also MAHAKALA. Generally depicted in art as a large head with arms. bow. Chilkat [American north Pacific coast]. Also Bram-zei gzugs-can. The name appears across a wide area generally associated with medicinal springs and hot mineral waters. The consort of the goddess ERES mentioned as the pretext on which the fertility goddess INANA descends to the netherworld. but they are also to be found in larger towns and cities. Gramadevata Generic term for a local tutelary deity. or as a painted war canoe. Identified with the arts and generally depicted with long flowing tresses.g. He appears in several guises. Gon-Po Nag-Po God. mGon-dkar. The counterparts of the Greek Charites. Buddhist. See also GOBNIU. Goraknath ˇ iva. One of the forms of VAIROCANA. GUR-GYIMGON-PO. worGuardian god. DURGA and KALI. Son of the goddess DON.106 Gonaqade’t Gonaqade’t Sea god. Generally they are invoked in small villages where they guard boundaries and fields and are represented by a painted stone. or as the head of a huge fish. Celtic (Welsh). Usually accompanied by a yak. and baths were sometimes called Aquae Granni. Hindu. Gugulanna Minor underworld deity. Gratiae Goddesses. Attributes: arrow. Such deities are identified as “not being served by Brahman priests. Color: red. ian). Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Trier. rising from the water as a gaily painted house inlaid with blue and green Haliotis shell. By tradition he brings power and good fortune to all who see him. Buddhist (Mahayana). Mesopotamian (Sumerˇ KIGAL. Grahamatrka (demon mother) Goddess. Grand (Vosges). Brittany.

The serpent devoured Gunnodoyak but was then slain by Hino. A youthful heroic deity who was once mortal. A form of MAHAKALA usually attended by a man. Also NINTINUGGA. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Color: blue. who cut open the snake. A Gula temple is described at Uruk. Particularly known from Bengal. enemy of humankind. She may be synonymous with NIN’INSINA. ˇ TARAN. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Gur-Gyi Mgon-Po God of tents. Consort of NINURTA. See also IS . including the Yolngu people. QUETZALCOATL. The terrific manifestation of the DHYANIBUDDHA RATNASAMBHAVA. Also known as Kunapipi. He was empowered by the spirit of thunder. and equating to the feathered serpent god of Aztec religion. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Hittite. Hino. Gula (great one) Goddess of healing. A SAKTI who in later Hinduism became regarded as of evil intent. Gunura Deity of uncertain status. ˇ es Gul-S ˇ Collective name for goddesses of fate.Gusilim 107 Gukumatz Sky god. Mythology indicates that Gunabibi has been perceived as a deity who came from the sea or the rivers during the Dreamtime but who reigns now over dry land. His eight arms and legs are decorated with snakes. Gunnodoyak Iroquois (North American Indian). Gusilim (loud voice) God. Attributes include a skull on the hair and he stands on a lotus. Australian aboriginal. They dispense good or evil. Her cult bears some similarity to that of the Greek mother goddess DEMETER and to Tantric cults in India. The son of the creator gods E QUAHOLOM and E ALOM. Attributes: club. For this reason the cult is thought to have been introduced from Asia to Arnhem Land and then to other parts of the Australian continent as early as the sixth century. Her animal is the dog. Also Hutena (Hurrian). recovered the body of Gunnodoyak and returned him to his rightful place in heaven. Described variously as the husband of the goddess NIN’INSINA and the father of Damu (DUMUZI). classical Mesoamerican) [Guatemalan highlands]. cup and knife. Gunabibi Creator goddess. Gundari-Myoo Japanese Buddhist. but also as the sister of Damu. He bears three eyes and fangs. Also mentioned in Hellenistic Babylonian times. Gulsilia Mata Mother goddess. Among modern aborigines she is the subject of esoteric rituals which also involve the great serpent Yulunggul with whom Gunabibi has been closely involved. Mayan (Quiche. inflicting sickness. to conquer the Great Water Snake. she is extensively revered by aborigines in northern Australia. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. life or death.

He allegedly caused a war between Gwynedd and Dyfed. In the ensuing combat Gwydion used magic powers and slew Pryderi. son of RHIANNON. The leader of the phantom hunt which chases a white stag. He seems to have underworld links. in Dyfed. His mother is DON the Welsh mother goddess. Celtic (Welsh). was named Caer Gwydion. and stole his pigs.108 Gwydion Gwydion God of war. the Milky Way. Celtic (Welsh). Known locally from South Wales. Gwynn Ap Nudd Chthonic underworld god. He visited the court of PRYDERI. He equates with HERNE in England and ARAWN in more northern parts of Wales. hence the route taken by the dead. .

Hadad Hachiman God of war and peace. and thus the link developed. The creator of the world assisted by three other deities. he became more strongly identified in the latter context. a vision of a child KAMI appeared there to a priest. the location of a magnificent shrine. Early deity of the western Sahara referred to as warding off enemies (possibly Libyan) from the west. Western Semitic (Syrian and Phoenician). when pacifism dominated Japan during the post-war era. Hachiman is also a deity of peace and a guardian of human life and. A deity whose origins are confused. The site is. The cult center was on the southern island of Kyushu at Usa. Named Ojin-Tenno and born in AD 200 to the empress Jingu-Kogo. the Canaanite capital of Ugarit [Ras S name of Hadad apparently becomes a substitute for that of BAAL. bolt. the Umi-Hachiman-Gu. Shinto [Japan]. Hachiman originates as a member of the imperial dynasty. Hachacyum (our very lord) Creator god. his counterpart (or alter ego) in the underworld. his consort and two brothers. Mayan (Lacandon. Also Nohochacyum (our great lord). In modern Shintoism. during his remarkable reign. In texts found at the site of the ancient ˇ amra] . today. where Hachiman has been perceived as a god of war. His mother is the goddess A S During Hellenic times he was predominantly worshiped at Ptolemais and Hierapolis. The kami identified himself by the Chinese ideogram representing the name Hachiman. who overshadowed him in local popularity at Hierapolis. Egyptian. one of whom is Sucunyum.H 6 Ha Guardian god. His Syrian consort is ATARGATIS. The place of his birth was marked by a sanctuary and several centuries after his death. he greatly improved the living standards and culture of Japan Weather god. Soldiers departing for battle once took with them relics from the shrine. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. but such a deity was probably worshiped in the distant past with the alternative title of HimeGami or Hime-O-Kami. Depicted in anthropomorphic form crowned by the symbol of desert dunes. His voice is described as roaring from the clouds and his weapon is the thunderˇ ERAH. The name does not appear in either of the sacred texts of Shintoism. Derived from the Akkadian deity ADAD. Statues of the 109 .

His home in the underworld is the House of Ais. and brings her to the underworld to reign as his queen for four months in every year. Known from passing reference in texts and from inscriptions. LITERARY SOURCES Odyssey. Believed to be so terrible that he is not even propitiated with food. By the third century BC the Hadad-Atargatis cult had extended to Egypt. He sails in a canoe of pestilence with huge sails like those of the white man’s ships which brought plague to the Indians. CENTER(S) OF CULT restricted to Pylos. ORCUS (Roman). Hades abducts Persephone (Kore). Buddhist (Mahayana). he is also the god of riches. He may be called Plutos. Hades is the son of KRONOS and RHEA and may be perceived as the chthonic form of ZEUS. when the god HACHACYUM decides to send rain he directs Hahana Ku to visit the black powder maker MENZABAC. HADES (the invisible one) Greek. Hawaii. According to the Jewish writer Josephus. Hahana Ku buys only a small quantity.110 HADES two deities were carried in procession to the sea twice yearly. Particularly associated with smallpox. Kassite [Iraq]. Typically seated on a red lotus . See also ADAD. Hadad also enjoyed a major cult following at Damascus in the eighth and ninth centuries BC. Theogony (Hesiod). Haili’laj Plague god. The closely guarded gates of his kingdom. Her role was generally shared with the chthonic goddess Miru. and Lethe. although the latter is generally regarded as a distinct deity. and a key. circa 1500 BC until Christianization (circa AD 400). In the Odyssey the rivers are identified as the Pyriphlegethon and Kokytos (a tributary of the Styx) both of which flow into the Acheron. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Hahanu God of uncertain function. the daughter of DEMETER. Hala Goddess of healing. carrying a two-pronged harpoon or a scepter. SYNONYMS Aidoneus (Roman). According to tradition. are identified in the Odyssey as lying beyond the ocean at the edge of the world and in the Iliad as lying directly beneath the earth. PLUTOS. Canada]. when he becomes identified as the god SUTEKH. In the Greek tradition his consort becomes HERA. ART REFERENCES none specific. Since all precious metals and stones lie buried in the earth. Hahana Ku (much rains house god) Messenger god. Mayan (classical Mesoamerica) [Mexico]. with its waters of forgetfulness. Dis. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island. Through Hades run the rivers Styx. beside which the gods made their hallowed oaths. He is depicted as a dark-bearded god Hakea Goddess of the underworld. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Iliad (Homer). Polynesian. also called Hades. He rides in a black chariot drawn by four black horses. God of death. A form of AVALOKITESVARA. Probably later syncretized with the Akkadian goddess GULA. he is also the consort of PERSEPHONE (KORE). Halahala (lord of poison) God of poison. against the wishes of the vendor.

Locally worshiped by the Bhils. When the bee stings Telepinu to awaken him. Romano-Celtic (Rhineland). Han Xiang-zi Immortal being. Polynesian. Hannahannas Mother goddess. Minor avatara of VIS Depicted in the form of a goose. the god vents his rage on the natural world. the missing god. they achieved immortality through Hanui-o-Rangi (father of winds) God of winds and weather. Hansa (goose) ˇ NU. Libyan. grass. The attendant of ADAD and linked with SULLAT. Attributes include a basket of flowers and a flute. Known from circa 1000 BC until circa 800 BC. image of AMITABHA on crown. Hindu. cup. tiger skin and trident. Hani-Yasu-Hiko Halki (barley) Corn god. NOTE: the priestesses of the Phrygian mother goddess KYBELE were. Shinto [Japan]. Hittite and Hurrian. A trio of matres known from inscriptions. she is one of the clay deities made from the faeces of the primordial goddess IZANAMI. Hani-Yasu-Hime Goddess of potters. Minor god. An ancient deity depicted with ram’s horns. Hittite and Hurrian. See also BA XIAN. their lifestyle. melissai or bees. He may also have been invoked by beer makers. Shinto [Japan]. he is one of the clay deities made from the faeces of the primordial goddess IZANAMI.” In the legend of TELEPINU. Described as the “great mother. lotus. she sends a bee to locate him. Hamadryades Animistic tree spirits. who fathered him . according to the Roman writer Lactantius. Three-headed and three-eyed. Vaguely defined female beings whose existence is restricted to the individual trees of which they are guardians. Hammu Mata Mother goddess. Hindu (Puranic). Greco-Roman. Hammon God of the evening sun. God of potters.Hanui–o–rangi 111 with the SAKTI on the left knee. Hamavehae Mother goddesses. Attributes: arrow. Urartian [Armenia]. bow. Hani(s) Haldi Tutelary god. The consort of HANI-YASU-HIME. One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology. Color: white. He is the son of the sky god RANGINUI. Taoist (Chinese). Once mortal beings. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). The consort of HANI-YASU-HIKO.

Hara Ke Goddess of sweet water. and is noted for his speed and agility in which context he is often worshiped by young men and athletes. Hindu. The aspect of the god who rises at dawn in the eastern sky. Hindu (Puranic). sees the annual inundation of the Nile valley. He may hold a tray of produce. and rescuing. They control the fierce storms from the east. northern . Hara (destroyer) ˇ IVA. He is the son of PAVANA. with prominent belly. He is depicted in anthropomorphic form but androgynous. A locally worshiped deity known particularly in Bundelkhand. He leads a mythical forest army of monkeys. He takes a major role in the Ramayana epic searching for. which contradicts the more commonly held belief that the king is the son of RE. the king is born on the eastern horizon as Harakhti. and personifies the ideal and faithful serV IS vant. Hao Creator god. the sun god. The spirits of the dead are believed to live in a paradise city in the depths of the Niger. He may appear trampling on the goddess of Lanka [Sri Lanka]. He was propitiated with human sacrifice. Particularly the deity of wooded mountain slopes. Shinto [Japan]. His court includes crocodile gods and frog goddesses. Hanui thus fathered Tawhiri. West Africa]. Inhabits caverns adjacent to the Nile cataracts and over- Hardaul Plague god. and is depicted as a monkey with a long tail. Hine-Tu-Whenua is the mother of Hakona-Tipu and Pua-I-Taha. Janjero [Ethiopia]. the sister of TANGAROA. Harakhti A form of the god HORUS. There are no known sanctuaries to Hapy. Also one of the Epithet of S EKADASARUDRAS (eleven rudras). controlling the southern and southwesterly gales.112 Hanuman on one of his early consorts. Hanuman attends RAMA. Considered to live beneath the waters in tributaries of the river Niger. See also KHNUM. the sea god. Worshiped particularly in southern India but more generally in villages. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Egyptian. Hara-Yama-Tsu-Mi Mountain god. Personified by the crocodile and considered to reside in the river Gibe. According to Pyramid Texts. Godi and Goru. Attributes: bow. the goddess SITA who has been captured by the demon Ravana. All the subsequent descendants of Hanui-o-Rangi are believed to rule over various aspects of the weather. mane. pendulous breasts and crowned with water plants. the god of winds. whose son was Tiu. club. one of the incarnations of ˇ NU. the god of the northwest wind. At Abydos he is depicted as a two-headed goose with human body. attended by two dragons. Hapy Fertility god of the Nile flood. the deities overseeing the more gentle westerly winds. rock and staff. Hanuman (with large jaws) Monkey god. Pokoharua. May appear five-headed. Egyptian. Color: red. Songhai [Niger. The children of Tiu include Hine-I-Tapapauta and Hine-Tu-Whenua.

Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Also a wedding god. He is generally representative of the notion of a god-child. Mother goddess. He thus becomes associated with sarcophagi and appears frequently in coffin texts. Egyptian. sometimes being eaten. OSIRIS. Egyptian. He is most closely linked with KRSNA. In this form he avenges his father. but he and Krsna also parallel Dharma’s other sons. Egyptian. Greco-Roman. Attribute: a child may be held at her hip. SEMELE. Generally depicted sitting on the knee of his mother. Popularized by modern religious movements. NARA and NARAYANA. snakes and scorpions. Also Harueris. Considered by some to be identical with the goddess Vriddhi. Also Hermione. Also Har-nedj-itef (Egyptian). The name distinguishes the mature deity from HARPOKRATES . Kingdom (circa 1550-1000 BC) identify the sphinx at Giza as Harmachis looking toward the eastern horizon. He is depicted as the falcon god. Hariti (green or stealing) 1. Egyptian. Also Har-pa-khered (Egyptian). Greek. Plague goddess. Harpina River goddess. Harendotes [Greek] Form of the god HORUS. One of the group of MATARAS (mothers) who are the patrons of children. Horus specifically guards and protects his father OSIRIS in death. Hindu Minor incarnation of the god V IS (Epic and Puranic). Her consort is Pancika. In her destructive aspect she steals and eats children. Buddhist. Harmonia Goddess of joining. Agave. who fathered Oenomaus (a king said to have reigned near Olympia) on her. Hari is one of the sons of the god DHARMA who sprang from the heart of BRAHMA. Hari can be a more generic epithet applied to several Hindu gods. Autonoe and Polydorus. Haroeris [Greek] Form of the god HORUS as a man. and regains his kingdom from SETH. Inscriptions from the New . Particularly known from the north and northwest of India. Harmachis is Horus as the sun god. Also regarded in some texts as the goddess of fertility. the child Horus. his uncle. HARENDOTES. the goddess ISIS. Under this name. He may also be invoked to ward off dangerous creatures and is associated with crocodiles. she was seduced by ARES. often suckling at the left breast and wearing the juvenile side-lock of hair.Harpokrates 113 India. alternatively KUBERA. 2. Harmachis [Greek] Form of the god HORUS. as a protector against cholera and considered to have been an historical figure who died in AD 1627. Har-wer (both Egyptian). She is the apotheosis of harmony in life which is also displayed in musical euphony. The consort of Cadmus and mother of Ino. Daughter of the river god ASOPOS. Hari (yellowish brown) ˇ NU. Daughter of A RES (M ARS ) and A PHRODITE (V ENUS ) or Cytherea. completing the union of two deities. Also Har-em-akhet (Egyptian). Associated with smallpox. Harpokrates [Greek] Form of the god HORUS as a child.

The priest who impersonates him has to be a good runner and challenges others. Harsomtus [Greek] Form of the god HORUS. His priest wears a blue buckskin mask with a fringe of hair. he is identified thus as the offspring of Horus the elder and HATHOR. using high-pitched squeaking calls. Harsiese Form of the god HORUS. He holds a whitened gourd rattle. Also Yebaka. Otherwise of uncertain status. with eight vertical black strokes repreGod of racing. He also has a malevolent aspect in which he can cast evil spells. Hittite and Human. Navaho [USA]. a spruce collar and a scarlet loin cloth with a leather belt decorated with silver and with a fox pelt dangling from the back. in his right hand. Hastsebaad Chief of goddesses. at the bottom of which is a horizontal yellow band representing evening light. Navaho [USA]. Invoked by blacksmiths. At the Edfu temple. Regarded as a benevolent deity who aids mankind and cures disease. Believed to live in a cave system near San Juan. Egyptian. Hastsbaka Male elder of the gods. Egyptian. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). the contender is whipped with a yucca scourge. . If the contender wins. It is decorated with eagle and owl feathers. Harsiese performs the “opening of the mouth” rite for the dead king. Specifically when personifying the child of ISIS and OSIRIS. Navaho [USA]. and who is almost naked but for an ornate scarf on the hips and a leather belt decorated with silver and with a fox pelt dangling behind. Hindu. Hastseltsi Hastehogan Chief house god. She is involved in rites of exorcism and wields considerable influence. Hasameli God of metalworkers. there is no penalty! A fastidious deity who avoids contact with any unclean objects. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). According to the Pyramid Texts. senting rain. The SAKTI of the god HRSIKESA. The skin is painted white. Also a god of farming identified with the west and the sky at sunset. Navaho [USA]. His ceremonial mask is a domino shape covering mouth and throat with white shells over the eyes and mouth.114 Harsa Harsa (desire) Goddess. In this form Horus unites the northern and southern kingdoms of Egypt. and in ritual the part of the deity is played by a boy or small man wearing a mask which covers the entire head and neck. Also Har-mau (Egyptian). Hasta (hand) Minor goddess of fortune. and a wand of spruce in his left hand. He is otherwise naked and painted white. A benevolent NAKSATRA or astral goddess. If the priest wins. The six goddesses of the tribe all wear identical masks. His priest wears a blue mask. He is depicted as a child comparable with HARPOKRATES. which may be decorated with spruce twigs. He organizes and oversees athletic races.

” she shows a potentially destructive nature. Navaho [USA]. Not regarded as a creator deity. In early times evidence suggests that she was regarded as the mother of HORUS. Also guardian of animals in the hunt and. Navaho tradition dictates that no pictures are drawn of this deity. with eight vertical black strokes representing rain. A “black” god who is reclusive and generally apart from other deities. In a conflicting tradition stemming from the cult center of Horus at Edfu in Upper Egypt. in one form or another. Regarded as a benevolent deity who aids mankind and cures disease. he cures disease through the medium of his priest. as in the sculpture of her browsing among papyrus plants and suckling the pharaoh Amenhotep II from the Hathor sanctuary of Tuthmosis III. Hathor is also drawn as Horus’ consort. ART REFERENCES wall paintings from the major sanctuary at Dendara. His home is believed to be near Tsegihi in New Mexico. who flagellates the affected parts. SYNONYMS none significant. etc. sculptures including an outstanding composition from the temple of King Menkaure at Giza. He is the inventor of fire and of the fire drill and board. reliefs in the temple of Queen Hatsheput at Thebes. A benevolent deity. with a benign motherly nature and invariably depicted. See also ARTEMIS. His priest dresses in black and wears a black mask with white-bordered eye and mouth holes. as a cow goddess with strong sky associations. Her father is the sun god RE and she is often described as the mother of all Egyptian pharaohs. and a spruce collar. Hastsezini God of fire. but god of the dawn and the eastern sky. He also has a malevolent aspect in which he can cast evil spells. Also Yebitsai. Navaho [USA]. The ceremonial fire drill is made from cedarwood. tribal lodge. HATHOR Egyptian. LITERARY SOURCES Book of the Dead. Hatdastsisi God. She may be seen as the consort of the war god NAYENEZGANI. sistrum rattles.HATHOR 115 Hastseoltoi Goddess of hunting. Giza. Harris Papyrus etc. CENTER(S) OF CULT Dendara. but otherwise ordinary Navaho dress with white buckskin leggings. which is buried in the earth to the east of the Hathor is a major Egyptian deity. Navaho [USA]. She carries two arrows. Thebes. but possibly earlier. Mother goddess and goddess of love. At the bottom is a horizontal yellow band representing evening light. and wears a quiver and bow case. Navaho [USA]. ORIGIN Hastseyalti (talking elder) Chief of gods. but once the OSIRIS legend gained widespread popularity. until the end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400). In art she may be depicted as a cow. In the legend of the “eye of Re. His priest wears a buckskin mask decorated with owl feathers. of corn. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from Old Kingdom (circa 2700 BC). possibly. Sacrifices to Hatdastsisi are made up from reeds decorated with a design representing the blue yucca plant. His priest invokes him in a ceremonial dance wearing a white mask with a symbol consisting of a corn stalk with two ears. she came to bear a complex protective rather than maternal relationship with Horus. one in each hand. other contemporary sculpture and painting. but this is an isolated instance. or in human .

Depicted anthropomorphically. She is the consort of the ram god BANEBDJEDET. From time to time she uses it to replenish stocks. Hathor is also a goddess of love and sexuality. Haukim Local god. She is prominent thus in many of the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes where she is seen as a funerary deity strongly linked with Re when he descends below the western horizon. Polynesian (including Maori).] She is the daughter of PAPATUANUKU. Her priestesses carried sistrum rattles and menat “necklaces. and HI’AIKA. The deity concerned with wild plants gathered as food. One of the eight deities of the OGDOAD. Particularly associated with cholera in northwestern India. not infrequently. Like Ninhursag ˜ a she is associated with lions. Mythology also identifies her as a heroine who saved herself and her consort from enemies at the time of creation by hiding in a breadfruit tree and fending off the attackers with poisonous sap and wood splinters. and particularly with the rhizome of the . Hathor is also represented. representing chaos. and is revered by many people of Polynesia and by the Maori of New Zealand. Local deity whose cult center was at Mendes [Tell el-Ruba] in the Nile delta. and is associated with the erotic aspects of music and dancing. Egyptian. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. Egyptian. Vegetation god. Hindu. Hatmehyt (she who leads the fishes) Fertility and guardian goddess of fish and fishermen. [Hawaiian. Haubas Local god. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. the volcano goddess of Hawaii. Haumiatiketike Hatthi Plague goddess. the primordial earth mother. Other symbols include the papyrus reed and the snake. or as a fish. She is also depicted greeting the rising sun in the guise of a baboon. Hauhet Primordial goddess. As a deity responsible for birth. Haumea possesses a magical wand that she used at the time of creation to engender fruit trees and fish. In the latter depiction she wears a crown SAG which consists of a sun disc surrounded by the curved horns of a cow. Known from inscriptions. the goddess of the dance. Her more notable children include PELE. The pair epitomize the concept of infinity. Many pharaonic tombs and magical papyri include description of “seven Hathors” who predict the fate of a child at birth and these deities were often called upon in spells. Hathor enjoyed great popularity in GrecoRoman culture and many elements in the makeup of the goddess APHRODITE are modeled on her Egyptian style. in the capitals of architectural columns. The pharaoh was the “son of Hathor” and every Egyptian princess automatically became a priestess of the goddess. Possibly a deity concerned with arbitration and the law.” both of which are percussion instruments used in cultic rites. she is coupled with the god HEH and appears in anthropomorphic form but with the head of a snake. Haumea Mother goddess.116 Hatmehyt form wearing a hairstyle which mimics the Mesopotamian “omega” symbol (see NINHUR˜ A).

Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). bow. 2. Probably identical with Hayagriva. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Hindu. ORIGIN . snakes. eight hands. horse’s mane and rosary. Also the attributes of Vis ˇ nu.” HEBAT Hittite and Hurrian [Anatolia]. Haurun Chthonic or earth god. according to the texts. banner. One of a group of DHARMAPALA with terrible appearance and royal attire. lotus and peach fruit. he is considered to be an emanation of AKSOBHYA or AMITABHA. His SAKTI is MARICI. Attributes: horse heads. she was once a mortal being who achieved immortality through her lifestyle. Western Semitic (Canaanite). The tutelary goddess of housewives and the only female deity among the group. Three-eyed. One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology. The most significant minor incarnation of the ˇ NU. At the behest of BRAHMA. Taoist (Chinese). image of Aksobhya or Amitabha on the crown. Hazzi Mountain god. Depicted in human form with the head of a horse and. but not necessarily in the same context. Attributes include a ladle. Haurun was introduced to Egyptian religion probably by émigré workers who related him to the sculpture of the Sphinx at Giza. from the bottom of the primeval ocean. Also Hayasirsa. Horse god. but of uncertain function. Haya-Ji God of winds. Hayasya 1. club. noose. He Zur (the great white one) Baboon god. prayer wheel. He Xian-gu Immortal being. Egyptian. Shinto [Japan]. In mythology he carried back to heaven the body of AME-WAKA-HIKO (the heavenly young prince) after he had been slain by an arrow from the “heavenly true deer bow. Hittite and Hurrian. ax. Attributes: book (Veda). Known from texts. Patron god of horses. Hayasum Minor god. Color: red. He probgod V IS ably originated as a horse god and later became an avatara associated with wisdom and knowledge. Buddhist. Attribute: the head of a horse. Haurun was known locally as a god of healing. Hayagriva rescued the Vedas. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Particularly the fierce god of whirlwinds and typhoons. stolen by two demons. flames. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP 2000 BC or earlier until 1300 BC or later. sword and trident. Invoked in Hittite treaties as a deity responsible for oaths. lotus.HEBAT 117 bracken which has been traditionally relied on by the Maori in times of famine or need. Patron goddess and mother goddess. Hayagriva (horse neck) 1. 2. skin. staff and trident. Known from the Old Kingdom and regarded as a manifestation of Thot. Vadavavaktra. but also arrow. A deity of the same name was worshiped by the Hurrians. Horse goddess. flower.

Heh Primordial god. In another context he is depicted kneeling. Heimdall is an enigmatic deity to whom there is considerable reference in the codices. he is coupled with the goddess HAUHET and appears in anthropomorphic form but with the head of a frog. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform and hieroglyphic texts from Boghazköy. frequently on a basket which represents the hieroglyph for universality.” CENTER(S) OF CULT none known. The cup-bearer of the gods of Olympus. She is described as the “great goddess. HEIMDALL (earth-watcher) ORIGIN Nordic (Icelandic). etc. without weapons. She is more intimately ˇ UB. in one fragmentary text called Kumarbi and described as the king of the gods. other sanctuaries within the Hittite Empire extending down into the north Syrian plain. the leading goddess is called Hepatu. displaced KUMARBI as king of the gods. “king of linked with the weather god TES heaven. His symbol is the Gjallarhorn which is used to alert the gods to the onset of Ragnarok (doom). SYNONYMS Hegemone Greek. He Hebe Goddess of youth. The name given to one of the GRATIAE in the traditions of Athens. NOTE: these sanctuaries were often created where vertical rock facades suitable for carving relief sculptures existed near water. place names. Greek. Hebat was adopted from the Hurrian pantheon as the principal goddess of state religion in the Hittite Empire. monumental rock carvings. Prose Edda (Snorri). LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. CENTER(S) OF CULT Hattusas [Boghazköy and Yazilikaya]. He is also depicted greeting the rising sun in the guise of a baboon. sculptures. Of uncertain status but probably a guardian deity. SYNONYMS Mardall. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier.118 Hebe possibly Hepatu. The daughter of ZEUS and HERA and the consort of HERAKLES. Hebat is often drawn as a matronly figure. .” In some texts she is also the “sun goddess of ARINNA” (a religious center near Boghazköy thus far lost to archaeology) but her relationship to the sun god. Arinna. One of the eight deities of the OGDOAD. ART REFERENCES none known but probably the subject of anonymous carvings. needing no sleep and able to see in the darkest of nights. He may carry the ankh symbol and hold palm rubs in each hand. possibly Rig. According to mythology. he lives beside the rainbow bridge connecting Asgard with the other realms. KUBABA. The pair epitomize the concept of infinity. a tireless watcher over Asgard. but generally in company with a lion. Egyptian. In the Roman pantheon she becomes JUVENTAS. though because of name changes her precise role is not always clear. lord of the land of Hatti” and god of battle who. representing chaos. is unclear. through to Christianization (circa AD 1100). according to the same legend. In a famous procession of gods carved on rock faces at Yazilikaya. god of right and justice. HANNAHANNAS. “the white god. ART REFERENCES seals and seal impressions. He is drawn as the sentry or guardian.

also known as Hell. In variations of the DEMETER legends Hekate plays a part in the return of PERSEPHONE from HADES. Germanic and Nordic (Icelandic). often found on amulets or other magical devices associated with childbirth. and she takes command of all who die. In later times she tended to become syncretized with the goddess ARTEMIS. and in some parts of Thessaly she was worshiped by occult bands of female moonworshipers. SYNONYMS Hecate. and of Fenrir. the Greco-Roman goddess of justice and revenge. Artistic representations show her carrying torches. who was raped by Zeus. The daughter of LOKI and the giantess Angrboda. both high and low of Heimdall’s children. The . She is also invoked as a bestower of wealth and favor. She was adopted into British mythology. Minor deity who by some traditions is the consort of HAROERIS (see also HORUS). ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. Helen is frequently alleged. ORIGIN Hel Chthonic underworld goddess.Helen 119 came also to be associated with guardianship of the world tree (Yggdrasil). to have been a mortal heroine or a demigoddess. Texts refer to a major sanctuary at Tuna et-Gebel which has been totally obliterated. Heket Frog goddess concerned with birth. Helen Goddess [Greek] associated with the city of Troy. except for heroes slain in battle. confounds tradition by making Helen the daughter of ZEUS and Ocean. the waves of the sea (see AEGIR) and in some legends he is the father of mankind. She is the mother of Scylla and is specifically a goddess of pathways and crossroads traveled by night. The Voluspa (Codex Regius) begins with the words: “Hear me. at Ragnarok. The remains of another sanctuary survive at Qus in Upper Egypt. He may even have been a VANIR god. in Homeric tradition. Egyptian. In some mythologies she is depicted as half black and half white. all ye hallowed beings. Hekate is also the patron of Medea and other witches. Said to have fought a sea battle with LOKI. In his Catalogues of Women Hesiod. Other Greek authors contemporary with Hesiod give Helen’s mother as NEMESIS. a triple figure of Hecate rose from masks placed at the junction. the phantom wolf who will swallow the sun. HEKATE Greek.” Heimdall has close links with FREYJA and his synonym Mardall parallels Mardoll (see Freyja). Said to be born of nine giantesses. CENTER(S) OF CULT Lagina. the Greek contemporary of Homer and author of the definitive Theogony of the Greek pantheon. and the sibling of both the Midgard worm who will cause the sea to flood the world with the lashings of his tail. Offerings were left in roadside shrines and at junctions. who ascend to Valhalla. LITERARY SOURCES Theogony (Hesiod) etc. Goddess of the moon and of pathways. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 800 BC until Christianization (circa AD 400). She is queen of the otherworld. Where paths met. In the Pyramid Texts she is referred to as a deity who eases the final stages of labor. Hekate is the daughter of Perses and Asteria and is subsequently honored by ZEUS as a goddess. Depicted as wholly frog-like or as a frog-headed human figure.

ORIGIN HELIOS ORIGIN Greek. Usually accompanied by a camel. LITERARY SOURCES Odyssey (Homer). there was a celebrated festival of Helios during which a chariot with four horses was driven off a cliff. deities of Olympus. Theogony (Hesiod). physically perfect. On Rhodes.” HEPHAISTOS Greco-Roman. other sculptures. He was titled by Gudea of Lagas ˇ “herald of the land of Sumer. but in the Theogony he is identified as the son of HYPERION and his sister Euryphaessa. One of several seasonal deities. SYNONYMS none. in disappointment at having borne a child with deformed legs. ART REFERENCES Colossus of Rhodes (lost). CENTER(S) OF CULT Rhodes. the mortal wife of Tyndareus. CENTER(S) OF CULT sanctuaries on Lemnos and. God of fire and smithies. Hephaistos draws on peculiar powers in the making of metal objects. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Helios is not specifically a Greek deity. After her death. from circa 450 BC. since the concept of a sun god was more or less universal in the ancient world. Also an attendant of Sridevi. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. circa 800 BC in Greece (but an adoption from much earlier times). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). allegedly the site of the largest Greek statue of a deity. Color: blue. Hendursaga God of the law. until Christianization (circa AD 400). ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. Sun god. However Hesiod strongly denied these claims. the first . Theogony (Hesiod). perhaps preceded by Etruscan. Odyssey (Homer). LITERARY SOURCES Iliad. SYNONYMS Hephaestus (Roman). One of the twelve major deities of Olympus. who subsequently gave birth to Erichthonos. Homeric legend describes Helen’s marriage to King Menelaus of Sparta and her subsequent abduction by Paris. which set him apart from the other. in Athens opposite the Acropolis on the hill above the Agora. symbolizing the setting of the sun into the sea. Helen was revered on the island of Rhodes as the goddess Dendritis.120 HELIOS mythology placing Helen as a demigoddess identifies her mother as Leda. Hemantadevi Goddess of winter. mythology generally places her among the stars with the Dioscuri (sons of Zeus). said to have been the catalyst for the Trojan War. Also a significant shrine at Ephesus. better known as Castor and Pollux. the twins of the Gemini constellation. threw him to earth where he was taken in and cared for by the people of Lemnos. which often possess magical qualities. In spite of physical disabilities. See also DISKOURI. the so-called Rhodes “Colossus” cast in bronze. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1500 BC until Christianization (circa AD 400). Hephaistos consorted briefly with ATHENA. He drives the chariot of the sun by day and descends beneath the ocean at night. The Hephaistos cult may have originated on the island of Lemnos with a tribal group the Greeks knew as Tyrsenoi. also seduced by Zeus who fathered POLLUX as Helen’s brother. Hephaistos is one of the sons of HERA who. He fathered the race of arcane KABEIROI blacksmith gods. Attributes: cup and hammer.

KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Herakles probably originates out of a diffusion of heroic myths about hunting spirits. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad (Homer). CENTER(S) OF CULT Plataea (Boeotia) and others. Her marriage involves a degree of subterfuge. one of Zeus’s concubines. until Christianization (circa AD 400). Heroic god. ART REFERENCES sculptures and carvings. Curiously. In the Odyssey he is said to be the consort of APHRODITE. but also jealous and quarrelsome. ART REFERENCES sculptures and carvings. In the Iliad he is married to CHARIS (Grace). to honor Hera. This foundation may then have drawn on role models such as NINURTA. Dodekathlos (Peisandros). her priestesses were carried to the sanctuary on a cart drawn by oxen which also presumably contained a statue of the goddess. the Heraia. as a shaman who protected the tribe against wild animals and who possessed the necessary supernatural skills to ensure a safe outcome to the chase. votive inscriptions. Iliad and Odyssey (Homer). HERAKLES (the fame of Hera?) ORIGIN Greek. HERA Greek. He is a heroic god of massive stature and prodigious appetite (see also THOR) who performs many feats of strength and . until Christianization (circa AD 400). wife of the philandering and all-powerful god ZEUS. directing her anger at HERAKLES and DIONYSOS in particular. Catalogues (Hesiod). LITERARY SOURCES Herakles (Euripedes). circa 800 BC. neither in literature nor in art is Hera perceived as a mother goddess. was stripped naked. In another piece of legend Zeus turns himself into a cuckoo so that he may fly into Hera’s bosom. SYNONYMS none. and as a tragi-comic figure. pillars of Herakles. circa 800 BC. Herakles is a son of ZEUS and HERA and the consort of Deianeira (destroyer of man). Traditionally a women’s games festival dedicated to Hera was also held on Olympus every four years. but probably earlier.HERAKLES 121 king of Athens. and separation when she becomes chera. The most prominent is ARES. The wife of Zeus. persuading Zeus by means of a magic girdle momentarily to forget his preoccupations with the Trojan War. but probably originating from a prehistoric model. HERA adopts a position in the Greek pantheon that is at times ambiguous. Hera relates to Zeus in three distinct “phases”—consummation in which she is pais the girl. yet he is also the least favored by the god. During a New Year festival. Theogony (Hesiod). She seems to have borne only a limited number of Zeus’s named children. In a fire festival practiced in Boeotia to the “great Daedala. Who seduced whom thus remains ambiguous. He made a famous shield for Achilles which was said to reflect the world and all that was in it. humiliated and immolated by a jealous Hera. Mythology views her both as an independent and wilful senior goddess. wedding and fulfillment as teleia. Other minor offspring included HEBE and EILEITHYIA. CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. SYNONYMS Heracles (Roman). Hera displays a jealous and malicious character. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP As stepmother to Zeus’s illegitimate children.” wooden images were burned to enact a legend whereby Plataea. found in ancient Near Eastern culture. The relationship with Zeus is incestuous since she is also the eldest daughter of KRONOS and therefore Zeus’s full sister. As the long-suffering.

Legend accords to him the invention of fire. Herakles became the god-ancestor of the Dorian kings. HERMES Greek. circa 800 BC but probably earlier until Christianization (circa AD 400). MAIA. He thus destroyed the sevenheaded serpent and hunted many others. Greek. who consorted with ZEUS. The festivities were often marked by huge feasts. Odyssey (Homer). Alexander the Great had an image of him incorporated into his coinage. guardianship of the deceased in the afterlife and sometimes appearing as a figurine in attendance on ISIS in building foundations. There were major sanctuaries on Thasos and on Mount Oita. he patronizes both heralds and thieves and is a bringer of good fortune. with the notable exception of Crete. He was born in the Arcadian mountains. Egyptian (Lower). the temporary capture of Cerberus. otherwise few specific places. Deianeira contrived Herakles’s death in a fit of jealous pique with a robe tainted with the poisoned blood of a centaur. apparently concerned with Hermes is the son of a nymph. including the liberation of PROMETHEUS. Perversely. He is frequently depicted wearing a lion skin. Tradition has it that their passion for one another was so great that they merged into a single androgynous being. SYNONYMS none. Hermes of Praxiteles in Olympia. She was recognized chiefly in the Old Kingdom (27th to 22nd centuries BC). CENTER(S) OF CULT Pheneos (Arcadia).122 Hercules courage. and the picking of the golden apples of immortality. He is a god of boundaries. Parthenon frieze. The offspring of HERMES and APHRODITE and the lover of the water nymph Salmakis. In Roman culture he becomes HERCULES. but strongly associated with wayside shrines and cairns. See also HERAKLES. According to legend Hermes as a day-old infant stole the cattle of his elder brother APOLLO while playing a lyre. who sent him to liberate ARES . Heret-Kau Underworld goddess. In a conflicting myth Herakles slew his wife and children at Thebes. He is a slayer of lions and engages in combat with mythical creatures comparable to those found on Mesopotamian seals. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad. the catching of the Stymphalos birds. Theogony (Hesiod). Herakles enjoyed cult centers in many places. A similar rite is known from Tarsos in Cilicia for the god Sandon. a complex. where every four years the death of the god was marked by a sacrificial fire festival. According to one legend. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Hercules God. ART REFERENCES probably certain prehistoric phallic figures marking boundaries. Hermes’s skills at theft were put to use by the other gods of Olympus. ironically from one of Herakles’s own arrows. Very little is known of Heret-Kau. Hermaphroditos God(dess) of uncertain status. which inflicted such torture upon him that he committed suicide by self-immolation on Mount Oita (near Trachis). Messenger of the gods. His exploits include the cleansing of the Augean stables so as to earn a tenth part of the cattle of the sun. guardian of graves and patron deity of shepherds. also generated on his first day. Roman. the hound of Hades. Machiavellian character full of trickery and sexual vigor. His most significant consort is APHRODITE.

the kerykeion. In company with other Greek gods. Known locally from Windsor . LITERARY SOURCES stela from Hnes later moved to Pompeii (Naples Museum). Thracian. Celtic (British) or Anglo-Saxon. Hermes is endowed with not-inconsiderable sexual prowess which he directs toward countryside nymphs and with which he also maintains a healthy and thriving population of sheep and goats! He was often represented in wayside shrines in the form of a phallic pillar or post which was regarded as a funerary monument. ORIGIN Hermus River god. Depicted as a horseman. according to legend. Hermoth. England. Herne Chthonic underworld god. It may be argued that Hermod is less a deity than a demigod hero modeled on the Danish king of the Beowulf Saga. Heruka is worshiped as a compassionate god. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from circa 2700 BC. flayed human skin. Roman. he equates with the Welsh deities GWYNN AP NUDD and ARAWN and is. Typically he stands upon a corpse. Depicted with stag-like antlers. One of the most popular deities in the pantheon. sword. until the end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400). Hence he was sent to bring both PERSEPHONE and Eurydice back from Hades. hence the role of grave guardian. Buddhist (Mahayana). Classical art depicts Hermes wearing winged golden sandals and holding a magical herald’s staff consisting of intertwined serpents. Primeval deity associated both with Osiris and Re. A sanctuary has been identified at Sardis. SYNONYMS Arsaphes (Plutarch). Heros Chthonic underworld god. staff and teeth. The mission failed because only one creature in the world. In northeastern India. Also Heremod. ˇ AF (he who is upon his lake) HERYS Egyptian. Great Park. image of Aksobhya. Hermod Messenger god. Berkshire. though probably owing much to the influence of the Hindu god ˇ IVA. fifty skulls. and probably earlier. Originally an epithet for another Hindu S god. but in Buddhism seen as an emanation of AKSOBHYA. His image regularly appears on funerary stelae. ART REFERENCES reliefs and sculptures including a gold figurine held by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Heruka God. he was sent to Hel on a mission to obtain the release of the god BALDER. Nordic (Icelandic). a hag (probably LOKI in disguise). His SAKTI is NAIRAMATA and the product of their liaison is nirvana (eternal bliss). jewel. knife.ˇ AF HERYS 123 from a barrel and to bring King Priam of Troy into conciliatory meeting with the Greek war hero Achilles after the death of Hector. GANESA. One of the sons of the Viking god OTHIN. CENTER(S) OF CULT Hnes (Ihnasya el-Medina) near Beni Suef. failed to weep at Balder’s loss and Hermod returned empty-handed. who had been slain by the blind god Hod. the leader of the phantom hunt. Attributes: club. He is reputedly the only being able to find his way to the underworld ferry of Charon and back again.

Identified in some texts as the mother of ANUBIS. Egyptian.” nourishes humanity.” she destroys the souls of the adversaries of the underworld ruler OSIRIS. Hawaiian. ART REFERENCES none. lotus. Herys ˇ af’s sanctuary was enlarged by Rameses II and the god is said to have protected the life of the last Egyptian pharaoh when the Persian and later Macedonian dominations began. VIS ˇ NU. S Color: blue. and of OSIRIS. Attributes: bell. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 800 BC but probably earlier and through until Christianization (circa AD 400).124 Hesat Herys ˇaf is a ram god said to have emerged from the primeval ocean. the “beer of Hesat. she was wedded faithfully to the sacred hearth fire. As one of the manifestations of the vengeful “eye of RE. The daughter of HAUMEA and younger sister of PELE. Hindu gods BRAHMA. Depicted as a cobra or anthropomorphically with a cobra’s head. He holds a skull in each hand and an assortment of other weapons. Depicted as a cow. The god is depicted with a human torso and the head of a ram wearing the atef crown of Lower Egypt. ORIGIN Hexchuchan God of war. CENTER(S) OF CULT local household shrines. Three. Separate traditions identify her with . Egyptian. jewel. He eventually became syncretized with HERAKLES in Greco-Roman culture and Hnes became known as Herakleopolis.or eightheaded. Minor guardian of pregnant and nursing mothers whose milk. HESTIA Greek. Hestia was conventionally offered small gifts of food and drink. He may have been a tribal ancestor. By tradition maiden Greek daughters tended the household hearth. Mayan (Itza. The Tantric form of HERUKA and the Budˇ iva Nataraja. wine glass. Phaedra (Plato). Hevajira God. Hesat Goddess of birth. the volcano goddess. hook. Buddhist (Mahayana). A BODHISATTVA (buddha-designate) and an emanation of AKSOBHYA. On oath she remained virginal following the notion that fire is phallic and that Hi’aika Goddess. dhist equivalent of the Hindu god S His SAKTI is NAIRAMATA or VAJRAVARAHI and he may appear dominating the four MARAS (the ˇ IVA and INDRA). A minor deity accompanied by a retinue of crocodiles. three-eyed. Hi’aika is the mistress of the dance and especially of the hula. image of Aksobhya on crown. One of several to whom the resin copal was burned before starting a battle. the capital of Lower Egypt for a time at the beginning of the third millennium (during the First Intermediate Period). Goddess of hearth and home. but one who enjoyed importance in individual households. bow. prayer wheel. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the daughters of KRONOS and RHEA. from two to sixteen arms and two or four legs. LITERARY SOURCES Hymn to Aphrodite (Homer). possibly recreated in the form of a sacred lake at Hnes. Hetepes-Sekhus Chthonic underworld goddess. Hestia is a minor goddess in the Greek pantheon. SYNONYMS Histie. her adherence to the fireside prevented her from joining the procession of gods described in Plato’s Phaedra. Herys ˇ af began as a local deity but took on national importance as the soul (ba) of RE.

Also Himavat. Shinto [Japan]. Hindu. Shinto [Japan]. the Ullumbana. which she governs. See also HIMAVAN. Said to reside in pine forests. Ina (Hervey Islands). and when it opens its eyes there is lightning. The consort of the star goddess AME-NO-TANABATA-HINE-NOMIKOTO. Specifically the deity of the new moon. face east and bow. According to mythology Hi’aika was entrusted with a mission to find Lohiau on Pele’s behalf and to bring him back to her. according to mythology. Kono-Jinja. hall of great beauty. Hikoboshi Astral god. His consort is MENA. Hi’lina Tribal god. Linked with the god TAOKI-HO-OI-NO-KAMI. and with a goddess. and brought about his death in Pele’s fiery lava. After Christianization he was degraded to a troll. One of several minor deities involved in the building of a sacred . Hi-Hiya-Hi Sun god. used to entice the sun goddess Amaterasu from her cave. In local traditions the daughter of the god TANGAROA and creatrix of the moon. Himavan (snowy) Mountain god. Himerus God of desire. The thunder clouds are its cloak. a mission that subsequently enflamed the jealousy of Pele over her sister’s developing relationship with Lohiau. Polynesian [Tahiti]. She lives in one of its dark spots representing groves of trees which she brought from earth in a canoe and planted. Greco-Roman. The hula was designed to give a formalized structure to the enactment of myths and among the favorite topics is the romance between Pele and the hero Lohiau. They go outside at sunrise. Na Wahine. One of a number of minor sun deities. deeply in love. The two are. Hilal Moon god. In Japan certain older people still worship the sun. Pre-Islamic Arabian. the god of light. The personification of the Himalaya and considered to be the father of PARVATI and GANGA. Hina Moon goddess. the daughter of the primordial creator principle KEAWE. Pre-Christian Karelian [Finland]. Member of the Olympian pantheon and attendant on APHRODITE (VENUS). Hiko-Sashiri-No-Kami God of carpenters. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island. She is also represented as the consort of Tangaroa. Hina probably evolved in Tahiti from the Polynesian underworld goddess HINE-NUITE-PO. The personification of the thunderbird known to many Indian tribes. the god of the hula and the son of KANE. clapping their hands. Their festival was merged with the Tibetan Bon festival of the dead. Also SINA (Samoa). Canada]. The noise of the thunder is caused by the beating of its wings. Also Kengyu-Sei. Shinto [Japan].Hina 125 LAKA. Hiisi Tree god. engendered from the blood of the god KAGU-TSUCHI and worshiped in the mountain sanctuary of the fire KAMIS.

Shinto [Japan]. . Hi-No-Kagu-Tsuchi Hine-Ahu-One earth) (maiden formed of the Fire god. Tane created her out of the red earth and breathed life into her. where she became the personification of death. The mother of THOR. The deity whose birth caused the death by burning of the primordial goddess IZANAMI after which the eight thunders sprang from her corpse. Shinto (Japan). Identified as having been engendered after the sun and moon. she is the sister of MAUI and the consort of Irewaru. Tungus (Siberian). A less common name for the goddess Fjorgynn. Guardian deity of hare-hunters. since SIN is the name of a western Asiatic moon god also closely associated with fertility rites. noted in the Trymskvoia from the Poetic Edda. the daughter of TANE and HINE-AHUONE. Tradition has it that she can manifest herself in two forms according to the lunar phases. Hindu.126 Hina-Uri Hina-Uri Moon goddess. Hittavainen Hine-Nui-Te-Po (great woman of the night) Chthonic underworld goddess. with the exception of the primordial earth mother PAPATUANUKU. Locally worshiped in northern India and particularly in Baluchistan. Identified in the opening of the Rg Veda. Pre-Christian Karelian (Finnish). Hiranyagarbha (golden egg) Creator god. Hunting god. Polynesian. Hine-Ata-Uira dawn) (daughter of the sparkling Goddess of light. The daughter of the creator god TANE and HINEAHU-ONE. The halves of the shell become sky and earth. She is depicted in human form but with eyes of jade. as the god of the golden seed emerging from the cosmic egg. Revered as the lord of all animals and controller of the chase. Engendered by the god TANE when he needed a consort because. HINE-NUITE-PO. Polynesian (including Maori). Nordic (Icelandic). Hlothyn Goddess. all the existing gods of creation were male. Originally she was HINE-ATAUIRA. Hindu (Vedic). Polynesian (including Maori). Hiruko Minor sun god. but she descended to rule over the underworld. Also known as HINA. She did not remain a sky goddess but descended into the underworld. Chthonic goddess. and the yolk becomes the sun. Polynesian (including Maori). Ina or SINA. Probably eclipsed by AMATERASU. She became the mother of HINE-ATA-UIRA. hair of seaweed and teeth like those of a predatory fish. Hinglaj(-Mata) Mother goddess. The embryo impregnates the primordial waters. Hinkon Hunting god. Her role is associated with fertility and her cult may have been imported from Asia.

Depicted as a bearded figure carrying a pair of hammers. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier through to Christianization (circa AD 1100). CENTER(S) OF CULT none known. but probably the subject of anonymous carvings. Hoder may even represent an agent of HEL.e. According to tradition he achieved immortality by weighing himself down with stones and drowning himself. The most celebrated temple of the fire kamis is on Mount Atago near Kyoto to which worshipers are drawn from all over Japan to obtain charms as protection against fire. Honus God of military honors. for the death of the god BALDER. Hoder himself is slain by his arch-enemy. Nordic (Icelandic) Identified in the Voluspa (Poetic Edda) as the priest of the Viking gods who handles the “blood wands” i. Taoist (Chinese).” the deity who controls all rivers but particularly the Yellow River. She eventually weds Hoder. The most celebrated temple of the fire kamis is on Mount Atago near Kyoto. ART REFERENCES none known. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. River god. The sacred fire can only be generated by a board and stick and is regarded as a powerful purifier in Shintoism. the god VALI. Hoder is one of the less well-defined of the Norse AESIR gods whose chief claim to notoriety lies in that he is responsible. Depicted as a youthful warrior carrying a lance and cornucopia. Also known in north Germanic culture. Also Hebo. Horagalles Hokushin-O-Kami Astral deity. Ho-Po Hoenir God. The sacred fire can only be generated by a board and stick and is regarded as a powerful purifier in Shintoism. Prose Edda (Snorri). Shinto [Japan]. Weather god. particularly concerned with giving the human race senses and feelings. . Lappish.Horagalles 127 HODER Nordic (Icelandic). Saxo’s Danish account has Hoder and Balder contesting the hand of the goddess NANNA. He received an annual sacrifice of a young girl until the end of the Shou Dynasty circa 250 BC. who then slays Balder with a magic sword. Shinto [Japan]. worshipers are drawn to it from all over Japan to obtain charms as protection against fire. Some authors believe Hoenir to be a hypostasis of the god OTHIN. and who is the subject of an official cult and sacrifice. SYNONYMS Hod. Hodur. The blind god. Shinto [Japan]. runic inscriptions. in two separate narratives (Snorri’s and Saxo’s). In Snorri’s Icelandic version Hoder is persuaded by LOKI to hurl a piece of mistletoe at Balder (the only thing from which he is not protected): it turns into a lethal spear. Ping-Yi. Roman. The so-called “Count of the River. ORIGIN Ho-Musubi-No-Kami Fire god. divines future events. Ho-No-Kagu-Tsuchi-No-Kami Fire god. The local embodiment of the Nordic (Icelandic) god THOR. The apotheosis of the “little bear. One of a number of fire KAMIS who are honored in special Hi-Matsuri festivals. He is said to have fled to Vanaheim after the great battle between the AESIR and VANIR gods.” Ursa Minor. One of a number of fire KAMIS who are honored in special Hi-Matsuri festivals. According to Snorri. Historia Danica (Saxo).

In legend he was the first ruler of all Egypt after an eighty-year struggle for supremacy with his brother and rival SETH. HARAKHTI. Attributes include a fan and a large sack on his shoulder which “never stops to give. As Horus the child. Nekhen or Hierakonpolis (Greek) [Kom elAhmar]. He is also the symbol of the god kings of Egypt. crocodiles. He is depicted with a large belly and dressed in the robes of a Buddhist priest. In some places the tradition by which his mother hid him in the papyrus marshes of the delta is recognized by depicting a falcon standing atop a column of papyrus reeds. Greek. Behdet in the delta. He is also recognized as the “eye of Horus”—a Hotei God of luck. Har-pakhered or Harpokrates (Greek). HORUS ORIGIN [Greek] (the high one) Egyptian. Khem or Letopolis (Greek) [Ausim]. snakes and other dangerous animals. Horus is a form of the sun god. In early dynastic times the ruler was a “follower of Horus” but by 3000 BC he became Horus in life and Osiris in death. CENTER(S) OF CULT universal throughout areas of Egyptian influence but particularly Mesen [Edfu] in Upper Egypt. The “eye of Horus” arises from the legendary incident in which Seth tore out Horus’s eye. Shinto [Japan]. As Harpokrates. etc. HAROERIS. perfection and protection against the evil influence of Seth. Hindu (Vedic). LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. The symbol can represent security of kingship. despite continuous demand. Horus can also be the son of Horus the elder and HATHOR. Usually associated with the goddess SARASVATI. sculptures throughout Egyptian period. coffin texts. Har-emakhet or HARMACHIS (Greek). Horus is depicted naked and being suckled on Isis’s knee and he often appears on amulets extending protection against lions. circa 3000 BC until end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400).” Hotr(a) (invoker) Minor goddess of sacrifices. human eye embellished with a typical Egyptian cosmetic extension and subtended by the markings of a falcon’s cheek. . Also Har-nedj-itef or Harendotes (Greek). HARSIESE. Har-mau or HARSOMTUS (Greek). Haroeris. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Horus is one of the most universally important gods in the Egyptian pantheon attested from the earliest recorded period. also at Buhen close to the second Nile cataract. She is invoked to appear on the sacrificial field before a ritual and is particularly identified with the act of prayer. The son of ERIS (strife). One of seven gods of fortune known in Shintoism. and avenged his death.128 Horkos Horkos God of oaths. As the adult son of Isis. SYNONYMS Har (Egyptian). he is typically drawn naked and with fingers in mouth. but a complex genealogy recognized him distinctly as Horus. Horus’s father was the dead OSIRIS. Horus’s symbol is the falcon and he is generally depicted either wholly as a hawk or in human form with a falcon’s head. The alternative name Harakhti translates “Horus of the horizon” and he is sometimes depicted as a sun disc mounted between falcon’s wings. his mother was ISIS. regaining the throne of Egypt from Seth. By tradition born at Khemmis in the Nile delta region. he performed the “opening of the mouth” ceremony on his dead father. which was later restored by his mother. Sky god. Horus the child (HARPOKRATES) and Horus the elder. ART REFERENCES pre-dynastic monuments. Osiris. Aniba in lower Nubia.

One of several minor deities born from drops of blood emitting from the penis of the sun god RE (see also SIA). It is uncertain whether the principle is one of animism (when a deity takes on different natural shapes at will) or anímatism (when an object is a supernatural being in its own right). identified as both governing the length of mortal life and granting the boon of longevity and. reflecting the supremacy of order and time over chaos. the so-called “yellow emperor. They act in concert against the adversaries of Re and control the destiny of human beings in terms of each person’s life span. Egyptian. The apotheosis of a natural object such as a rock or a place of local importance such as a spring. HSI WANG MU heaven) ORIGIN (queen of the western Taoist (Chinese). where she is accompanied by five jade ladies. Chinese. Egyptian. alternatively. The apotheosis of a special spindle-shaped stone sited near Cuzco which protected the Inca royal family and also featured strongly in the maturation rites of male Inca adolescents.Huang Ti 129 Hours Underworld goddesses. Also Horae (Greek). She is also said to be represented by the mythical phoenix. the latter . KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from prehistoric times until present. Under Taoism she became more benign in nature. the season of old age. Huang Ti Astral god. Allegedly a deified emperor. One of the oldest deities known in China. which is the Chinese symbol of longevity (it is often incorporated into funeral rituals). CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Chinese culture. Also Wanakawri. etc]. also identified in some texts as the golden mother of the tortoise. and again in the second century BC to the emperor Wu Ti. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. ART REFERENCES paintings and sculptures. Minor avatara of VIS is HARSA. Hindu. she may have originated as a plague goddess depicted with feline fangs and tail. His SAKTI God. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. mostly inadequately researched and untranslated. in the Hindukush. SYNONYMS Xi Wang Mu. The twelve daughters of the sun god RE. Her sacred animal is the crane. LITERARY SOURCES various philosophical and religious texts.” who rules the moving as distinct from dark heavens. According to tradition she visited the earth on two occasions. the animal which embodies the universe but which is also the dark warrior symbolizing winter and death. Hu Hrsikesa (lord of the senses) ˇ NU. etc]. God personifying royal authority. She is Huaca Spirit being. She is the ruler of the west and is associated with the autumn. Hu epitomizes the power and command of the ruler. The Hours are sometimes represented on the walls of royal tombs in anthropomorphic form with a five-pointed star above the head. immortality. Her home is in the western Chinese K’un Lun mountains or. in some instances. once in 985 BC to the emperor Mu. Goddess of longevity. Huanacauri Guardian spirit.

He is attributed with giving mankind the wheel. He is the southern (blue) aspect or emanation of the sun god TEZCATLIPOCA. He is regarded. and the head of the group classed as the Huitzilpochtli complex. Huehuecoyotl-Coyotlinahual disguise) (coyote his Minor god of feather workers. the blood of which was said to cool his heat. One of the group classed as the TLALOC complex. to circa AD 1500. but probably much earlier. Associated with paternalism and one of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. agriculture and fertility. the so-called high-flying sun. Huehuetotl (old god) God of fire. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He slaughtered his sister (moon) and his 400 brothers (stars) in revenge for the death of his mother. ART REFERENCES stone sculptures. Huixtocihuatl HUITZILPOCHTLI (blue hummingbird on left foot) ORIGIN (lady of Huixtorin) Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. SYNONYMS Blue Tezcatlipoca. His mother is the decapitated earth goddess COATLICUE. One of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. . Elamite [Iran]. LITERARY SOURCES pre-Columbian codices. Pre-Islamic Arabian. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He appeared to them in the form of an eagle clutching a serpent in its talons and standing atop a cactus growing on a rocky island. Sun god. CENTER(S) OF CULT Tenochtitlan [Mexico City]. The Great Temple of Coatepec was dedicated to the cosmic battle. in alternative tradition. In ritual Huitzilopochti was fed on human hearts taken from captives. patron god of the Aztec nation. generally involved with rain. Huehuecoyotl (old coyote) Minor god of sexual lust. By tradition he led the people from their ancestral home in Aztlan (perhaps in the state of Nayarit) with the promise of securing a great empire. The tutelary god of the Aztecs who also regarded him as a war god. circa AD 750. several wars were instigated to gain sacrificial material.130 Hubal being presided over by the god PAK TAI. Huiracocha See VAIRACOCHA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Hubal Local tutelary and oracular god. Goddess of salt-makers. signifying the triumph of sunlight over darkness. murals. codex illustrations. as one of the four sons of Tezcatlipoca. from whose womb he sprang fully armed. For the origin of the name “blue hummingbird on left foot.” see TEZCATLIPOCA. on the site of which Mexico City now stands. This was Tenochtitlan. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. An anthropomorphic figure of the deity in red carnelian still stands in the holy city of Mecca. Huban Tutelary god. Equating with the Sumerian ENLIL.

presided over by a priesthood. Chinese. Mictlan. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. See also YUM CIMIL. ITZAM NA. Greek. Known only from passing mention in Akkadian texts. on the fifth day of the fifth month and in some traditions he is seen as an aspect of the sea dragon king. Also Lahurabtil. Huvi Hung Sheng (holy one) Guardian god. while his sibling is the apotheosis of the moon. Also God A. The father of HUNAPU and Ix Balan Ku. which falls two days before the spring equinox when the sea dragon king. His son is the iguana god. no image is created of Hunab Ku since he is considered to be without form. he was decapitated during a football game and his head became lodged in the calabash tree which bore fruit from that day. and he may have become the Mayan counterpart of the Christian god. He is propitiated by dance and offerings. he was decapitated in a historic struggle with the underworld gods and subsequently became the sun god. the son of HUN HUNAPU and the twin brother of Ix Balan Ku. All meat is kept in front of his shrines. Having created the world. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Hyakinthos God of vegetation. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Mayan (Yucatec and Quiche.Hyakinthos 131 Hun Hunapu Creator god. is believed to leave the ocean and ascend into the God of hunting. According to the sacred Mayan text Popol Vuh. Huracan Creator god. he fashioned the first humans from pieces of maize dough. Elamite [Iran]. classical Mesoamerican) [Guatemalan highlands]. God of uncertain status. like his father. An ancient pre-Homeric deity known particularly from Amyklai (preDorian seat of kingship at Sparta). which are decorated with poles capped by skulls. The greatest deity in the pantheon. but he was allegedly a mortal who died on the thirteenth day of the second moon. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. West Africa]. He is beloved by . Hunhau is generally depicted with canine attributes. or with the head of an owl. Hunab Ku Creator god. Tradition has it that. Ovimbundu [central Angola. Mayan (Yucatec and Quiche. Hunaunic See CHAOB. The counterpart of the Yucatec HUNAB KU. The god is propitiated with cakes made from the first grain of the year. Hurabtil Hunapu Creator god. One of the several “lords of death” listed in the codices who rule the underworld. Little is known of the origin of Hung Sheng. His role is similar to that of the goddess KUAN YIN. Mayan (Quiche. A deity who protects fishing boats and their crews against danger at sea in the Southern Ocean. Lung Wang. Mayan (Yucatec. Hunhau God of death. Mayan (Yucatec and Quiche. heavens. According to the sacred text Popol Vuh.

132 Hygieia APOLLO who perversely kills him with a discus and changes him into a flower. Member of the Olympian pantheon and attendant on APHRODITE (VENUS). Greek. which she is touching. As late as the fourth century AD there are mentions in texts of hypsistarii in Cappadocia. and invoked at the wedding ceremony. . the physician god of healing. with Asclepius (the Roman god of healing) and the snake. who seem to have been unorthodox. Depicted with wings and carrying a torch. oil and honey. Greco-Roman. The daughter of ASKLEPIOS. Hyperion God of primordial light. Greek. One of the sons of the goddess of the night NYX and the brother of THANATOS.” Hymenaios God of marriage. offerings to Hyakinthos were passed through a bronze door in the pedestal. Hygieia was also a remedial drink made from wheat. Greek. prior to sacrifice being made to Apollo. She is depicted as Hygieia-Salus in a marble group sculpture in the Vatican. Hypsistos Local tutelary god. Greco-Roman. according to some texts. A pre-Homeric deity. The word hypsistos occurs in the Septuagint version of the Vetus Testamentum and means “almighty. THEA and who is the father of HELIOS and SELENE. Jewish fringe sectarians. one of the race of TITANS whose consort is. Hypnos Hygieia Goddess of health. Greek-speaking. God of sleep. Known from the region of the Bosphorus circa 150 BC until AD 250. At Amyklai the bronze of Apollo stands upon an altar-like pedestal said to be the grave of Hyakinthos and.

When the gods began to age. SYNONYMS CENTER(S) OF CULT Icauna River goddess. Icci Animistic spirits. Iapetos God. She reflects a northern version of the ancient symbolism of a deity who guards the life-sustaining fruit of heaven.I 6 Ialonus God of meadows. for advice. Known from inscriptions at Lancaster (Ialonus Contrebis) and Nimes. He is the father of eight children. West Africa]. according to tradition. Keeper of the apples of immortality. all of whom became paramount chiefs. ART REFERENCES none known. OLDUMARE. Greek. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier until Christianization (circa AD 1100). lives in a sanctuary in the holy city of Ile Ife but who is called on by the tutelary god. Ifa God of wisdom. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). IDUNN ORIGIN Nordic (Icelandic) and possibly Germanic. One of the sons of OURANOS (heaven) and a member of the TITAN race which clashed with the Olympian gods. Iduna. Iccovellauna Water goddess. Celtic (Continental European). though possibly the subject of anonymous carvings. Romano-Celtic (British and Continental European). Siberian. She was abducted by LOKI and handed over to the giant Thiassi as payment for the building of Valhalla. Little is recorded in mythology. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. An oracular deity who. Idun (German). the poet god. Yoruba [western Nigeria. Idunn is the consort of BRAGI. He is the father of the heroes Atlas and PROMETHEUS. Prose Edda (Snorri). 133 . See also URUN AJY TOYON. none known. Loki assisted in recovering Idunn with her vital fruit. Guardian deity of the river Yonne [Brittany]. and she guards the golden apples of eternal youth for the gods of Asgard. Known only from inscriptions.

Ikatere Ih P’en Chthonic fertility god. Creator god. the creator of mankind. property and other wealth. Inuit [North American]. He created the primeval waters on which floated TINO TAATA. A rare example in this region of a named deity. Igigi Collective name of a class of gods. Ih Fen may be represented sowing maize seed. His wisdom is gained through the implements of divination. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. especially fish. Egyptian (Upper). One of a group of generally benevolent deities. The couple are invoked as a single personality with the sacrifice Fish god. The group of younger sky gods in the pantheon headed by ENLIL (ELLIL). Ignerssuak (great fire) Sea god. May carry a sistrum and necklace. namely palm nuts. Particularly known from the Hathor sanctuary at Dendara. He is also god of family life. Ihoiho Ifru God. He is also considered to inhabit Christian church towers in Mexico and is probably personified by vampire bats. snakes and other reptiles. Algeria]. They are often described in the texts in conjunction with the ANUNNAKI. Roman-North African. Perceived as a diminutive figure who lives in a cave by day but wanders at night attacking people and eating raw human flesh. The son of H ATHOR and HORUS. the sea and creator god. Polynesian. Ihy Igalilik Hunting spirit. Mayan (Tzotzil. Numbers of Ignerssuak are thought to surround mariners and the entrance to their home is on the sea shore. It boils as he carries it. Minor deity personifying the jubilant noise of the cultic sistrum rattle generally associated with the goddess Hathor. The son of Punga and grandson of TANGAROA.134 Ifru At one time he is said to have left the earth whereupon famine and plague descended. Ikal Ahau Chthonic god of death. The deity concerned with the growth of plants. Inuit [North American]. Known from an inscription at Cirta [Constantine. God of music. His brother is Tu-Te-Wanawana. the deity responsible for the well-being of lizards. When fierce storms arose at the time of creation under the control of . Depicted anthropomorphically as a nude child with a side-lock of hair and with finger in mouth. he is revered in various regions of Polynesia as the progenitor of all life in the sea. and consort of the bean goddess IX KANAN. Before Ihoiho there was nothing. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. of turkeys and chickens at sowing time. He travels the icy wastes with a kitchen strapped to his back which includes a pot big enough to carry a whole seal. Polynesian [Society Islands].

The god to whom BAAL is ultimately answerable. The supreme authority.” Iksvaku Creator god. Pokot and Suk [Uganda and western Kenya. He is depicted wearing a horned headdress. Ilaalge Local god. Worshiped at Al-Ge [el-Gi in Wadi Musa. when his father calls on him to fetch water Ilat always spills some. which descends to earth as rain. Lebanon and Syrian coastal regions]. morally and creatively. . Creator god.I’lena 135 TAWHIRIMATEA. Koryak [Siberia]. Ila Minor god(dess) of sacrifices. Ilabrat Minor god. Hindu (Vedic). may have been based. Il is the model on which the northern Israelite god. A stele found at Ras ˇ amra has a seated god with bull horns which S may depict Il or Baal. Ila is linked with the sacred cow and her epithets include “butter-handed” and “butter-footed. Ikenga (right forearm) God of fortune. West Africa]. LITERARY SOURCES Ugaritic texts from Ras ˇ amra. mythology records that Tu-Te-Wanawana went inland to escape the devastation while Ikatere took to the safety of the sea. He is invoked as a household guardian. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). The consort of the creator spirit “universe” or TENANTO’MWAN. Iku-Ikasuchi-No-Kami God of thunder. The son of the creator god TORORUT. SYNONYMS EL (Hebrew). Shinto [Japan]. Ibo [Nigeria. The most significant of the eight thunder deities which emerged from the corpse of IZANAMI after she was burned to death. ˇ amra). East Africa]. The incident became known as the schism of Tawhirimatea and has resulted in an eternal conflict between TANE(MAHUTA) the forest god and Tangaroa. overseeing the assembly of gods. IL Canaanite [northern Israel. S ORIGIN Ilat Rain god. One of the ancestral dynasty of sun gods or ADITI. El. ART REFERENCES possibly a limited number of seals and stone reliefs. Western Semitic (Nabataean). A benevolent deity who guides the hands of mankind. the god of winds. but also CENTER(S) OF CULT Ugarit (Ras S generally throughout areas of Canaanite influence. According to legend. According to legend he lives in royal surroundings in a remote place lying at the confluence of two rivers. She is invoked to appear on the sacrificial field before a ritual. I’lena (rain woman) Animistic spirit. until circa 200 BC or later. in the Arabian desert]. and probably earlier. Hindu (Vedic). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2000 BC. Tor-’Il. the sea god. LATIPAN. Usually associated with the goddess SARASVATI. The attendant and minister of state of the chief sky god ANU. and carrying a sword and a severed head.

Other legendary sources have him taking his paramount position through guile from among an existing pantheon and possibly superseding an earlier creator god. Immap Ukua Sea goddess. Roman. Katoylla. He is the ancestor of all Prasun tribal chiefs. Imra is a sky god who lives among cloud and mist and who is responsible. The cuneiform generally taken to refer to a storm god and therefore ˇ KUR (Sumerian) or probably meaning either IS ADAD (Akkadian). See also SEDNA. He positioned the sun and moon in the heavens. The main sanctuary . Also perceived as a thunder god. His sacred animal is the ram which was sacrificed regularly. A deity to whom sacrifices were addressed in the Ashkun villages of southwestern Kafiristan. CENTER(S) OF CULT chiefly at Kushteki. lm Storm god. A weather god who places the stars in the sky.S. etc]. Burundi [East Africa]. as was the cow and. The Indians called Spanish firearms Ilyapa. and in pre-dynastic times was represented by a skin hung on a pole. Pre-Christian Finnish. Egyptian. Also a guardian deity of travelers and a smith-god who educated man in the use of iron and forging. Coqi-Ilya. IMRA Kafir [Afghanistan—southern Hindukush]. Creator god. Supreme Kafir creator god who generated all other deities by churning his breath to life inside a golden goatskin. Imporcitor Minor god of agriculture. SYNONYMS MARA (Prasun region). His mother was said to be a giantess with four tusks. he became syncretized with Santiago. at least in part. Kihanga.136 Ilmarinen Ilmarinen Sky god. The Kafirs of the Hindukush (1896). ART REFERENCES large wooden sculptures. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP unknown origins and continuing locally today. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. Legend has it that Immat carries off twenty virgin daughters every year. LITERARY SOURCES Robertson G. less frequently. Symbolized by a lamb or a young ram. He engendered the first man. MUNJEM MALIK. Inuit [eastern Greenland]. Morgenstierne G. Figures of the god are crudely anthropomorphic. A festival includes blood sacrifice and dances by twenty carefully selected young priestesses. the horse. Ilyapa Weather god. he is also thought to speak through the roar of the bull. Immat Demonic god. Mesopotamian. who descended from heaven on a rope. Illapa. One of the attendant deities of the necropolis. the patron saint of Spain. ORIGIN Imana Creator god. Imiut Minor chthonic god. Also Inti-Ilyapa. The mother of all sea creatures and invoked by fishermen and seal-hunters. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Some Kati Myths and Hymns (1951). for cosmic creation. he is linked with ANUBIS. The deity concerned with harrowing the fields.

Inana is also a warrior goddess. INANA (queen of heaven) Mesopotamian (Sumerian) [Iraq]. Nin-meSYNONYMS Inninna. ORIGIN The paramount goddess of the Sumerian pantheon. Originally Inana may have been goddess of the date palm. ˇ UBUR. Though not technically a “mother goddess. who lives in the watery abyss or Abzu beneath the city of Eridu. According to legend. She was also perceived as a rain goddess and as the goddess of the morning and evening stars. and through Inana’s subterfuge. the god of heaven. She is the daughter of the ˇ KUR. Her role then extended to wool. ˇ TAR [Akkadian]. IS sar-ra (lady of a myriad offices) CENTER(S) OF CULT Unug [Warka]. Ina’hitelan Guardian spirit. as Dumuzi was god of the date harvest. He also has a destructive side to his nature. dogs. Her earliest symbol is a bundle of reeds tied in three places and with streamers. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3500 BC to 1750 BC. she is the daughter of AN. glyptics. reliefs. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts. meat and grain and ultimately to the whole of the natural world. Other smaller shrines survive. causing floods and other havoc. Inana is usually depicted wearing a horned headdress and tiered skirt. temple hymns. usually conflicting. The father of cloud man YA’HALAN. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. also Erbil and Nineveh. ART REFERENCES plaques. wheat. Goddess of fertility and war. particularly the Gilgames ˇ Epic and Inana’s Descent and the Death of Dumuzi. which evolved into a stylized totem made of wood and decorated with precious stones and bands of metal. Of her many consorts. etc. where her sanctuary is the Eanna temple. the wheel and the element iron. and in the evening she became the patroness of temple prostitutes when the evening star was seen as a harlot soliciting in the night skies. She becomes the handmaiden of An. Her attendant is the minor goddess NINS and her champion is the mythical hero Gilgames ˇ. at a small town called Kushteki. which she took back to Unug in her reed boat and which formed the basis of the Sumerian cultural constitution. She was worshiped at dawn with offerings. principles. he is perceived as a supervisor of the skies and reindeer are sacrificed to him. Imra is generally perceived as a beneficent teacher who has endowed mankind with various gifts including cattle. moon god NANNA and sister of UTU and IS In alternative tradition.INANA 137 to Imra. of tears and rejoicing.” she constitutes the first in a long line of historically recorded female deities concerned with the fertility of the natural world. was destroyed in the early 1900s. . scattered throughout the region. She is also identified as the younger sister of the underworld ˇ KIGAL. the most significant is the vegetation god DUMUZI. She may be associated with a lion or lion cub and is often depicted standing atop a mountain. She is the tutelary deity of goddess ERES the southern Mesopotamian city of Unug (Uruk). was persuaded while drunk. She may be embodied in the sacred tree of Mesopotamia. votive stelae. to endow her with more than a hundred divine decrees. with wings and with weapon cases at her shoulders. ENKI. etc. but was an imposing and ornately carved wooden structure. In less commonly encountered roles she is goddess of lighting and extinguishing fires. of enmity and fair dealing and many other. Later. in the Sargonic period. her symbol changes to a star or a rose.

Shinto [Japan]. Hittite and Hurrian. but rarely elsewhere. ART REFERENCES sculptures in metal and stone. Daughter of ˇ UB. Indr is known chiefly from the Waigal and Prasun areas of the southern Hindukush. Weather god. with supernatural powers) and the shrines are decorated with a special device. with Eres ˇ kigal. in pictures sold at temple offices. a famous vineyard near the village of Wamais is sacred to Indr. riding the white fox. the god of wisdom. in the shape of a pear surrounded by small flames. They are further characterized by rows of wooden portals which form tunnels leading to the sanctuary. Shinto [Japan]. (s)he is generally shown as a woman with long flowing hair. She descends to the underworld to challenge Eres ˇ kigal and finds herself stripped naked and tried before the seven underworld judges. again. She is further engaged in a yearly conflict. Kafir [Afghanistan]. SYNONYMS none. The popular name of a god(dess) worshiped under the generic title Miketsu-No-Kami in the Shi-Den sanctuary of the imperial palace. Probably derived from the more widely recognized Aryan god INDRA. Also Inder. In the Ashkun region of southwestern Kafiristan. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. In certain regions when lightning hits a rice field bamboos are erected around the spot to signify that it has been sanctified by the fire of heaven. the latter personified by the dragon Kur. unlike most other Shinto temples. The brother of GISH and father of DISANI and Pano. in Japanese tradition. Inari sanctuaries are painted bright red. Kur-garra and Gala-tur-ra. the Hoju-No- INDRA (possibly meaning “mighty”) Hindu [India]. to secure her release and to revive her by sprinkling her with the food and water of life. Often identified with the food goddess TOYO-UKE-BIME. Indr is also a god of wine who owns substantial vineyards and is associated in south Nuristan with wine rituals (the annals of Alexander the Great suggest that he met with winedrinking “worshipers of DIONYSOS” in the Hindukush). develops many personalities and is revered extensively in Japan. Indr Inara Minor goddess. Inari is often depicted as a bearded man riding a white fox but. circa 1500 BC and possibly earlier until present day. the ANUNNAKI. In the legendary battle the weather god TES with the dragon Illuyankas she assists her father to triumph over evil. The deity displays gender changes. It is generally assumed that he was ousted from major importance by the god IMRA. reliefs. LITERARY SOURCES Rg Veda and other texts. She is sentenced and left for dead for three days and nights before being restored at the behest of Enki. also involving her consort Dumuzi. Also Ina-Bikari (light of rice) and Ina-Tsurubi (fertility of rice). Tama. carrying sheafs of rice and sometimes. Tutelary and weather god.138 Inara Inana is one of three deities involved in the primordial battle between good and evil. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP . Inari (rice-grower) God(dess) of foodstuffs. The socalled consort of the rice. Inazuma Goddess of lightning. who creates two beings. Sculptures of foxes are prolific (an animal endowed.

Also one of a group of eight ASTAMATARAS personifying jealousy (also named Aindri in this capacity). Santana flower. Attribute: a shield. of lesser importance. Roman. a demonic figure killed by the god INDRA. Insitor Minor god of agriculture. The deity specifically responsible for tornados and perceived as a huge snake coiling down from heaven to earth. staff and waterjar. The name became incorporated into Christian tradition and interpreted as “the mother of God. Daughter of Puloman. 3. Midhusa. He is thus also god of tite weather god TES fertility and war. 2. In later Hinduism he is a dikpala (guardian) of the eastern direction. never to return. Anglo-Saxon. Nilambara. Votyak (Finno-Ugric). RBHUS and RSABHA. Also Aindri. rosary. Indukari Goddess. Intal (gods their father) God of fire. In Jainism Indra is a head of various heavens but. Zulu [southern Africa]. According to some Zulu authorities. Attributes: hook. but of lesser importance than the Hindu god. In another grouping one of nine NAVASAKTIS or astral deities who. Inkanyamba is a goddess of storms and water. Intercidona Ing Ancestral god. from across the sea and then disappeared.” Indrani Goddess of wrath. Saci. One thousand-eyed. . Symbolized by a cleaver. The “bearer of the heavens. The deity concerned with sowing of crops. and the SAKTI and consort of Indra. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. According to a runic poem he is the father of the Saxons and appeared Minor goddess of birth. He may also be classed as one of the Nordic AESIR gods. in southern India. Inmutef (pillar of his mother) Minor god. It is uncertain if he originated as a weather god or as a solar deity. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic).” his cult is linked with that of the goddess HATHOR. In the later Vedas he is described as the son of DYAUS PITAR and PRTHIVI. Her attendant animal is either an elephant or a lion. Associated with paternalism and one of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. Inmar Sky god(dess). The Rg Veda identifies him with the bull and he is considered to be related to the Hitˇ UB. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). His consort is INDRANI and his sons are JAYANTA. A guardian deity invoked to keep evil spirits away from the newborn child. Inkanyamba Storm god. again. Sujata. Egyptian. Roman.Intercidona 139 One of the most important of the Vedic deities. Mahendri. Consort of the god SAMBA. Paulomi. rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. One of seven MATARAS (mothers) who in later Hinduism became regarded as of evil intent. In Buddhism Indra is a dikpala with the color yellow.

drum. Inti was depicted as a trinity in the sanctuaries in Cuzco. In Viking tradition lord embodies the abstract sacredness of the earth. and wet nurse to the king.140 Inti Inti (sun) Sun god. See also FJORGYN. A minor dikpala attended by a bull. since the sun is regarded as one of many great celestial powers. rosary. the name implies one of great strength. West Africa]. Iris is a virgin goddess who forms the rainbow bridge between heaven and earth. See KIHO. hook. Nordic (Icelandic). . She is also perceived to exert a benign influence on amulets. in gold. Color: white. moon disc and trident. Three-eyed. Attributes: cup. Congo and Tanzania. of all the sky gods in the Inca pantheon on more or less equal terms. African. Color: white. Buddhist. The Temple of the Sun is reported to have housed images. Attributes: five arrows. ax. the wife of OTHIN. staff. Egyptian. hatchet. In Saxony. The Quechua Indians of the central Andes call the same deity Inti Huayna Capac and perceive him as part of a trinity with the Christian god and Christ. Guardian deity. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. Songhai [Niger. The sun god(s) is perceived as the progenitor of the Inca rulers at Cuzco through two children—a son Manco Capac and his sister/consort Mama Ocllo Huaco. and an EKADASARUDRA (one of the eleven rudras). Germanic. His consort is the moon goddess MAMA-KILYA. Also a dik1. Inti may also have been depicted as a face on a gold disc. Also Ipet. fruit. Iris (rainbow) Messenger goddess. there is the so-called Irmin pillar which may be a reference to the deity. Depicted as a hippopotamus or anthropomorphically with a hippo’s head. One of the group classed as the OMETEOTL complex. Ipalnemoani (he who through one lives) Creator god. particularly in Cameroon. Sun god. The special attendant of the goddess HERA. Irmin War god. Greek and Roman. Depicted with wings and carrying a staff. Said to be the mother of THOR and in some legends. etc]. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Cori-Inti (son sun) and Inti-Wawqi (sun brother). In the Pyramid Texts Ipy appears occasionally as a benevolent guardian Isa (2) River goddess. 2. noose. Iruva Io Iord Earth goddess. Isa (1) ˇ IVA. lute. The three sun deities are Apo-Inti (lord sun). Hindu (Puranic). The socalled “fields of the sun” supported the Inca priesthood. possibly in deference to the Christian Trinity. Rides upon a goat or a bull. The mother goddess of the river Niger. An aspect of S pala or guardian of the northeastern quarter. Probably equating with TIWAZ. Ipy Mother goddess. A number of tribes worship the sun by this generic name.

” The symbol was incorporated into a bloodstone amulet known as the tyet. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). etc. Ishi-Kori-Dome God(dess) of stone cutters. Isimud Messenger god. wholly or in part. but usually wearing a crown in the form of a throne or cow horns encircling a sun disc (see HATHOR). as a hawk. Isis is one of the great deities of the Egyptian pantheon and. once after Seth has thrown his body into the Nile and again after Seth has dismembered it. An offspring of GEB and NUT in the Heliopolis genealogy. Isimud is the messenger of the god E NKI . ISIS Egyptian. wall paintings and reliefs. contemporary sculptures. at Dendara and in the temple of Seti I at Abydos. She impregnates herself from his corpse as he is . LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. but she is also thought to have been worshiped across a wide area among Syrians. Early dynastic period (circa 2700 BC) and probably earlier until the end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400). She may also be depicted. He became syncretized with ANUBIS. SYNONYMS none. with OSIRIS. Also at Thebes on the west bank. probably maintained the most universal appeal outside Egypt. Known from the Middle Kingdom onward he is one of the minor deities concerned with the judgment of the dead. CENTER(S) OF CULT universal throughout areas of Egyptian influence. the Great Hymn to Isis from the stele of Amenemose (Louvre). Usumu (Akkadian).ISIS 141 Is ˇ ara Goddess of marriage and childbirth. GrecoRoman culture was particularly enamored of her and called her the Stella Maris (star of the sea). Mother goddess. could see her glorious reflection and so be enticed from the dark cave where she had hidden herself to escape the excesses of the god S USANO . Canaanites and Hittites. Of ambiguous gender. this deity created the stone mold into which the bronze was cast to make the perfect divine mirror. Generally invoked beside fire and smith KAMIS. Isis is the mother of the god kings of Egypt and both elder sister and consort of Osiris. Her Mesopotamian cult center was the Babylonian town of Kisurra. It was used so that AMATERASU. Known chiefly from early inscriptions and some Akkadian texts. Ishi-Kori-Dome is also the tutelary deity of mirror makers and was one of the escorts for Prince NINIGI when he descended from heaven to earth. Also Isinu. but particularly at Giza and at Behbeit el-Hagar in the Nile delta. ART REFERENCES monumental carving. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Isdes Chthonic god of death. The other siblings include SETH and NEPHTHYS. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) and western Semitic. Isis is depicted in human form. Readily identified by possessing two faces looking in opposite directions. represented in the heavens by the north star. Shinto [Japan].WO . From the New Kingdom (circa 1500 BC) onward she is also associated with a device not dissimilar to the ankh symbol and known as the “Isis knot. the sun goddess. In legend she is responsible twice for restoring Osiris. Her symbol is the scorpion. A GrecoRoman sanctuary existed on Philae (now moved to Agilqiya). Egyptian. Also a deity concerned with the enforcing of oaths. Also Es ˇ ara.

dispensing raindrops and hailstones. circa 3500 BC. and from Osiris’s semen conceives HORUS. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). ART REFERENCES votive inscriptions. . SYNONYMS INANA [Sumerian]. cylinder seals and seal impressions. depicted bearing a winged sun on his crown or headdress. Tutelary god. The name given to a deity chosen by an individual for special worship in return for protection and spiritual guidance. Also Kerala. etc. CENTER(S) OF CULT Karkara. glyptics. In creation mythology Is ˇ kur is given charge over the winds. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2500 BC until circa AD 200. Also the name given to a household icon. in prehistoric times he was perceived as a bull or as a lion whose roar is the thunder. Depicted carrying a headless child. the skies in a chariot.ˇ KUR 142 IS entering the underworld as its ruler. ˇ KUR IS ORIGIN Mesopotamian (Sumerian) [Iraq]. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Mesopotamia particularly at Babylon and Nineveh. god. In one text he is identified as the son of AN and twin brother of Enki. until circa 1750 BC. He was also adopted by the Hittites as a storm god. Hindu. He may be depicted as a warrior riding across Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. Generic title of a personal god. who was also known as Stella Maris and whose portraits with the Christ often bear a striking similarity to those of Isis with Horus. Hittite. Is ˇ kur is described as the brother of the sun god UTU. The personal deity of one preparing for Tantric initiation. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts. Isis put up a strong challenge in support of Horus’s claim to the throne against that of her brother Seth. ART REFERENCES plaques: votive stelae. There is much argument that the Isis cult influenced the portrayal of the Christian Virgin Mary. with smaller sanctuaries across a more extensive area of the ancient world including Mari. 2. so she also protected the earthly king of Egypt as a child. In the Greco-Roman period. and probably earlier. particularly in Tibet. Buddhist. to whom she gives birth in the papyrus swamps at Khemmis in the Nile delta.” by the god ENKI. Goddess of fertility and war. Isis sanctuaries were built on the island of Delos and at Pompeii. Istadevata 1. Thus. limestone reliefs. A god of judgment. since Horus instilled himself into the king of Egypt during life. and she showed Seth to be guilty of buggery against Horus. In the courts of the gods. etc. and a crooked staff. and Osiris took over on death (see also Horus and Osiris). As Isis guarded Horus against injury. SYNONYMS ADAD (Akkadian). the ruler was perceived to suckle at the breast of Isis (as HARPOKRATES). He is to be compared with NINURTA who was primarily a god of farmers. Issaki Goddess. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP ˇ TAR IS ORIGIN (star of heaven) The chief rain and thunder god of herdsmen. According to some authors. Storm Is ˇ tanu Sun god. the so-called “silver lock of the heart of heaven.

Gilgames ˇ and Etana. Also GUSILIM. into his son LIANJA. Is ˇ tar is probably the most significant and influential of all ancient Near Eastern goddesses. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Pre-Christian Hungarian. Is ˇ taran Local god. In Buddhism the name of a YAKSA attending the eleventh tirthankara. Mongo and Nkundo [central Democratic Republic of Congo. the gods in war as a herald but was nonetheless generally regarded as benevolent. his sacred animal. by which he predicts where death will strike. The tutelary god of the city of Der. Is ˇ um Minor god. She is symbolized by an eight-pointed star. Creator god. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 300 until circa AD 900. Other attributes include arrow. Known particularly from the Babylonian legend of Erra and Is ˇum. He is also a god of fire. the eagle. in separate traditions. There is evidence from the el-Amarna letters that Amenhotep III. the Sumerian Inana. He may have been a god of fire and. ORIGIN . She may carry a ceremonial double-headed macescimitar embellished with lion heads and is frequently accompanied by a lion. In his vegetation aspect he is depicted with leaves of maize sprouting from his head. according to texts. She is the daughter. In Egypt she was revered as a goddess of healing. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Hindu (Puranic). According to tradition. the elefo. flames his tongue and the pot resting on the fire his liver. In SanEpithet of the god S skrit designated the “supreme god who rules the universe.” The generic title of a Hindu’s personal high god. Described in the Epic of Lianja as the first man to die whose spirit reincarnated at the instant of death. was loaned a statue of Is ˇ tar from Nineveh in the hopes that its curative powers might help his suffering. led ITZAM NA (iguana house) Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].ITZAM NA 143 LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts including The Descent of Is ˇtar. The earth aspect of the creator god ITZAM NA. temple hymns. Akkadian). Isvara ˇ IVA. Mesopotamian (Babylonianˇ AMAS ˇ. He consumes rats as food and is also the god of hunters in the dark jungle forests. Itonde God of death. Africa]. east of the river Tigris in northern Babylonia. horse phallus and tree. the sun god. The brother of S and an attendant of the plague god ERRA. Isten Creator god. Itzam Cab Chthonic earth god. and largely takes over from. and hearthstones are called “head of Itzam Cab. guided the Hungarian people to their homeland. She is generally depicted with wings and with weapon cases at her shoulders. She is the counterpart of.” Sticks of firewood are his thighs. who apparently suffered from severe tooth abscesses. of the moon god SIN and of the god of heaven ANU. He possesses a bell with magical properties. Also ENDURSAGA.

Each reptile has its own direction and color. was the subject of a ritual which involved daubing the lowest step of a sanctuary with mud and the other steps with blue pigment (the color peculiar to rain gods). One of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. Egyptian (Lower). One of the group classed as the XIPE TOTEC complex. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. A god of agriculture but also a patron of precious metallurgists. Hun Itzamna. Greco-Roman. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. At Chichen Itza sacrifice was regularly made to a huge crocodile believed to be the personification of the god. who is identified in some texts as his father. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Itzpapalotl-Itzcueye skirt) (possessor of obsidian Minor mother goddess. Itztapal Totec (our lord the stone slab) Fertility god. Itzam Na is not invoked in the rites of modern Yucatan peasants but. in which guise maize leaves sprout from the top of his head. The principal god in the Mayan pantheon according to the Vienna codex. God K. One of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. A guardian deity of the home personified by fire. He lives in the sky and sends the rain. Generally depicted as a trio of MATRES. the walls and roof of which were formed by four huge iguanas standing upright but with their heads bent downwards. Iunones Goddesses of femininity. Limited to the Valley of Mexico. Itzam Na may be the same as the so-called God K of the codices. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. His earthly aspect is called ITZAM CAB. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. He may also be depicted anthropomorphically. recognized by a long branching nose in the form of a pair of infolded leaves.144 Itzcuintli HUNAB KU. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. Depicted anthropomorphically with a scarab on her head. . ART REFERENCES stone carvings. Creator goddess. CENTER(S) OF CULT Chichen Itza and other sites. Also recognized as a fire goddess. Yaxcocahmut. Itzam Na is probably the same deity as Hunab Ku. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. SYNONYMS Itzpapalotl (obsidian butterfly) Minor mother goddess. Also a god of medicine and a fire god. LITERARY SOURCES mainly the Vienna Codex. A shrine at Saintes Maries on the Rhone delta was originally dedicated to the Iunones Augustae. mainly in the Yucatan peninsula. ltztli (obsidian blade) God of justice. codex illustrations. Locally known from Heliopolis and perceived as being a feminine principle in the cosmos equating to the sun god ATUM. Iusaas Itzcuintli Goddess of hearths. at one time. By tradition the Maya believed that the world was set within a vast house. In his aspect as a vegetation god. but in the guise of a reptile.

classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Her consort is the maize god IH P’EN. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. . She may represent another aspect of the mother goddess COLEL CAB. See also CHIBIRIAS. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The couple are invoked at sowing time when turkeys and chickens are sacrificed. Ix Zacal Nok (lady cloth-weaver) Ix Chebel Yax Mother goddess. Also the goddess of childbirth and medicine and of rainbows. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Also Ix Azal Uoh. One of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. Ixpuztec (broken face) Minor underworld god. Associated with paternalism and one of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. Tutelary goddess of suicide victims. Ix Kanan Vegetation goddess. whose tutelage is shared with IX CHEL. Ixcozauhqui Ix Chel Moon goddess. One of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex.Ixtlilton 145 Iuturna Goddess of springs and wells. Ixtab Goddess. Ix Chel is a guardian against disease and the Quiche Indians regard her as a goddess of fertility and sexual intercourse. A consort of the sun god. The consort of the sun god Kinich Ahau and also the inventor of weaving. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. She has a major shrine as Cozumel and small figurines of the goddess have been conventionally placed beneath the beds of women in labor. believed to be the first being on earth to weave cloth. (yellow face in the house) God of fire. Roman. Ixchel. One of the group classed as the Mictlantecuhtli complex. Invoked particularly in times of drought. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Ixnextli (eye-lashes) Goddess of weavers. Ixquimilli-Itzlacoliuhqui (eye-bundle curved obsidian blade) God of justice. Ixtlilton (little black face) Minor god of sexual lust. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Under Christian influence she has been largely syncretized with the Virgin Mary. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. she was employed in this craft when she first attracted the attention of the sun god. A goddess of weaving. Mayan (Yucatec and Quiche. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The guardian of the bean plant. See also AH KIN. Creator goddess. See also IX CHEBEL YAX. She carries her loom sticks across the sky to protect her from jaguars. Also Goddess 1. Goddess of weaving and patroness of weavers. Such women are considered to be in great danger at times of lunar eclipse when the unborn child may develop deformities.

One of the group classed as the Ometochtli complex personifying the maguey or agave plant from which a potent drink called pulque is brewed. Izquitecatl Fertility god. Jointly they are responsible to the other fifteen primordial deities to “make. the brine which dripped from it created the island of Onogoro. the pair created two beings.” The reference. . consolidate and give birth to this drifting land. His consort is IZANAMI-NO-KAMI. Also Izanami-No-Mikoto. the first dry land. after which the eight thunders sprang from her corpse.146 Izanagi-No-Kami Izanagi-No-Kami who invites) (his augustness the one most significant offspring include AMATERASU. the storm god. Creator god. born from his nose and SUSANOWO. is to the reed beds which were considered to float on the primal waters. Shinto [Japan]. They generated the remaining fourteen islands which make up Japan and then set about creating the rest of the KAMI pantheon. Izanagi’s Izanami-No-Kami who invites) (her augustness the one Creator goddess. who are the joint rulers of the universe. believed to be the island of Nu-Shima on the southern coast of Awagi. Shinto [Japan]. in the Kojiki sacred text. When the spear was pulled up. They are strictly of Japanese origin with no Chinese or Buddhist influence. Also IzanagiNo-Mikoto. a son HIRUKO and an island Ahaji. the sun goddess. born from his left eye. According to mythology. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Izanami was burned to death by the birth of the fire god HI-NO-KAGUTSUCHI. The pair were granted a heavenly jeweled spear and they stood upon the floating bridge of heaven. stirring the waters with the spear. One of seventeen beings involved in creation. See IZANAGINO-KAMI for full details.

He is depicted in hideous fashion as a monster with an enormous head and bulging eyes. sun disc and sword. Puranic texts. JAGANNATH ORIGIN (lord of the world) Hindu (Puranic) [India]. ˇ NU was acciAccording to legend. CENTER(S) OF CULT Bengal and Puri (Oríssa). Jagannath occupies an obscure position. Also Nzakomba. Well-known wooden image at Puri. he controls human thought. the Rathayatra and Snanayatra. Largely eclipsed by GABIJA. 147 . LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana epic. His sister is SUBHADRA and his brother Balabhadra. ART REFERENCES bronze sculptures. Jagaubis Fire god. was commissioned to create a new body to cover the bones. his bones were placed in a box and VISVAKARMA. when V IS dently slain by a hunter. KRSNA’s curiosity got the better of him and the resultant half-finished freak was Jagannath. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 400 and probably earlier until present day. central Africa]. Pre-Christian Lithuanian. A BODHISATTVA or buddhadesignate. Elamite [Iran]. Jahwe See YHWH. the image of Jagannath is removed from his sanctuary at Puri for a week each year and aired in public view. Also known as the god of hearts. Color: red. the Hindu god of artisans.J 6 Jabru Sky god. are dedicated to Jagannath and his siblings. Also Suryaprabha. Buddhist. Attributes: staff. Bangala [Democratic Republic of Congo. In an unusual departure from normal ritual practice. Transmutation of the essence of the god Vis ˇ nu. Local deity largely eclipsed by AN. Jakomba God of morality. but with no legs and only the stumps of arms. Jalinprabha (light of the sun) God. His agreement was conditional on no one seeing the work until it was finished. SYNONYMS Jaggernaut. Two festivals.

Threeheaded. image of Aksobhya in the hair. and three windows collectively comprising the twelve months of the year. Ichneumon fly. peacock feather. symbolizing his dominance over past and future. . cup. SYNONYMS Ianus. Janus is depicted with two faces turned in opposite directions. He was particularly celebrated at New Year and the month name January is derivative. present and future. staff. One.148 Jambhala Jambhala (devouring) God. or a collective emanation of the five DHYANIBUDDHAS. Probably of Hindu derivation. His SAKTI is VASUDHARA and he may stand upon a man or a conch. According to legend the son of Jayatara (victorious Tara) Minor goddess. ORIGIN Jayakara (victorious) God. and one of the eleven EKADASARUDRAS or forms of the god RUDRA.or three-headed. God of passage. One of the sons of INDRA. and the dawn of each day was sacred to Janus. sword and trident. Buddhist. drum. He is also specifically a benign intercessor in times of war. Hittite and Hurrian. Color: blue or white. bow. Buddhist (Mahayana). alternatively he holds the numbers 300 and 65 when presiding over the start of a new year. garland and wine glass. staff. rosary. Jayanta (victorious) God. lute. APOLLO. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). An emanation of AKSOBHYA. trident and waterjar. bow. Prevents and cures snake bite. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). He holds a key in his right hand and a staff in his left when invoked as guardian of a gate or roadway. snake. He has no Greek counterpart but is the god of past. other jewels. Jarri Plague god. he rides in a carriage drawn by cockatoos. prayer wheel. Buddhist (Mahayana). he is the equal of the Hindu god KUBERA. each side possessing one door representing each of the four seasons. he founded the city of Janiculum on the Tiber. hammer. Attributes: arrow. Attributes: arrow. Color: green. Janguli (knowledge of poisons) Snake goddess. image of Aksobhya on crown. Also one of a group of DHARANIS (deification of Buddhist texts). ax. Buddhist (Mahayana). Janus is generally known as the “god with two faces” and is the deity responsible for gates. Attributes: arrow. blue lotus. jewel. each head representing one of the three named Dhyanibuddhas. ART REFERENCES sculptures and relief carvings. He is also equated with the rising and setting of the sun. hook. club. cup. RATNASAMBHAVA or Vajrasattva. JANUS Roman. noose. including the celebrated Janus Quadrifons temple (not extant). CENTER(S) OF CULT many sanctuaries throughout Italy. doorways and of all beginnings. An emanation of AKSOBHYA. The Janus Quadrifons temple was reputedly a perfectly symmetrical square. Accompanied by a snake or other unidentified creature. sword and trident. spear. bow. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 400 BC to circa AD 400. Each new season. hook. Attributes: arrow. bow. Color: white. born in Thessaly. white or yellow. Also war god known as the “lord of the bow” who protected the king in battle.

Jehovah Creator god. Vulcan and HEBE. Her chief festival in Rome was the Matronalia. though subsequently she was obliged to endure Jupiter’s philandering with numerous concubines. Juno was accorded the title of goddess of marriage. circa 400 BC to circa AD 400. Jwok created mankind from river clay. The owner of the “lake cows” which graze at the bottom of Lake Albert and which are herded by drowned fishermen. Twin goddesses. One of a group of VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Shinto [Japan]. Jumis Fertility god. Attributes: ax. Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. staff and sword. Buddhist. Color: whitish blue. who seduced her in the guise of a cuckoo. He is depicted as a Chinese hermit and is sometimes confused with the god FUKUROKUJU. CENTER(S) OF CULT Sparta. Attributes: the tree of wisdom and a jeweled banner. Christian. Symbolized by cereal stalks joined at the heads. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil) etc.Junrojin 149 Jaya-Vijaya (victorious) Jokinam Lake god. Philosophical deity. Buddhist (Mahayana). Her sacred animals are the peacock and the cuckoo and she is invariably depicted in majestic apparel. Junrojin God of luck. Queen of heaven. For the Shilluk in Sudan. Jnanavasita Jok Creator god. bell. A . ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Jnanaparamita (perfection of knowledge) Juno is modeled on the Greek goddess Hera. Attributes: sword on a blue lotus. See also KRONOS. Pre-Christian Latvian. VULCANUS. The name came into usage from circa AD 1200 and is an adulteration which has largely replaced the title YHWH in the English-speaking churches. cup. In the Roman pantheon she is the daughter of Cronos and RHEA and the sister and incestuous consort of JUPITER. Juno is the mother of MARS. or bent over and buried in the ground. ART REFERENCES large numbers of sculptures. JUNO (knowledge) Goddess. One of seven deities in Shintoism concerned with fortune. Possibly forms of D URGA accompanied by a lion. Lake Albert [East Africa]. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). club. Following their wedding on Mount Olympus. The Acholi in Uganda perceive jok to live in caves to which they deliver food and drink offerings. Color: white. An emanation of AKSOBHYA and the SAKTI of yogambara. Jnanadakini Roman. Buddhist. SYNONYMS HERA (Greek). African. Color: blue. A generic term employed by a large number of tribes. See also YHWH. (control of knowledge) Minor goddess. Generally the jok is represented by a totem and also has an animal name. Rome and Heraeum.

banner with crow. His consort is JUNO. god of war and farming. This was later revised to include Jupiter. The elder sister of the goddess LAKSMI. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Jyestha personifies poverty and is depicted with a large belly and long nose. circa 400 BC to circa AD 400. Attributes: arrow. etc. His main sanctuary is located on the Capitoline Hill in Rome and epithets include Tonans (thunderer) and Fulgurator (sender of lightning) although he is. Roman. he carries a staff to which is attached a little book. particularly in Bengal. JUPITER Roman. Jvaraharisvara (lord of fever) Plague god. By tradition the book contains information about the lifespan of each mortal person. hair-ornament and staff. Thus he was Jupiter Victor leading the legions to victory. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Roman world. or Jupiter Protector. Hindu. Jupiter parallels the Greek supreme deity ZEUS. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Juventas Goddess of youth. He is accompanied by a black deer.150 JUPITER small figure with a large head. His origins lie in the IndoEuropean sky god DYAUS PITAR. Away from Rome he was allied with the Syrian/Hittite god DOLICHENUS and in this form became popular with the Roman military with shrines as far away as Britain. Her animal is an ass. above all. and QUIRINUS. Juppiter. as the father of the gods. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). cup. like Zeus. believed to hurl thunderbolts from the sky and he was represented in the sanctuary of Jupiter Feretrius by a crude lump of stone. . In Rome he formed part of an early trinity with MARS. Jyestha Goddess of misfortune. Juno and MINERVA. reliefs. Hindu (Puranic and earlier). Head of the Roman pantheon. the giver of the bright light of day. all three of whom shared the Capitoline Temple. SYNONYMS Iuppiter. Modeled on the Greek goddess HEBE. Associated with malaria. He is particularly responsible for the honoring of oaths which led to the practice of swearing in his name. He is. blue lotus. Jupiter became known under a variety of assimilated names. said to have been made thus by old age. or Jupiter Stator when they were in a defensive role. Jove. In earlier Hinduism she was worshiped particularly in southern India. Also a NAKSATRA of evil influence. ART REFERENCES sculptures.

These illustrations were designed shiping S by Saivites as part of a propaganda exercise to ˇ iva over Vis demonstrate the superiority of S ˇ nu. consort of KASYAPA and mother of the nagas (snake demons).K 6 Ka Tyeleo Creator god. he fashioned the fruit-bearing trees on the seventh day of creation. Depicted naked carrying a snake and usually standing upon a lion. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). particularly those inscribed ˇ NU. Kades ˇ Fertility goddess. and at Thebes. 151 . the tortoise. A fierce old woman who lives in the ocean depths and owns all the creatures of the sea. Kabeiroi Blacksmith gods. An epithet of S certain artworks. where there was an Etruscan tradition until circa 500 BC. Greek. Taken over by the Egyptians (see QUADES Kabrakan Earthquake god. Hindu (Puranic). See also ARNAKUA’GSAK. Kabta God of artisans. is depicted worˇ iva. Kadru (russet) Goddess. VIS KURMA(VATARA). Ka’cak Sea spirit. Significantly in such an environment. ˇ). Senufo [Ivory Coast. According to tradition the sons or grandsons of the blacksmith god HEPHAISTOS. The Kabeiroi are thought to derive from pre-Greek Asian fertility deities in Anatolia [Turkey]. according to tradition. The so-called “destroyer of mountains” usually coupled with the god ZIPAKNA who builds mountains. She is said to feed off the bodies of drowned fishermen and is the subject of sacrifice. In creation mythology he is given charge over brickmolds and pickaxes. Siberian Inuit [eastern Siberia]. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. in his aspect of on linga stones. The cult was centered particularly on Lemnos. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). West Africa]. In God. Canaanite. Kacchapesvara (lord of the tortoise) ˇ IVA. One of the daughters of DAKSA.

Kakka Kahilan Tutelary god. Minor goddess of death.152 Kagu-Tsuchi-No-Kami Kagu-Tsuchi-No-Kami Fire god. Kahukura is invoked for the well-being of crops and in some regions the name appears to be synonymous with that of RONGOMATANE. learned the art of making fish nets. Kalacakra Kaikara Harvest goddess. Known only from inscriptions. and is known of state to both ANU and ANS particularly from the text of Nergal and Eres ˇ kigal. An auspicious attendant of funerals who is invoked in burial grounds in order to safeguard the passage of the dead to the otherworld. He was the attendant and minister ˇAR. Also the thet of YAMA and occasionally of S personification of time in the Atharvaveda. She is sometimes referred to as Karala-Bhadra. Mayan (Lacandon) (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. a root tuber that was introduced to New Zealand by man and is said to possess many magical properties. He is worshiped in the mountain shrine of Kono-Jinja. Kala-Bhadra Kai Yum (singing lord) God of music. He lives in the sky and is attendant on CACOCH. Kahukura God of agriculture and creator of the rainbow. the god of agriculture. (time wheel) Tutelary god. An epiˇ IVA. Polynesian and Maori. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). in antiquity. Propitiated before harvesting with offerings of millet. Bunyoro [Uganda. Buddhist. Shinto [Japan]. Kahukura is not to be confused with a legendary character of the same name. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). One of a group of yi-dam tutelary deities chosen on a basis of personal selection. East Africa]. Kala God of death. Perceived as time in the form of a C AKRA . Kahukura is particularly associated with a staple vegetable of the Maori. The son of RONGOMAI. Kakupacat (fiery glance) War god. the kumara. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican] [Mexico]. The most celebrated temple of the fire kamis is situated on Mount Atago near Kyoto to which worshipers are drawn from all over Japan to obtain charms as protection against fire. The sacred fire can only be generated by a board and stick and this is regarded as a powerful purifier in Shintoism. Kakaku River god. a mortal hero who. No further information available. one of the aspects the Mayan creator god. Kakasya (crow faced) Minor goddess. Pre-Islamic Arabian. Hindu (Puranic). Said to bear a shield of fire with which he protects himself in battle. One of a number of fire KAMIS who are honored in special Hi-Matsuri festivals. Minor god. Buddhist (Mahayana) and Lamaist [Tibet]. Shinto [Japan]. His name is often inscribed on the edge tiles of a house to protect against fire. Depicted as a brazier shaped like a pottery drum.

Buddhist (Mahayana). She is depicted variously with long ragged locks. Color: red. Kaladuti (messenger of death) Goddess. also linked with Durga. A violent represenˇ IVA who is attendant at cremations and tation of S whose warlike attributes include sword. whom she aids and abets in his more maligS nant aspects. At cremation sites she sits upon the body of the deceased surrounded by attendant jackals. Attributes: cup and knife. Hindu (Puranic). Hindu (Puranic). and an epithet of DURGA. Hindu (Puranic). In her earlipersonifications of the SAKTI of S est form she may have been the personification of the spirit of evil. hammer and trident. Goddess. Color: dark blue. The conflict of her personality follows the widely held notion that out of destruction comes rebirth. fang-like teeth or even tusks. She slaughters demons and sometimes her hands are raised in blessing. . lips smeared (the funerary fire Rudra) Minor god. She possesses ten (sometimes as prostrate S many as eighteen) arms and may wear a necklace of skulls. She is the central figure of the sakta cult in Bengal. shield. Often depicted standing upon a corpse. a belt of severed arms. LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana epic and various Puranic texts. and snakes as bracelets. Frequently she holds a severed head in one of her hands and a large sword in another. She has no special vehicle but may be seen dancing on a ˇ iva. Typically four-headed. Kali is worshiped in Bengal during the Dipavali festival. Her consort is generally perceived as ˇ IVA. Goddess of destruction. There are also more benign aspects of Kali. ORIGIN or dripping with blood and claw-like hands with long nails. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 400. Kaligni-Rudra Kali is the most terrible and malignant aspect of the goddess Sakti (see also Durga) though the name Kali is an epithet applied to several goddesses. cup. Kali is depicted wading through gore on the battlefield and drinking the blood of her victims. until present. 2. May be accompanied by a horse. In southern India she is worshiped as a distinct plague goddess associated with cholera. Buddhist (Mahayana). Attributes: a large variety held in up to twenty-four hands. Attributes include a cup or skull. Kalika (black) 1. but known from much earlier times.Kalika 153 (rotating wheel) and one who dominates the Hindu gods KAMA and RUDRA. SYNONYMS many epithets. Attributes: cow head. bow and arrow. Kalavikarnika Fever goddess. Often she is half-naked with black skin. earrings of children’s corpses. Her tongue often protrudes. One of sixteen headed by the goddess SARASVATI. Color: blue. A SAKTI of NIRRTI. Jain. CENTER(S) OF CULT chiefly in Bengal. She is also one of the MAHAVIDYA ˇ iva. ART REFERENCES sculptures in stone and bronze. KALI (1) Hindu (Puranic) [India]. Kali (2) Goddess of learning. SAKTI with two to four heads. Goddess.

until present. By tradition he lives in depths of the river Yamuna. conch. in which instance he is titled Kama. Ananga. Her sacred animals include the hare and the goose and she may be symbolized by a birch tree. One of the nagas in the endless conflict between good and evil. and probably earlier. Pigmy hunters invoke the god with special rituals and he delivers dream messages identifying the location of game. The guardian of hunters and the jungle forests. He is the father of MUSISI. His chief ally is the god of spring. the APSARAS. SYNONYMS Kama. he poisoned the fresh water with his venom. and he is attended by a band of nymphs. Kalunga Kaliya Minor serpent god. Greek. Said to take the form of a giant man who is always partially hidden by clouds and generally seen only by women intermediaries known as nelagos who go to converse with him in sacred places. Creator god. Epic and Puranic). Attributes: arrow.154 Kalisia Kalisia Creator god. Horses became associated with divine kingship in ancient India because of their speed of movement. God of carnal love. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Kalligeneia Obscure birth goddess. strung . Ndonga [northern Namibia. The son of V IS reincarnations KRSNA and RUKMINI. RATI. decked with ornaments and flowers. Kamadeva is depicted as a youthful god with green or red skin. Kaltesh Fertility goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana epic and various Puranic texts. He rewards Possibly the tenth avatara of V IS the good and punishes evil. his principal consort the goddess of affection. central Africa]. The young KRSNA revived all the life which had drunk from it and then almost destroyed Kaliya before taking the snake as one of his followers. prayer wheel. Vasanta. ART REFERENCES stone and metal sculptures. Kalki is depicted either anthropomorphically or with the head of a horse and has four arms. reliefs. An alternative legendary beginning accounts that he rose from the heart of the creator god BRAHMA. Solar deities were perceived to ride horses across the sky and horse sacrifice became highly significant. destiny of the infant. or of their desire. He is attended by a white horse. Hindu (Vedic. The counterpart of the Buddhist deity MAITREYA. circa 1000 BC. CENTER(S) OF CULT various. Ugric (western Siberian). Kalki(n) ORIGIN Hindu (Puranic) [India]. ˇNU. shield and sword. Pigmy [Democratic Republic of Congo and Congo. Known only from ritual texts in Athens. armed with a bow of sugar cane. A goddess concerned with childbirth and the future As god of love Kamadeva stimulates physical ˇ NU and LAKSMI. but also as a fertility deity and before making a journey. KAMA(DEVA) (desire) (with white horse) Horse god. southern Africa]. Also Vis ˇ nuyasas. The god is invoked at times of warfare and illness. Consort of the sky god Nun. MANMATHA.

One of a group of Minor goddess. the son of Krsna. A SAKTI of S at Kanchipuram. Specifically the kami responsible for the cooking stove. The consorts of Kamadeva are the goddesses Rati and PRITI. the god of sexual love. A violent aspect ˇ IVA in which he is depicted immolating of S Kama. The epithet Ananga (bodiless) is applied to Kamadeva in this context. Buddhist (Mahayana). Kamaksi Creator being. Generic name for a deity. Also Kamatchi (Tamil). Kami-Musubi-No-Kami ing wondrous deity) (divine produc- (of amorous appearance) Goddess.Kamini 155 with a line of honey bees. who incinermet his death at the hands of S ated him with flames from his middle eye. Shinto [Japan]. Particularly worshiped in southern India. Kamadeva is reincarnated as Kama. and arrows tipped with a flower. Kamala (lotus-born) Kamini (loving woman) Goddess. S Kamalasana God. The title applied to the gods and goddesses of Shintoism. Shinto [Japan]. Also Kamadokami. but also in her own right at several places in southern India. representing MAHARATRI. He may be three-eyed and three-headed and frequently rides on a parrot. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. using a blast of fire from his third eye. The third in the list of primordial deities appearing in the Kojiki and Nihongi sacred texts. Kami Kama-Gami God of potters. A remote and vaguely defined deity who was born alone in the cosmos and whose presence remains hidden from mankind. Each kiln has a small stone statue of the deity standing upon it to which the potters offer sake and salt before lighting the fire. One of the classic depictions in Hindu art wherein Brahma is drawn seated on a lotus. who in turn is reincarnated as PRADYUMNA. Shinto [Japan]. which ˇNU. blossoms from the navel of V IS Kamantakamurti Minor god. . Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Hindu (Puranic). Kamadeva had inadvertently wounded the meditating god with one of his shafts of desire and had caused him to fall in love with PARVATI. Legend accounts that Kamadeva ˇ IVA. Shinto [Japan]. The god is invoked particularly when a bride-to-be departs from her family home. Hindu (Puranic). Kamado-No-Kami Household god. The reason given for this assault is that Kama had interrupted the ˇ iva by making him ascetic meditation of S desirous of PARVATI. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India and ˇ IVA recognized locally Sri Lanka]. MAHAVIDYAS or personifications of the SAKTI of ˇ IVA. An epithet of BRAHMA. Probably influenced by Chinese religion.

A SAKTI who in later Hinduism became regarded as a SAPTAMATARA (mother) of evil intent. A violent and heavily armed aspect ˇ IVA. The twentieth of the thirty-nine minor ˇNU and possibly the same avataras of the god V IS as DHANVANTARI. Kanti (desire) Goddess. the “missing” vegetation fertility god. Kankala(murti) Minor god. Traditionally accompanied in artworks of S by a skeleton. This was V IS prompted by the refusal of Visvaksena to permit ˇ iva an audience with Vis S ˇ nu. One of the group of eleven EKADASARUDRAS or forms of RUDRA. See also TANE(MAHUTA). Born from the vomit of IZANAMI and worshiped in the Nangu-Jinja and other shrines. Shinto [Japan]. Polynesian [Hawaii].” Kantatman Obscure god of medicine. Shinto [Japan]. Born from the vomit of IZANAMI and worshiped in the NanguJinja and other shrines. as he is said to be a “carrier of nectar. One of many rain KAMIS invoked in Shintoism and included in a generic grouping of RAIJIN. Hittite and Hurrian. East Africa]. A sky god comparable with the more widely known Polynesian deity ATEA. Mother of Aruna. Kangalogba Primordial spirit. osis of the sacred river Oubangui. Involved in the legend of TELEPINU. The female spirit personified in the dragonfly and also the apothe- Kapali (wearing skulls) God. One of the KAMIS of the so-called “metal mountain.” By different genealogy he has been equated with PRADYUMNA. Kankala takes his place in mythology as the representation of the deity who slew ˇ NU ’ S bodyguard V ISVAKSENA . deities of thunder. storm and rain. the god of love. Kana-Yama-Hime-No-Kami Goddess of miners. Pokot and Suk [Uganda and western Kenya. Known particularly from Bengal as a goddess who spreads disease. Kamrusepa Goddess of healing. Her consort is KANA-YAMA-BIKO-NO-KAMI. Shinto [Japan]. The mother of the creator god TORO. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). His consort is KANAYAMA-HIME-NO-KAMI. Hindu (Epic and Puranic).156 Kamo-Wake-Ikazuchi Kamo-Wake-Ikazuchi Rain god. One of the KAMIS of the so-called “metal mountain. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). .” Kankar Mata Mother goddess. Kane God of light. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). These illustrations were designed by Saivites as part of a propaganda exercise to demonstrate the superiority of ˇ iva over Vis S ˇ nu. Considered to be part of a primordial trinity with KU (stability) and LONO (sound). Kana-Yama-Biko-No-Kami God of miners. The SAKTI of NARAYANA.

An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. Katajalina is reputed to live in an . rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. hook. 2. Animistic spirit. Australian aboriginal. In other texts he is the father of the god NARADA who consorted with one of the daughters of DAKSA. Hindu. Karmavasita (control of karman) Minor goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). Color: red. noose. Buddhist (Mahayana). arguably. rite or deed originating in the hope of future recompense. inscriptions. Rides upon a peacock. Buddhist [Japan]. A form of SKANDA who was reared by the Pleiades stars and is generally represented therefore with six heads. One of the deities grouped in Shintoism as the RAIJIN gods of thunder. Known from ˇUH (Hurrian). staff. from the notion of the cosmos as a giant tortoise. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Attributes: cock. Equating with the Hindu god Skanda. Pre-Christian Latvian. Known only from folk traditions. Attributes: conch. One of a group of nine NAVASAKTIS who. DEVAS etc. prayer wheel. Hindu (Epic and Puranic).Katajalina 157 Kapalini (carrying a cup) Karttikeya 1. Color: green. snake demons. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). sword and wood apple. (In Hindu mythology there are only six Pleiades. Invoked at the ceremony of initiation by the Binbinga people once living on the west side of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Kas ˇ ku Moon god. Buddhist. Karai-Shin God of lightning. God. In Vedic literature a divine demiurge and father of mankind. Color: black. God. Karaikkal Ammaiyar Local mother goddess. not the seven recognized in modern astronomy. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. Hindu [southern India]. Three-eyed. Attribute: a staff. Minor goddess. spear. Known from the town of Karikal as a deified ascetic who is depicted with an emaciated form. Kasyapa (deriving from the Sanskrit for “tortoise”) Primordial god. Karttiki Mother goddess. Attributes: rosary and waterjar. Also PRAJAPATI. Pre-Hittite and Hittite. in southern India. Karini Inferior goddess. Buddhist. Attribute: playing cymbals. storm and rain. One of a group of twelve VASITAS or goddesses personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration—karma(n) is an act. His name stems. Sakti and staff.) His SAKTI is KARTTIKI and his attendant animal is a peacock. He has had thirteen consorts. Katajalina Karta Goddess of destiny. One of a group of seven MAHANAGAS. Also KUS Karkota Snake god. shield.

158 Kataragama anthill and to carry off the spirit of the young initiate. Hindu (Puranic). Regarded as the tutelary deity and creator of the tribe. Kataragama Tutelary god. Attributes: arrow. as the ascetic KALI. MATARAS (mothers) of evil intent. possessed ˇ IVA ridiculed her she cast it a black skin. Also Ceyon. She embodies lack of envy or. There. East Africa]. The SAKTI of SKANDA (Kaumara) who in later Hinduism became regarded as one of a group of seven . Tamil [Sri Lanka]. The pair epitomize the primordial darkness. he lived once in the dark empty abyss of Po. bell. Also one of a group of eight ASTAMATARAS. Keawe Creator god. including most notably KU. bow. lotus. cockerel. both created through his own powers of conception. who became known. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). An androgynous though apparently male principle or monad. Nyamwezi [Tanzania. Kaumari Mother goddess. the god of light. book. The consort of CANDRA. Hawaiian. Kazyoba Katyayani Form of the goddess DURGA or PARVATI. Parvati. The ultimate creator of all that exists in the world and the judge of humanity able to reward or punish at will. One of the eight deities of the OGDOAD representing chaos. Kaumudi (moonlight) Goddess of the light of the moon. Hindu. Tamil [southern India and Sri Lanka]. collectively. she is coupled with the god KEK and appears in anthropomorphic form but with the head of a snake. Egyptian. He subsequently entered into an incestuous relationship with Na Wahine to father the chief pantheon of Hawaiian gods and goddesses. The consort of the sun in Chukchee mythology. kill him and then restore him to life as an adult. Keawe’s first son was KANE. ax. alternatively. delusion. Keawe transformed primordial chaos into an orderly cosmos. He fashioned the sky from the lid of his calabash (a water-carrying gourd) and the sun from an orange disc formerly kept inside the calabash. and it was subsequently filled “with the combined brilliance of the gods” to create Katyayani. One of four great national deities and equating to the Hindu god SKANDA. as the tripartite god. She is also depicted greeting the rising sun in the guise of a baboon. Also Ko’rgina (rejoicing woman). LONO and Kanaloa. Katavul Supreme god. Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. Kauket Primordial goddess. and his daughter was Na Wahine. staff and waterjar. spear. Her attendant animal is a lion or tiger. When S off. His presence is announced in the noise of the bull-roarer. Her animal is a peacock. Kavra’nna (walking around woman) Sun spirit. Sun god.

Daughter of DAKSA. Ketua God of fortune. Kemos ˇ Tutelary god. Mallari. consort of KASYAPA and a deity controlling spirits of forests.7. Kesava (long-haired) ˇ NU. He is depicted bearing four arms and is usually mounted on a horse. Also Peruten. considered to be a form of PARVATI. Hindu (late). known to the maritime Chukchee. The daughter of ANUBIS who was involved in the cult of the dead as the deity responsible for libations. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo. Egyptian. The pair epitomize the primordial darkness. drum. he is coupled with the goddess KAUKET and appears in anthropomorphic form but with the head of a frog. An attendant of ARAPACANA. She is depicted as a serpent. Kek Primordial god. Khandoba ˇ IVA. Normally referred to as Al-Khidr (the green one). Pre-Islamic north African. night. Hindu (Vedic). The god is generally regarded as one of several martial forms ˇ iva took to combat demons. . Moabite [Jordan]. Goddess.Khasa 159 Kebechet Chthonic snake goddess. Martland. sun. He owns all the creatures of the sea and is said to wear a cloak of walrus gut and to be extremely fierce. as being one of the gods worshiped by the Israelite king Solomon. According to tradition he has seven children: morning. Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. His SAKTI is KIRTI. Hindu (Epic and Minor avatara of VIS Puranic). Kere’tkun Sea spirit. central Africa]. His consort which S is the goddess MHALSA. Similar in some respects to the Syrian god ADONIS and revered by Alexander the Great. His consort is Cinei’nen. He controls both good luck and ill-fortune. He wanders the earth returning to the same spot once in every 500 years and is said to have gained his immortality by drinking from the well of life. sword and trident. He accords to water the privileges of a firstborn son. One of seven deities invoked at daybreak. He feeds on the bodies of drowned fishermen and is the subject of sacrifice. but may also be accompanied by a dog. Khadir Vegetation god. Khandoba is Form of the god S believed to have emerged as a deity with a distinct cultic following no earlier than the thirteenth or fourteenth century. He is also depicted greeting the rising sun in the guise of a baboon. evening. moon and water. Khasa (itch) Kesini (hairy) Minor goddess. The chief being in the ocean depths. Buddhist. noon. Mentioned under the name of Chemosh in the Vetus Testamentum: 1 Kings 11. Also Makhari. One of the eight deities of the OGDOAD representing chaos. Eventually adopted by the Greeks and absorbed into the cult of ARES. near Poona. Attributes: bowl. Egyptian. mainly in western India and centered on Jejuri.

Tibetan. and lotus. a ram’s skull is hung from the doorpost of a dwelling and filled with offerings. A significant deity at Thebes. attended by a white dog. Khon-Ma Khen-Pa God. The male counterpart of KHEN-MA. he controls the demons of heaven. Equating to the Hindu god GARUDA. There is a Khonsu precinct as part of the Temple of Amun in the Karnak complex. Recognized from at least 2500 BC but best known during the New Kingdom (mid-sixteenth century BC). Attributes: image of AMITABHA on the crown. Egyptian (Upper). Also Khebe. Buddhist [Tibet]. ered with gold leaf and buried in stone sarcophagi have been discovered. From the Greco-Roman period there exists a sanctuary of Kom-ombo where Khonsu is seen as the offspring of the crocodile god SOBEK and the mother goddess HATHOR. attended by a ram. but in either case enveloped in a close-fitting robe. Depicted anthropomorphically or with a falcon’s head. Ruler of a horde of demons who live in the earth and who may infest houses. The female controller of the earth’s demons. Her vehicle is a ram. Color: white. where he is described as an offspring of AMUN and MUT.160 Khasaparna Khasaparna (gliding through the air) God. Khipa Tutelary deity. and at Elephantine where mummified rams cov- Khyung-Gai mGo-Can Local god. Khnum supervises the annual Nile flood. Egyptian (Upper). Buddhist [Tibet]. Said to create human life on a potter’s wheel but strictly at the behest of creator deities. Known from at least 2500 BC. Khnum is also described at other sites as the BA or soul of various deities including GEB and OSIRIS. Khen-Ma Goddess. She is depicted typically wearing yellow robes and with attributes including a golden noose. He is usually seated before a potter’s wheel on which stands a naked figure in the process of molding. A variety of AVALOKITESVARA. Hittite and Hurrian. Egyptian. Attribute: a crystal staff. which is physically generated by the god HAPY. Buddhist [Tibet]. Chthonic goddess. Kherty acts as a guardian of royal tombs but displays a more ominous aspect threatening the soul of the ruler. This may be an archaic name for the goddess MA. The Khnum cult was principally directed from sanctuaries at Esna. Pyramid Texts warn that the king must be protected from Kherty by the sun god RE. Attribute: a golden noose. His sacred animal is the baboon. To guard against her influence. Depicted anthropomorphically or with the head of a ram. Kherty (lower one) Chthonic or earth god. Khnum Chthonic or earth god. Buddhist. He wears a crown consisting of a crescent moon subtending a full moon orb. His consort at Esna is the goddess Menhyt. Khons(u) (wanderer) Moon god. Depicted anthropomorphically or with the head of a ram. north of the first Nile cataract. .

Known from Cyprus as a magician and smith. Probably equating with the Syrian ADONIS. The name URAS See also ANTU(M). with whom she descended from the heavens. An indistinct and remote character. Guardian of the Atlantic Ocean and its creatures. he secured victory in war for the Buganda by taking the form of a cloud which hovered above their enemies and rained spears and arrows. he was created at the same primordial time as the dawn. Klehanoai (night-bearer) Moon god. Also Kinnur. Also Ki’njen. According to some traditions. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Western Semitic.Klehanoai 161 Ki (the great one) Archetypal chthonic principle. Some authorities argue that she was never regarded as a deity. He is invisible and is represented diagrammatically by a point surrounded by a circle on which are marked the four quarters. Kinyras Local god of metalwork. Yukaghir (eastern Siberia]. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Kimbundu [Angola. Kiya’rnarak (I exist) Supreme being. Invoked by fishermen who place offerings on the shore. Navaho [USA]. He apparently enjoyed a succession of temples in the past which housed the hidden statue of the god and his sacred shield. southern Africa]. texts. Greek. The consort or equal ˇ AR and mother or creator of AN and KI in of ANS the creation cosmos. Mentioned in Ugaritic texts and known from Phoenicia. Ki is ˇ AR and KIS ˇ AR and consort of the daughter of ANS AN. Derived from an older western Asiatic model. Kini’ je Sky spirit. Algonquin Indian [eastern Canada]. His presence may be symbolized by a skull. According to tradition. An took the role of god of heaven and Ki became the personification of the earth and underworld. There is no evidence of a cult and the name appears in a limited number of Sumerian creation ˇ (tilth) may relate. from a crystal bordered with white shells. The first being who is present everywhere in the universe. . Inuit. East Africa]. She is the mother of the god of the air. Kitanitowit (good creator) Creator god. Kibuka God of war. The being in charge of keeping account of time. who created the world. The brother of the creator god MUKASA. out of touch with ordinary mortals. Kis ˇ ar Primordial god(dess). See also KOTAR. Buganda [Uganda. Kirti (glory) Goddess. The SAKTI of KESAVA. His face is said to be covered with sheet Kinnar (divine lyre) Musician god. ENLIL. said to reside on the island of Sese. According to tradition. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). As the cosmos came into being. Kianda God of the sea. Attribute: waterjar.

Chusor. Particularly identified with the sowing of wheat. She is integral to the Eleusinian Mysteries in which she is abducted to Hades. Urban. Also Tlehanoai. The more generic name for the goddess P ERSEPHONE . resulting in the distress of her mother and the blighting of nature. Known also from Phoenician inscriptions. her shrine is located on the summit of the mountain. apart from the emperor. The term is also applied to a bride or young woman. thought to live in trees and equating to DURGA. as a woman’s head adorned with ears of corn. shield and wine glass. Six-armed. Pre-Homeric Greek. Klotho Goddess of spinning. She is depicted with a spindle. After Christianization. Shinto [Japan]. She is also closely associated with Mount Asama about 80 kilometers to the north. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India and Sri Lanka]. Greek. According to Hesiod. Kotar Kondos God of cereal crops. She is the spirit of the corn as distinct from her mother who is the giver of the corn. Korrawi.162 Klotho lightning and the sacred primeval waters. Greek. KINYRAS.” Koto-Shiro-Nushi God of luck. Shinto [Japan]. MURUKAN. Hindu (Puranic). Also Katukilal. An ancient deity linked with LACHESIS and ATROPOS as one of a trio of MOIRAI or Fates. A daughter of O-YAMA-TSU-MI and the consort of Prince N INIGI . Known from Ephesus and other sites as the spirits of trees and streams. She has a son. Idenˇ amra) texts as building tified in the Ugaritic (Ras S a palace for the god BAAL and forging his weapons for the conflict against the sea god YAMM. they are also perceived as nymphs who dance in attendance on the baby ZEUS. he was absorbed by the figure of St. Kore (the girl) Kouretes Forest deities. Worshiped in desert regions in southern India. Western Semitic (Syrian). Kotisri Mother goddess. one of the daughters of ZEUS and THEMIS. At Samaria-Sebaste in Syrio-Palestine. Also Kos ˇ ar. Probably syncretized early in Shintoism with the god EBISU. Identified as the daughter of DEMETER. Attributes: club. Kollapura-Mahalaksmi Goddess. Kono-Hana-Sakuya-Hime-No-Kami Mountain goddess. Pre-Christian Finnish. He is never impersonated or depicted. The so-called “mother of 7. Depicted on coinage .000 buddhas. Buddhist. Kore was the only deity worshiped. Blacksmith god. Korravai War goddess. The deity who guards the sacred Mount Fuji. The moon disc is actually a shield behind which the god moves invisibly across the night sky. Youthful goddess of the corn.

000 such liaisons. Koyote Tutelary god. He is of unknown origin but is the son of the earth mother GAIA and the sky god OURANOS. Many epithets. He is seen as a skilled musician often depicted playing the flute at the sound of which nature pauses to listen. He has no legal consort but his chief mistress. As an adult he champions the struggle with the adversaries of mankind. Krsna’s incarnation was. two spread and one folded. Pre-Greek. KRSNA ORIGIN (the dark one) Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. During Hellenic times he was the supreme god at Byblos [Syria]. including the Navaho and Apache. Reliefs. storms are calmed. BhagavadGita and Bhagavata-Purana. He is particularly worshiped as a baby (BALAKRSNA) and as a youthful shepherd accompanied by Radha. he is the son of VASUDEVA and DEVAKI. He is depicted on coinage of Antiochus IV (175-164 BC) nude. North American Indian. by tradition. One of the sons of the goddess STYX and brother of BIA (force). LITERARY SOURCES Mahabharata epic. Kronos Archetypal fertility god. So as not to suffer a similar fate to his father he swallowed all his children except ZEUS who was kept from him by a ruse. is RADHA. leaning on a scepter. SYNONYMS Kannan (Tamil). a married woman. Thus he is both a Hindu divine hero. He is reputed to have enjoyed as many as 16. In the Bhagavata-Purana . Almost certainly. whom he usurped after castrating him. fostered by Nanda and Yasoda. Recognized by several tribes. He acts as a cult hero who intercedes with more remote creator spirits and teaches the Indian. CENTER(S) OF CULT Kratos God of strength. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally bronze but also stone. Krsna is also perceived as the embodiment of the cosmos— the vault of heaven is his navel. He was celebrated in the Greek harvest festival of kronia which equalled the Roman saturnalia. He tant incarnation or avatara of the god VIS appears inauspiciously in the Vedic texts. The incident with butter has been a popular theme for sculptures. Krsna is the eighth and arguably the most imporˇ NU. but particularly Mathura. but grows in stature and popularity. the sky his eyes. with three pairs of wings. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 300 BC or earlier until present. the abyss in which all the TITANS were confined. generally throughout India. Known only from ritual texts. designed to save the world from the demonic king Kansa. Incarnation of Vis ˇ nu. rivers flow calmly and maidens are roused. and a drinker and womanizer. Zeus eventually hurled Kronos into Tartaros. He is a deity who epitomizes human aspirations and shortcomings together. His consort is RHEA. the stars his chest. Greek. the . Allegedly born at Mathura on the bank of the river Yamuna. The legends of Krsna’s childhood depict him as a somewhat precocious child who plays tricks and ransacks kitchen jars of butter and curds. Krsna originated as a fertility god of herdsmen and vegetation who became syncretized with the hero of the Mahabharata epic.KRSNA 163 Kourotrophos Obscure wet-nurse goddess. Greek.

Known extensively from northern India to China and Japan. God of war. Attributes: jeweled banner and white lotus. Kafir [Afghanistan]. the light.) (womb of the earth) Goddess. One of the group of female BODHISATTVAS or buddha-designates. . Krsodari (thin-waisted) Goddess. Strongly malevolent NAKSATRA(S) consisting of the six stars in the Pleiades constellation who become nurses of the god SKANDA. Ku Primordial being. Color: yellow or green. SYNONYMS Guan Di. Color: yellow. Also Kime. Attribute: trident. skull and trident. Ksantiparamita Philosophical deity. In Japan she becomes a guardian deity of passage. Color: black or dark blue. Attributes: flute. She stands upon a corpse. subduing the serpent KALIYA (see also GARUDA). Also regarded as a tutelary deity in Saivite temples. other fruit and vegetation in general. carry other objects. Stands upon a lotus and possesses a number of attributes. an ornament. a personification of famine. She was called upon in times of sickness. Di-zang. circa AD 300 until present. In China she is recognized as an underworld deity. Kuan Kung. Hindu. Kshumai Fertility goddess. Attributes: book. Form of the god BHAIRAVA specifically designated as a guardian deity of doorways. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Ksetrapala God of passage. (In Hindu mythology there are only six Pleiades. and LONO. Buddhist (Mahayana). the hill of Govardhana on one finger. Jizo. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout China. She is depicted in wooden statues with prominent long breasts and vulva. One of the daughters of DAKSA. bowl. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). grapes. She is said to have given mankind the boon of goats. An emaciated form of CAMUNDA.164 Krsodari nagas. jewel. Ksitigarbha Krttika(s) Minor goddess(es) of fortune. Attributes: club. A beneficent goddess appearing in the guise of a goat. An aspect of a tripartite deity which also includes KANE. prayer wheel and shepherd’s staff. ART REFERENCES paintings and sculpture. Legend has it that either she or her eldest daughter is the mother of the god MON. Ksama (patience) Minor goddess. Buddhist. He may be seen standing on Garuda. He may. KUAN TI Taoist (Chinese). iron rod. which they broke into pieces to allow the light to come in. not the seven recognized in modern astronomy. on occasion. Hindu (Puranic). One of the PARAMITAS. Polynesian [Hawaii]. They existed in chaos and darkness. sound. Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. staff and water jar. mostly inadequately researched and untranslated. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). LITERARY SOURCES various philosophical and religious texts.

Also Gubaba. KWANNON (Japanese). She is thus titled Goddess of the Southern Sea. the god is based on an historical figure who lived AD 162-220. facing the entrance of the building. in China. pawn shops. LITERARY SOURCES Various philosophical and religious texts. Images of Kuan Ti are kept by most households in China. An essentially foreign deity. until present. sometimes with the face of a tiger on the breast of his robe. She frequently shares sanctuaries with the queen of heaven. curio dealers and literature. SYNONYMS Guan Yin. particularly in Hong Kong. she is not provided with the normal offerings of food and wine. thus many CID offices possess an altar to Kuan Ti.” His festivals are celebrated on the fifteenth day of the second moon and on the thirteenth day of the fifth moon. Anatolian and northern Syrian. which is technically an accolade due to Tin Hau. He is a guardian of secret societies. Her name is invoked if danger threatens and she has strong fertility connotations—newly married couples pray to her for children. including a peacock-like bird. Kuan Yin enjoys a major popularity as a pure and benevolent spirit whose influence has eclipsed that of the historical Buddha incarnation. mostly inadequately researched and untranslated. TIN HAU. circa AD 100. ART REFERENCES paintings and sculptures. pearls and a rosary. P’u T’o. Attributes include pomegranate and mirS ror. An alternative tradition places her in a mortal existence as the princess Miao Shan who committed suicide by strangling herself and was subsequently taken by the BUDDHA to an island. and has taken over part of her area of influence. He is depicted seated on a tiger skin. Kuan Yin is depicted seated upon a lotus with attributes including a vase filled with the dew of compassion and a willow branch. but also of restaurants. Benign guardian goddess. to frighten away evil influences. He was the tutelary deity of the Chung emperors and is the god of the military. Her attendant Lung Nu may stand behind her with other objects. derived from the Buddhist god AVALOKITESVARA. and therefore . CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Chinese culture. loyalty and integrity. he is worshiped as the personification of the sacred principles of the hsieh or knightly warrior. in contrast to all other Chinese deities. SAKYAMUNI. but also of the police. He was subsequently deified. and brotherhoods. She was worshiped particularly at Carchemish and seems to equate with the Hittite goddess ˇ AUS ˇ KA. KUAN YIN (hearer of cries) Taoist (Chinese). Kubaba Mother goddess.Kubaba 165 The most powerful figure in the pantheon. where she spent nine years perfecting herself. He thus presides over the light half of the year—spring and summer. His magical sword is the “black dragon” and his horse is the “red hare. it was completed by circa AD 1100. The epitome of austerity. Several other Chinese goddesses are considered by some authors to be manifestations of Kuan Yin. Introduced into China as a male deity until circa AD 600 when the transition to a goddess began. Kupapa. though in various forms. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP probably of Indian origin. He was a general in the imperial army and came to prominence after a successful battle with the warlord Tung Cho. Although accepted into Taoism. as Kuan Kung. including Triads.

Personification of the thirty-two Tantric syllables. Also Kuvera.166 Kubera Kubera (misshapen) Kuju Sky spirit. Yukaghir [eastern Siberia]. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Color: white. Kuladevata (family god) Generic name of a household god. When fish appear in great numbers in the lakes. Mayan (Quiche Indian. The god is chosen by a family to be their guardian deity and they all assemble at his temple. hook. Kauveri. Hindu (Vedic. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Comparable with KUKULCAN. 2. Ichneumon disgorging jewels. Attributes: generally carrying a purse. for worship. noose. Also God B. Attributes: ax. Shinto [Japan]. Hindu. He is also a dikpala guardian of the northern quarter. Identified with the city of Alaka. his consorts include Yaksi. Also Kulanayaka. VASUDHARA and Vriddhi. God of riches. Kuku-Ki-Waka-Muro-Tsuna-Ne-NoKami Guardian deity. Color: yellow. Kuladevi Goddess. One of a group of DHARMAPALA with terrible appearance and royal attire. but by Puranic times was associated with wealth and productivity. and a fish for water. Chinese. The god who guards the house and its environs as a whole. but occasionally with various other items. Hindu. Kuei Shing God of literature. He is chiefly concerned with reincarnation. A benevolent being who supplies mankind with food. earth and water. . as and when necessary. reliquary and occasionally a trident. Kubjika (hump-back) Goddess of writing. Also Zhong-Kui. 1. An androgynous being who created all things out of itself. club. Hindu. His shrines are often serviced by Buddhist priests. they are thought to have fallen from the sky. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He is depicted as a dwarfish figure riding upon a Brahman or a chariot. He was originally the head of the YAKSAS spirits of the forests. a Toltec god who was adopted by the Mayan culture and who corresponds closely with the Aztec deity QUETZALCOATL. cup. but is also responsible for the elements of fire. Kuku-Toshi-No-Kami God of grain. banner. Kukulcan is. Believed to reside in the star constellation of Ursa Major. maize for earth. Shinto [Japan]. One of the consorts of GANESA. Kubuddhi (stupid) Minor goddess. The female equivalent of a KULADEVATA. in origin. Epic and Puranic). Kukulcan Creator god. He is depicted with various attributes. God of riches. The deity responsible for the harvest of full-grown rice. Kucumatz Supreme god. Also a dikpala or guardian of the northern quarter. Hindu. The son of Pulastya and Idavida. including a torch or a lizard representing fire.

Kumokums Creator god. Three-eyed. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Kulisesvari (lady of the ax) Goddess. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). He is the father of Ullikummi in Hittite legend. One of a group of seven MAHANAGAS. Jain [India]. The noise of the thunder is the beating of its wings. Ma’malelegale Indian [British Columbia. Attribute: prayer wheel. The god responsible for the creation of bricks. Kunado-No-Kami Guardian deity. Kulisankusa (having an ax and a goad) Goddess of learning. Modoc Indian [Oregon. Also known in Nepal.Kun-Rig 167 Kulika (of good family) Snake god. The earth is considered to be sacred and should not be owned by any one person. Kundalini Mother goddess. Worshiped at a famous temple on the southernmost tip of India at Cape Comorin. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. Buddhist (Mahayana). Often depicted with a corpse. which was all that existed. known to many Indian tribes. Hindu. who lives in a palace in the upper world. Attributes: rosary and water jar. Buddhist [Tibet]. Generally identified as MICHI-NO-KAMI or Chiburi-NoKami. Color: white. One of three KAMIS particularly concerned with the protection of roads and crossroads. Kulla God of builders. Generally recognized to be an epithet of DURGA. Shinto [Japan]. They also guard the boundaries of the house and the ways leading to it. Kumari (virgin) Goddess. Four-headed form of VAIROCANA. . Hittite and Hurrian. An antique deity who was usurped by more “modern” gods. Tribal god. where a small girl provides an earthly incarnation of the goddess. Hindu. The spirit of the earth perceived in human form and responsible for the provision of all food from the soil. Ku’nkunxuliga Kumarbi Creator god. He sat beside Tule Lake. USA]. Kundalini is believed to have been the mother of all other vegetation deities. They may be known as Yakushin deities who protect against plague. He added animals and plants. but can be utilized for the benefit of the community as a whole. which he dug using a hill as a shovel. The personification of the thunderbird. Canada]. but finally became tired and went to sleep in a hole at the bottom of the lake. Attribute: a staff. and created the world by scooping out mud to Kun-Rig (knowing all) God. form the earth.

noose. The god who protects entrance gates. rosary and trident. The apotheosis of the morning sun sent down by the sun goddess AMATERASU before Prince NINIGI appeared on earth. Kurma appears in the form of a tortoise which acts as a pivot for the mountainous churning rod the gods employ to make ambrosia from the primal sea of milk after the flood. Goddess of boats. lotus and prayer wheel. Hindu (Epic and Incarnation of the god V IS Puranic). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Malevolent beings who conceal themselves in undergrowth and rock crevices and manifest as animals and birds. The SAKTI of AMITABHA. In mythology he is . kangaroos and emus. Kushi-Dama-Nigi-Haya-Hi Kura-Okami-No-Kami (great producer of rain on the heights) Rain god. Vis ˇnu is said to have appeared in this form in order to recover some of the possessions lost during the deluge. Hindu. bow. Kutkhu Guardian spirit. (soft fast sun) Sun god. TI’ZIL-KUTKHU and SI’DUKU. conch. Bon (pre-Lamaist) [Tibet]. owls. Kurma is depicted with a human torso surmounting a tortoise shell. Only shamans may contain the influence of these spirits. Guardian deity.” he may also generate snow falls. Shinto [Japan]. Also ˇ KU. Known alternatively as the “dark rain god. Hittite and Hurrian [Anatolia]. The counterpart of the Koryak QUIKINN. flower. crows. Attributes: club. Kemchadal [southeastern Siberia]. Also goddess of wine.A’QU. Australian aboriginal.168 Kuntu bXan Po Kuntu bXan Po Head of pantheon. Shinto [Japan]. Identified in the Theogony of Dunnu. He assists the passage of dead souls by attending to their horses’ shoes. Goddess. Also the name for a vehicle of various deities. The chief god in the Bon pantheon. he fashioned the created world into its present form and is the majordomo of the creator god. A Tantric deity generally depicted in a boat made of jewels. they possess the potential to inflict disease and death on to human beings. His consort is Ilkxum and his sister is Xutlizic. including eagles. KAS Kurma(vatara) ˇ NU. Shinto [Japan]. hook. Kus ˇ uh Moon god. he engendered the world from a handful of mud scraped from the primeval waters and created all living things from an egg. Kutji Animistic spirits. Otherwise. Attributes: arrow. Ossetian [Caucasus]. Kus God of herdsmen. Kushi-Iwa-Mado-No-Mikoto Kurdaligon God of smiths. Usually of terrifying appearance. His children include SI’MSKALIN. 2. The second avatara of Vis ˇ nu. Kutji are considered to have taken over wild creatures if their behavior assumes unfamiliar patterns. Buddhist (Mahayana). Kurukulla 1.

and this mead became the inspiration of poets. Tradition has it that the earth and sky may have been present before this being emerged. many classical sculptures. He equates with the Koryak deity QUIKINN. In circa 204 BC the black stone by which she was personified in Pessinus (Phrygia) was carried to Rome and installed in the Temple of Victories on the Palatine as Cybele Magna Mater. ART REFERENCES black obelisk (lost). Kyumbe added tails as an afterthought. and recognize a supreme deity.A’QU. Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. gashed themselves with knives. She is often depicted riding in a chariot drawn by panthers or lions and is accompanied by frenzied dancers or Korybantes. See also KUAN YIN. SYNONYMS CENTER(S) OF CULT Kvasir Minor god of wisdom. the war with the invader Hannibal would be won. This fulfilled a prophecy that if the “great mother” was brought to Rome. the galloi. a dish from Parabiago (in Milan). but also extensively elsewhere. possibly the subject of a well-known seal from Knossos. One of his epithets is Tutgar. By tradition he was created from the saliva of the AESIR and VANIR deities. Kutkinnaqu. the Greek god ZEUS raped her and she bore a monstrous son Agdistis. who thus combined their knowledge into a single being. In remorse. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1500 BC and probably much earlier in prehistory. Kyumbe KYBELE Phrygian [northwestern Turkey]. Nordic (Icelandic). however. She probably originates as a mountain goddess who became closely equated with the Greek mother goddesses RHEA and DEMETER. He was slain by dwarfs who concocted a fermented drink from his blood. East Africa]. ORIGIN Creator god. mixed with honey. responsible for all creation. When they had their legs fitted. Nuer [Sudan]. Also Kutq. Her consort is ATTIS. whom she discovered to be unfaithful. She was invoked in the three-day festival commencing with mourning (tristia) followed by joy (hilaria) in the spring during which her emasculated priests. and probably by Christianity. Zaramo [Tanzania. Mother goddess. Not only a deity. Pessinus (Asia Minor) and Rome. He first created animals’ bodies without tails. CYBELE (Roman). . LITERARY SOURCES votive inscriptions. etc. Kybebe. or spiritual being. he castrated himself under a pine tree and bled to death. Kwoth Creator god. perceived as having engendered all living things on earth. Kwannon Form of AVALOKITESVARA.” One of the most important of the Asian mother goddesses. but a powerful shaman and the first human.Kyumbe 169 depicted as a salacious character. According to legend. Buddhist [Japan]. Ku’urkil The founder of the world. until Christianization (circa AD 400). He is also identified in Welsh mythology. He is. meaning “strong and without limit. Attributes include key. The Nuer people have been affected by the expansion of Islam. mirror and pomegranate.

Lahamu Primordial deity. Attributes: lute and wine glass. who created ANU. Lahmu and LAHAMU in turn created ˇ AR and KIS ˇ AR. A minor deity who is nonetheless greatly revered by 170 . he was sent to earth by the gods ENLIL and ENKI. and with the newborn. According to legend. Polynesian [Hawaii]. Lahar God of cattle. In iconography with the grain goddess A S he usually has ears of corn sprouting from his shoulders. Laka Goddess of dancing. Known from the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ as one of a pair who were created by TIAMAT from the primeval ocean and who. One of an ancient trio of MOIRAI with KLOTHO and ATROPOS. He may also carry a bow and club and is often depicted with a ram at his feet. to work in conjunction ˇ NAN. were represented by the silt of the sea-bed.L 6 Lachesis Goddess of lot-casting. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Said to make the crops “yield milk” or thrive. who LAHMU in turn created ANS created ANU. were represented by the silt of the sea-bed. Pre-Christian Latvian. Particularly concerned with guarding women at childbirth. Pre-Homeric Greek. Lactanus Minor god of agriculture. ANS Laghusyamala (lightly dark colored) Minor goddess. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Laima Goddess of fate. Regarded as a household goddess of prosperity and good fortune. she sustains the thread of life and is depicted carrying a scroll. Hindu (Puranic). Lahmu Primordial deity. Lahamu and ˇ AR and KIS ˇ AR. According to Hesiod one of the daughters of Z EUS and T HEMIS . Roman. it is suggested. Known from the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ as one of a pair who were created by T IAMAT from the primeval ocean and who. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). it is suggested.

He often stands to the left of Rama and may be depicted holding a bow (see also SATRUGHNA). she arose from the primal Hindu ˇ NU sea of milk. arms. Lalaia’il God of shamans. She may be depicted on the knee of Vis ˇ nu’s avatara NARAYANA as LaksmiNarayana. an action which is said to bring Vis ˇ nu Lamaria Tutelary goddess. A major Hindu goddess who originated perhaps as a mother goddess but who now represents wealth and prosperity and epitomizes the later Hindu (Brahmanical) notion of the active female principle or SAKTI in a male deity. Laksmana (with auspicious marks) God. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 300 BC and earlier. According to the Ramayana. Identified as the consort of V IS from circa AD 400 onward. Puranic literature. A half. Canada]. Also Kle-klati-e’il. dance and sexual liberality. He lives in the forest and carries a wooden wand bound with cedar bark which he waves. Lan Cai-he Immortal being. ORIGIN dreams. Another favored portrait finds her washing Vis ˇ nu’s feet as he reclines on the thousand-headed serpent Sesha. see also SITA. She is also propitiated by gambling. LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana and Mahabharata epics. then RUKMINI. through to present times. SYNONYMS Sri-Laksmi. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Her name may have been derived under Christian influence. Consort of Vis ˇ nu. she is generally depicted as a beautiful golden-skinned woman possessing four. The son of Dasaratha and Sumitra. She emerges in many guises. his consort is Urmita. while a man develops a nose bleed. sometimes depicted as a girl. but revered generally throughout India. but most commonly a lotus. Taoist (Chinese). LAKSMI Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. CENTER(S) OF CULT no temples. changing form as Vis ˇ nu changes his own incarnations. He also frequents woodland lakes and ponds. When a woman meets him she is said to menstruate. She is worshiped particularly at the start of the business year in India. She is reincarnated with each of his other avatars—thus beside RAMA she becomes Sita.Lan Cai-he 171 islanders in a hedonistic cult of song. Svan [Caucasus]. In the Divali (Feast of Lamps) on the last day of the dark lunar period toward the end of October or early in November. Many attributes. The deity who initiates into the shamanistic circle. Laksmi embodies the model Hindu wife. Attributes: bow and ornaments. . every household lights a lamp in honor of Laksmi. Color: golden. She is perceived also to emerge as the black-skinned and destructive KALI. Bella Coola Indian [British Columbia. She stands or rests on a lotus which may be watered by two attendant elephants. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally bronze but also stone. Sri-Devi. the deity is of ambiguous sex. faithful and subservient. said to have been born from a furrow. DHARANI (earth). Particularly invoked by women as a hearth goddess and protector of cows. Reliefs. and with KRSNA she is first RADHA. creating a singing noise. or more commonly two. One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology.or younger brother of the god RAMA.

Generally invisible but perceived in human form and living in the jungles and the sea. Taoist (Chinese). MERCURIUS. according to some traditions. Larunda Chthonic goddess. MALA. he is one of the three holy San Ch’ing whose images stand in a Taoist sanctuary. Etruscan.172 Lao-Tsze Once a mortal being who achieved immortality through perfect lifestyle. Two children. His sacred animal is the water buffalo. The lares are a peculiarly Roman innovation. Hindu. whose tongue had been cut out by Jupiter. Lau Spirit beings. under a plum tree. Italic. Lares Hearth deities. See also IL. Gods known from local folklore as distinct from those of the Vedic texts. Lara. Also the generic name of a group of four goddesses. Depicted as a youth armed with a lance and helmet and dressed in a cape. became widely revered by Romans as house guardians. The tutelary god of alchemists. Canaanite. See also BA XIAN. Worshiped in the fields at ploughing time. and with white hair. Sabine. One of the group of ASTAMATARAS (mothers). . NRTYA and headed by LASYA. Lauka Mate Goddess of agriculture. including GITA. He is the founder of Taoism who. Creator god. Laverna Chthonic underworld goddess. Roman. Laran God of war. Lara See LARUNDA. Iconographically they are depicted in the guise of monkeys covered with dog skins with a barking dog at their feet. A personal and vaguely defined deity brought into the house from the surrounding land. Also Lara (Roman). Pre-Christian Latvian. became the mother of the LARES. born of a liaison between the god Mercury and a mute naiad. according to tradition was born with full command of speech. Color: white. Latipan Lar Familiaris Ancestral spirit. Laukika-Devatas Generic name for a group of deities. in Roman times. Lasya (dancing girl) Mother goddess. Attribute: a mirror. When an Andaman islander dies he or she becomes a lau. See also LARUNDA. An early Italic earth mother who. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Also known as the Most High Prince Lao. Lao-Tsze God. Attributes include flowers and a flute. Roman. She is generally depicted dancing the lasya dance. Andaman Islands [Sea of Bengal]. Propitiated by libations poured with the left hand.

modeled on the Sumerian ERES Lendix-Tcux Tutelary god. LITERARY SOURCES The Yukaghir (Jochelson). southeastern African. the moon goddess MAWU. or as a dog. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until Christianization circa AD 400. and carvings suggest that child patients were often present. The Yukaghir. Fon [Benin. and has three sons. SYNONYMS Iovantucarus. The youngest son of the supreme god LISA and his consort. The so-called transformer known by different names among many Indian tribes. stone reliefs. In drama his movements are punctuated by rumblings on strings and drums. but possibly the subject of anonymous wood carvings. as a hunting people. the owner of the forest. Taoist (Chinese). Hittite and Hurrian. wind and rain and is usually accompanied by YU SHIH. He heads the deities of the pantheon who are responsible for storm. His subordinates are YOBIN-POGIL. West Africa]. had an abaton or room for recuperation. Lesa Creator god. The Trier sanctuary was a place of pilgrimage where large numbers of offerings were deposited. ART REFERENCES none known. SYNONYMS none known. He is also regarded as a messenger god. Canada]. Chilcotin Indian [British Columbia. the god of rain. Lenus Mars (RomanoCeltic). Circa AD 1000 he becomes depicted as a bird-like being with a monkey face.Lesa 173 LEBIEN-POGIL (owner of the earth) Yukaghir [southeastern Siberia]. ORIGIN Lelwani Chthonic underworld goddess. CENTER(S) OF CULT no fixed sanctuaries known. CENTER(S) OF CULT left bank of the Moselle opposite Trier. The chief protector of the earth. youthful figure holding hammer and chisel. He is a wanderer who can change shape from human to animal and who educates the human race. also at Chedworth (England) and Caerwent (Wales). The name by which the supreme deity is known across a . depicted as a strong. votive plaques. Lei Kung God of thunder. ORGIN Legba God of fate. ART REFERENCES sculptures. Associated with charnel houses and probably ˇ KIGAL. LITERARY SOURCES Romano-Celtic inscriptions. Lenus’s sanctuaries were usually associated with springs and some. He appears in anthropomorphic form from about the beginning of the Christian era. LENUS Celtic (Continental European). Animistic “owner” spirit. if not all. the various protectors and keepers of animals (mo’yepul) and individual or group protectors (PEJU’LPE). God of healing. He often appears in the guise of a raven. the owner of fire LO’CIN-PO’GIL. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until early twentieth century. A god of healing worshiped by the Celtic tribe of Treveri but later adopted by the Romans. moving between Lisa and mankind on earth. The transition was probably influenced by the popularity of the Hindu god GARUDA. maintained a delicate and sensitive relationship with these owners.

central Africa]. One of a pair of supreme deities with his sister/consort Nsongo. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Also Leza. Mother goddess. central Africa]. Probably strongly influenced by Islam and. Lianja God. A mermaid who was originally Ino. Bangala [Democratic Republic of Congo. while at Phaistos she was the center of an initiation myth. HERA. He is . Coming from the old Bon pantheon and equating with the Hindu goddess SRIDEVI. Latona (Roman).174 LETO wide area of Zambia and Zimbabwe. the wrath of Athamas. Also the title for a deity in the old Bon pantheon. Also regarded as a rain god. a mortal daughter of Kadmos. Lha LETO Greek. Immortal being. The Greek goddess probably derives from an earlier western Asiatic model. Greco-Roman. Crete. at Dreros on Crete. to a lesser extent. One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology. She often tries to protect Artemis from the wrath of her stepmother. SYNONYMS Lato (Dorian). Nkundo [Democratic Republic of Congo. Theogony (Hesiod). Equating to LISA in regions of West Africa. Taoist (Chinese). See also BA XIAN. he was once a mortal being who achieved immortality through his lifestyle. In another version of the story she was escaping Libanza Creator god. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Generic term for a deity. The gods elevated her to the status of goddess and her son became the god PALAEMON. Leto’s main claim to celebrity in Greek religion is that she was impregnated by ZEUS to become the mother of the deities ARTEMIS and APOLLO. by Christianity. Attributes include a bat. probably under the influence of Christianity. but became mad and threw herself in the sea with her son Melikertes. In Lycia she was the principal goddess. Popular around the coasts of the Mediterranean with fishing communities. ART REFERENCES sculptures and carvings. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Lha-Mo (the goddess) Goddess. She was wet nurse to DIONYSOS (BACCHUS). King of Thebes. traveling the waterways and bringing floods as punishment as well as to generate prosperity. Li Tie-guai The word “Leto” is a local term for lady. Leukothea Sea goddess. A very early bronze image of her was discovered. a gourd and an iron crutch. Also a guardian goddess of graves. She is the daughter of the TITANS Koeos and Phoebe. with those of Apollo and Artemis. He became the subject of an epic known as Nsongo and Lianja and is regarded today less as a god than a heroic figure. CENTER(S) OF CULT Lycia and Phaistos. equating to the Sanskrit term DEVA. circa 800 BC but probably earlier through to Christianization (circa AD 400). LITERARY SOURCES Iliad (Homer). He lives at the bottom of the river Congo.

Libera Chthonic goddess. was on March 17 when young men celebrated the arrival of manhood. Originally associated with husbandry and crops but then assimilated with DIONYSOS. Liluri Mountain goddess. Conn. Symbol representing a god. Celtic (Irish). One of four beings concerned with the dawn in different directions. Liu Pei God. God. Creator god. known particularly from the second century BC.Liu Pei 175 regarded as being generally benevolent. Lilith Goddess of desolation. Fon and others [Benin. She is perceived as a demonic figure who. the consort of Aobh and later of her sister Aoife. Liber Chthonic fertility god. The daughter of LIBER and CERES. Italic. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). The consort of CERES and father of the goddess LIBERA. See also TNE’SGAN. Western Semitic (Syrian). employed as a propaganda vehicle by the emperors. Out of jealousy Aoife turned the four into swans and set father and children against one another. When the hero Gilgames ˇ attacks Lilith she escapes into the desert wastes. her sacred animal is the bull. The consort of the weather god Manuzi. Hindu. Spirit of generosity. The supreme deity. The father of the sea god MANANNAN. Taoist (Chinese). Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. which emancipated slaves were permitted to wear as a sign of their liberation. Attributes include the scepter. form of S Lir Libertas Minor god(dess). in the epic legend of Gilgames ˇ and the Huluppu Tree takes up residence in INANA’S holy tree growing on the banks of the Euphrates in Unug. the pileus. Worshiped particularly from the second century BC. Probably the equivalent of LESA in parts of East Africa. Roman. Associated with funerals and interment. West Africa]. MRATNA’IRGIN and NA’CHITNA’IRGIN. Fiachra and Fionnuala. lance and a special hat. Deity of constitutional government and the notion of freedom. Roman. Italic. His festival. The third member of a trio of deities with KUAN TI and CHANG FEI. whose more or less monotheistic role may have been influenced by the spread of Islam and Christianity. The phallic ˇ IVA. Also Ibanza. Roman. He had four children by Aobh: AED. Lietna’irgin (genuine dawn) Spirit of the dawn. He is the embodiment of the imperial ideal and he . Lisa Líbitina Chthonic goddess of death. the Liberalia. Linga Liberalitas Minor god.

Yukaghir [southeastern Siberia]. Yegi’le. Duala [Cameroon. Also Lo’cil. Philo of Alexandria apportioned human characteristics to Logos. The counterpart of the Irish god LUG. identified as ADIBUDDHA or AMITABHA. generally AKSOBHYA or VAIROCANA. Loa Spirit beings. Also a group name for the many forms of the Buddhist deity AVALOKITESVARA. In art he usually takes a central position between Chang Fei on his left and Kuan Ti on his right. Color: blue or white. A concept promoted by the Stoics. Puerto Rico and Haiti. He is considered to be humane and moderate. The Christian father Clement of Alexandria claimed it to be the first principle of the universe. Lo’cin-po’gil Fire spirit. Lokapala (protectors of the world) Guardians of the four directions. while Origen perceived it as the principle embodied in the flesh by Jesus Christ. V IS ˇ NU and others which have come to S be defined as forms of a primeval buddha or DHYANIBUDDHA. Buddhist (Mahayana). The son of ARIANRHOD. . which rests on the head of the main statue. Celtic (Welsh). identified Logos as the word coming from the mind of the father. Attributes: cup. Ambivalent character well represented in mythology. Mentioned in passing in the creation mythology as being one of a trio of deities. Buddhist. who engendered mankind. Logos Primordial spirit of reason. Lokesvara (lord of the world) Generic name for a group of deities. prayer wheel and lotus with one or more staves. The guardian of the household who migrates with the family. Germanic. The heroic figure of Lancelot may be derived from him. West Africa]. who perceived Logos as the mind of JUPITER. Hindu and Buddhist. Also BUDDHALOCANA. Locana (the eye) Goddess. See also OTHIN. An amount of Christian influence is present in their makeup. Lodur Creator god. but more generally recognized as the divine essence from which all deities arise. LOKI ORIGIN Nordic (Icelandic). The gods of the voodoo cult who were originally imported by slaves from West Africa. Local people pray to this deity after sunset to ensure that he will appear again the following morning. The lokesvara are usually represented by a small figure. Greek. with Odin and HOENIR. he was raised by GWYDION. One of the “owners. Valentinus. Loba Sun god.176 Llew Llaw Gyffes carries the seal of heaven’s authority. Yukaghir [southeastern Siberia]. Llew Llaw Gyffes God. The Gnostic Christian. Often placed in pairs at the entrance to tombs. Lo’cin-coro’mo Hearth spirit. These are thought to be a syncretization of Hindu and Buddhist deities and include such gods as ˇ IVA. The SAKTI of a DHYANIBUDDHA (spiritual meditation buddha).” the apotheosis of fire.

the light. very capricious in behavior. West Africa]. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. meaning fire. central Africa]. There is little to support the notion of Loki (Wagnerian: Loge) as a fire god other than similarity of name—logi. Lothur God of physical senses. he was once a mortal being who achieved immortality through his lifestyle. Able to change shape at will—said at various times to have impersonated a mare. SYNONYMS Lopt. Chinese. AD Lomo Goddess of peace. Lothur is also known in northern Germanic tradition. T HOR ’ S belt and iron gloves. humorous.Lu Pan 177 Viking period (circa 700) until Christianization (circa AD 1100). Lu Dong-bin Immortal being. Snorri describes him as being “pleasing and handsome in appearance. CENTER(S) OF CULT none evidenced and probably Loki was not worshiped as the other Asgard deities. Lono (sound) Primordial being. said to come from antiquity. Fon [Benin. and whose loyalties are always suspect. They first existed in chaos and night which they broke into pieces. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Loko God of trees. sometimes sinister character. ART REFERENCES probably the subject of anonymous carvings.e.” He is the “poor relation” among the gods who has strong affinities with the giants. He is also a scandal-monger. Also LODUR. The deity concerned with builders. stealing at various times FREYJA’S necklace. One of his prominent attributes. particularly at Ragnarok (doom) when he steers their ship. Loki is a mischievous. seal and an old crone. According to some authors he may be a hypostasis of the god OTHIN. fly. Polynesian [Hawaii]. and the apples of youth. One of seven deities invoked at sunrise each day. hearing and speech. bricklayers. sight. According to a brief mention in the Voluspa (Poetic Edda) the god concerned with physical being i. The tutelary god of barbers. falcon. Said to be the son of the giant Farbauti. and KU. As a mare he gave birth to OTHIN’S horse Sleipnir and he also allegedly sired the world serpent. housepainters and . Nordic (Icelandic). See also BA XIAN. Also Ono (Marquesas Islands). though less often. and was compared strongly by Christian times with the Devil. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo. allowing light to come in. stability. Prose Edda (Snorri). He also stands for evil. Attributes include a sword with which he conquers demons. The brother of the hearth goddess AYABA. He was indirectly responsible for the death of BALDER (directly so according to Snorri) and fought with H EIMDALL . Machiavellian. Lu Pan God of artisans. Taoist (Chinese). is that of accomplished thief. and the wolf Fenrir which will devour the sun at Ragnarok. Sometimes he appears as a hero rescuing gods from various predicaments through cunning. evil in character. Hel. Historia Danica (Saxo). flea. the mistress of the netherworld. An aspect of a tripartite god which also includes KANE. One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology. Invoked particularly by herbalists before obtaining medicines from the bark and leaves of forest trees.

central Africa]. The prefix Lugal means “lord. East Africa]. According to tradition he was born in 606 BC in the kingdom of Lu. It is inferred that. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. possibly brought to Ireland in the first century BC by settlers from Gaul. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). LUG ORIGIN (possibly lynx) Lulal God of uncertain status. He stills the thunder and makes his appearance in the sky. CENTER(S) Lubanga God of health. Bunyoro [Uganda.” A young and apparently more attractive deity than the DAGDA. His festival takes place on the thirteenth day of the sixth month. Lamfhada. One of his epithets is lamfhada—“of the long arm. He is invoked by offerings of beer and his sanctuaries are surrounded by rows of trees. OF CULT Lugudunum (modern Lyons) and elsewhere in Continental Europe. suggesting again that Lug was a later arrival who possibly superseded an arcane tribal god TROGRAIN. Concerned with bringing the child into the light.178 Lubanga carpenters. The main festival in his honor seems to have been Lugnasad on August 1. Because of his powers he was murdered. Lugal-Irra Lucina Minor goddess of birth. There appear to be strong Romano-Celtic associations in Continental Europe and Britain with place names such as Lugudunum [Lyons] and Luguvalium [Carlisle]. Roman. a tribal god who was particularly skilled in the use of a massive spear and a sling both of which possessed invincible magic properties. The chief adversary of the storm god. An alternative name for the August festival was Bron Trograin (Rage of Trograin). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). a particularly agrarian celebration in a country which otherwise tended to observe pastoral calendar dates. the Babylonian plague god. including the village and its community. Bakongo [Democratic Republic of Congo. Lubangala Rainbow god. where he became a skilled carpenter. . Usually associated with CANDELIFERA and CARMENTES. hence the possible translation of the name as lynx. ART REFERENCES various stone carvings. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP early times until Christianization circa AD 400 or later. The texts infer that Lug was a latecomer to the Irish pantheon. Cycles of Kings. Lug was capable of changing shape. Lord of skills. god of war. Attributes include a set square and carpenter’s plane. where he perfected his skills. like many Celtic deities. Probably a minor variation of ERRA. He is particularly revered in Hong Kong.” Often coupled with MES LAM TAEA. SYNONYMS Lugh. He turned into a recluse on the Li Shan mountain. Celtic (Irish). Also linked with a god Latarak. He is also depicted with an ax. when the rains are due. the symbol of a marriage go-between. He is also an invoker of harmonious relationships. Chthonic underworld god. Mentioned as living in Badtíbira in the Sumerian text Descent of Inana. Considered to be the guardian of the earth and sea. He is said to have constructed the palace of the queen of the western heaven.

Roman. is perceived as a young and capricious girl. She enjoyed a major temple on the Aventine Hill in Rome. Lupercus Lunang River goddess. The patron goddess of the Prasun river. . Lunang God of wolves. but is also comparable with HEKATE. She rules over the watermills. Kafir [Afghanistan—Hindukush]. She derives from the Greek model of SELENE. Celebrated in the festival of Lupercalia on February 15.Lupercus 179 Luna Moon goddess. Roman. reflecting the turbulent moods of the river.

The rulers of Egypt believed that they governed under her aegis and frequently had themselves described as “beloved of Maat.” Maat was also integral to the success of a soul passing through the Hall of the Two Truths. and probably earlier. One of the aspects of the MORRIGAN (a trio of warrior goddesses with strong sexual connotations). Also a god of hunters and fishermen.” Her only known sanctuary is in Macha Fertility goddess. where the heart was weighed. In later times she was described as the “daughter of Re. Ma Kiela Female spirit being.M 6 Ma Fertility and vegetation goddess. she was served by votary priestesses acting as sacred prostitutes. the complex of Karnak at Thebes. Egyptian. closely associated with the creator deities and particularly the sun god. she appears as the consort of Nemed and of Crunnchu. Epitomizing the harmonious laws of the cosmic order. Mabon (son) God of youth. The deified head of a band of mortal women who died specifically from knife wounds. According to legend he was abducted when three days old. The son of an earthly mother. She can change shape 180 . Cappadocian (Anatolia) [Turkey]. central Africa]. On coins of the Comana region she is depicted with the radiate head of a solar deity carrying weapons and a shield. Maat is depicted either in human form wearing an ostrich plume on her head or by an ostrich feather alone. Bakongo [Democratic Republic of Congo. and biennial festivals were celebrated in her honor. She is recognized from the middle of the third millennium. He is known particularly from northwestern Britain and his cult extends along the region of Hadrian’s Wall. Maat Minor goddess of cosmic order. Gradually she took on an added role as a warrior goddess with solar connotations and ultimately became syncretized with the Roman goddess BELLONA. to reach paradise. The tutelary goddess of Pontic Comana. Celtic (Irish). Known from many Romano-Celtic inscriptions and syncretized with the Romano-Greek god APOLLO. MODRON. Celtic (Welsh). She is also a warrior goddess who influences the outcome of battle by magical devices.

hook.Maha-Ganapati 181 from girl to hag and is generally dressed in red. knife. the harbinger of death. staff. Hindu (Puranic). See also Banbha. God. Color: white. An important epithet of ˇ IVA with three heads (two male. The mythical Queen of Connaught. Celtic (Irish). mirror. skull. sword. Three-headed. Mahacinatara (Tara of Tibet) Goddess. In northern India among tribes including the Gonds. Also identified as a manifestation of S and one of the EKADASARUDRAS (eleven forms of RUDRA). god) is directed toward S Magha Minor goddess of fortune. Color: red. Mahabja Snake god. Egyptian. in Lamaism. Elephant god. Cu Chulainn. Madhukara (honey maker) God. Saumya (center) and Sakti (left). image of Aksobhya on crown. tiger skin. Persian [Iran]. Attributes: jewel. She stands upon a corpse. Attributes: arrow. Hindu (Puranic). Mahabala (very strong) God. She is thus the apotheosis of the land which is sacred. Maeve Mother goddess. sword. tree and ˇ iva trident. One of a group of seven MAHANAGAS. The progenitor of the cow. An emanation of AKSOBHYA and. ERIU and Fodla. bow and wine glass. . Derived from a Hindu deity and equating with Kama. Attributes: ax. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). and the ancient religious center of Emain Macha in Ulster is named after her. She appears thus to the Irish hero. bow. Hindu (Puranic). Buddhist (Mahayana). ax. trident and white fly whisk. blue lotus. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Heads of slaughtered soldiers were fixed on the so-called Pole of Macha. Attributes: arrow. cup. This form of the god GANESA possesses ten arms instead of the more normal four and may have a goddess. Maha-Ganapati Mah Moon god. tiger skin and trident. She is depicted with red hair. According to tradition her consort is Ailill and she represents the “Sovereignty of Ireland” at Connaught. She acts as a guardian against snakes and scorpions. Buddhist. the expression Mahadeo (great ˇ iva as the supreme deity. snakes. banner. She is depicted in the form of a panther. A fearsome emanation of AMITABHA and a dikpala (guardian) of the northwestern quarter. before the Battle of Moytura when she suddenly changes herself into a crow. BUDDHI or SIDDHI. noose. A benevolent NAKSATRA. typically depicted with the tips of a sickle moon projecting from his shoulders. one female) S signifying the three aspects—Aghora (right). bell. Three-eyed. He rides in a chariot drawn by parrots. Buddhist (Mahayana) and Lamaist [Tibet]. a fearsome form of the Vajrayana goddess. Mahadeva (mighty god) Mafdet Minor goddess. seated on the knee. sword. EKAJATA. who may be depicted with up to twelve heads and twenty-four hands. staff. often with the instrument of an executioner. snake.

the SAKTI of the god S Mahamayuri (great daughter of the peacock) Mahakali 1. Also considered to be a form of the god BHAIRAVA in which context he is a guardian of the faith. Attributes: alms bowl. Mahakapi (great ape) God. to be personifications of amulets or mantras.182 Mahakala Mahakala (the great death) ˇ IVA. Rides upon a lion. Goddess of learning. 2. black. jewel. ax. mendicant. A deity of riches. Three-eyed and may occasionally appear three. waterjar and wheel. Attributes: mainly elephant skin. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. club. white or red. A violent aspect of S His SAKTI is Mahakah. Buddhist. Form of the goddess KALI. rosary of skulls. hook. Hindu (Puranic). Buddhist. 2. prayer wheel and trident. God. rosary of skulls. Mahamataras Group of goddesses. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. fly whisk. The depiction of the BUDDHA lying in nirvana (paradise). Color: black. headdress. Attributes: rosary and waterjar. prayer wheel. or on two elephant-headed men. Mahanaga Snake god.or four-headed. appearing as an ape. An extremely popular deity and an emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI. Hindu. Guardian god of tents and science. Buddhist (Mahayana). peacock feather. noose. Three-eyed. Jain [India]. Also one of a group of DHARMAPALAS with terrible appearance and royal attire. bow. Brahma-egg. Color: green. Attributes: five arrows. alternatively of AKSOBHYA. south and eastern quarters according to separate traditions. Hindu. Jain [India]. sword and water jar. Also an emanation of the DHYANIBUDDHA RATNASAMBHAVA. One of a group of five MAHARAKSAS (protectresses) who are thought . She is a guardian of the west. Also a SAKTI of MAHAKALA. but may hold various other objects. 1. Three-eyed. green. He treads on the god Vinayaka. Mahamantranusarini sacred text) (following the great Mahaparinirvanamurti God. blue or white. or on a man. image of Amoghasiddhi on crown. Epithet of the BUDDHA in a previous incarnation. Buddhist. A group of seven deities identical with a group of seven nagadevas. knife. From four to twelve arms. Also one of a group of five MAHARAKSAS (protectresses) who are thought to be personifications of amulets or mantras. Hindu. banner. Color: blue. Hindu. may be three-headed. Mahamanasika (great-minded) Goddess of learning. Mahapadma (great lotus) Snake god. staff. red or yellow. Attributes: most commonly noose and staff. sword. BuddhistLamaist [Tibet]. Color: black. arrow. Derived from the Hindu god ˇ iva and an emanation of the five DHYANIBUDS DHAS. a corpse. Guardian goddess. cup. A female BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate. cup. Goddess. staff and trident. Attributes: conch. Personifications of ˇ IVA.

banner. ax. peacock feather. Attributes: image of Amoghasiddhi and lotuses. Mahapratisara (great protectress) Guardian goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). Orissa [India]. Buddhist. yellow or green. staff. noose.Mahasthama(prapta) 183 Mahaprabhu Tutelary god. bow. Goddess. Attributes: hook. Buddhist. Mahasri-Tars (of great beauty) Maharatri (the great night) Goddess. Color: blue. A guardian of the north or west quarter. An emanation of LAKSMI. (he who has attained God. Hindu (Puranic). Goddess. parasol. Maha-Sarasvati 1. sword and trident. Buddhist. Buddhist (Mahayana). Color: yellow. image of Aksobhya on crown. A guardian of the central or southern direction. Buddhist. Mahasthama(prapta) great power) Mahasahaspramardani (the thousand fold destroyer) Goddess. Color: green. Associated with KALI and KAMALA. 2. (May have no attributes present. A dhyanibodhisattva who personifies great wisdom. Common attribute: a parasol. Buddhist. The local supreme deity of the Bondo tribe. Attributes: book. A variety of SARASVATI. sword. Also an emanation of the DHYANIBUDDHA RATNASAMBHAVA. prayer wheel. image of Ratnasambhava on crown. Three-headed and three-eyed. Personifications of amulets or mantras. lotus. noose. ax. Attributes: garland of pearls and white lotus. lute and rosary. sword and trident. Mahasitavati (great cold one) Mahapratyangira (great goddess whose speech is directed westwards) Goddess. Depicted upon a lotus. Three-eyed and may be three-headed. Buddhist (Mahayana). red lotus. Color: white. hook. Attributes: arrow. bowl. Attributes: lotus. but also depicted with other objects including image of Vairocana on crown. Color: white or yellow. jewel.) . Attributes: arrow. One of a group of five M AHARAKSAS (protectresses) who are thought to be personifications of amulets or mantras. conch. bow. Color: white. prayer wheel and sword. and one of the MAHARAKSAS. Goddess. An emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI. six lotuses and sword. noose. staff and trident. Maharaksa (great protectress) Group of guardian goddesses. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). An emanation of the DHYANIBUDDHA AKSOBHYA. An emanation of VAIROCANA. reliquary. image of Amitabha on the crown. Guardian goddess. One of a group of five MAHARAKSAS (protectresses) who are thought to be personifications of amulets or mantras. Attributes: particularly noose. Color: red. banner. May be four-headed. Depicted seated upon a moon. Also an emanation of the DHYANIBUDDHA A MITABHA (or sometimes R ATNASAMB HAVA). book.

Attributes: antelope. but he also confounds the gods by changing himself into many other animal guises. Buddhist (Mahayana). Identified with earthquakes and possibly paralleling TOUIA FATUNA (iron stone goddess) in Tongan belief. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. club. noose. Usually associated with the goddess SARASVATI. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). bow. staff and trident. Ten personifications of SAKTI ˇ IVA. prayer wheel.” Mahuikez Mahi (earth) Minor goddess of sacrifice.184 Mahavidya Mahavidya Collective name of a group of goddesses. staff and trident. the form arose in response to the threat from the demonic MAHISA who was eventually slain by the goddess Devi with his own sword. She is invoked to appear on the sacrificial field before a Fire god. ritual. hook. Three-eyed. A warrior deity after whom the Axumite kings titled themselves “sons of MAHREM. . Mahes Sun god. Mahisasuramardini (slayer of the buffalo demon) Form of the goddess DEVI. Also Miysis (Greek). Appearing from the fourth century AD onward. shield. Hindu (Puranic). arrow. Attributes: ax. mirror. Hindu (Vedic). Depicted most frequently in the form of a buffalo. Buddhist (Mahayana). this goddess is a DURGA form of Devi. ax. club. bell. in southern India. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Mahisa (buffalo) Demonic god. According to legend. Mahodadhi Mahesvari Mother goddess. and is identified with the act of prayer. Cheyenne [USA]. (the great ocean) Minor goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). conch. Also one of eight ASTAMATARAS. sword. Mahayasa (most glorious) Minor goddess. He is eventually slain by the goddess DEVI in the form of MAHISASURAMARDINI. In another grouping one of a group of nine NAVASAKTIS who. Depicted in the form of a lion. A SAKTI who in later Hinduism became one of a group of seven MATARAS regarded as of evil intent. banner. She possesses up to twelve arms holding an assortment of weapons and may be seated on a lion. Maheo (all-spirit) Creator god. He first lived in the void and then created the great primordial water of life. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. Polynesian. drum. prayer wheel. rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. Egyptian. He made the earth from a ball of mud and engendered mankind from one of his ribs which he implanted in earth woman (Christian influence has probably been exerted here). lizard. Axumite (ancient Ethiopic kingdom). bow. drum. associated with the posas the femaleness of S session of knowledge. An ancient deity worshiped chiefly in the region of the Nile delta and representing the destructive power of the sun’s heat. Mahrem Head of pantheon.

One of the two personifications of light who. One of a group of ASTAMATARA deities. Mentioned as the brother of AGLIBOL on an inscription at Palmyra dated to AD 132. his face is like the moon. His sacred animal is the sea swallow and the huge anthropomorphic stone figures which characterize the island’s archaeology form part of his cult. He is also regarded as a manusibuddha or future human buddha. In Sangam texts. he created mankind and animals. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Polynesian [Easter Island]. Maju God. May be three-eyed or three-headed. The name implies a deity of great stature. Invoked until very recent times in country districts as a deity who would bring prosperity to the family home. the dove. Attributes: garland of forest flowers. Malamanganga’e Majas Gars Household god. his eyes are lotuses and his CAKRA is the beams of the sun. Malakbel Vegetation god. Bodhisattva or buddhadesignate. He may also be identified symbolically by white blossoms. SYNONYMS none.Malamanganga’e 185 Maia Chthonic or earth goddess. Possibly the origin of the name of the month of May. Pre-Christian Latvian. Polynesian. MAITREYA ORIGIN (the loving one) Buddhist [India]. engendered Lupe. with MALAMANGANGAIFO. Color: red or yellow. One of the most popular deities of the Mahayana and Hinayana sects of Buddhism. The tutelary deity of the Easter Islanders. whose consort is rock. rubicund figure of benevolent character. Also TIRUMAL. Color: gold or yellow. From these primordial principles came . He originates from the yellow mantra syllable MAIM in the Tusita heaven. in pre-Homeric times. Mal Creator god. or of jewels. Basque [Pyrenean region]. (light eastward) Creator being. Also MI-LO FO (Chinese). flower. The Romans worshiped her as an obscure goddess of the plains who became briefly a consort of JUPITER. He has no SAKTI and his attendant animal is a lion. Early Dravidian (Tamil). He equates with KALKIN in Hinduism and is perceived as a happy. a mountain spirit who subsequently became a minor consort of ZEUS. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. he appears in the guise of a serpent. The consort of the mother goddess MARI. and they perceived her as the mother of the messenger god Mercury. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC to present. Make Make Sea god. Greco-Roman. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. shrine (in the hair) and water jar. Her cult was associated with that of VULCANUS. Originally. See also MERCURIUS. Mala (garland) Mother goddess. Attributes: five DHYANIBUDDHAS. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. paintings. prayer wheel. Probably ˇ NU and equating with a syncretization of V IS KRSNA.

Mami Mother goddess. Mayan (Yucatec. after which the figure is undressed and unceremoniously thrown away. During Uayeb devotees fast and refer to the god as “grandfather. Also a BODHISATTVA or future buddha. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of seven SAKTIS who in later Hinduism became regarded as SAPTAMATARAS (mothers) of evil intent. Depicted in the form of a flat. . Also Mama. Malhal Mata Mother goddess. ence under Inca rule. Originally a pre-Inca goddess of coastal regions who retained her influGoddess of oaths and treaties. Today probably syncretized largely with the Christian Virgin Mary. jewel. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. life-sized piece of wood dressed as a scarecrow and set upon a stool. Particularly known in Bengal as a bringer of disease. She was involved synonymous with NINHURSAG in the creation of mankind from clay and blood. Attributes: cup.186 Malamangangaifo several generations of supernatural beings whose descendants engendered mankind. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. Identified in the Atrahasis texts and other creation legends and probably ˜ A. knife and staff. Color: yellow or blue. and perform a ritual making as much noise as possible to frighten the predator off. caused by a mountain lion or snake eating the moon. Mammitum. Mamaki (greedy) Goddess. Known from inscriptions. A much-feared deity who lives beneath the earth and only emerges in times of crisis. The name almost certainly came into use because it is the first word that a child formulates. Mama See MAMI. she is important in the calculation of time and regulating the Inca festival calendar. Invoked by all Indians who gain their livelihood from the sea. One of the consorts of NERGAL and subsequently identified as a chthonic underworld deity. Buddhist. Mama-Kilya (mother moon) Malik (king) Tutelary god. Mam God of evil. originating from the blue mantra MAM. Polynesian. etc]. Also Mammetu. The SAKTI of RATNASAMBHAVA or AKSOBHYA. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Mamitu Mama Qoca (mother sea) Goddess of the ocean. He is offered food and drink during Uayeb. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). See also MALAMANGANGA’E. the period of five unlucky days at the end of the year. The Indians consider that an eclipse of the moon is a time of great danger. The consort of the sun god INTI. Also Mama Cocha. Malamangangaifo (light westward) Creator being. etc].” Moon goddess. flowers. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian.

close to the Aswan High Dam.” V IS Mandulis [Greek] Manavi (descended from Manu) Goddess of learning. Pre-Islamic Arabian. Father of the Irish hero Mongan. The daughter of KASYAPA and KADRU and the sister of the lord of serpents. Zulu [Natal. God of divine judgment. Pre-Islamic Arabian. Sun god. One of the more popular medicine-buddhas and possibly derived from Persian light-religion. Bengal and Assam. One of the “lords of the universe. sMan-Bla (physician) God. Minor avatara of ˇ NU. Manawat Goddess of destiny. A sanctuary was also constructed on the Greek island of Philae where . One of the socalled Daughters of ALLAH. South Africa]. Celtic (Irish and British). From the name is derived the “Isle of Man” where. a seven-headed snake. Mandah Collective name of gods. The counterpart of the Irish god MANANNAN. Mandanu Manasi (spiritual) Goddess of learning. Attributes: snake and waterjar. Celtic (Welsh). Western Semitic (Nabataean). (thoughtful) God. according to tradition. and now relocated. Jain [India].Mandulis 187 Mamlambo River goddess. Extensively worshiped. Also Manawyddaw (Welsh). Guardian deities. the god is buried. Attributes: fruit and waterjar. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). He rules the “Isle of the Blessed” and determines the weather at sea. or is shaded by. Nubian. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Manawyddan Manannan (Mac Lir) Sea god. Vasuki. He is the consort of RHIANNON and is regarded as a skilled craftsman. She is also a gracious aspect of PARVATI. Considered to control all the rivers running through Natal. Known particuarly from Bihar. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Sea god. Known from the neo-Babylonian period. she is primarily identified with a shrine (lost) between Mecca and Medina. She stands upon. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. His most important sanctuary was at Kalabsha. whose chief responsibility is irrigation. Mentioned in a large number of inscriptions. Also a patron of beer-makers. Mandulis was chiefly revered in a Greco-Roman cult. Manasa Snake goddess. who are usually women. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. Mandhata Manat (fate) Goddess. Hindu. Jain [India].

Manitu Creator god. these objects of ancestor worship became classed as guardian divinities in Roman households. He guides the chariot of the moon through the night sky and is involved in the downfall of the world at Ragnarok. also god of wisdom. Attributes: arrow. SYNONYMS large number of forms. (pleasing splendor) ORIGIN Buddhist [India]. Attended by a lion. They are the ultimate source of existence and are essential to the continuance of life. blue lotus. staff and sword. Celebrated in the feast of Parentalia. bell. Mangala (auspicious) (sweet sounding) God. Manidhara (holding a gem) Minor god. Form of the god MANJUSRI and an emanation of AKSOBHYA. the underwater manitos and . the heroic god N ANABOZHO .188 Manes he seems to have enjoyed an association with the goddess ISIS. paintings. Bodhisattva or buddhadesignate. Color: white or gold. Attributes: jewel and lotus. She rides upon a lion and may bear up to ten arms. Three-eyed. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. Germanic and Nordic (Icelandic). Ojibwa [Canada]. Roman. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. Astral god. These deities include the four winds. Personification of the planet MARS. An important and popular deity throughout all sects of Buddhism. Depicted by a chariot drawn by eight red fire-horses. One of a number of very powerful beings all identified by the same title. He is the son of either AMITABHA or AKSOBHYA and is closely linked with the goddess PRAJNAPARAMITA who is seen as the personification of a holy text which MANJUSRI habitually carries. Manito Creator being. carrying arrow. the pustaka. Algonquin Indian [USA]. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC until present. shield and sword. image of Aksobhya. Origin of the title on graves: Dis Manibus. the thunderbirds. white. 1. It is necessary for mankind to maintain close communication with them. book. An attendant of SADAKSARI. A form of PARVATI. Manes Hearth deities. According to some authors ˇ IVA in his cruel Mangala is a form of the god S aspect. Three-eyed. Probably similar to MANITO. Hindu. Manjughosa MANJUSRI Mani Moon god. Buddhist (Mahayana). A vaguely defined being who controls all things and imparts knowledge to the tribe. moon disc. rosary. His attendant animal is the tiger or the lion. Color: black. Attributes: club and lotus. He may be identified as the great spirit in the sky. Goddess. Also Merwel (Egyptian). mirror. Buddhist. Technically souls separated from the body. bow. 2.

Maramalik Manu Primordial creator god. Maponos Tribal deity. Attributes: chiefly book and sword. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). S Chthonic underworld god. etc. in part. Tradition has it that her body wastes away with each lunar cycle but is restored when she bathes in the sea from which all life springs. the consort of BIRDU. particularly the Babylonian creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ. daughter of TANGAROA.MARDUK 189 red or yellow. No details known. MARDUK Mesopotamian (Babylonian) [Iraq]. SYNONYMS Lugal-dimmer-an-ki-a (divine king of heaven and earth). Marduk is the chief deity of Babylonia and tutelary god of the city of Babylon though perhaps derived. to circa 200 BC. Buddhist. Mara (the destroyer) Manmatha Form of the god of carnal love. Marama Manohel-Tohel Creator god. who was engendered from milk and butter offered to ˇ IVA as a propitiation. ART REFERENCES plaques. from a Sumerian model. A local southern Indian form of Kama with similar attributes and genealogy. God. Moon goddess. As ˇalluhe. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. according to the Babylonian creation epic. or earlier. CENTER(S) OF CULT Babylon. The deity concerned specifically with the creation of mankind. Celtic (British and Continental European). V IS maras who become vanquished by various Buddhist deities. 2. the ˇ IVA are ˇ NU and S Hindu gods INDRA. An evil deity who puts obstacles in the way of the BUDDHA. Polynesian (Maori). glyptics. May be threeheaded. According to tradition. Kafir [Afghanistan]. ORIGIN Manungal Chthonic underworld god. His parents are ENKI and DAMGALNUNA or EA and . A minor deity. votive stelae. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2000 BC. Merodach (Hebrew). Hindu. Creator and national god. named in Sangam literature. BRAHMA. The son(s) of SURYA. At least fifty other divine names. A youthful god worshiped by the Brigantes tribe in Britain and probably assimilated with APOLLO in the Romano-Celtic period. An epithet of KAMA(DEVA). She equates with the Tahitian goddess HINA. Attributes: fish standard. giving mortals body and soul and leading them from the caves into the light. The equal of the Hindu god Kama. the consort of Manu is Ida. 1. In Buddhist tradition. Hindu (Vedic). blue lotus and bow. but also arrow. The name given to the fourteen original progenitors of mankind during the mythical or heroic ages. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts. God. Dravidian (Tamil).

bow. a thunderstorm forms. splitting her in half and using parts of her corpse to make heaven and earth. prayer wheel. the deep. which continued up to as late as 200 BC. She may be depicted in a three-headed form (as the Sakti of HAYAGRIVA). She rides in a chariot drawn by seven boars. Assyrian scribes replaced Marduk with ASSUR. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. Mariyamman (mother of smallpox) Mari (2) (queen) Supreme mother goddess. The sister of SITALA. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. 2. Marduk’s sanctuary in Babylon is the Esagila and the E-temen-anki ziggurat. Color: red. His consort is the goddess ZARPANITU(M) with whom his marriage was re-enacted in an annual New Year festival.190 Mari (1) DAMKINA. He kills her. It was performed by the Persian ruler Cambyses circa 538 BC. also performed at New Year. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Marnas Local tutelary god. In the mythology of the creation epic. his cult was . Mari Mai (mother death) Plague goddess. 1. one of the NAVASAKTIS and linked with the goddess KALI. Astral goddess. At the time of the Assyrian takeover. needle. the Es ˇ arra. yellow or white. Considered by some to be the equal of the Hindu SURYA. She is further identified as a buddha-designate or BODHISATTVA. associated with cholera. Deification of literature. Also Mariyattal. Attributes: needle. Color: reddish white. She is honored in a ritual during which victims (in penance) are suspended from a rope and an iron hook through the flesh of the back and whirled around a pole. An emanation of VAIROCANA and also his female aspect or SAKTI. A product of the creator god BRAHMA. 2. taking over the role of AN and replacing ENLIL. Her Tamil counterpart is MARIYAMMAN. Plague goddess. Attributes: arrow. Tiamat fought him in revenge for the death of APSU. staff. Her home is within the earth but she also rides through the air in a chariot pulled by four horses or carried by a ram. She is depicted dressed in rich clothing and jewels. She may breathe fire and is symbolized by the rainbow. Demiurge. One of a group of DHARANIS. Mother goddess. Marici (shining) Mari (1) (killing) 1. The main Marduk festival was the akitu. A terrible goddess. fly whisk. sword. thread and trident. The symbol of Marduk is the triangular device used in Mesopotamia as an agricultural tool and called a mar. In the Old Babylonian period he was comparatively insignificant. See also MARI MAI. thread and staff. When she and her consort meet. Hindu. but in subsequent times he rose to prominence. Probably regarded as a fertility deity. the power of the ocean. She may also be the mother of SAKYAMUNI (a form of the BUDDHA). Buddhist. in which case her left head is that of a pig. Basque [Pyrenean region]. Buddhist (Mahayana). Her symbol is a sickle which is still employed as a device to ward off evil. and is said to have created an exact replica of Apsu. Three-eyed. Hindu. She is both a sky and chthonic goddess and her consort is MAJU. Marduk is engaged in a primordial cosmic battle with TIAMAT. horse’s head image in the hair.

Phobos (Alarm). ERIS (Discord) and Pallor (Terror). the alleged founder of the city of Rome. weather.Mata 191 centered at Gaza at the Marneion sanctuary and probably succeeded that of Dagon. Hindu (Vedic). who was slain by Romulus. Mars is frequently linked with BELLONA. though these totems generally represent ancestors rather than deities. staring eyes and tongue protruding. The son of JUPITER and JUNO. he is one of the major deities on the Roman pantheon and the patron of all soldiers. Mata (great mother) Primeval mother goddess. He may have been the subject of a colossal statue attributed to ZEUS found near Gaza. Maru may be invoked in the familiar Maori war dances and chants demonstrated popularly by the All Blacks before rugby matches all over the world. the minor Roman war goddess who drives his chariot. wolf and woodpecker. circa 400 BC KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP to Martu Tutelary god. . and Remus. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). His retinue includes Metus (Fear). circa AD 400. but is also seen as a plague goddess associated with smallpox. Through Ilia Mars fathered Romulus. Probably not a true Sumerian deity but adopted from an unknown western Semitic culture. God of war. She becomes the tutelary goddess of every village in northern India. Mars may have originated as a god of vegetation. Mars’s sacred animals include the bull. The patron god of the city of Ninab mentioned in the texts but never re-discovered. He took an active part in the primordial war between gods and giants. The training ground for would-be Roman legionaries was known as the Campus Martius (field of Mars). His consort is VENUS and he is the father of HARMONIA. It was the convention that a Roman general. He is sometimes identified as a storm god. etc. One of the important deities revered by Maori clans in New Zealand in times of war. but becomes closely modeled on the Greek war god Ares. Hindu. Marutgana Storm gods. The sons of RUDRA and attendants of INDRA. noted for its violent Maru God of war. ART REFERENCES large number of sculptures and carvings. The name of the month of March. He is also romantically linked with the vestal Ilia. He bears a shield and spear. See also DAGAN. See also AMOR. Cupid and Anteros. Her Tamil counterpart is Amman. Demios (Dread). SYNONYMS ARES (Greek). who was buried alive for contravening the laws of her sisterhood. The archetypal progenitrix of all living things. is derivative and the month was dedicated to the god. he may be represented in totems as an aggressive face with a prominent tuft of hair. CENTER(S) OF CULT the Mars Ultor sanctuary (Augustine) in Rome. He was particularly popular in Roman Britain. MARS ORIGIN Roman. would invoke Mars in his sanctuary. Also Maruts. Polynesian and Maori. in which case her epithet becomes Maha Mai. He is depicted wearing a suit of armor with a plumed helmet. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). before setting out for combat.

or the Nemausicae at Nimes. An excellent example comes from Cirencester. baskets of fruit. Mater Matuta Sky goddess. The sculptures are often associated with comucopiae. during which sake is drunk liberally. Matlalcueye (her skirt is blue) Minor fertility goddess. suggesting the different ages of womanhood. Matronae. As divine mothers they are also regarded as SAKTIS. Applied collectively to groups of deities. There is a slight suggestion that they might also have been linked to victory in battle. SYNONYMS Deae Mattes. Matsuo God of sake brewers. They are also not infrequently depicted with dogs. which were generally included as symbols of healing. the divine mothers. the Matres Aufaniae. particularly from the Rhineland. . Their images are normally carved in stone (very few exist in metal) and they are depicted seated. LITERARY SOURCES inscriptions. show young and older figures. ASTAMATARAS (eight) and NAVASAKTIS (nine). It is rowed down the river prior to a general celebration. sheaves of grain. Italic. hence the Treverae among the Treveri tribe around modern Trier. The numbers vary according to separate traditions and they are therefore identified as the SAPTAMATARAS (seven). also more specifically to the consort of the god KASYAPA. closely associated with water. Another. loaves. when the presence of the god is carried on a palanquin. Several unnamed Matres are held in the Corinium museum at Cirencester. reliefs and votive plaques. fish or other symbols of prosperity and fertility. England. Less commonly there may be up to fifty mataras in a group. and may be of terrifying appearance. often upon a corpse. They may also carry or suckle children. The plaque found in London seems to have the mothers holding palm fronds. in the main. Shinto [Japan]. was dedicated by Quettius Severus. One of the group classed as the TLALOC complex. Many of the dedications to such mothers were made by soldiers. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 400 BC. until Christianization (circa AD 400). See also ISIS. various Romano-Celtic sculptures. Hindu (Vedic). An important sculpture of Matres was found embedded in the walls of London on a section of fourth century rebuilding adjacent to the Thames. Some. Triads of benevolent mother goddesses were probably worshiped. She is also a tutelary goddess of mariners. various shrines. Triads of mother goddesses. MATRES (mothers) ORIGIN Romano-Celtic (across Europe but particularly Rhineland). The attendant of AGNI. The personification of the dawn light who evolved into a fertility deity concerned with childbirth.192 Matara Matara Mother goddess. the quaestor of the colony of Cologne. but probably much earlier. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Many of the triads were specific to regions. Hindu. as household deities guarding against disease or famine. Celebrated annually in a festival in Kyoto. CENTER(S) OF CULT ART REFERENCES Matarisvan Minor messenger god.

According to legend she was abducted by QUETZALCOATL and subsequently dismembered by wild animals. West Africa). according to one legend. Sky god. The mother of the BUDDHA perceived as the world lotus or PADMA from which the Buddha was born. He was rescued entangled in seaweed. 2. Also Mawi. to harness immortality for him by entering the vulva of the underworld goddess HINE-NUI-TE-PO while she was asleep. Moon goddess. Mawu 1. Among the tribe neighboring the Fon. e. in Hinduism. pitcher. Known from southern India. on a fish’s body. Hindu. He favors the color white and is also benevolent and generous in nature. Color: red. The personification of all DHYANIBUDDHAS. Of fearsome character. Mawu is perceived as male and a creator deity. Maya(devi) Mother goddess. as an epithet of the goddess DURGA. unsuccessfully. bow. He also brought fire from the underworld for mankind and tried. making it travel more slowly across the sky so that the days became longer. Hindu (Epic and Incarnation of the god V IS Puranic). One of the group classed as the Ometochtli complex associated with the maguey plant from which pulque is brewed. Attributes: shield and sword. Not a creator god but one who assists mankind in various supernatural ways. Buddhist (Mahayana). Polynesian (Maori) [New Zealand]. The sister of the sun god LISA. he had been made vulnerable to death by a mistake during his rites of birth (see also BALDER). Maui Tutelary god. where he is also a god of wine. She equates with the Hindu goddess LAKSMI. Though a deity. Mayajalakrama-Kurukulla ceeds in the net of illusion) (one who pro- Goddess. Matsya engages in an epic battle with the demon HAYAGRIVA who stole the Vedas from a sleeping BRAHMA. images of the five Dhyanibuddhas. Maturaiviran Locally worshiped god. . She is also considered to bestow fertility and motherhood and is generally benevolent in nature. Mayahuel Minor fertility goddess.Mayajalakrama-Kurukulla 193 Matsya ˇ NU.g. He is the deity who drew the islands of New Zealand from the floor of the ocean in a net. According to tradition he was aborted at birth and cast into the sea by his mother. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico). hook. lotus (red). Attributes: arrow. Ewe [Togo. She may be depicted seated upon a tortoise beside an agave plant in bloom. She awoke and crushed him to death. Usually depicted with a human torso carrying symbols. Fon [Benin. In this first avatara Vis ˇ nu appears as a fish which. Buddhist. rosary and waterjar. he is the deification of a seventeenth century policeman who eloped with a princess and was slain. wheel and conch. From the fragments grew the first agave plants. The term is also applied to the personification of the visible universe and. tows a ship carrying the law-giver MANU to safety after the primal flood. Maui caught the sun and beat it into submission. West Africa]. who thought he was dead.

The SAKTI of Sridhara. A benevolent but remote deity who breathes life into newborn children and receives the spirits of the dead. central Africa]. Meditrina Mbomba Creator god. Buddist (Mahayana). Ma-zu Sea goddess. Perhaps equating with ˇ NU or KRSNA. A generally benevolent guardian deity with the head of an ape. Komba. Mongo and Nkundo [Democratic Republic of Congo. central Africa]. One of seven deities Sun god. Mbotumbo Creator god. Mbombo. In . Minor chthonic underworld god. Known from the coastal regions of southeastern China as a benevolent guardian of fishermen. central Africa]. Egyptian. The consort of ITONDE and mother of the hero LIANJA. said to reside in black waters. V IS Medeine (of the trees) Woodland goddess. invoked at sunrise each morning. Pre-Christian Latvian. Syncretized into the cult of AESCULAPIUS. Early Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India and Sri Lanka]. Depicted in the form of a coiled snake. bakali. A son of Ravana who once briefly bested INDRA and became known as the “Indra-conqueror. Animistic high god of the pastoral regions. found in Sangam literature and thought to reside in trees. and closely linked with the goddess KUAN YIN. He operates through intermediaries known as bilima and through the spirits of the dead. Tungus [eastern and central Siberia].194 Mayin Mayin Supreme god. Chinese. Baule [Ivory Coast.” Mehen Mbombe Mother goddess. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo. Among the Ngbandi people there is recognized a vast water monster or river god by the same name. The creator god of all black people. Mayon (the black one) Creator god. Meghanada (cloud roar) Minor god. Medha (wisdom) Minor goddess. he is the son of Aramazd who appears in the form of fire. Pre-Christian Armenian. Goddess of healing. Known from medieval manuscripts. West Africa]. Also known as landa. Njakomba and WAI. Nkundo [Democratic Republic of Congo. Roman. Hindu. Meher Mbongo River god. Closely linked with the Persian model of MITHRA. The guardian of the barque of the sun god RE during its passage through the underworld at night.

One of a pair of deities. Milk-quart. he was subsequently adopted by the Greeks and Romans. Men Moon god. The cult of Melqart spread extensively through Egypt. Carthage. etc. Probably also a god of healing. His symbol is the head of a bull above a crescent moon and wreath. . Known mainly from Tyre. The popularity of the cult earned antagonism from the Roman occupation. MELQART ORIGIN Phoenician [Turkey]. Mena Mountain goddess. Ruler of both upper and lower worlds. A benevolent being residing in the sky and known as “father fire. but its inscriptions were written in Greek. Antioch-near-Pisidia. Egyptian. his home is said to be in a cave and he takes the animal guise of a raven. He may be with BAAL S depicted on coinage riding a sea-horse. the tutelary god of Sidon. Mehet-Weret (great flood) Me’mdeye-Eci’e Fire spirit. LITERARY SOURCES Herodotus and local inscriptions. Chinese. Phrygian [Turkey]. while in others she is the waterway on which the barque of the sun god RE travels. armed with bow and arrows. who guard doorways and gates. Paper images are pinned to entrances of homes during the New Year celebrations to ward off evil spirits. In Hellenic times he becomes defined more as a sun god. it appears on local coinage circa AD 200. Roman. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP to 200 BC. Hindu. Tyre. ART REFERENCES possibly sculptures in stone. She is depicted as a cow bearing a sun disc between its horns and lying on papyrus reeds. Heroic tutelary circa 1200 BC Men Ascaenus Local tutelary god. In some versions of the story she epitomizes the primeval ocean. but is largely syncretized with HERAKLES. Gadeira/Cadiz were renamed the Pillars of Hercules by the Romans. Mellonia Goddess of bees. The cult was popular during the imperial period. See also MEN. Melqart equates with ˇ MUN.” Minor goddess associated with creation accounts. The pillars in the sanctuary at Men Shen God of passage. The consort of HIMAVAN and the mother of GANGA and PARVATI. Vetus Testamentum. god. Possibly originating as a Persian moon god and known chiefly from a description by Strabo. where he was regarded as the consort of ASTARTE and probably constituted part of a trio of major deities ˇ AMIN and Astarte. Yukaghir [eastern Siberia].Mena 195 contrast to this imagery. Known in ES Hebrew tradition as the ruler of the underworld and probably based on the Sumerian/Akkadian NERGAL. He enjoyed a substantial cult including a temple some 1. Cyprus.200 meters above sea level. SYNONYMS CENTER(S) OF CULT A god of youthful appearance often associated with the sea.

Mercury is modeled closely on the Greek god Hermes. born in a cave on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia.196 Menechen Menechen (master of men) cattle from APOLLO. Also a fever god and a keeper of good souls. Menulis Moon god. Apollo presented Mercury with the gift of his winged baton. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Mes An Du God. Menzabac (black powder maker) Weather god. The French for Wednesday. which had the power of resolving conflict and dispute. He is a guardian deity of travelers and military expeditions. His main annual festival. . Often linked with the god LUGAL-IRRA. CENTER(S) OF CULT Circus Maximus (Rome). including the theft of Mes Lam Taea God of war. Guenu-Pillan (spirit of heaven). As Psychopompus he leads the souls of the dead into Hades. the caduceus. sun god (see S One of the twelve major deities of Olympus. Meness Moon god. an allegory on the blowing away of the clouds (Apollo’s herds). MERCURIUS Roman. The gods also presented Mercury with the winged sandals or talaria and cap or petasus. derives from his name. mercredi. HERMES (Greek). In Roman mythology he is the son of JUPITER and the plains goddess MAIA. She is generally depicted as a coiled cobra which may possess a human head and arm. Mercury. Believed to live on the edge of a lake. Egyptian. SYNONYMS Psychopompus. Meretseger Localized chthonic goddess associated with the underworld. She lost her popularity when the use of Thebes as a royal cemetery was discontinued early in the first millennium BC. At Thebes she acted in either benign or destructive fashion against workers building tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Mercury also personifies the wind. An aggressive aspect of the chthonic underworld god NERGAL. Consort of the sun goddess. One of the best representations is on the sarcophagus of Rameses III. and as Oneicopompus he oversees the world of dreams. Originally he was a god of riches but became a patron of travelers and thieves. circa 400 BC to circa AD 400. ART REFERENCES sculptures and carvings. which causes them to generate rain. etc. Pre-Christian Lithuanian. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and BabylonianAkkadian). Araucania Indian [southern Andes]. Pre-Christian Latvian. Messenger god. and with various misdemeanors. He sprinkles black dye on the clouds. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Oneicopompus. Also known as Pillan (heaven) and. Consort of the sun goddess SAULE. Supreme god. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. took place in Rome in May and his statues were frequently placed as boundary markers. Also Metzabac. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). He is attributed with the invention of the lyre made from a tortoise shell. the Mercuralia. Probably an alternative title for the ˇ AMAS ˇ ). west of the Andes.

Mexitli (maguey-hare) Minor god of war. One of the group of deities belonging to the HUITZILPOCHTLI complex. Zeus swallowed her because he feared she would engender a child more powerful than he. from whom the earth was formed. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Also Chiburi-No-Kami. They also protect the boundaries of house and environs and may be known as Yakushin gods. The generic name for three KAMIS associated with roads and crossroads. Metis Goddess of wisdom. Hindu (late). The daughter of OKEANOS and TETHYS. Depicted with a skull-like appearance and protruding teeth. In alternative traditions he is the god of the sixth of the thirteen heavens. they generated the monstrous goddess CIPACTLI. See KUNADO. Her popularity is thought to have spread from northern Ionia. Roman. Mhalsa Minor goddess. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Locally worshiped at Jejuri. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The creator of the underworld. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Metztli Minor moon god. guardians against plague. . from whom the earth was formed. Herodotus mentions a festival of Meter in Kyzikos. near Poona in western India. Concerned with the growth and harvesting of crops. The consort of KHANDOBA and considered to be a form of the goddess PARVATI. they generated the monstrous goddess CIPACTLI. According to legend. Shinto [Japan]. Micapetlacoli (dead mat chest) Minor chthonic underworld goddess. Mictlan. Mictlantecuhtli Chthonic underworld god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].” she is the consort of the fire god TATEVALI. The original consort of ZEUS and mother of ATHENA. equating most closely to GAIA. Michi-No-Kami Gods of passage. Greek. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Also known as Meter oriae (mother of the mountain). Known as “grandmother moon. Known throughout the Greek Empire and generally the object of devotion by individuals rather than large cult followings. In the primeval waters of the cosmos. The essence of the great mother of all gods.Mictlantecuhtli 197 Messor Minor god of agriculture. One of the group of deities belonging to the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. TOKAKAMI. Mictecacihuatl Chthonic underworld god. Metsaka Moon goddess. Greek. Also one of a pair of deities with MICTECACIHUATL. In the primeval waters of the cosmos. She guards the Huichol against the god of death. Probably derived originally from the western Asiatic great mother (see KYBELE). Meter Mother goddess. One of the group of deities belonging to the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. One of a pair of deities with MICTLANTECUHTLI.

Shinto [Japan]. Mika-Hiya-Hi MIMIR Nordic (Icelandic). bowing and clapping their hands in a daily ritual. Egyptian. One of a number of domestic guardian KAMIS. Milkastart Midir Chthonic god.198 Midir Ilhuicatl Mamalhuazocan (the heaven of the fire drill). ORIGIN Mikal Local god. the eye was replaced by DIANCECHT. Prose Edda (Snorri). Western Semitic. and the name is regarded as a syncretization of MELQART and ASTARTE.5) as being worshiped by the Israelite king Solomon. Depicted in leonine form and originating from a cult center at Leontopolis [Tell el’Muqdam] in Lower Egypt. Milkom Mihos Lion god. Mi-Lo Fo God. Also Mider. Tutelary god. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. Celtic (Irish). The local name given to the BODHISATTVA MAITREYA. He lost an eye when hit by a hazel wand. Also Miysis (Greek). Also Milcom. . Mimi. Mictlantecuhtli is perceived to reside in the south (codices Borgia and Vaticanus B). He is also one of the four great temple deities (codices Borgia. Shinto [Japan]. Western Semitic (Phoenician). SYNONYMS Mimr. going outside in the morning. Known only from Umm el-Ammed where his cult apparently co-existed with that of BAAL SAPON. Appears in polymorphic form. One of the deities mentioned in the Vetus Testamentum (1 Kings 11. Some authorities believe he was invoked as a plague god. Western Semitic (Ammonite). A deity subservient to the sun goddess AMATERASU and engendered from the blood of the fire KAMI KAGU-TSUCHI. According to legend the consort of Etain and ruler of the land of Mag Mor. but possibly the subject of anonymous carvings. In Roman times he became more of an underworld deity. CENTER(S) OF CULT none known. the physician god. Mi-Kura-Tana-No-Kami house chief kami) (august store- House god. Local tutelary god. or he is one of the gods who support the lowest heaven at the four cardinal points. Chinese Buddhist. The cult was followed strongly on Cyprus. See also HI-HIYA-HI. Attributes include roses and a purse. Certain Japanese still worship the sun. God of wisdom and inspiration. Mim. Cospi and Fejervery-Mayer). he is particularly concerned with the protection of storehouses. The son of the goddess BASTET. ART REFERENCES none known. A sanctuary in his honor was built at Bubastis. (terrible swift sun) Sun god. facing east. One of two major temples built at Umm el-Ammed in the third century BC was probably dedicated to MILKASTART. Like the Indian model he is represented as a rubicund figure. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and possibly earlier until Christianization (circa AD 1100).

By the end of the second millennium. having forfeited one of his eyes to Mimir.MINERVA 199 An AESIR god who lives in the world of the Frost Giants. He guards the well of knowledge. Shinto [Japan]. hence his cult centers at Qift and Akhim. Some authors argue that he is more properly a giant than a god. Said to be the wisest among the gods. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 400 BC until AD 400. Min is depicted in anthropomorphic form wearing a modius bearing two plumes and a hanging ribbon. Min is the most significant deity in the Egyptian pantheon in respect of sexual virility. The festival is found depicted at Thebes in association with Rameses II and III. ATHENA (Greek). LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. thus ensuring the sexual vigor and fertility of the new pharaoh. which were bases for gold-mining expeditions. Minaksi (fish eyed) Local fish goddess. ORIGIN . Min had become partly syncretized with Horus as a god Min-Horus. etc. etc. lying between Luxor and Qena. the shape of which may be reminiscent of an erect phallus. and which is supplied from the primeval waters. Fertility god. Mimir warns Othin of the final onslaught at Ragnarok (doom). Said to be accompanied often by the silent god HOENIR. stone reliefs. Goddess of war. filled by a spring which flows beneath the World Tree. The god OTHIN drank from the spring to acquire knowledge. Min was celebrated as part of the coronation rites of a ruler in Egypt. His sacred animal is probably a white bull and he is also associated with the tall lettuce species (Lactuca sativa). The son of IZANAGI and IZANAMI and father of the heavenly and earthly water dividers. Min is also a guardian deity of mines. Akhmim. Yggdrasil. Temple buildings at both sites are only known from the Greco-Roman period. Regarded as a SAKTI ˇ IVA (i. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP serrated cones projecting horizontally from a disc. coffin texts. CENTER(S) OF CULT main Capitoline temple shared with JUPITER and JUNO. The most obvious feature of the iconography is a strongly erect penis. also an important sanctuary on the Esquiline (see Athena). MIN Egyptian. circa 3000 BC until the end of Egyptian history (circa AD 400). Minaksi is known mainly from southern India where one of her main temples is at Madurai. legs together and with his left arm raised into the angle made by his royal flail. Minato-No-Kami God of river mouths and estuaries. In some genealogies he is the son of ISIS. SYNONYMS Menu (Egyptian). Hindu. north of Qena. wall paintings. SYNONYMS PALLAS. According to some sources he was sent as hostage to the VANIR in their war with the Aesir and was killed by them (see Othin). At the time Min was frequently presented with offerings of flowers and sacred lettuces. of S She is the mother of Ugra. CENTER(S) OF CULT Qift at the western end of the Wadi Hammamat.e. ART REFERENCES sculpture including fragmented limestone colossi from Qift dating from 3000 BC or earlier. Min is represented in older art by two MINERVA Roman. He is generally drawn in profile. in others he represents Isis’s consort with HORUS as their child. PARVATI) and the daughter of KUBERA.

LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). Avesta. A son of Zeus and Europa. under Roman influence. Mithras God of soldiers. MITHRA (friend) ORIGIN Persian [Iran]. One of three judges of the dead souls entering Hades. but also of wisdom and the arts and crafts including needlework. engaged in a primeval struggle with Ahura Mazda’s first creation. Originating in India. from this he was adopted as the Roman deity Mithras.200 Minos depicted with Juno and Jupiter on the Great Arch of Trajan at Beneventum erected in AD 115. whose head had been cleaved with Vulcan’s ax. Mirsa God of light. ART REFERENCES ART REFERENCES LITERARY SOURCES various sculptures and reliefs. and involved the sacrifice of a bull. but as an integral part of the Mithraic worship of Ahura Mazda. Derived from the Indian-Persian model. His cult is linked with the worship of bulls. As Minerva Medica she is the tutelary goddess of Rome. According to the Avesta. The cult was performed in an underground temple. was an exclusively male cult.000 eyes and ears and rides in a chariot drawn by white horses. Minos Minor underworld god. He became particularly prominent among military people throughout the Roman Empire during the first and second centuries AD. Greco-Roman. according to legend. She is perceived variously as goddess of war and peace. See also ATHENA. His chief adversary is AHRIMAN. SYNONYMS MITRA (Hindu). the power of darkness. The bull escaped. the mithraeum. she sprang fully armed from the head of JUPITER (ZEUS). Mithra is concerned with the endless battle between light and dark forces. Probably derived from the Persian god MITHRA. The mythical king of Crete. Pre-Christian Caucasus region. frequently appearing on sarcophagi offering new life beyond the grave. In dualistic Zoroastrianism. See also AHURA MAZDA. Annual festivals in her honor included the Minervalia and Quinquatria (March 19-23) at which the Palladium statue which had allegedly fallen from Olympus was carried in procession. In the Hellenic period he was transformed more closely to the role of a sun god. where he acts as an intercessor between gods and men. which effectively demoted him. light air. Mithraism. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 400 BC to AD 200. Mithra is not generally worshiped on his own. Minerva is probably derived from an Etruscan goddess Menrva but later becomes modeled on the Greek goddess ATHENA. Greco-Roman. a wild bull. MITHRAS (Roman). which he subdued and confined to a cave. he possesses 10. he represents truth. Also the deity responsible for fire. From the blood sprang plant life on earth. Like the latter. . who slit its throat. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout area of Persian influence. He was born from a rock and. He is responsible for the keeping of oaths and contracts. God of the upper air. as a god symbolizing loyalty and truth. etc. Mithra is a god of light who was translated into the attendant of the god AHURA MAZDA in the light religion of Persia. He is not generally regarded as a sky god but a personification of the fertilizing power of warm. but was recaptured by Mithra.

The consort of QUIKINNA’QU. According to tradition her father is twilight man. Mnemosyne Goddess of memory. whose immediate sons and daughters are EME’MQUT. who deserted her when she was very young. Greek. A consort of ZEUS and mother of the legendary nine Muses of Helicon. The senior water deity who was engendered from the urine of the primordial creator goddess Izanami during her fatal illness. Swazi [Swaziland. the harvest god of rice. Mlk-Amuklos Heroic god.Moccus 201 Miti Maternal spirit. Romano-Celtic (Continental European). worshiped jointly in the MiWi-Jinja shrine. Shinto [Japan]. South Africa]. Assimilated with Mercury. Western Semitic [Syrio-Palestine] and Cyprus. Shinto [Japan]. The intermediary between mankind and the creator god MKULUMNCANDI. Swazi [Swaziland. Mi-Toshi-No-Kami kami) (the august harvest Agricultural god. An Aditya. Shinto [Japan]. South Africa]. There is no worship of this deity. Mkulumncandi Creator god. It is from this model that first MITHRA (Persian) and then MITHRAS (Roman) were derived. and Kagayo-Hime (refulgent princess). God of war. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. he was originally associated with VARUNA (Vedic). though he is known as the “great first one. Mizu-Ha-No-Me Water goddess. he is in charge of crops other than rice. One of three deities responsible for wells. Mitra Mlentengamunye (one leg) Messenger god. She is regarded as the mother of the Koryak people. Attributes: two lotuses. Known from inscriptions circa 1100 BC and possibly one of the original pre-Hellenic models from which APOLLO was derived. He is also the god of intimate friendship. the sun god TEZCATLIPOCA transformed himself into MIXCOATL-CAMAXTLI to make fire by twirling the sacred fire sticks. NA’NQA-KA’LE. The offspring of O-TOSHI-NO-KAMI. ruling the day while Varuna ruled the night. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. having been burned producing the fire god HI-NO-KAGU-TSUCHI. Also a deity of hunting and fire who received human sacrifice of captured prisoners. See also MERCURIUS. He is particularly the god of domestic wells.” (friend) Minor sun god. Mixcoatl-Camaxtli (cloud serpent) Moccus Local swine god. YINE’ANE’UT and Cana’ina’ut. one of six descendants of ADITI. Mi-Wi-No-Kami God of wells. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). trident and a sacrificial drink or soma. to tradition. According . Gi’thililan.

Originally the creator of mankind. Vis ˇ nu used the ˇ IVA. An ancestral deity who lives in and controls the forests. Hindu (Epic and Minor incarnation of VIS Puranic). and ATROPOS. influenced by Christianity. Creator god. Greek. Pre-Christian Slavonic European. Also Moires. LACHESIS. whom she subsequently loses. Moma Mogounos Local tribal deity. The Fates of human life: KLOTHO. since the universe and MODIMO have “always been. Madrun. Moirai Collective name for a group of goddesses. South Africa]. Uitoto Indian [South America]. Also the apotheosis of the moon. MON ORIGIN (great god). though not with certainty. also appearing in the guise of a huge snake. The daughters of ZEUS and THEMIS. Not specifically a creator god. Celtic (Welsh). Mohini (illusion) Mombo Wa Ndhlopfu (elephant face) ˇ NU. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from prehistoric origins and persisting in certain localized parts today. Modron Moloch See MOLEK. Western Semitic (Ammonite). depicted with spindle. Identified in the Nestor Chronicle as a goddess of midwifery. CENTER(S) OF CULT chiefly at the village of Pashki and at Dewa (Prasun region). the caster of lots. Her cult was taken over by that of the Virgin Mary. Her cult is closely linked with that of Mabon and she may originally have been one of the aspects of the goddess(es) MORRIGAN. He rules the light and dark opposites in the universe.7 and 2 Kings 23. Synonymous with the god Moloch (Hebrew) of the Vetus Testamentum to whom Israelite children were sacrificed by burning (1 Kings 11. A monotheistic deity possibly. The mother of MABON. Tswana [Botswana. Kafir [Afghanistan—Hindukush]. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Mohini is an avatara who appears in the form of an enchantress whose form Vis ˇnu adopted briefly to deceive demons attempting to remove the ambrosia created by churning the primeval ocean of milk (see also GARUDA). Assimilated with APOLLO. the unturnable inevitability of death. He is propitiated by the sacrifice of a cockerel. In Christian times some authors believe that she became St. same guise to dupe and seduce the god S Tutelary god. southern Africa].10) (another) Mother goddess. the spinner.202 Modimo Modimo Universal god. Warrior god and hero. scroll and scales respectively. Mokos Goddess of fertility. but also at . Molek God. When he was slain he entered and ruled the underworld.” Perceived as the river of existence which flows endlessly through space and time. as well as the proper order of life on earth. SYNONYMS Mandi. Ronga [Mozambique.

Alternatively he is represented by a standing stone slab with two attendant smaller stones. The son of HYPNOS. known particularly from the second century BC. The spirit of the mint. fertility and vegetation goddess. Morpheus Minor god of dreams. The Kafirs of the Hindukush (1896). Nemain. she mates with the DAGDA to ensure the future prosperity of the land and as Queen Maeve (Medb) of Connaught she was ritually Montu Local god of war. CENTER(S) OF CULT various sanctuaries throughout Ireland. ERIU. a sun disc and the uraeus (cobra).S. SYNONYMS MACHA (Ulster). Mor Sun goddess. Greek. either in human form carrying a golden bow and quiver made by his brother Kshibere. The progenitrix of the royal lineage of the kings of Munster. Worshiped in and around the district of Thebes in Upper Egypt. He appears as a mediator between heaven and earth. He is known from circa 2000 BC and possibly . Montu is depicted in human form but with a falcon’s head surmounted by twin plumes. He is also a god of flowing water. He is the first offspring of the creator god Imra. Cycles of Kings. According to legend. but only mirroring the actions of the supreme creator IMRA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from prehistoric origins until Christianization (circa AD 400). MORRIGAN ORIGIN (queen of demons) Moneta Minor goddess of prosperity. but came to special prominence overseeing the aggressive posture of Theban kings from the XI to XVIII Dynasty (2133-1320 BC). War. there is no record of worship of this deity. INANA. restored the sun and moon to their place in the heavens and assisted Imra in the creation of mankind. IS of Samain. stone pillars. After many attempts to break into the house. ATHENE). Mon is perceived as a deity of vast size and vigor who creates glaciers with his footprints. ART REFERENCES wooden sculptures. Etain Echraide (Tara). LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. earlier. or as a humped bull. Buchis. probably as Month (Greek). in wood. Celtic (Irish). also probably Badb Catha. Mon turned himself into a child and in this guise was protected by a giantess mother. Celtic (Irish). Mon is depicted. when the giants locked up the sun and moon in a gold house. Roman. ART REFERENCES inscriptions and carvings on Romano-Celtic altars. etc. He is also a weather god who controls clouds and mist. A complex goddess displaying various characteristics which are both generative and destructive (see ˇ TAR. he became identified with a sacred bull. Morgenstierne G. LITERARY SOURCES Robertson G. Medb or MAEVE (Connaught). Fodla. At some stage. he succeeded. Mon is a senior deity in the Kafir pantheon who challenges and defends mankind against demons and giants. At the festival also ANAT. Some legends place him as a creator of mankind and law-giver. Some Kati Myths and Hymns (1951).MORRIGAN 203 numerous smaller sanctuaries throughout Kafir region. RHIANNON. Egyptian.

KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from prehistoric times until circa 200 BC. as a trio of goddesses of fate. Morta Goddess of death. S Mot is the Canaanite representation of adversity in the natural world. Rather than engaging directly in conflict. Celtic (Welsh). BAAL. Roman. MOT ORIGIN (death) Mors Minor god of death. the “Sovereignty of Ireland. befitting a horse-oriented culture with strong links east toward Asia. Ovid depicts him as a hideous and cadaverous figure dressed in a winding sheet and holding a scythe and hour glass. SYNONYMS Muth (Phoenician). In association with the vitality of Irish kings. she takes on a more warlike and destructive aspect.” He engages in the classic confrontation with the Canaanite hero and national god. Though the duel results in Baal’s demise. the produce of the earth and the fruit of the trees. Andaman Islands [Sea of Bengal]. Morva Sky spirits. Roman.” The Celtic goddess is frequently described as a triad of separate aspects. She is capable of changing her shape into various animal forms and in the guise of a raven or a crow is able to foretell the outcome of battle. she uses her supernatural powers to spread fear and disarray. God of natural adversity. his death is avenged by his twin . Hence Morrigan. Morrigan is also closely associated with horse symbolism. The son of CERIDWEN and TEGID FOEL. Legend has it that he was extremely ugly and that his mother tried to imbue him with wisdom by preparing a special brew of inspiration. Morvran (sea crow) Local god of war. Canaanite and Phoenician [northern Israel. the PARCAE. LITERARY SOURCES Ugaritic texts from Ras ˇ amra. He lives in a pit within the earth and is responsible for its annual death from drought and heat: “he has scorched the olive. Mors replaces the Greek THANATOS and. the latter signalling the banishment or slaughter of a ruler who had become infirm or otherwise scarred with signs of mortality. Lebanon and Syrian coastal regions]. beside the river Lethe. In later Roman times she becomes linked with the birth goddesses DECIMA and NONA. Nemain and Badb are linked and become collectively the Morrigna (see also MATRES). inscriptions. He lives in part of the remote cave occupied by SOMNUS. She may also at times have been syncretized with the horse goddess EPONA. Morrigan assumed the appearance both of a young girl and of a hag. Philon of Byblos. The Irish hero Cu Chulainn was thus visited on the battle field by BADB driving a chariot and dressed in a red cloak and with red eyebrows presenting an intimidating appearance. As with other Celtic goddesses Morrigan is an intrinsic part of the land rather than a tribal deity.204 Mors wedded to the mortal king whose antecedent was Ailill. ART REFERENCES none known. according to legend. is one of the twin sons of NYX. god of sleep. Known particularly through Lacedaemonian culture where twin statues of Mors and Somnus were placed side by side. It was drunk by Gwion. Mare forms the basis of the names Macha and Medb. CENTER(S) OF CULT possibly Byblos. goddess of the night. Invisible but thought to be of human form. Morvran was invincible in battle because his enemies thought him a demon. As Nemain (panic) and Badb Catha (raven of battle).

LIETNA’IRGIN and NA’CHITNA’IRGIN. burns and grinds him with a millstone. Muhingo God of war. in what appears to be a ritual allied to the sowing of seed and harvesting (see OSIRIS). Taoist (Chinese). then cleaves. The conflict probably formed the basis of an annual ritual drama at the Canaanite New Year which was held in the autumn. The head of the ancient pantheon in the Bon religion. See also HSI WANG MU. he becomes syncretized with NABU. Originally he headed a paradise land in which the first human beings lived. Muati Obscure local god. In past times she was propitiated with sacrifices of cattle and occasionally young girls. Bunyoro [Uganda. invoked with offerings by those wishing to cross the lake in boats. Baal is later restored. One of the group of deities known as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. Bon [Tibet]. Pigmy [central Africa]. the son of Il and his mother is A S dMu-bDud Kam-Po Sa-Zan Sky god. East Africa]. winnows. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Lovedu [South Africa]. Mugasa Sky god. He is not worshiped in any conventional sense. Mu Gong God of immortality. She is said to reside in the northern Drakensberg Mountains and sends both destructive tempests and gentle generative rain. Mratna’irgin (right-hand dawn) Spirit of the dawn. In the texts Mot is ˇ ERAH (ATHIRAT). They disobeyed him. Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. East Africa]. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Moyocoyani (maker of himself) Minor god of universal power. after which he left them and made them mortal. One of four beings responsible for the dawn in different directions. daughter of DAKSA. See also TNE’SGAN. Associated in some texts with the mythical island paradise of Dilmun. Bunyoro [Uganda. Invoked specifically by warriors before entering battle. Mugizi Lake god.Mujaji 205 sister ANAT. wife of CANDRA (SOMA). A benevolent NAKSATRA. Also Mugu. by entering his hut where he resided unseen. Mrgasiras (head of a gazelle) Minor goddess of fortune. she in the west. The personification of the principle of Yang and the consort of Xi-Wang-Mu. . who slays Mot. The guardian of a lake near Bodh Gaya. however. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Also Modjadji. She is represented by a lineage of mortal queens on whose fabulous reputation the author Rider Haggard based the novel She. Mucalinda Tutelary god. He lives in the east. The guardian deity of Lake Albert. Mujaji Rain goddess. He is identified as a king of the nagas or snake gods and is said to have protected the BUDDHA from a storm by coiling around him. Buddhist.

They are also tutelary deities of poets Munjem Malik Chthonic or earth god. but one whose realm is in the earth rather than the sky. the Dreamtime ended. The tutelary protector of the tribal chiefs and their families constituting the royal clan. The name applied to the notion of a single god in the heavens. His son is Tundun. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Their main sanctuaries are the Sumiyoshi Taisha in Osaka and the Munakata-Taisha. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Australian aboriginal. His first high priest was Semagunga and. Buganda [Uganda. He presides over . Mungan Ngour Creator god. who protect seafarers. including fishermen. A benevolent deity whose main oracular sanctuary was sited on the island of Bubembe. who is responsible for the secret ceremonies originally divulged only to men and including the initiation rights of passage from boyhood to maturity. only the tribal leader was permitted to consult with the oracle there. Mula Minor goddess of fortune. Also Mulungu. Swahili [East Africa]. The Southern Lights or Aurora australis are regarded as a sign of his displeasure when the law and order given to humankind by the gods are abused. Munisvara Deified saint. Mulindwa Guardian goddess. Bunyoro [Uganda. Imra controls mountains and high pastures. She derives from the Sumerian goddess NINLIL. A malevolent NAKSATRA. Mullo Mule god. a period of chaos ensued and Mungan Ngour elected to live henceforth in the sky. A group of three KAMIS. He appears as a rival and possible predecessor of the god I MRA . Munjem Malik rules the earth of the valleys. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Mukasa provides rain. Creator god. Also Municami (Tamil). East Africa]. Lake Victoria. Hindu. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Chiefly revered among the Kurnai Koori aborigines in Victoria State. by convention. They are the subject of special worship by the JínguKogo sect. generally identified as the SUMIYOSHI-NO-KAMI. East Africa]. Technically a demigod but worshiped as a deity by Dravidians in southern India. Munakata-No-Kami Sea gods. Shinto [Japan]. and may have a purifying function. Known from inscriptions and apparently associated with the god MARS.206 Mukasa Mukasa Supreme god. whom they escorted to Korea in distant times. Mungu Mulliltu Goddess. When these were revealed to women. The consort of ELLIL (ENLIL) and of ASSUR. influenced by the spread of Christianity. food and cattle. Romano-Celtic.

Muso Koroni is pursued by the sun god. Identified with the Hindu god SKANDA. Attributes: spear and staff with garland. Described as the “great builder of ENLIL. sometimes with many breasts (cf. Muraja Goddess of music. The blood is sprinkled on the floor of the sanctuary and the flesh is eaten at the door. West Africa]. southwest Africa]. Mutinus Minor fertility god. in which capacity she is the mother of the moon god KHONSU. the Lower Egyptian goddess from Memphis. Mut is depicted in human form wearing a vulture headdress surmounted by the twin crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. Bunyoro [Uganda. Musisi Messenger god. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Chthonic fertility goddess. The mother of all living things. The intercessor between the creator god KALUNGA and mankind. Dravidian and Tamil [southern India]. Depicted as strongly ithyphallic and invoked by women seeking to bear children. she introduced mankind to the principles of farming. Deification of a kind of large drum or tambourine. She was also regarded as the divine mother of the Theban kings. Attribute: tambourine. In Upper Egypt she is the counterpart of SAKHMET. She enjoyed a cult center at Thebes where her sanctuary was known as the Iseru. Color: red. His vehicle is an elephant or a peacock. . She is typically dressed in a bright red or blue patterned gown. Invoked during times of drought or deluge and propitiated by means of sacrifice. Musdamma God of buildings. who impregnates her in the form of a tree (Acacia albida).Mutinus 207 the council of gods. Also Mousso Coronie. Muso Koroni primeval soul) (the pure woman with the Munume God of weather. Less frequently she is drawn with a lion’s head. East Africa]. Mut The patron goddess of Thebes. His father is Kalunga. or as a panther. depicted either in human form. Color: smoky. His main sanctuary was at Arte in the Parun valley where a large boulder represented his head. ARTEMIS at Ephesus). She has a terrifying appearance. Ndonga [Namibia. Prior to circumcision a youth is said to possess wanzo. Egyptian. she became locally the consort of the sun god AMUN. an untamed wildness. After superseding the goddess AMAUNET. Buddhist. In the latter guise she uses her claws to bring on menstruation in women and to circumcise both sexes. usually an ox from the tribal chief and sheep or fowl from the villagers. PEMBA. Roman. Murukan Hunting and war god. Bambara [Mali.” Musdamma is a minor deity appointed by the god ENKI to take responsibility for building projects and for houses.

Known from inscriptions as the mother of the god Kinnur.208 Muttalamman Muttalamman (pearl-mother) Myoken-Bodhisattva Astral god. Western Semitic (Phoenician). consort of ELLIL and of ASSUR. The apotheosis of the Pole Star. equating with AME-NO-KAGASEWO in Japanese Shintoism. Plague goddess. Also Mutyalamma. Buddhist Chinese. Myrrha Fertility goddess. Greek. Specifically identified with smallpox. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. . Mylitta Goddess. The Hellenized version of the Akkadian goddess MULLILTU. Also Syyrna.

He is also titled “grand marshal of the skies” and “guardian of the gates of heaven. SYNONYMS Li No Cha. with an important sanctuary at Borsippa. Na Cha is the tutelary god of Yung Lo. with a white face and wearing red silk trousers which emanate a dazzling golden radiance. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 300 until present. committed suicide. known as the Ezida. the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Chinese culture. but he himself attacks the guardians of both Taoist and Buddhist temples and can only be defended against by Li Ch’ing. but whose traditions hint at a more destructive aspect. circa AD 1420. the first minister of heaven. and is cred- ited with the mission of ridding the world of evil. Guardian god. He was born a god of human parents. his consort is TASMETU(M). LITERARY SOURCES various philosophical and religious texts. The son of MARDUK and ZARPANITU(M). A major deity in neo-Babylonian times from the eighth century BC onward. Ultimately he became involved with the goddess Shih-Chi Niang Niang. West and central African. Na Ngutu God of the dead. the reincarnation of an older deity.N 6 NA CHA ORIGIN (here is a loud cry) Taoist (Chinese). ART REFERENCES paintings and sculptures. accidentally killed her attendant and. his father was Li Ching. in remorse. Nabu God of writing and wisdom. the “intelligent pearl. near Babylon. Originally he also carried a thunderbolt. He is 209 .” He is depicted surrounded by a red aura. Ling Chu-Tzu. but when his name changed to Li No Cha. His chief adversary was the sea dragon king. who threatened to kill his mother because she claimed she was made pregnant by the mystical actions of a Taoist priest who told her she was to bear the child of a unicorn. His attributes include a bracelet on the right wrist. A somewhat ambiguous god who is generally regarded as benevolent. Essentially the guardian deity of warriors slain in battle. He is symbolized by the inscribing stylus. mostly inadequately researched and untranslated. Na Cha is said to have fought in the Shang-Chou war on the side of the Chou dynasty circa 1027 BC.” According to tradition. this attribute changed to a pagoda.

Creator god. Aztec (classical mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Also NEBO (Vetus Testamentum). spirit of darkness. Also (4)Ollin. MRATNA’IRGIN and LIETNA’IRGIN. God of the ocean. Hindu. Greco-Roman. They have a youthful appearance and are associated with rain and thunder. the fifth sun. One of the groups under the general title of BHAVANAVASI (dwelling in places). His eldest daughter is the goddess ASHIAKLE. A Naiades Animistic water spirits. Also (4)Ehecatl. Nahui Ollin (earthquake sun) Nagakumara God. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Guardian god. Ollintonatiuh. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Elamite [Iran]. According to most of the codices. Tradition has it that Ollin was originally a sickly or humble deity named NANAHUATL (the diseased one). was created at Teotihuacan and at the conquest was just under 2. It is presided over by the god TONATIUH. The generic title of a deity equating with the terms mahoraga (great serpent) or nagadeva. Nagual Tutelary deity. Each creation is considered to last 2028 x 52 terrestrial years and the present one is destined to be destroyed by a great earthquake. at the time of the Spanish conquest there had been four previous world ages. One of the group of deities belonging to the TLALOC complex. Nahi Na’chitna’irgin (genuine dawn) Spirit of the dawn. The second-in-command to the supreme god ATAA NAA NYONGMO. Female personalities assigned the guardianship of . Nachunde Sun god. Generally of benevolent nature. Ghana. Gan [Accra. West Africa]. See also TNE’SGAN. Nahui Ehecatl Minor water god. Jain [India]. Jain [India]. nagual generally takes the form of an animal and it may be adopted either by a mortal being or by another deity. Nagaraja Snake god.210 Na’chitna’irgin considered a god of mountain regions. The brother of WU’SQUUS. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Nai Nagini Goddess. Such deities were worshiped in India as early as the Indus Valley civilization (prior to 1700 BC). Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. described as the “firstborn son of Marduk” and his image is closely involved in the New Year akitu festival. A generic name for a personal god. each represented by a sun and terminated by a cataclysm.000 years old. Ollin. The counterpart of the Hindu goddess MANASA. One of four beings responsible for the different directions of the dawn.

An emanation of AKSOBHYA. Also Na’rninen (Chukchee). Naigameya God. Hindu. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Either the son or the brother of the god SKANDA. Hindu. club. storms and rain. ART REFERENCES stele of Ur-Nammu (circa 2050-1950 BC). cup and knife. syncretized with NINHURSAG . Shinto [Japan]. sword. Buddhist (Mahayana). Attributes: arrows. SYNONYMS none. She also engendered other early gods and in one poem is the mother of all mortal life. half-staff and waterjar. accounted as twenty-seven daughters of DAKSA and consorts of CANDRA or SOMA. She is attended by seven minor goddesses and may ultimately have become ˜ A. Nainuema Creator god. (the chanting of the name) God. A SAKTI of HERUKA and a personification of knowledge. TA’YAN. Color: white. NAMMU Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. A form of AVALOKITESVARA. Color: blue or black. Known as “outer one. They can exert benign or evil influence. Stars or constellations which became personified as deities. CENTER(S) OF WORSHIP mainly identified with Ur. including Enki and the World Order. As a consort of AN she is the mother of ENKI and the power of the riverbed to produce water.” he is perceived as a remote but benevolent spirit comparable to the Supreme Being. He created the earth from his own imagination and stamped upon it until it was flat. LITERARY SOURCES creation epics. Nammu is identified in various texts as the goddess of the watery deeps. the archetypal deities of heaven and earth. She bears five or six arms in different gestures and often stands upon a corpse. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 4000 BC until circa 1750 BC. One of the RAIJIN deities responsible for thunder. and invoked locally at sacred pools and springs. He stands upon a lotus. The personification of a sacred text. His worship began in AD 599. Three-eyed. ORIGIN Nai-No-Kami Earthquake god. but also a distinct emanation of VAIROCANA. Namasangiti Na’ininen Creator being.NAMMU 211 fresh waters by the great gods. Nairamata (no soul) Goddess. Alternatively Nammu is the progenitrix of An and KI. thus creating mankind. He then engendered the forests and other living things from his saliva.” or “world. Attributes: club. lotus. Naksatra(s) Generic title for a group of astral goddesses. Uitoto Indian [South America]. Buddhist. Chthonic creator and birth goddess. Sumerian and Akkadian temple hymns and poems. etc. She molded clay collected by creatures called sig-en-sig-du and brought it to life. Generally depicted with the head of a goat. They were also regarded as minor patrons of music and poetry.

In cosmogony. A personal family guardian depicted with the head of a pig. In an alternative tradition. syncretized with the Babylonian TAS Nandi(n) Nana Mother goddess. Tradition suggests that Nanahuatl is diseased and impoverished but of great courage. etc. Color: white. A god of hunters who directly influences the success or failure which determines whether individuals survive or perish. while Tecciztecatl is wealthy and a coward. A go-between and either minister or maid-servant of the underworld goddess ˇ KIGAL. Tibetan. Nanaja Fertility goddess. when on the fifth day of creation the gods sat in judgment to elect the new sun god. LITERARY SOURCES creation epics including Enki and the World Order and other texts. Nanna is the tutelary god of Ur.212 Namtar Namtar (fate) Messenger god(dess). Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. SYNONYMS As-im-babbar (new light). The image usually stands in an anteroom of the temple ˇ iva is guarding the place where the statue of S ˇ located. He is the firstborn son of ENLIL. Bull god. A Siva devotee touches the image’s testicles on entry to a shrine. In anthropomorphic form he may be known as Nandisa. His wife is NINGAL and he ˇ KUR and of the is the father of the gods UTU and IS goddess INANA. His brothers are the four winds which exert changes in the seasons and weather. Nang Lha House god. Pre-Christian Armenian. Her cult became widespread and she may be equated with the Phrygian goddess KYBELE. circa 3500 BC until circa 1750 BC. both deities are hurled into the fire by their fathers. Nanabozho gained control over them to ensure good hunting and fishing for the Ojibwa tribe. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Mesopotamian (Sumerian). probably originating in very early pre-agricultural times. NANNA (1) (full moon) Nanahuatl (rumor) ORIGIN Mesopotamian (Sumerian) [Iraq]. During the Third Dynasty of Ur. the New Year akitu festival was performed in his . KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP A major astral deity in the Sumerian pantheon. god. She is also a war goddess who became ˇ METU. CENTER(S) OF CULT Ur. Generally ˇ IVA as a bull-vehicle and an associated with S embodiment of fertility. Suen or SIN (crescent moon) (Akkadian). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). ART REFERENCES glyptics. The heart of Nanahuatl ascended to become the new sun and that of Tecciztecatl became the moon. Also Nanahuatzin. Nanahuatl and TECCIZTECATL cremated themselves in the sacred fire. (rejoicing) Nanabozho Heroic god. He is propitiated with libations. in which Nanahuatl is the son of QUETZALCOATL and Tecciztecatl is the son of TLALOC. who brings death to mankind at the ERES appropriate time. NOTE: eventually all the gods sacrificed themselves so that mankind might be engendered from their remains. Ojibwa [Canada]. Moon Creator god.

but they are usually linked. Female personalities assigned the guardianship of fertile green valleys by the great gods and invoked locally in small country shrines. She (man) ˇ NU. . Known from inscriptions. but also the subject of a highly ethical hymn from Nippur. He was considered to light up the night. According to some legends she died of a broken heart after BALDER was slain by HODER and went with him to HEL. Mentioned in the Vaisnavite and Saivite literature. Nara Nantosuelta (winding river) Goddess of water. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. but is also a domestic guardian deity and is often depicted with ravens. He stands upon a man. Possibly a counterpart of the Hindu god KALA. In Lamaism he is a form of YAMA. Elamite [Iran]. which may suggest further links with the underworld. Napir Moon god. Greco-Roman. sits in one place all the time painting his belly. One of the group of deities belonging to the TLALOC complex generally associated with rain. Nan-Sgrub (the black one) God. she is linked with the interpretation of dreams. Napaeae Animistic spirits of valleys. Nanna (2) Vegetation goddess. Hindu Minor incarnation(s) of the god V IS (Epic and Puranic). See also HODER. Some authorities place these as separate avataras. to measure time and to provide fertility. Celtic (Gallic). Nappatecuhtli Nans ˇe Goddess of justice. He is. Also Pinnai. perceived as a strong and heroic figure. He is depicted as traveling in a carriage across the sky bringing light to the darkness. Nappinnai Local goddess.Nara 213 honor. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). The consort of Balder. Nina. Buddhist [Tibet]. According to tradition Krsna wed Nappinnai after a bullbaiting contest during which he took on and defeated seven bulls. He is one of the sons of QUIKINNA’QU and. In addition she carries the cornucopia of a fertility or mother goddess. frequently holds a pole surmounted by a dove-cote. Attributes: cup and knife. Color: dark blue. A daughter of ENKI (or EA). Identified as a possible consort of the god SUCELLOS. according to tradition. (four-times lord) Minor god of mat-makers. nonetheless. Also Nas ˇ . Mentioned sporadically in texts and most closely identified with the city of Lagas ˇ with a cult center at Sirara. the Krsna-Nappinnai cult was prominent in Tamil-speaking areas of southern India in the seventh to ninth centuries. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil). Nappinnai may be a localized form of Sri-Laksmi. agriculture and fertility. Nordic (Icelandic). Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Na’nqa-ka’le Guardian spirit. Consort of KRSNA.

IconographicalIy. The gods . Pisuna. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Manichaean. Hindu (Vedic. Born from the head. in southern India. By contrast to his benign nature he is also described as a “maker of strife” and as “vile. Also CANDIKA. he created the world inside the shell of a mussel. Narasinha Narasinha Narisah Goddess of light. Often depicted supported by the bird god GARUDA. Narasinhi Mother goddess. The fourth avatara of the god is depicted as a man-lion hybrid. the vina (lute). he wasted away after falling in love with his own image reflected in water. created the sun and moon from his father’s eyes. Epic and Puranic). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Narkissos Minor god. while NARAYANA has four hands and is colored blue. The so-called “virgin of the light. According to legend. or throat. is generally depicted standing with the musical instrument which is his invention. rocks from his flesh and bones and mankind from his spine. who was born from the heart of BRAHMA.” she may also be androgynous as the father of the virgins of light who equate with the twelve zodiac signs. and alternatively a minor ˇ NU. the demonic king Hiranyakasipu had taken on a dangerous invulnerability. He engendered a son from sand and water who. often bearded.214 Narada Two of the sons of DHARMA. In various roles he is a incarnation of V IS guardian deity of women. More or ˇ NU. capturing Hiranyakasipu and tearing out his entrails. Naradatta (daughter of Nara) Goddess of learning.” Also Kali-karaka. one of nine NAVASAKTIS who. Jain [India]. rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. where they were subject to various temptations by INDRA. The texts depict Nara colored green and bearing two hands. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. Narada is depicted as a sage who is also a messenger and teacher. A SAKTI of NARASINHA who is one of a group of ASTAMATARA mothers. (man-lion) Incarnation of the god Vis ˇ nu. To thwart this. Also NARAYANA. In another grouping. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). They are described as sages. The son of the river god Kephissos. See also NARA. in turn. Nareu Creator god. (giver of advice) Minor but popular deity. of BRAHMA. Narada Narayana Creator god. Melanesia [Vanuatu]. may also appear seated in a yoga position with the goddess LAKSMI on his knee. the scene is portrayed with the victim thrown across Narasinha’s lap and the god’s claws plunged into his body. they spent a thousand years as severe ascetics in the Himalaya. until his own inspiration created the world. Greek. but specifically less synonymous with V IS describing the embodiment of the “abode of man. They may also be paralleled by HARI and Krsna. As in many comparable legends.” He is said to have sucked his toe while sailing the primeval ocean on a banana leaf. a musician and a wanderer. Narada. ˇ NU took the form of Narasinha and hid inside V IS a pillar of the king’s palace whence he sprang.

the eye and mouth holes covered with white sea shells. In southern India they are considered virgin goddesses and are held in higher esteem that the comparable group of SAPTAMATARAS. Naunet Primordial goddess. Largely seen in southern Indian bronzes which display the dance-form anandatandava. The nine MATARAS or mothers. southwest Africa]. He also cures diseases brought about through witchcraft. Nayenezgani (slayer of alien gods) (lord of the dance) ˇ IVA. painted black and adorned with five zigzag lightning streaks. The pair epitomize the primordial abyss. a crimson cloth around the hips and a leather belt with silver ornamentation. Said to live at the junction of two rivers in the San Juan valley. Hindu. God of war. Nataraja arguably epitomizes the moving power in the cosmos. ready to help mankind in times of trouble. His priest wears a buckskin bag mask. His shrines are usually situated on the edge of a community and on the frontiers of the tribal land so that he may be invoked to keep the disease in neighboring territory. he vanquished a race of giants who had nearly destroyed the human race. Each carries a wide assortment of attributes. he is invoked by warriors preparing for battle. Ndjambi Sky god. she is coupled with the god NUN and appears in anthropomorphic form but with the head of a snake.Nebethetpet 215 took pity on him and changed him into the flower of the same name. In Roman religion he becomes Narcissus. but is otherwise naked. Specifically she is the hand with which he grasped his penis to self-create the cosmos. Buddhist [Sri Lanka]. No depictions are made of this deity. According to tradition. Herero [Namibia. Navasakti(s) Generic title of a group of goddesses. The common vehicle is a chariot shaped like a lotus. Bunyoro [Uganda. One of four local emanations of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA. She is also depicted greeting the rising sun in the guise of a baboon. . She was worshiped in Heliopolis and is a female counterpart to the sun god ATUM in creation mythology. The son of the sun god TSOHANOAI and the fertility goddess ESTSANATLEHI. He is a benevolent god. Particularly associated with smallpox. Hindu. Egyptian. One of the eight deities of the OGDOAD representing chaos. Nebethetpet Local primordial goddess. The nine forms of the god DURGA. East Africa]. A benevolent deity who protects and lifts up all who die natural deaths. Hindu (Puranic). Egyptian. Nataraja Natha Tutelary god. The utterance of his name is generally forbidden. Emerging Form of the god S ˇ iva as from AD 1200 onward. He also wears a fox skin collar. Ndaula Plague god. The most powerful of the Navaho war gods. Navadurga(s) Generic title of a group of deities. this form depicts S “lord of the dance” ringed by fire and with one foot on a demon in the form of a black dwarf. Navaho [USA].

reliefs and wall paintings. Allegedly having eaten seven cobras. Romano-Celtic. Attributes: conch. Neit God of war. Celtic (Irish). circa 3000 BC until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. Early Dravidian (Tamil) [southern ˇ NU India]. Also Lisin. SYNONYMS none. CENTER(S) OF CULT Sais [Sa el-Hagar] in the Nile delta. According to legend. Nefertum was worshiped in the Nile delta as the son of the cobra goddess WADJET. particularly in the Netherlands with sanctuaries at Domberg at the mouth of the Rhine and Colijnsplaat on the Scheldt. fertility—a basket of fruit or cornucopia.216 Nebo Nebo God of writing and wisdom. She may also often have a small lapdog. Probably began as a tribal deity of the Morini tribe. when Neith emerged from the primeval ocean to create the world. Her brother is As ˇ ai and they are linked with the cities of Adab and Kes ˇ . Egyptian. according to tradition. Alternatively. Also Neduvel. she stands with one foot on the prow of a boat and grasps an oar or the rope. she followed the course of the Nile down toward the sea . a papyrus from Dynasty XX. Creator goddess. Egyptian. Worshiped extensively between the second and thirteenth centuries AD. The name implies a deity of tall stature. Essentially a chthonic deity he is. A minor deity identified as the consort of the goddess MORRIGAN in her aspect as Nemain. NEITH Negun Minor goddess. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). He is also one of the guardians of the Egyptian king in the afterlife. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Nehalennia Goddess of seafarers. NehebuKau offers protection against snake bite and scorpion sting. She is generally depicted with the attributes of Neith is a goddess of Lower Egypt specifically associated with Sais but soon becoming part of the national pantheon with a sanctuary at Memphis. etc. prayer wheel and lotus. Equates with a syncretization of V IS and KRSNA. while elsewhere in Lower Egypt his mother is considered to be the goddess BASTET. Western Semitic. Known from Syrio-Palestinian inscriptions and equating to the Akkadian NABU. ART REFERENCES various sculptures. Also the grandfather of Balor. Possibly associated with the goddess SIRARA. Mentioned in the Vetus Testamentum. Also Nephthemis (Greek). At Memphis he is the son of the goddess SAKHMET. Known from limited references and of uncertain function. Nehebu-Kau Nediyon Creator god. Minor snake god. he was killed at the second legendary Battle of Moytura. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. Egyptian (Lower). Specifically he is the blue lotus blossom of RE. the son of the god GEB. Sangam texts describe him wearing a golden robe. Known from circa 1500 BC. Nefertum Minor god of primordial creation.

Ne’nenkicex Creator god. Nekmet Awai Goddess of justice. but also in place names which include the etymological base nemeton (a shrine). Nemetona Nekhbet Local mother goddess. In certain respects she provides a parallel with the goddess ERINYS. she is generally depicted in the form of a vulture with one or both wings spread and holding the symbols of eternity in her talons. he is subservient to HAPY. with the Furies. ZEUS raped her and she bore HELEN in consequence. She is also described as the deification of indignation. she later became syncretized with the goddess HATHOR. Neith is depicted in human form wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt and in ancient times her pre-anthropomorphic symbol was a shield bearing crossed arrows. as in the case of the eighty-year battle of the gods between SETH and HORUS. Neper God of grain crops. According to legend. Locally known from Hermopolis. Consort to the Roman deity MARS. Nekhbet is known from at least 3000 BC and is mentioned in the Pyramid Texts as the “great white cow”—a familiar epithet in respect of Egyptian mother or creator goddesses. Goddess of sacred groves. Egyptian. when she advised the sun god RE in favor of Horus. on reaching the delta. where a magnificent temple was built in her honor in the fifth century BC. The dreaded deity who. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). In other legends she becomes the consort of Seth and the mother of the crocodile god SOBEK. She was sometimes called upon for advice and judgment. She also had a temple at Iconium in Asia Minor. OSIRIS and SETH. Nemausius God of water. who are the offspring of the chthonic god GEB and the . Her cult became one of morality. responsible for transporting the souls of the guilty to Tartarus. Her presence may be symbolized by the fabulous winged griffon. Nephthys is the younger sister of ISIS. Egyptian. Nephthys Nemesis Goddess of justice and revenge. Egyptian (Upper). The name given to the Christian god by the Kamchadals under influence of the Russian Orthodox church. Egyptian. and in Smyrna. She is the mother of Egyptian rulers. In female form the deity becomes Nepit. She is also a birth goddess both of the cosmos and of other deities when she is depicted as the great celestial cow. Associated locally with a sacred spring at Nimes in France. Greco-Roman. Romano-Celtic. Her cult was predominantly at Rhamnus (Attica). founded the city of Sais. Kamchadal [southeastern Siberia]. The son of the snake spirit RENENUTET. is [Greek] Funerary goddess. Known from Nekhab (el-Kab). the god of the Nile flood. Evidenced at places such as Bath (England) and Mainz (Germany).Nephthys 217 and. and has links with OSIRIS as a vegetation deity who dies and is reborn to the afterlife.

though probably much earlier. The son of ENLIL and NINLIL and the consort of ˇ KIGAL. NERTHUS Nereus Minor sea god. Some authors argue that Nerthus is a female counterpart. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 100. ART REFERENCES plaques. See also SEDNA. Greek. Italic and Roman. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Neptunus God of irrigation. Nephthys is depicted in human form wearing a crown in the style of the hieroglyphic for a mansion. SYNONYMS Erakal. until AD 400 or later (difficult to determine).218 Neptunus sky goddess NUT in the Ennead genealogy of Egyptian deities defined by the priests of Heliopolis. SYNONYMS none known. and the father of the NEREIDES. The mother of all sea creatures. but thought to have originated as an agricultural deity concerned with watering. Inuit. See also PROTEUS. Lugalgirra. CENTER(S) OF CULT Kuthu and Tarbisu. assigned the guardianship of the oceans by the great gods and invoked by seafarers. By the Hellenic period he is identified with the god HERAKLES. He is the underworld goddess ERES depicted as a god of war and sudden death as well as being ruler of the underworld. circa 3500 BC to circa 200 BC. According to legend Nephthys liaised briefly with Osiris and bore the mortuary god ANUBIS. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts particularly Nergal and Eres ˇkigal. LITERARY SOURCES Germania 40 (Tacitus). His sanctuary is known as the Emes ˇlam. invoked by fishermen and seal hunters. possibly the sister. He became syncretized with the Greek god POSEIDON. votive stelae and glyptics. but Neptune’s modern association with the sea is a misrepresentation. Chthonic underworld god. (north) ORIGIN probably Danish [Sjaeland. Fertility goddess associated with peace. Also attendants of the god POSEIDON. He may be also seen as a plague god. the translation of her Egyptian name. Female personalities. . He was celebrated in the festival of Neptunalia on July 23. Also the patron deity of horseracing. Identified with the planet Neptune. Meslamtaea. Nerrivik Sea goddess. She is said to guide the dead Egyptian ruler through the dark underworld and to weep for him. He is usually depicted as a bearded figure emerging from the ground and carrying a double-edged mace-scimitar typically embellished with lion heads. Nereides Animistic spirits of the sea. ART REFERENCES none. of the Viking god NERGAL ORIGIN Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. Greco-Roman. She can also take the form of a hawk watching over the funeral bier of Osiris. Also Neb-hut (Egyptian). Denmark]. The son of PONTOS and GAIA. the best known of whom is AMPHITRITE. CENTER(S) OF WORSHIP a sacred grove “in an island of the ocean” identified only by the writer Tacitus.

Ewe [Togo. dated to about AD 200. of deities belonging to the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. a weather god whose presence is symbolized by lightning. All ministering attendants were immediately slaughtered. The servant of ˇ KIGAL. Identified with wells and springs and depicted as a naked bearded figure. Tacitus alludes to her as TERRA MATER and describes how her cult statue was carried around in a covered sacred wagon drawn by oxen (see also FREYR). Nike Nextepehua (ash-scatterer) Minor chthonic underworld god. Sea god. removing one emblem of her power at the threshold of each gate. Chief gatekeeper of the netherworld. Greco-Roman. A significant deity in the pantheon. Fon [Benin. and may have evolved from. Generic title of guardian deities. One of the group Goddess of victory. approximately. Niamye Neti Chthonic underworld god. He engendered a consort for himself and proceeded to create all other living things on earth. Niha-Tsu-Hi-No-Kami Fire god. . His anger is evidenced by lightning and thunderbolts. influenced by the spread of Christianity. was returned to the grove where it was washed and stored. the fates. is located close by royal palaces. the Nese-we. his shrine. Ni Nethuns God of fresh water. The vehicle was taboo to all but the priest of the goddess and. Often linked with SI. He is probably to be equated with the Roman god NEPTUNUS. Ngai Creator god. Shinto [Japan]. The name given to a single god in the heavens. Creator god. the moon god. Depicted as a winged messenger bringing the laurel wreath to the victor of battle. The name means. Baule [Ivory Coast. Though of Greek origin. The guardian of the tribal chiefs. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Kikuyu and Masai [East Africa]. Etruscan. Ngunuwo Nesu Tutelary god of royalty.Nike 219 NJORD. West Africa]. West Africa]. were excavated from a peat bog at Dejbjerg (Denmark) and are thought to be of a type that carried such a deity. He is also perceived as. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). West Africa]. Neti features promithe goddess ERES nently in the epic legend of Inana’s Descent into the Underworld when he opens the seven gates of the realm and admits the goddess. A pair of elaborate ceremonial wagons. after each tour. revered by fishermen. Chimu Indian (pre-Columbian South America) [coastal areas of Peru]. Specifically the fire KAMI responsible for household fires in the yard.

A minor patron deity. Hindu. staff. Ningal Nin Mar Ki Goddess. sword and trident. (strong-armed lord) God of smiths. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). His sanctuaries are the E-sikil and E-kurma. The consort of the moon god Jarih and probably evolved from the Mesopotamian pantheon. One of the EKADASARUDRAS or eleven forms of the god RUDRA. The consort of ˇ E. the goddess NANS Nindub Nilalohita God. She may be identical with the goddess Pinnai known in Tamilspeaking regions. Less frequently encountered in the texts than NERGAL. Consort of the god V IS Mentioned only in the Vaikhanasagama text as the third wife of Vis ˇ nu. Also VICTORIA (Roman). (great queen) Reed goddess. GULA. Ninegal Nin Ezen (La) Goddess. in alternative ˇ KIGAL and the father of traditions. she was adopted by the Romans and worshiped extensively throughout Asia Minor. Niladanda God. Attributes: jewel. The patron deity of Es ˇ nunna until superseded by T ISPAK . Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Nindara God. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). A dikpala or guardian deity of the southwestern quarter. Nikkal Moon goddess. Buddhist. In some depictions the goddess ATHENA carries NIKE as a small winged figure. Probably synonymous with NINURTA. lotus. Ninazu Chthonic god. Sumerian. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Ningal is the daughter of E NKI and N INGIKUGA and the consort of the moon god NANNA by whom she bore UTU . See NINMAH. An alternative name for the goddess of healing. of E RES Ning-is-zida. Color: blue. Also identified as a god of healing. Hindu (Puranic). Western Semitic (Syrian). including Sardis. Locally known and identified with the city state of Lagas ˇ. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Nin Ur God. no art representation of this goddess has been discovered. Son of ENLIL and NINLIL or. Nin Me En Goddess. God. Mesopotamian (Sumerian).220 Nikkal appearing in the Theogony of Hesiod. he is (unlike Nergal) generally benevolent. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Probably equating to NINMENA. Niladevi (black goddess) ˇ NU.

votive stelae. the son of NINAZU. Other temples. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts—epics including Enki and World Order and Creator of the Hoe. It appears on some kudurru boundary stones—on the upper tier. Also GISZIDA. Mari. One of the consorts of ENKI and the daughter of AN and NAMMU. SYNONYMS NINMAH (great queen). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and BabylonianAkkadian). ARURU (sister of ENLIL). His symbol is probably the mongoose.” Distinct from the goddess INANA. it has been depicted in art from circa 3000 BC. Adab (modern Bismaya) and Hiza. CENTER(S) OF WORSHIP Tell el ‘Ubaid [Ur]. Chiefly recognized at Ur. temple hymns. Also Ninkilim. Ningirsu Tutelary god. Ama-dug-bad (mother spreading the knees). Known from the city of Lagas (Girsu) SAG where Gudea built a major temple in his honor. Ama-ududa (mother who has given birth). etc. glyptics. were located at Kes ˇ . Nin-mag (lady vulva). ART REFERENCES plaques. the Eninnu. according to literature. Ninhursag ˜a is one of seven great deities of Sumer. . Mama or MAMI (mother). Nagar-sagak (carpenter of insides). Mother goddess. Nin-dim (lady fashioner). BELET-ILI (lady of the gods— Akkadian). His mother is NINHUR˜ A. which indicates her importance. His symbol is a lion-headed eagle and ˇ arur. Texts describe his weapon the mace S Ningirsu making a journey to Eridu to notify the god ENKI of Gudea’s achievement. Nin-bahar (lady potter). Sag-zu-dingirenak (midwife of the gods). Minor SYNONYMS include Ninziznak (lady of the embryo). Nin-sig-sig (lady of silence). ˜A NINHURSAG ORIGIN (queen of the mountain) Ningikuga (lady of the pure reed) Goddess of reeds and marshes. Mud-kesda (blood-stauncher). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Ninmenna (lady of the diadem). though more generally from early second millennium. A minor deity invoked particularly as a protection against snakes. she enjoys closer links with fecundity and birth and is sometimes portrayed as a midwife. She was probably first worshiped by cow-herders in the marsh lands of southern Mesopotamia. Ningirama God of magic. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Identified in Akkadian texts and on a seal of Gudea. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). NINTU (lady of birth). Tutelary god of Gudea of Lagas ˇ . She is principally a fertility goddess though technically any female deity could take on the role. Assuming her symbol to be the §omega. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3500 BC until circa 1750 BC. Smaller temples and shrines scattered around southern Mesopotamia and beyond. or with bosom bare and carrying a Ningiszida The god of light coming from the horizon. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Ningilin Obscure deity. Temple hymn sources identify her as the “true and great lady of heaven” and kings of Sumer were “nourished by Ninhursag ˜a’s milk. none of which have been found.˜A NINHURSAG 221 the sun god.

Ninigi (Prince) Ancestral god. The tutelary deity to several Sumerian rulers. in Creator of the Hoe she completed the birth of mankind after the heads had been uncovered by ENKI’s hoe. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Other inscriptions suggest she was the mother of the god Damu (Dumuzi).” according to a Babylonian investiture ritual. and the barley goddess. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). often with bow cases at her shoulders. Haia. Minor tutelary deity. Ninkigal Chthonic god. not infrequently carrying a mace or baton surmounted by the omega motif or a derivation. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Nin’insinna Fertility goddess. Nin-Ildu God of carpenters. An attendant of the god Ninurta. Deification of the female sex organs. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). She is typically depicted wearing horned headdress and tiered skirt. Ninkurra Minor mother goddess. As “lady of the diadem. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). fathered by Enki with Ninkurra. Goddess of the air and of grain. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Celebrations included the eses monthly lunar festivals. according to legend. Worshiped at Ur and Umma during the period of the third dynasty of Ur.222 Ninigi baby on her left arm. by whom after nine days of gestation she gave birth to the goddess Uttu. She is the consort of the god Pabilsag and is mentioned in respect of a sanctuary built by Warad Sin during the Isin dynasty. Ninsebargunnu. Thus the wrong incantations may jeopardize the child’s well-being. who impregnated her with water to create the moon . Ninkurra is linked briefly as consort to Enlil (her grandfather). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). A daughter of An and Uras ˇ and probably an alternative name for Is ˇ tar. according to tradition. The deity who. Texts describe her going to present Enlil with gifts in Nippur. Shinto [Japan]. He was sent to earth from heaven to rule at the behest of the gods. the deification of female sex organs. Ninlil Nin-Imma Fertility goddess. His parents are Taka-Mi-Musubi and Ame-No-OshiHo-Mimi and he takes the title of “divine grandchild. Her name “lady of silence” derives from the notion that the child in the womb is susceptible to both good and bad influence. Ninkarnunna Barber god. She is the daughter of the god of stores. it was changed from NINMAH by her son NINURTA to commemorate his creation of the mountains. is the heir apparent of the sun goddess Amaterasu. she placed the golden crown on the king in the Eanna temple. sometimes accompanied by a lion cub on a leash. In alternative mythology she was the mother of Nin-imma.” He is the ancestral deity of the imperial dynasties. The consort of the air god Enlil. Most Mesopotamian gods lived in mountains and the name Ninhursag ˜a bears significance because.

Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Consort of the Sumerian heroic king Lugalbanda and also identified as the mother of the hero Gilgames ˇ. Elamite [Iran]. after nine days of gestation. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). she gave birth to the goddess Ninkurra who. See also Ninhursag ˜a. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Mesopotamian (Sumerian). National god. Nins ˇ us ˇ inak Ninni Goddess. The servant of the goddess Inana. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Identified in creation texts acting as midwife while the mother goddess Nammu makes different kinds of human individuals from lumps of clay at a feast given by Enki to celebrate the creation of humankind. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Ninmah Mother goddess. Nins ˇ ubur Messenger god(dess).” According to some texts she is also the mother of Ninurta. Probably became syncretized with Ninhursag ˜a. seven on . Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). which is itself an outmoded version of the name Inana.Nintu 223 god Nana. she also conceived the underworld god Nergal when Enlil impregnated her disguised as the gateman of Nippur. Ninsikil The goddess of Dilmun. Derived from a Sumerian model. the minister of Anu. Ninsun(a) (lady wild cow) Ninmena (lady of the crown) Mother goddess. Probably an early syncretization with Ninhursag ˜ a. The patron deity of the mythical paradise land of Dilmun which seems to have been perceived as somewhere off the coast of the Persian Gulf but firmly beyond the frontiers of Sumer. According to legend she pinched off fourteen pieces of primordial clay which she formed into womb deities. Nin-s ˇ ar is linked briefly as consort to either Enlil (her father) or Enki by whom. the god of the plough and thunderstorms. became the mother of the goddess Uttu. A modern mis-reading of Innin. she is particularly prominent in the legend of Inana’s Descent and the Death of Dumuzi. In Akkadian texts the sex changes to a male personality. It is Ninsikil who pleads with Enki to provide the earth with the boon of fresh water in the sacred rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Nintinugga Goddess. in turn. Cow goddess. the man-devouring river. Tutelary goddess of Gudea of Lagas ˇ . See Gula. Nintu Mother goddess. In a similar manner she conceived the underworld god Ninazu when Enlil impregnated her disguised as the “man of the river of the nether world. Nin-s ˇ ar (lady plant) Minor mother goddess. Also regarded as the mother of the goddess Uttu by Enki.

Ninurta is the son of Enlil and Ninhursag ˜a. shield. glyptics.224 NINURTA the left and seven on the right with a brick between them. She is closely identified with the goddess Ninhursag ˜a and may have become Belet Ili (mistress of the gods) when. LITERARY SOURCES creation epics including Atrahasis and Anzu. He may be compared with Is ˇkur. having its own intelligence Nirmali Birth goddess. Her sacred animal is the ram. NINURTA (lord plough) Orgin Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. sword and teeth. He is also the god of thunder and the hero of the Sumerian pantheon. in fact. misfortune and death. a man or a corpse. temple hymns. Nirrti changes sex and becomes a dikpala god of terrifying appearance. to create mankind. whose offerings are frequent and repeated. closely linked with the confrontation battles between forces of good and evil that characterize much of Mesopotamian literature. She is dark-skinned. guarding the southwestern quarter. ART REFERENCES plaques. and is the consort of Gula. There is an argument that she is. goddess of healing. Ninurta is the Sumerian god of farmers and is identified with the plough. etc. Also Shuwe. is depicted in nonhuman form as the thunderbird lmdugud (sling stone). Kafir [Afghanistan]. SYNONYMS probably Ningirsu. at Girsu. She is invoked by women during labor or menstruation. He stands upon a lion. alternatively Ninlil. He carries the double-edged scimitar-mace embellished with lions’ heads and. Goddess of the childbirth but usually separated from the rest of the village. Attributes: javelin. He wears the horned helmet and tiered skirt ˇ arur which becomes perand carries a weapon S sonified in the texts. the gods slew one among themselves and used his blood and flesh. and being the chief adversary. who produced the first seven pairs of human embryos. which bears the head of a lion and may represent the hailstones of the god. He is one of several challengers of the malignant dragon or serpent Kur said to inhabit the empty space between the earth’s crust and the primeval sea beneath. a manifestation of the goddess Disani rather than a distinct deity. etc. mixed with clay. God of thunderstorms and the plough. votive stelae. Nirrti (destruction) 1. Ninurta is perceived as a youthful warrior and probably equates with the Babylonian heroic god Marduk. In later Hinduism. Known chiefly from the Rg-veda. Kalika and Krsnangi. He is attributed with the creation of the mountains which he is said to have built from giant stones with which he had fought against the demon Asag. She is believed to live in the south (the land of the dead). . Nirrti has a generally malignant aspect and is associated with pain. CENTER(S) OF CULT Nippur and. She is feared by many Hindus. at Enki’s suggestion. Destructive goddess of darkness. His cult involved a journey to Eridu from both Nippur and Girsu. according to some authors. who was worshiped primarily by herdsmen as a storm god. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). staff. of Kur. he has various consorts including Davi. wears dark dress and receives the “dark husks” of sacrifice. in the hands of Ninurta. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3500 BC to 200 BC. as Ningirsu. His sanctuary is the E-padun-tila.

and further links between ships and fertility seem well established. According to one poem. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. God of the sea and winds. Dogon [West Africa]. Responsible for the ninth month of gestation. He killed the latter by aiming a kick at his ribs. the daughter of the giant Thiassi. According to tradition in the Nihongi text he came to prominence during the reign of the emperor Suinin-Tenno when he matched and worsted a strong man. Njord originates as a VANIR deity. Nissaba Goddess of writing and wisdom. but probably the subject of anonymous carvings. she is often linked . and brings the wealth of the sea to mankind. Buddhist (Mahayana). Shinto [Japan]. The use of ships as burial chambers was probably closely associated with Njord. God. though with change of sex from female to male. One of a group of four. Attributes: chain and lotus. but many place names along the Norwegian coast and inland by lakes and fjords suggest a widespread devotion. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period circa AD 700 and earlier. He is a god of seafarers and fishermen. Kuyahaya. Color: red. Nona Minor goddess of birth. until Christianization (circa AD 1100). Buddhist (Vajrayana). Prose Edda (Snorri). Roman. Nommo Generic title of a group of gods. Noatun. strengthening the connection with this Vanir deity. over as a hostage and becomes the pledge of truce between the two races. Consort of SKADI. She is a patron deity of Unug [Warka]. he is the father of FREYR and FREYJA. ART REFERENCES none known. He also controls the winds and storms. SYNONYMS possibly NERTHUS. Specifically the deity responsible for the wellbeing of grain stalks. Historia Danica (Saxo). Nispannatara Minor goddess. Romano-Celtic. A daughter of AN and probably originally a vegetation deity. he lives among an enclosure of ships. They are associated with rain and fertility and have imparted certain skills to mankind. Her symbol is the inscribing stylus. Color: blue. Niruktipratisamvit Goddess of etymological analysis. Attributes: shield and sword.Nona 225 2. Nodotus Minor god of cereal crops. Buddhist. in a wrestling contest. Stands upon a corpse. The primordial spirits at the head of whom is the creator god AMMA. CENTER(S) OF CULT none known. but during the war between Vanir and AESIR he is handed God of Sumo wrestlers. runic inscriptions. A dikpala or guardian. Nomi-No-Sukune NJORD (north) ORIGIN Nordic (Icelandic). Mesopotamian (Sumerian).

Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Also NuGua. He is accessible to mankind through a mortal medium or oracle known as Hore. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. Tribal war god associated with healing. Color: green or various. southern Africa]. Attribute: staff. The patron deity of the lost city of Kazallu. Chinese. NUADU ORIGIN (wealth) Notus God of the southwest winds. Also Auster. Derived from a Greek model. Kafir [Afghanistan]. The invention of the flute is also attributed to her. Nosenga has several human priestess consorts who are wedded to him in chastity in the fashion of Christian nuns.226 Nong with the goddess DECIMA. Etruscan. Nu Mus Da Tutelary god. votive inscriptions. Gloucestershire. . Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. England. One of the ASTAMATARAS. Cycles of Kings. She enjoyed an important sanctuary at Volsini. In later Roman times she becomes one of a trio of goddesses of fate. Nrtya (dance) Mother goddess. He cracks the ice and is seen in the melt water. Korekore (Shona) [Zimbabwe. Nosenga Tribal god. Nu Kua Creator goddess. He is perceived as a misogynist and depicted in a wooden effigy. probably derived from an old fertility ritual symbolizing the impregnation of life into the new year. His cult center seems to have been the village of Zumu in the southern Hindukush. The sister and consort of the supreme sun god LIBANZA. who lives in the town of the tribal chief and is consulted only with the chief’s permission. Nong God of winter and cold weather. Nortia Goddess of fate. Nong lives in a glacier. the goddess of death. central Africa]. ART REFERENCES none specific. collectively known as the PARCAE. though whether in human form is unclear. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until Christianization circa AD 400. A primordial deity who may be androgynous and who engendered mankind out of lumps of yellow clay. CENTER(S) OF CULT the best known is the sanctuary of Nodens at Lydney. though possibly the subject of anonymous carvings. In the epic legend of Nsongo and Lianja she is the twin sister and consort of a deified folk-hero. Celtic (Irish). She has been identified with the Greek goddess TYCHE. where her presence was symbolized by a large nail. Nodens (RomanoCeltic). Nudd (Welsh). Roman. the nail was hammered into a block of wood. Nsongo Moon goddess. Bangala [Democratic Republic of Congo. Also Zuzum. In a New Year rite. SYNONYMS Nuada argatlam. with Decima and MORTA. mentioned in texts.

she is seen as the creator goddess who. A fearsome old woman who lives in the ocean depths and owns all the sea creatures. etc. gives birth to the other deities of the pantheon. until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. His son is Gnawdenoorte. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. Also considered to be the father of the Irish royal dynasty. According to the Ennead genealogy of the Heliopolis priests. he is coupled with the goddess NAUNET and appears in anthropomorphic form but with the head of a frog. Also a god of fire. Egyptian. Creator goddess. SETH and NEPHTHYS. CENTER(S) OF CULT Heliopolis. See also ARNA’KUAGSAK. He may appear greeting the rising sun in the guise of a baboon. with the sun god. the chthonic god GEB. ART REFERENCES wall paintings in the royal tombs at Thebes.” she is identified as the mother of NINLIL. Nunbarsegunu Obscure mother goddess. Their partnership generates ISIS. sarcophagi. She feeds off the bodies of drowned fishermen. Australian aboriginal. The original sanctuary at Lydney in Gloucestershire was taken over and enlarged by the Romans who renamed the god Nodens. Chiefly revered among the Wiimbaio aborigines living in the area of the Murray River. hence Nuada argatlam (Nuadu of the silver hand). Siberian Inuit. One of the eight deities of the OGDOAD representing chaos. ˇ U and the goddess she is the daughter of the god S TEFNUT. he is symbolized by a lamp. Nun is otherwise symbolized by the presence of a sacred cistern or lake as in the sanctuaries of Karnak and Dendara. Sanctuaries have been identified at Harran and Neirab. Generally. In her earliest . ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Nun Primordial god. Nurelli (Nooralie) Creator god. he is believed to have created the land of Australia and then brought law and order to humankind. Nunbarsegunu allegedly instructs her daughter in the arts of obtaining the attentions of ENLIL. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Karnak and many other sanctuaries throughout Egypt. In legend she becomes the consort of her brother. however. Nuli’rahak (big woman) Sea spirit. The arm was replaced by the physician god DIANCECHT who made a prosthesis out of silver. etc. The son of ENLIL. Nut is the most important female principle of the creation force in Egyptian cosmogony. SYNONYMS none. the air goddess. circa 3000 BC and probably earlier. No cult is addressed to Nun but he is typically depicted holding aloft the solar barque or the sun disc. Mentioned in creation texts as the “old woman of Nippur. Rapidly syncretized with the Akkadian god EA. OSIRIS.NUT 227 One of the TUATHA DE DANANN who lost an arm at the Battle of Moytura against the Fir Bolg. Nudimmud Creator god. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). NUT Egyptian. Nus ˇ ku God of light.

nude and balanced on her toes and fingertips. entering her mouth as night falls to pass through her and emerge at dawn from her vulva. Eventually the tree divided into two separate sexes. gNyan Tree spirits. In a funerary context. she is the consort of Okwa and the mother of the first Shilluk king. darkness and world who are suitors for his daughter (unnamed). The thunder is her laughter. West Africa]. Nyx Primordial goddess. Also Nyambi. Akan [southern Ghana. Rwanda [central Africa]. He enjoys a dedicated priesthood and is worshiped in the form of a tree trunk. and his female aspect by the moon. Nyame Creator god.228 Nu’tenut appearances Nut is a celestial cow stretching across the sky. slew at least one husband who discovered her secret. Totrobonsu. Shilluk [Sudan]. Shilluks continue to sacrifice to Nyakaya. Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. In this posture she forms an arch over Geb. Yambe. He also endowed this being with intelligence. Tibetan. often held aloft by the figure of the ˇ u. Malevolent forces residing in the mountains which can bring sickness or death. whose erect penis points upwards toward her. This depiction continues into later air god S times. He created the first mortal pair or. Bakongo [Democratic Republic of Congo. He is surrounded by the spirits of sun. Nzambi Nyakaya Crocodile goddess. god of death. and separated from Geb by S Nut is perceived as the barrier of the firmament which separates the ordered cosmos from primordial matter. an androgynous being in the guise of a palm tree called Muntu Walunga (the complete person). dawn. god of sleep. Nyavirezi Lion goddess. A deity residing in the Nile. she was transformed into a lioness. In wooden sculptures the tree bears a woman’s head and breast on one side and a bearded face on the other. While walking. An androgynous being symbolized in his . Onyame. He gave mankind its soul and is the controller of destiny. The owner of the world who sits in a large house built of iron.” male aspect by the sun. Greek. moon. arched figure. sea. in alternative tradition. sky. Zambi. Onyankopon. she occasionally became leonine again and. Also Odomankoma. According to legend she was originally a mortal daughter of the tribal chief. The essence of the night whose sons were the twin brothers HYPNOS. Creator god. Though returning to human form. when the ruler dies he is said to be enfolded by the arms of Nut and to pass within her body: “the doors of the sky are opened to him. central Africa]. which touch the four cardinal points of the compass. in this guise. The solar barque travels along the arch of her body. She is alternatively often supported ˇ u. Nzambe. Nu’tenut Earth spirit. In human form she often appears as a slim. and THANATOS.

“the moon is dark for her. central Africa]. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo. The progenitor of all life on earth.” . the goddess of peace. One of seven deities invoked at sunrise each morning. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo. Nze Moon god. He has four children who specifically appear in the guise of palm trees.Nze 229 Nzapa Creator god. during pregnancy. he also gave mankind laws and controls destiny or fate. One of the seven children of KETUA. the god of fortune and LOMO. At menstruation he is said to have “cut the girl” and. He is closely linked with women and fertility. central Africa].

West Africa]. Specifically responsible for overseeing growth and harvesting of crops. According to tradition. Offerings include coconuts and maize fruits. He is considered to be the sculptor of mankind.O 6 Obarator God of agriculture. each heavenly year being fiftytwo terrestrial years. Roman. of the supreme god OLODUMARE. Yoruba [Nigeria. Also Orishanla (archaic). Orisha-Popo. He becomes largely syncretized with the Roman god MARS. the age was populated by a race of giants and it ended in a catalclysmic destruction caused by huge and ferocious jaguars which devoured them. She is also a goddess of war and her sons include the Ocelotl Creator god. Among other responsibilities. Assigned to the earth and presided over by TEZCATLIPOCA. He is depicted wearing white robes and symbolizes cleanliness. Odin Occator God of agriculture. A jar of clean water is carried by a priestess to his sanctuary each morning and the water is drunk by women to make them fertile. See OTHIN. Also Ocelotonatiuh.028 heavenly years. Oduduwa Creator goddess. West Africa]. or alternatively the daughter. Orisha-Ogiyan. Illustrated by the Stone of the Four Suns [Yale Peabody Museum]. each of which lasted for 2. Yoaltonatiuh. Tlalchitonatiuh. Ocelus God of healing. The sun deity representing the first of 230 . His consort is Yemowo. Romano-Celtic (British). Yoruba [Nigeria. Orisha-Ijaye. The consort. the five world ages. thus there is an inscription to Mars Ocelus at Carlisle. Roman. he makes barren women fertile and shapes the fetus in the womb. Obatala Fertility god. or matrix. Specifically responsible for overseeing the top-dressing of crops. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. She is perceived as the substance. of the earth which Olodumare impregnated to generate life. The first deity engendered by the creator god OLODUMARE.

The elements of chaos. Sickness god. which existed before the creation of the sun god and which are known from Khemnu in Middle Egypt (Greek Heliopolis). They are grouped in pairs and include NUN and NAUNET representing the primordial abyss. Very little is known of him. Oi Ogmios See OGMIUS. Benin City. Ogma See OGMIUS. The creator of the sun and the deity who made the world inhabitable for mankind by destroying the jaguars which once infested it. but the Roman writer Lucian mentions a Romano-Celtic god of wisdom. Until recent times human sacrifice was made regularly to this deity in the capital of the Edo region. Ohoroxtotil (god almighty) Creator god. Probably more a Buddhist deity. Shinto and Buddhist [Japan]. Egyptian. West Africa]. Ogun God of war. Greco-Roman. apparently assimilated with HERCULES and described as an old man with lion’s skin holding a crowd of people chained to his tongue by their ears.Okeanides 231 great heroic Yoruba god OGUN. KEK and KAUKET representing darkness. A spirit of personal illness rather than plague. Suk [western Kenya. Ogmios. Ogmius God of poetry and speech. West Africa]. Ogdoad Primordial forces. out of themselves rather than by sexual coupling. He is the strength inherent in metals and piles of metal objects are left beside his sanctuaries. the mound which emerged from the primeval waters and upon which rested the egg from which the young sun god emerged. The sick person’s house is emptied and the priest exorcizes Oi out of the dwelling. hunting and metalwork. Ogiuwu God of death. Edo [Benin. As a god of hunters and farmers he is generally benevolent. Celtic (Irish). and A MUN and A MAUNET representing hidden power. O-lwa-Dai-Myojin God of stoneworkers. As a god of war he defends the tribe and is depicted wearing armor and with red eyes. Okeanides Sea deities. NOTE: a goddess Ogma is also mentioned. but also revered in Shintoism. Believed to own the blood of all living things which he smears on the walls of his palace in the otherworld. Edo [Benin. East Africa]. This rather loosely defined deity was sent by the god OSANOBUA to cut open the land to allow crops to be planted. According to some traditions Oduduwa is also perceived as a god. The Ogdoad also had a sanctuary at Medinet Habu. They are usually depicted as baboons heralding the sun as it rises. HEH and HAUHET representing infinity. Minor goddesses assigned the guardianship of oceans by the great . Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. she may have been a mother goddess in the original Irish pantheon. They created. eight in number.

they are river gods. the god of harvests. . A deity who remained at his post when most of the other gods were summoned to Olympus by ZEUS. He has many consorts and innumerable offspring. Shinto [Japan]. Yoruba [Nigeria. Shinto [Japan]. and including DORIS. Elemii. When these were established the god placed on earth the first sixteen humans. Greek. The souls of the dead are expected to make confession to Olodumare.232 Okeanos gods and invoked by seafarers. A girl baby is given a shrine of the god which includes a pot of river water and which she takes with her to her new home when she marries. Oko (hoe) God of agriculture. Olokun God of fresh waters and oceans. The god is particularly popular among women and has a cult of priestesses. Olojo Oni. One day he disappeared. followed by a palm. and TYCHE. Olorun. the sons of OKEANOS. which runs almost the length of Benin and from the source of which come the souls of unborn children. Olodumare then sent a chameleon to report on progress. Annually. The great organizer and consolidator of the earth in the creation mythology of Shintoism. Sand was added. He engendered the god OBATALA as his deputy. at the start of the rainy season. When he created the earth. Worshiped in Bengal where she is associated with cholera. a festival with strong fertility emphasis is held in his honor. He is symbolized in the sacred river Olokun. leaving only his staff which was taken as a symbol of his presence. where he attained a great age. One of the offspring of O-Toshi-No-Kami. METIS. Fon and Yoruba [Benin and Nigeria. a coconut and a kola nut tree. In alternative tradition. Oki-Tsu-Hiko-No-Kami God of kitchens. Also Alaaye. Yoruba [Nigeria. West Africa]. His consort is TETHYS and he fathered children who included the OKEANIDES. and a large number of daughters headed by STYX. West Africa]. The eldest son of the creator god OSANOBUA. Olodumare Creator god. he filled a snail’s shell with dirt. over the world. West Africa]. Tradition has it that he first underwent a series of ordeals and then reigned Olorun See OLODUMARE. Ola Bibi Okeanos God of the oceans. He took up his duties after IZANAGI and IZANAMI had created the land. According to tradition he descended from heaven and lived at a farm near the town of Irao. mainly river gods. Hindu. Olokun is also a guardian deity of mariners. O-Kuni-Nushi-No-Mikoto Creator god. placed inside it a hen and a pigeon and threw it down. whereupon the hen and pigeon began to scatter the earth and create land. Local plague goddess. The consort of Oki-Tsu-Hime-No-Kami and responsible for the caldron in which water is boiled. Orishanla.

KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 750 to Spanish conquest circa AD 1500 but probably much earlier. The element of darkness in chaos which fuses. wind and other elements. all else being illusory. Slaughtered and then revived by TEZCATLIPOCA.” OMETECUHTLI (two lord) Toltec-Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. See also TONACATECUHTLI and TONACACIHUATL. stone carvings. No formal cult existed for Ometeotl. gave birth to the national Aztec god HUITZILOPOCHTLI. Onuris [Greek] God of hunting and war. moon. Fertility goddess. Onuava The supreme being of Aztec religion. One of the group classed as the OMETEOTL complex. He has no sanctuaries. “he” is perceived as androgynous. but he was considered to be present in every aspect of ritual. Ometeotl impregnated itself to engender the four TEZCATLIPOCAS (aspects of the sun). with POTHOS to engender the spiritual and physical elements of the cosmos. the dual principle personified in a bisexual force which the Aztecs believed to be the only reality. Another female aspect. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. or in the conception of life. Omeyocan (place of duality) which rests above sun. One of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. LITERARY SOURCES pre-Columbian codices.Onuris 233 Omacatl Minor god of feasting and revelry. Also (2) Tochtli. Omichle Primordial principle. near Abydos in Upper Egypt. Also (2)Acatl. SYNONYMS Olin-Tonatiuh. Onuris is first known from This. The household hearth is sacred to Ometecuhtli and he is closely linked with the fire god XIUHTECUHTLI. . CENTER(S) OF CULT None. ART REFERENCES codex illustrations. pulque or octli. Canada]. Ometeotl rules in the highest (thirteenth) heaven. but is personified in the moment of birth. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Associated with the earth and known only from inscriptions. Probably of Toltec origin. O’meal Tribal spirit. Phoenician (Hellenic). Celtic (Gallic). Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Supreme deity. Head of the group classed as the Ometochtli complex of fertility deities who personified the maguey plant and the intoxicating drink brewed from it. He is depicted in human form and is often accompanied by the further depiction of a couple engaged in sexual intercourse. According to some traditions. For alternative creation mythology see TEZCATLIPOCA. The chief of the ancients who lives in “Narrow Entrance at Open Plain” and whose siblings are the “myth people. or consorts. the god represents dual aspects of all living things and of the fecundity of the natural world. COATLICUE. ORIGIN Ometeotl (two god) Primordial being. Ome Tochtli Fertility god. Na’kwaxdax Indian [British Columbia. Egyptian.

The deity who. (mind) God of wisdom. Ordog Chthonic malevolent god. Also Anhuret (Egyptian). Thought to equate with the northern Arabian god RUDA (Ruldaiu). He is sometimes accompanied by Mekhit in iconography. She is also concerned with regulating the proper growth of seeds. Mentioned by Herodotus in Hellenic . GrecoRoman. Oreades Animistic spirits of the mountains. Gnostic Christian. the Egyptian sun god. Female personalities assigned the guardianship of mountains by the great gods. controlling individual mental ability. Orotalt Tutelary god. Honored in an annual festival on August 25. West Africa]. One of the androgynous elements born to YALDABAOTH. West Africa]. In classical times. Onuris became largely syncretized with the Greek war god ARES. Greco-Roman. His consort is the lion goddess Mekhit. One of the sons of the creator god NYAME. Oraios (wealth) Primordial deity. guides the soul but who also acts as a personal guardian. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. After Christianization he became syncretized with the devil. Delegated by OLODUMARE as a creator of earth and living things. Opo God of the ocean. Onuris is generally depicted in human form as a bearded figure wearing a crown with four plumes and wielding a spear or occasionally holding a rope. the prime parent. he is also considered to be the god of the great inland lakes and rivers of Ghana. A sanctuary is dedicated to her in the Regia in Rome. One of the sons of TANGAROA. Orcus Chthonic underworld god. Seen as a hunter who caught and slew the enemies of RE.234 Opo In later times his main cult center was at Samannud in the Nile delta. Modeled on the Greek god HADES. Pre-Christian Hungarian. Oro God of war. Orisanla Ops Goddess of harvests. Pre-Islamic Arabian. Ori Opochtli (left) Minor god of lake fishermen and hunters. Yoruba [Nigeria. Roman. in heaven. Polynesian [Tahiti]. some legends place him close to the battle between HORUS and SETH. West Africa]. Invoked by travelers to ensure their safety. Sky god. and ruler of the seven heavens of chaos in Gnostic mythology. Yoruba [Nigeria. One of the group classed as the TLALOC complex. Akan [Ghana. so that one person becomes wise and another foolish.

OSIRIS Egyptian. Sparta. wall paintings and papyrus illustrations. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3000 BC until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. southwest Africa]. etc. the atef. he is regarded as a benevolent deity controlling prosperity. Considered to be the founder of each family lineage. Other important sanctuaries are located at Biga (Senmet) in Upper Egypt south of Aswan. He is also a god of healing and in many households enjoys personal shrines which include palm nuts. none. He is also depicted by models with articulated members which women paraded through the streets at festivals and manipulated to demon- . Locally worshiped and probably soon syncretized with the more widely recognized maternal deities of Asia Minor such as KYBELE. His crown. A benign elderly god who forms an integral part of ancestor worship. he was born at Rosetau in the necropolis (gate of the underworld) of Memphis. West Africa]. Orunmila God of destiny. the mortuary god of embalming and the scorpion-like mortuary goddess SERKET. The father of the god OLOKUN. His parents were GEB and NUT and he was the eldest of four siblings including his sister and consort ISIS. Osiris was perceived as the counterpart in death of the sun god RE. Often his skin is colored green. reflecting the universality of his cult. Though Osiris is most closely linked with Isis. fragments of ivory and sea shells. he is also associated with ANUBIS. CENTER(S) OF CULT many throughout Egypt but chiefly at Abydos (Ibdju) in Upper Egypt and Busiris (Djedu) in the Nile delta of Lower Egypt. his adversary SETH and younger sister NEPHTHYS. coffin texts including the Book of the Dead. and at the Karnak complex of Thebes. As a grain god. stone reliefs. Osiris was worshiped in the form of a sack filled with seed which sprouted green. SYNONYMS Osande Guardian deity. Ovimbundu [central Angola. Chthonic god of the underworld. Orthia Mother goddess.OSIRIS 235 times as a supreme god and possibly syncretized with DIONYSOS. According to the genealogy drawn up by the priests at Heliopolis. He is consulted in an oracular capacity at IFA and makes decisions on such matters as choice of sacrificial animals. Outside Egypt there is a major sanctuary at Philae in Greece. ORIGIN Osiris is among the most significant and widely revered deities of the Egyptian pantheon. Edo [Benin. He holds the crook and flail. Yoruba [Nigeria. but many epithets are applied. health and happiness. consisting of the conical white crown of Lower Egypt framed by tall plumes and rams’ horns. ART REFERENCES innumerable sculptures. also a corn or vegetation god. Osanobua Creator god. He accompanied the creator god OLODUMARE at the creation of the world and when the destinies of mankind were decided. Isis bore the god HORUS having impregnated herself with the semen of Osiris after his death. Osiris is depicted in human form but often tightly wrapped in mummy linen with only his arms free. West Africa]. is distinctive.

the god’s phallus was buried at Memphis. but became Osiris on his death. she equates with the Anglo-Saxon deity EOSTRE. which Seth had thrown to a crocodile. After years of searching. the Ibo-Osun. God of the dead. She restored the penis with a replica which subsequently became a focus of the Osirian cult. The reference to the fate of the penis with a crocodile is also omitted. term Easter. Buddhist (Mahayana). Othin is the chief among the Viking AESIR sky gods. The daughter of Oba Jumu and Oba Do and the consort of the god SHANGO. Val-father (father of the slain). The purely Egyptian account omits the incident of the sarcophagus and the discovery at Byblos. Head of the Aesir sky gods and principal god of victory in battle. It was washed ashore at Byblos in the Lebanon where it became encased in the trunk of a growing tree. His relationship with the Egyptian kingship was crucial. the lord of hosts and god of victory who Ostara Sun goddess. CENTER(S) OF CULT Uppsala (Sweden). Isis is sometimes represented in the form of a hawk being impregnated by the erect phallus of the dead god. She is worshiped particularly by women and is honored in an annual festival. votive inscriptions. The coffin was nailed tight and thrown into the Nile. OTHIN ORIGIN (all father) Nordic (Icelandic) and Germanic. Each king was the divine embodiment of Horus in life. The latter describes how Osiris was persuaded by Seth to step into an exactly fitting sarcophagus during a drunken party. Sigtyr (god of victory). Isis found all the pieces and buried them at the sites of various sanctuaries. Eventually. She bore his son Horus. Isis found Osiris and brought his body home. ART REFERENCES various stone carvings. She breathed life into it and impregnated herself with Osiris’s semen. Meanwhile Seth found the body and once more destroyed it by hacking it into fourteen pieces and scattering them along the Nile valley. Hanga-god (god of the hanged). Prose Edda (Snorri). Historia Danica (Saxo). The guardian deity of the river Osun. Ostaraki (covering) Minor goddess. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. during which new cultic priestesses are selected. In the Egyptian version. Osun River goddess. One-eyed. SYNONYMS Odin. The scattering of the body was allegorized with the winnowing and scattering of grain in the fields. Farmagod (god of cargoes). Germanic. Yoruba [Nigeria. Also a goddess of healing. revered particularly in the towns and villages along the banks of the river where sacred weapons are kept in her shrines. Associated with the coming of spring and one of the derivations of the . Hapta-god (god of prisoners). The Osirian legend is known from pure Egyptian textual sources and from an embellished account of the Greek writer Plutarch. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. With the exception of Osiris’s penis. the trunk was cut down and incorporated as a pillar in the palace of the local ruler. West Africa].236 Ostara strate the god’s virility. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period (circa AD 700) and earlier through to Christianization (circa AD 1100) and beyond.

Othin passes out magic weapons to his selected earthly heroes including Sigmund the Volsung (see also BAAL). O-Toshi-No-Kami God of harvests. Yggdrasill. Ragnarok. the Valkyries. wife of NJORD in some legends. slain in battle on earth. Ouranos hurled them into the abyss of Tartaros and chained them up. was reputed also to have borne children to Othin. IAPETOS and KRONOS—and six daughters—Klymene. It was this shortcoming that led eventually to the downfall of the Aesir pantheon. Othin is perceived as a shaman. His symbol is the raven and his weapon is a spear carved with runes or treaties said. As Wotan. an indication that he derives from an older. how he was instrumental in the breaking of important oaths to the giants. the image of Othin was popularized by Richard Wagner in his epic operatic cycle “Der Ring des Nibelung. Followers of Othin were also burnt on funeral pyres. THETIS. the Berserks. Koeos. Luiseno Indian [California.” The god’s mythical biography is. RHEA. most extensively drawn by the 12th-century Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson. who will defend the realm of the gods against the Frost Giants on the final day of reckoning. Greek. The son of SUSANO-WO and Kamu-O-Ichi-Hime. .” but describes. the doom of the gods. to influence the course of combat. HYPERION. and is able to change shape at will. Oxlahun Ti Ku Sky gods. The creator and incestuous consort of the earth mother GAIA with whom he engendered six giant sons—OKEANOS. He gave an eye to the god MIMIR as payment for permission to drink from the well of knowledge which rises from a spring beneath the tree. Owiot Moon god. shamanistic religion. Othin peoples Valhalla with chosen heroes. probably representing his power to bind or unbind the minds of warriors and thus influence the outcome of battle. when hurled by the god. USA]. he heads the pantheon of agricultural deities and is generally the guardian of rice fields. in detail. The ancestral deity of the tribe. and once pierced himself with his own spear and hung himself from the World Tree. thus linking him with the VANIR gods.Oxlahun Ti Ku 237 lives in the Hall of Valhalla in Asgard. MNEMOSYNE and Phoebe—the twelve collectively being known as the TITANS. Sleipnir. Othin is thought to have evolved as a syncretization of the Germanic war gods WODAN and TIWAZ. Ouranos Primordial god of heaven. the valknut. a breaker of promises. He wanders the earth disguised as a traveler. In spite of his eminence Othin is considered to be untrustworthy. his constant desire the pursuit of occult knowledge through communication with the dead. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The collective name for a group of thirteen celestial deities who are probably still invoked by Mesoamerican Indians today. Fearing their power. Shinto [Japan]. He refers to Othin as “a mighty one. Othin has links with the goddess FREYJA in literature. Adam of Bremen reports a special festival of the gods in Uppsala when men and animals were slaughtered and hung in trees. He is also symbolized by a knotted device. however. He was the patron god of a fanatical warrior cult. The goddess SKADI. Kreos. He rules over an army of warrior spirits. He rides a winged eight-legged horse. THEA. to this end.

she is the guardian deity of the river Niger. Yoruba [Nigeria. West Africa]. he is one of the sons of IZANAGI and IZANAMI and is worshiped extensively. The most senior apotheosis of mountains in Japan. . Shinto [Japan]. O-Yama-Tsu-Mi God of mountains. Her sacred animal is the buffalo and her presence is symbolized by its horns. Also a goddess of storms and thunder.238 Oya Oya River goddess. The consort of the god SHANGO.

Worshiped extensively by farmers but now largely syncretized with the Christian Virgin Mary. Color: white or red. lotus. Identified with the city of Larak (lost). One of a group of seven MAHANAGAS.P 6 Pa-bil-sag Tutelary god of Isin. knot of hair. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [highlands of Peru]. Three-headed. A dikpala or guardian of the western direction. Three-eyed. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Padmatara (lotus Tara) Minor goddess. Padma (lotus) 1. God. Color: red. Attributes: book. In origin he is pre-Inca but the Inca rulers who took over the region allowed his worship to continue. Near the town of Pachacamac is the site of a huge pyramidal sanctuary dedicated to the god. She is depicted as sort of an avatara of V IS emanating from the padma or lotus (Nelumbium speciosum) which is the symbol of creation and one of the most important iconographic devices in Hinduism. Buddhist. eventually he became syncretized with the god VAIRACOCHA. He is given the epithet of “the wild bull with multicolored legs. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). and a distinct form of AVALOKITESVARA. A BODHISATTVA or buddhadesignate. Color: red. God. Attributes: jewel. texts describe Pabilsag journeying to Nippur and presenting the god ENLIL with gifts. red lotus. Also KAMALA. Buddhist (Mahayana). Buddhist. Padmosnisa God. The consort of the goddess NIN’INSINNA. image of Amitabha on the crown. South American Indian [Lima region of Peru]. Attributes: rosary and water jar. Snake god. Goddess. An incarnation of LAKSMI. rosary. trident and waterjar. Apparently connected with the guardian deities or dikpalas and associated with the western direction. 239 . Padmantaka (destructive to the lotus) Paca-Mama (earth mother) Chthonic earth goddess. prayer wheel and sword. Buddhist. Padmapani (with lotus in hand) Pachacamac (earth creator) Creator god.” 2. Three-eyed. the conˇ NU.

Pre-Christian Lappish. CENTER(S) OF CULT Pahteeatl (medicine lord) Minor fertility god. probably from Shang Dynasty (second millennium BC) until present. means superior ruler of the dark heaven. On the island of Cheung Chau he is believed to have been responsible for ending a plague which afflicted the islanders at the end of the nineteenth century. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP As first general of heaven’s armies.” PAK TAI Taoist (Chinese). Pajainen God. the north of China was believed to be ruled by the tortoise. Astral god of war. Pre-Christian Finnish. Pajonn God of thunder. Before his deification. Pak Tai hurled them into a deep chasm and. SYNONYMS Hsuan T’ien Shang Ti. on his return. the so-called dark warrior. ART REFERENCES paintings and sculptures. Known from Knossos and mentioned in the Iliad (Homer) as Paean.240 Paean Paean See PAIAWON. was made first lord of heaven. Paiawon War god. According to tradition he lived circa 2000 BC and was deified during the war between the Chou and Shang dynasties. He is also titled emperor of the north. the tortoise and the snake. he is regarded as a guardian of the Chinese state comparable to KUAN TI. mostly inadequately researched and untranslated. Pak Tai is also closely connected with death and fertility. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Shang-ti yeh (Taiwanese). but older in mythology and identified with the north. One of the group of deities known as the Ometochtli complex and concerned with the brewing of the alcoholic drink pulque from the maguey plant. Pakhet Goddess of hunting. LITERARY SOURCES various philosophical and religious texts. . Palace of Jade Vacuity on Cheung Chau Island. During his mortal lifetime he was allegedly responsible for the introduction of flood control and land drainage systems. The deity who kills the great bull in Finnish legend. One of the group of deities known as the H UITZILPOCHTLI complex to whom sacrifice of captured prisoners was regularly offered. he spent much of his life seeking a Buddhist-style perfection on the mountain of Wu T’ang Shan. as distinct from the moving and more accessible heaven ruled by the god HUANG TI. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Greek and Cretan. Known locally from the eastern desert regions with a sanctuary at Beni Hasan. Hsuan T’ien Shang Ti. He is a guardian of society who may descend from heaven to restore stability in times of unrest or destruction. Painal (hasty) Minor god of war. The name is derived from “the one who dwells in the heaven. Egyptian. His full title. Alternatively. He was taken to heaven to assist the established pantheon in defeating two traditional monsters.

Collective name for five aspects of S The five aspects are Aghora. Isana. PAN Greco-Roman. The full name of the deity who is thus Pallas of Athens. ART REFERENCES stone reliefs and carvings. Local deity worshiped in Ashkun villages in southwestern Kafiristan. each form of the god S . is typically shown with phallic connotations and is reputed to live in caves. Wellknown as a pipe player. Palaniyantavan Local god. Indermun Panao (fruit and wine). Greco-Roman.Pancanana 241 Palaemon Minor sea god. Hindu. Hindu (Puranic). etc. Sadyojata. CENTER(S) OF CULT Arcadia. Panao Creator god. LITERARY SOURCES Theogony (Hesiod). Pancamukha-Patradeva God. feet of a goat. Her festival was celebrated annually in Rome on April 21. Pallas (Athene) Goddess. ORIGIN Pancabrahma ˇ IVA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 800 BC and earlier until Christianization circa AD 400. Penelope. These gods were generally worshiped in sacred open spaces where their wooden images were regularly drenched with blood sacrifices. Tatpurusa and Vamadeva. A guardian of flocks and herds. King of Thebes. SYNONYMS Consentes. Plossa Panao (rain and good health). Passamun Panao (rain and good health). One of the company of SATYRS. Pan possesses the horns and Pancanana Demonic deity. whom the earth goddess GAIA changed into a clump of reeds to protect her from Pan’s amorous advances. Also Isanadayas.” Attributes: an alms bowl in each of sixteen hands. These include Lutkari Panao (fertility). Pan is the son of HERMES (Mercury) and a nymph. Greek. The pipes of Pan are cut from hollow reeds and called the syrinx. Buddhist. an interest stemming from an infatuation with the nymph Syrinx. Saramun Panao (health). Known only from southern India and considered to be a form of SKANDA or of MURUKAN. whence derives the term “panic. The name Pan may also be applied in a pluralistic sense. Also a generic title for deities controlling the natural world and said to live in the mountains. Palaemon was deified by the gods when his mother hurled herself from a cliff with her son in her arms. Pan’s reputation extended to sudden frightening of travelers. The origin and meaning of the word Pallas is unknown. Five-headed. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil). Pales Pastoral goddess. Originally Melikertes. and Malek Panao (nut trees). the son of Ino. A “bowl-god. Marathon (Attica). who is an old Tamil tribal snake god. According to tradition. Roman. Kafir [Afghanistan]. See also ATHENA.” Pan is depicted wearing a garland of pine boughs and bearing the syrinx pipes and a shepherd’s crook. God of shepherds and personification of undisciplined procreation in nature. Regarded as a ˇ IVA possessing five faces. According to versions of the legend she was either insane or escaping the wrath of Athanas.

Paptuanuku and Ranginui are regarded as the primal parents of the pantheon who. Particularly known from Bengal. Purron. Buddhist. Pap-nigin-gara Pansahi Mata Mother goddess. slightly worked stones or pieces of wood and not by the large totems. (lord of the boundary stone) God of war. Papas Local god. Polynesian (including Maori). Pancanana is worshiped extensively in Hindu villages throughout Bengal where women make invocations and anoint the stones. particularly when sickness strikes. The SAKTI of AMITABHA and a female BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate. inflicting sickness on children under the age of seven. its top painted red and usually placed beneath a tree. Depicted with a dark face. Color: rose. The divine brothers are cast as the hunters and henchmen of the supreme goddess DISANI. There is a belief that children in the throes of epilepsy have been seized by the god. Attributes include a wooden scepter. Hindu. Phrygian [northwestern Turkey]. which are depictions of ancestors. cup.242 Pancaraksa face having three eyes. Also Paradik. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). the earth. wearing a necklace of snakes. She originates from the Tantric syllable PAM. produced at least ten major deities as their children. Pancaraksa (five-fold protection) Group of goddesses. Papsukkal Messenger god. Each is equipped with a golden bow and quiver. Lived as a mortal from AD 999-1062 during the Sung Dynasty. Paneu A collective term for seven gods. In Maori culture Papatuanuku. In other traditions she was engendered. ATEA. He is attended by two minor deities. with the sky god RANGINUI. They are generally portrayed as merciless and malignant forces. Pandara Goddess. According to tradition. Attributes: blue lotus. is represented only by inconspicuous. knife and prayer wheel. A SAKTI and one of seven SAPTAMATARAS (mothers) who in later Hinduism became regarded as of evil intent. by a primordial androgynous being. Depicted with the naked body of an ascetic.” Papatuanuku Chthonic mother goddess. like all deities. implying impartiality. Identified in late Akkadian texts and . one holding his seal of office and the other holding the rod of punishment. Pao Kung God of magistrates. Five tutelary or guardian deities who personify protective spells or magic formulae. through a prolonged period of intercourse. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). he inseminated a rock and so engendered the hermaphrodite being Agdistis. Later became syncretized with ZEUS. Shrines symbolize the god with a stone. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Buddhist. According to tradition she evolved spontaneously in the cosmic night personified by TE PO and became the apotheosis of papa. and wearing yellow and purple robes. Chinese. Syncretized with NINURTA. They are thus known as “spell goddesses.

noose. Buddhist. Attributes: arrow. with two arms and with an ax in the right hand. Color: yellow. great lotus. staff and sword. Buddhist (Mahayana). Parna-Savari (dressed in leaves) Goddess. Color: red. MORTA. Associated with the acquisition of wealth. is identified from the Mesopotamian site of Mkis ˇ . Parjanya (Rama-with-the-ax) ˇ NU. Paramita Descriptive name of a philosophical deity. lotus. He becomes synˇ UBUR. Also Parasuramavatara. I NDRA in later Hinduism. but in the Vedas he is seen as a god of gentle. or syncretized with. bow. Hindu (Vedic). Pre-Inca central Andean [South America]. His consort is DHARANI. Considered to be a form of HAYAGRIVA depicted with four legs and trampling the four major Hindu deities underfoot. This avatara appears in human form. She is particularly recognized in the northwest of India. Hindu (Vedic). Greco-Roman. the son of a wise man. In another legend. personified by the falcon. God. later joined by a goddess of death. She is depicted as having three eyes and three heads. Threeeyed. Applied to one of the group of twelve whose spiritual father is RATNASAMBHAVA. cretized with NINS Parcae Goddesses of fate. Rama acted as a champion of the gods in a war against the demons and was rewarded with an ax. The deity responsible for rain and thunder. Vis ˇ nu took the form of Parasurama to rid the world of despotic rulers. Parendi Paramasva (great horse) Minor goddess of prosperity. Also one of a group of DHARANIS (deifications of literature). Rama. . His consort is AMASAGNUL and he acts as both messenger and gatekeeper for the rest of the pantheon. Color: yellow or green. Became replaced by. knife. Hindu (Epic and Incarnation of the god V IS Puranic). (rain giver) Parasurama God of rain. bow. skin and staff. head of a horse. A sanctuary. and a lotus. ax. became a skilled bowman and in gratitude he went to the Himalaya where he stayed. An emanation of AKSOBHYA and BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate. flower. The sixth avatara of Vis ˇ nu (see also RAMA) in which form he saved the world from an army of tyrannical warriors. Originally a pair of birth goddesses. DECIMA and NONA. Attribute: jeweled staff. the E-akkil. Her vehicle is GANESA surmounting obstacles. Buddhist. Pariskaravasita (control of purification) Minor goddess. peacock feather. Buddhist (Mahayana). One of a group of VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. According to legend.Parna-Savari 243 known chiefly from Hellenistic Babylonian times. Common attributes: banner with a pearl. May be regarded as an ADITYA. devoting himself to ˇ IVA. bow. Though without S his bow. Other attributes: arrow. skin and sword. fructifying rain. Pariacaca Weather god. Attributes: arrow.

and appears in many varieties. chiefly in bronze but also in stone. She becomes the consort of the god ˇ IVA and. Parvati is depicted with two arms when accomˇ iva. She is associated with fire-walking rituals. Parsva has been credited as the mythical founder of Jainism. In Hindu culture regarded as an ˇ IVA and depicted standing upon a aspect of S corpse. Attributes: conch. Attributes: cobra-hood behind the head. According to another tradition. Ahladini-Sadini. Roman. ˇ iva. Possibly a historic person who lived in the 8th century BC. His consort is Svaha and his son is SANMUKHA. BHUTAMATA (mother of goblins). In southern India and Sri Lanka a goddess of chastity and fidelity in marriage.244 Parsva Parsva Jain. of interest. Pattinidevi (queen of goddesses) Mother goddess. As a goddess of fertility she is the youngest of the benign aspects of the goddess Sakti. but four when standing alone. Partula Minor goddess of birth. Color: blue. Buddhist. Also a guardian against diseases. mirror. rosary and occasionally a lotus. journeyed to the town of Madurai to sell a gold anklet. Attribute: a curtain. a sister of V IS ter of GANGA. SYNONYMS Sakti. she was born from a mango pierced by a sacred arrow. who was definitely a person in history. GAURI (corn goddess aspect). LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana epic and various Puranic texts. sitting surrounded by animals. Mother goddess. ornamented head-band. Through trickery she was convicted of theft and executed. including measles and smallpox. the consort of Kovolan who. Parvati may have originated from the mountain tribes in the Himalaya. Hindu [India]. She is the daughter of HIMAVAN (the Himalaya) ˇ NU and the younger sisand MENA. Concerned with parturition. . Aja (she goat). She also appears as a reincarnation of Sati. crown. and a lotus. she panying S may be elephantheaded or carrying Ganesa as a baby. personifies the extreme example S of the devoted and steadfast Hindu wife. Patadharini (bearing a cloth) Goddess of passage. The 23rd tirthankava and therefore the penultimate in the line of mythical salvation teachers. Many epithets including Amba (mother). ART REFERENCES sculptures. reliefs. Her sons include GANESA and SKANDA. She watches over curtains and doorways. but was canonized. On becoming aware of his lack (lord of animals) God of animals. Pasupati PARVATI (daughter of the mountain) ORIGIN Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. A deification of Kannaki. He is thought to have been derived from an earlier pre-Indo Aryan deity worshiped by the Indus Valley civilization as a horned god with three faces. UMA. Hindu (Singhalese) [Sri Lanka]. as a beauShe is presented to S tiful dancing girl. according to ancient Tamil tradition. as such. SATI. she pursues a life of self-denial until he finally appears to her as an old Brahman and takes her as his consort. he was succeeded by Mahaviva or Vardhamana. CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. the ascetic. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 400 until present times.

These gods are a peculiarly Roman innovation. chosen individually by the head of the household. having sailed from Tahiti. was kept in the corn chest. Pre-Christian Finnish. they were taken to and established in the new residence a priori.Penates 245 Pavana (purifier) God of the winds. if a move was anticipated. Hindu. unknown to the Greeks. The penates. Yukaghir [southeastern Siberia]. Bambara and Mande [Mali. H INA . (great thing) Creator god. Peter under Christian influence. Pax Spirit of peace. He was originally honored on a day taken over by a Christian festival for St. oversaw the domestic affairs of most Roman families. goddess. Peter. His brother is the god FARO. The deity responsible for the germination and harvesting of barley used to make beer. Greek. Virtually synonymous with PWYLL and PRYDERI. The first brewing is dedicated to Pellon Pekko. Became well-known as Pax Romana and Pax Augusta from the second century BC and was accorded a shrine on the Field of Mars. He was created out of the empty or Fu and his first task was to form the egg of the world. They are benevolent toward the hunter so long as he observes certain regulations and kills only when necessary. made of wax. He may have largely become syncretized with St. Pellon Pekko Vegetation god. an olive branch and a sheaf of corn. Peitho Goddess of persuasion. West Africa]. Celtic (Welsh). Also VAYU. His consort is Anjana. In Finland he is PELLON PEKKO and specifically a god of barley used in brewing beer. Penates Hearth deities. They were considered sufficiently important that. She may derive locally from the more familiar Polynesian moon . Pen Annwen Underworld god. since one of her alternative names is Hina-Ai-Malama (Hina who devours the moon). See also PEKKO. Roman. He descended to earth as an acacia seed (Acacia albida) which first grew to a mighty tree and then died. Depicted as a young woman bearing a cornucopia. creator of the river Niger. Pekko God of cereal crops. In Estonia he is a corn god whose image. They are represented in the form Pele Volcano goddess. Polynesian [Hawaii]. From the wood Pemba generated human souls and a female being whom he impregnated to engender all human and animal life. Attendant deities who look after the well-being of animals in their care. Roman. Pre-Christian Finnish and Baltic regions. According to tradition she arrived in Hawaii in a canoe. Pemba Peju’lpe Guardian spirits. A minor attendant of the goddess APHRODITE.

He is known to have been worshiped at Kiev. Demeter is distraught and angry and the living world shrivels and dies. Persephone is perceived as Kore. independent identity as a major goddess in prehistory. Perkunas See PERKONS. Pre-Christian Slavonic (Balkan). . or aspect. According to tradition Persephone leaves her mother’s house to pick flowers with a group of girls. the immature daughter. Iliad (Homer). temple to Demeter and Persephone in Syracuse. According to one legendary source. Also Perkunas (Lithuanian).246 Perende of small statues made of anything from clay to gold according to the wealth of the owner. When Persephone returns to her mother as Kore. where she is to reign as his queen. but when she descends to Hades as his queen. The name subsequently became adopted to identify God in the Christian sense. Demeter wanders the earth in fruitless search for her child. Greek. LITERARY SOURCES Hymn to Demeter. His attribute is a club and his sacred animal is the bull. Zeus in the form of a snake raped Persephone and sired DIONYSOS. she may return only for two thirds of each year. because Persephone has tasted the pomegranate of death. the girl. PROSERPINA (Roman). CENTER(S) OF CULT Eleusis. The flower meadow is traditionally believed to lie on the island of Sicily close to the Lago di Pergus at Enna. PERSEPHONE Greek. and were provided with regular offerings of scraps of food. Perkons God of thunder. In the ancient Illyrian culture his presence was announced by thunder and lightning. SYNONYMS KORE. he is also a fertility god who brings beneficial rain. As she bends to collect a particularly beautiful bloom. though Persephone’s name suggests an earlier. Pherrephatta (Attic). circa 1200 BC to circa AD 400. nature flourishes. Depicted armed with iron weapons. the OKEANIDES. though Dionysos’s mother is more generally regarded as SEMELE. Perende Storm god. The daughter of ZEUS and the corn goddess DEMETER. the two may be seen as aspects of each other. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Perun (striker) God of thunder. Pre-Christian Latvian. including one near Syracuse. Chthonic goddess of death. Subsequently. contest the claim. Pre-Christian Albanian. Theogony (Hesiod). Also Neaira. Persephone’s persona is intricately entwined with that of her mother. Persephassa. Perse Chthonic underworld goddess. the earth suddenly opens and the god of the underworld rides out in a chariot drawn by black horses to seize her and abduct her to Hades. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. but also specifically as mistress of the dead and ill-fated consort of the underworld god HADES-Aidoneus or Aides. of the corn mother. The consort of the sun god Helios and the mother of Kirke and Pasiphae. Eventually she locates Persephone and HERMES is allowed to bring her back to the upper world but. though other sites. she personifies the underworld aspects of the moon.

and he is depicted as a naked youth running ahead of her. Particularly known from Bengal. A SAKTI who in later Hinduism became one of the SAPTAMATARAS regarded as of evil intent. Picvu’cin God of hunters. blue. and the father of the Gorgons and Graii. the mother of Tly and may be the goddess Peraia described by the Greek writer Philo. In Roman culture he becomes Lucifer. She has most of the attributes of Kali and may also have snakes around her breasts. Chukchee [Eastern Siberia]. The first god to emerge from the cosmic egg engendered by KRONOS. Canaanite and Phoenician. the night. He is the guardian of reindeer and other animals and is invoked by sacrifice. his daughter is NYX. A youthful warrior deity with right hand raised who appears on coins struck at Ascalon from the time of Augustus. Phyi-Sgrub (the external one) God. Known only from inscriptions. but may additionally be represented by a stone. She is the consort of BAAL SAPON. carrying a torch. She is considered an aspect of the goddess KALI and is invoked in many villages to ward off evil and demons. Also Phorkos.Pidray 247 Peruwa Horse god. Color: . A benevolent NAVASAKTI . His mother is EOS. inflicting sickness on children under seven years old. Her cult moved at one time and reached a climax in eastern India between the eighth and twelfth centuries. yellow or white. Keto. Pidray Minor fertility goddess. Greek. Kala-Pidari. According to Hesiod. The cult of Pidari probably evolved in the sixth and seventh centuries AD and is generally restricted to southern India. Pidari (snake-catcher) Phosphoros God of the morning star. he personifies light emerging from chaos. Western Semitic. Attributes: noose. noose and trident. Phanes Primordial sun god. usually of camp dogs. Phorkys Minor sea god. ˇ IVA. Mentioned in epic creation texts and treaties ˇ amra) as the first daughter of at Ugarit (Ras S BAAL. Also Pitali. He becomes syncretized with the devil in Christian times. Phanebal Picullus Chthonic underworld god. Hittite. prayer wheel and staff surmounted by a skeleton. Attributes: cup. A diminutive figure who rides on a sled drawn by mice. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Greek. the dawn. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Also Pirwa. fire. he is the son of PONTOS and GAIA. Greek. The consort of a sea-serpent. According to one tradition. (face of Baal) Minor attendant god. Phul Mata Mother goddess. A form of the god YAMA who rides a buffalo or a bull. Hindu (Puranic and One of the consorts of S later). Romano-Celtic (Prussian).

Known locally from the alpine regions and generally thought to be assimilated with JUPITER. however. PROSERPINA. Plutos Minor god of riches. said to be a “carrier of nectar. Greek. See also SOPHIA and YALDABAOTH. Worshiped by the Monte Alban culture of Zapotec-speaking peoples in the Valley of Oaxaca. Concerned with the protection of an infant at birth. who is sometimes depicted holding him in her lap. Pluto God of the underworld. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP probably circa 200 BC to circa AD 400. Pitao Cozobi Maize god. Roman. The exact origin of Pistis is never made clear and the Nag Hammadi narratives are in places confused and contradictory. he abducted the daughter of CERES. the Cocytus and the Acheron which could be crossed only by the ferryman Charon. Plutos was blinded by ZEUS because of his discrimination in favor of the righteous. CENTER(S) OF CULT undefined cells in areas of early Christian influence. Poeninus Mountain god. It is. Sculptures were often adorned with casts of maize ears. PISTIS ORIGIN (faith) Gnostic Christian. Primordial female force.248 Pietas Pietas Minor god. LITERARY SOURCES Nag Hammadi codices. to reign as his queen. Elamite [Iran]. . A son of DEMETER who was abandoned in childhood and reared by the goddess of peace. Identified in the texts as the eighteenth of the thirty-nine minor incarnations of the god ˇ NU. Zapotec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Pistis appears to have been formed out of infinity before the “shadow” which was to evolve into chaos. A ceremony to honor the deity involved driving a stake into the ground. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). defined itself within limitless light. Romano-Celtic (Continental European).” V IS Pinikirz Mother goddess. Pilumnus (staker) Minor guardian god. A sanctuary dedicated to him circa 191 BC is still in existence in Rome. Piyusaharana Obscure physician god. EIRENE. Roman. Pistis appears to be a benign female element among the primordial immortals who ruled before even the cosmos was created. The three-headed dog Cerberus was set to guard the gate of Hades and through the kingdom flowed the two rivers of death. See also HADES. According to Roman tradition. ART REFERENCES none. Maria del Inferno was built. an unmistakably female principle typical of most religions in their concept of the origin of the world. Roman. and from which the cosmos would take shape. Known only from inscriptions. He became Pietas Augusta and is associated with family solidarity and patriotism. the entrance to the underworld was at Avernus in Rome where the Christian church of St. SYNONYMS Pistis Sophia. Derived from the Greek model of HADES. She is closely allied with SOPHIA (wisdom).

Greek. with the goddess DISANI. POSEIDON Greek. Also Castor and POLLUX (Roman). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from circa 1600 BC through Minoan Crete (art evidence only) until ORIGIN . Pontos God of the sea. Also Pura. Elmo’s Fire. Guyanan Indian [South America]. particularly at sea. the main access by sea to the city of Rome. The pair probably derive from the Indo-European model of the ASVINS in Vedic mythology. Polydeukes Horse god. Supreme creator god. Portunus God of passage. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Consort of VERTUMNUS generally represented by garden implements and offered fruits and flowers. PON ORIGIN (something) Yukaghir [central Siberia]. Roman. CENTER(S) OF CULT no fixed sanctuaries. largely out of touch with everyday life. Pomona Goddess of orchards and gardens. he seems to be a remote figure. and are thought to be embodied in the electrical discharges known as St. Associated with smallpox and offered blood sacrifices. Engendered the earth and all living things. He is also the guardian of the Tiber estuary. Roman.POSEIDON 249 Poleramma Plague goddess. They rescue individuals from distress and danger. Pollux Horse god. The deity responsible for guarding the entrance of the city and the house alike. SYNONYMS Poluknalai Goddess of animals. Pon is a vague and indefinite creator spirit who controls all visible phenomena of nature. His mother and consort is GAIA and he is the father of the sea gods NEREUS and PHORKYS. Greek. Pon-o’moc (something has become good). held annually on August 17. even in death. no specific cult was ever addressed to this deity. No invocations or prayers are addressed to Pon. Pon-yu’lec (something got dark). One of the Dioskouroi twins. the two brothers remain inseparable. among Askun villages in the southwest of Kafiristan. Pon-ti’boi (something makes rain). they are together associated with a Spartan cult whence they originated. God of the sea and mariners. nor are sacrifices. As far as can be ascertained. during battle. Telegu [India]. According to tradition. 10 (1905). Kastor is mortal while Polydeukes is immortal. Thus. Cu’kun. the other is Kastor. Pore Creator god. Kastor is mortally wounded but. ART REFERENCES none known. He was celebrated in the Portunalia festival. See also POLYDEUKES. LITERARY SOURCES Jochelson Memoirs of the American Natural History Society Vol. Roman. Locally revered. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from prehistoric times until circa AD 1900. when keys were thrown into a fire to bless them.

classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. darkness. he is desire. Associated with the safe drinking ability of infants. He is the father of Theseus who became king of Athens. and Pelias of Iolkos in Thessaly. According to tradition. A liaison with the goddess ERINYS produced another fabulous winged horse. They include the infamous Gorgon. Poseidon’s chief consort is AMPHITRITE. coins. king of Pylos. He may also be depicted as a fertility god shelling maize or as a fisherman. Potina Minor goddess. Poseidon was a popular oracular deity. from whose dead body came the winged horse Pegasus and the warrior Chrysaor. Poxlom God of disease. bearded deity who carries the emblem of a trident harpoon. SYNONYMS Poseidaon (Mycenaean). Zeus took the sky. etc. otherwise widespread through areas of Greco-Roman influence. His brothers are ZEUS and HADES. etc. Poseidon the sea. particularly at Berytus [Syria]. On Argos horses were sacrificed to Poseidon. Mount Mykale [Turkey]. but always as an elderly. An image of the god was discovered in the Christian church . He is also. and its living physical manifestation Aura. by tradition. the father of the ancestors of the Aeolian and Boeotian races. plaques. and Hades the underworld. ART REFERENCES sculpture. one of the three sons of KRONOS and RHEA. According to the cosmogony. while on Pylos and elsewhere he received the offering of slaughtered bulls. Mayan (Tzeltal Indian. Poteidan (Dorian). Regattas were held there in honor of the god and he was particularly invoked during the tuna-hunting season which was conducted using traditional trident harpoons. early sanctuary on the island of Kalauria. Posis Das Sky god. but other consorts emphasize the affinity with horses. He later becomes syncretized with ZEUS. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad (Homer). In pre-Hellenic times the consort of the earth mother GAIA. Erechtheus. Poseidon appears never to have been envisaged in youthful form. past which all ships sail when making for Athens. on the cliffs of Cape Sunium at the extreme southern tip of Greece. Theogony (Hesiod). Roman. Phoenician (Hellenic). CENTER(S) OF CULT Cape Sunium [southern Greece]. Areon. whom he supposedly rammed into the ground. In a parallel legend Areon’s mother is DEMETER while in the guise of a mare. while the earth was shared between all three. doctor. drowned in a whirlpool. constructed of white marble. Apparently perceived as a star in the sky or a ball of fire. musician or hunter. and is also linked with the ancestral king of the city. The horse is sacred to him and he is said to have inseminated the ground from which was conceived the first horse. Pothos Primordial being. Among his other sons are Neleus. One of the primordial partnership identified in Theogony (Hesiod). to engender out of chaos the spiritual force Aer. Medusa. Poseidon is perceived as a sea god. Pylos [Crete]. suggested in one legend to be the first keeper of Delphi. and consorts with OMICHLE. Greek. Another oracle at Cape Tainaron is dedicated to Poseidon.250 Posis Das circa AD 400. There exist ruins of a striking Poseidon sanctuary.

In the Vedic legends he is described variously as the creator of the world and the creator of heaven and earth. Buddhist. Prajnantaka Pracanda (furious) Distinct form of the goddess DURGA. Goddess. Sakti and staff. Pradyumna God of love. Color: white. Color: white. or specifically of ADIBUDDHA. Attributes: sun disc on a great lotus and staff. cup. One of a group of DHARANIS. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). sword. Attributes: cup. In later Hinduism regarded as an killed by S avatara of V IS ˇ NU with consorts including MAYADEVI and Kakudmati. One of a group of VASU deities answering to the god INDRA. hook. The personification of the religious text Prajnaparamita and the SAKTI of VAJRADHARA. or Kama returned to life after being ˇ IVA. Hindu (Vedic. One of a group of NAVADURGAS or “nine durgas. Also a philosophical deity. knife. Prajna Prabhasa (shining dawn) Attendant god. Jain [India]. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Buddhist. in southern India. Prajnapti (teaching) Goddess of learning.” God. Prajnaparamita (most important) Mother goddess. She stands upon a lotus. Attributes: blue lotus.Prajnavardhani 251 in Oxchuc. (wisdom) Goddess. In later epics he is the guardian deity of the sexual organ. One of a group of nine NAVASAKTIS who. Attributes: staff and sword on blue lotus. Buddhist (Mahayana). Regarded as the SAKTI of a number of Mahayana gods. Buddhist. One of several deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. Early Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. The embodiment of transcendental intuition. trident and white staff. Color: red. Prajapati is also a name of the god BRAHMA in later Hinduism. book. jeweled staff and red lotus. The son of KRSNA and RUKMINI. guardians of the southern direction. Epic and Puranic). An emanation of the deity AKSOBHYA. Buddhist (Vajrayana). the spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. Color: white. Buddhist (Mahayana). and the Indians were forced to revoke and spit on the icon before it was publicly burnt. reddish white or yellow. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). He is an androgynous being who impregnated himself by fusing elements of mind and speech. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. . Equating with KAMADEVA. lotus. Prajapati (lord of creatures) Prabhakari (light-maker) Minor goddess. rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. One of the dikpalas. and the elder brother of SAMA. Attributes: jewel. Prajnavardhani (growth of wisdom) Deification of literature. Primordial being. Pradhana Pradipatara Minor goddess of light.

Buddhist. One of a group of four. Attributes: three-pronged staff and bell. Local deity. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Attributes: jewel and staff. BRAHMA. drum. One of several deified B HUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. Known from Ashkun villages in southwestern Kafiristan and perhaps one of the seven divine PANAO or Paradik brothers. Pranidhanaparamita Philosophical deity. Pratibhanapratisamvit Goddess of context analysis. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Minor goddess. Prasannatara (the gracious Tara) Minor goddess. One of a group of VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. RUDRA and Upendra. Regarded as a form of RATNASAMBHAVA who tramples on Hindu gods including INDRA. The son of DIONYSOS and APHRODITE. Attribute: a cup filled with blood. Buddhist. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Attribute: sword on lotus. Pratyangira (whose speech is directed westward) Goddess of terrifying aspect. Attributes: jewel and sword on blue lotus.” She stands upon a lotus. The consort of the thunder god Perendi who became absorbed into Christianity as a saint. Buddhist (Mahayana). She rides upon a lion. Pranasakti Goddess. Hindu. Attributes: hook. Attributes: cup. Attributes: blue lotus and jeweled staff. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Color: blue. Sakti and sword. Minor goddess. A BODHISATTVA or buddhadesignate. The daughter of Svayambhuva MANU and one of the consorts of DAKSA. Hindu. Pratibhanakuta (excellent intelligence) Pramudita (delighted) God. Hindu. Color: green. One of a group of VASU deities answering to the god INDRA. he was also a . Pre-Christian Albanian. snake noose and trident.252 Prakde Prakde (parade) Prasuti Goddess. Buddhist. Three-eyed. Color: yellow. Color: yellow. Pratisamvit (analytical science) Generic name for four goddesses. Pranidhanavasita contemplation) (control of abstract Pratyusa (scorching) Attendant god. Priapos Fertility god. Carries a large variety of attributes. Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. Prende Goddess of love. flaming hair. A terrifying deity ruling the “centers of physical life. Buddhist (Vajrayana). knife. The personifications of logical analysis. Greco-Roman and Phrygian. Color: yellow or red. Color: red.

the voice of the thought. and alternatively the voice of LOGOS (logic). Gnostic Christian. Pronoia (forethought) Priyadarsana (pleasant to the eye) Minor goddess. Promitor Priti (pleasure) Goddess. the prime parent. Roman. Also described in other Gnostic tracts as Protennoia. Roman.Proserpina 253 guardian of mariners. Priapos was not regarded as a significant deity in Greece until very late times—during the Macedonian period. One of twelve SAKTIS associated with ˇ NU in his various incarnations. the creation of mankind and the role of its protector. He is particularly known from Phrygia and is depicted as a satyr-like creature with pronounced genitals. He was rescued by HERAKLES. Roman but derived from a Greek model. ART REFERENCES sculptures. A rural deity whose worship appears to have been restricted to the shores of the Hellespont and clearly derives from the god PRIAPOS. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Primordial being. is probably best known as a heroic opponent of ZEUS. and his brother EPIMETHIUS (afterthought). set loose to afflict the human race. Zeus also imprisoned Prometheus by fastening him to a great rock in the Caucasus mountains with adamantine chains and sending an eagle to consume his liver. . one of four sons of the Titan IAPETOS and his consort Klymene. circa 800 BC and probably earlier until Christianization circa AD 400. Buddhist (Mahayana). who descends to earth in human form and plays a part in the primordial salvation of the world. Aeschylus drama. who killed the eagle and liberated the god from his torment. LITERARY SOURCES Theogony (Hesiod). PROMETHEUS (forethought) Greek. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. circa fourth to second century BC—and was only locally popular during the Roman Empire period. Proserpina Goddess of death. Prometheus. Responsible for the growth and harvesting of crops. and ruling the seven heavens of chaos in Gnostic cosmogony. etc. The feminine aspect of one of the androgynous principles born to YALDABAOTH. He stole fire from the latter and gave it to mankind as the boon which separates the human race from all other living creatures. Abducted by the underworld god PLUTO to reign as his queen (see PERSEPHONE). in response to which Zeus created Pandora and her box of problems. Priapus God of the shade. relief carvings. Heroic god and creator of man. CENTER(S) OF CULT predominantly Athens. SYNONYMS none. the god V IS Minor god of agriculture. A daughter of DAKSA and consort of the god of love KAMADEVA. Legend accords to Prometheus. Prithivi See PRTHIVI.

According to one illogical legend of Prthivi’s genealogy. is idenˇ NU.” Also known as GLAUKOS. LITERARY SOURCES Rg Veda and other texts including the Atharva-veda. Greek.254 Proteus Proteus Minor sea god. the dappled bull of the sun. In Vedic literature Prthivi is the female aspect of the creator god DYAUS PITAR. She is said to kiss the center of the world and she symbolizes the eternal patience and resilience of the earth. The head of the solar pantheon who introduced agriculture to the human race and who. Recognized from the reign of Tiberias in second century BC. though in the Atharva-veda Dyaus is not mentioned. The socalled “dappled cow” of the Rg Veda. Depicted as an old man who attends Triton and whose principal concern is the creatures of the oceans. tified as an avatara of V IS Pryderi Chthonic god. SYNONYMS Bhudevi. she was the daughter of Prithu who had granted the blessing of life on earth and who. Mother goddess of earth. PRTHIVI ORIGIN (earth mother) Hindu (Vedic) [India]. Personal guardian deities. In the Punjab. and of lesser-known creation deities including PARJANYA. Providentia Goddess of forethought. Roman. Hindu (Vedic). with his droves Of sea calves sought the mountains and the groves. RomanoCeltic. the once inseparable primordial cosmos until separated by the god VARUNA. NEREUS and PHORKYS. had emerged from the arm of the corpse of King Vena. Prsni Primordial earth goddess. The poet Cowper wrote: “In ages past old Proteus. in her turn. He also has oracular powers. stone reliefs. Proxumae Generic title of a group of goddesses. the first milk from a cow is offered to the goddess by allowing it to soak into the earth. She is also perceived as the brightly colored soma stalk and is linked with a male counterpart. Celtic (Welsh). Usually the pair are referred to as Dyavaprthivi. She is also a vegetation goddess. CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. Prthivi is a chthonic or earth goddess with whom the sky god Dyaus couples when he fertilizes her with rain. Though the goddess was present in early Indian culture. Hindu (Vedic). she persists into late Hinduism and may be associated with Vis ˇ nu as one of the personifications of his Sakti. As the Visvakarma. V IS inseparable partner of Dyaus she is rarely addressed alone. ART REFERENCES sculptures in bronze and other metals. who protects her. With similar sentiment a dying man may be laid on the earth to be received by Prthivi. Many Hindus worship Prthivi at dawn and before ploughing and sowing. in later Hinduism. Prajapait and ˇ NU strides over her body. In some legends Prthivi is perceived as the consort of the rain god INDRA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1500 BC and probably earlier through to present day. The two formed Prthu (broad) Creator god. The son of PWYLL and RHIANNON. According to tradition. he was . the source of all plant life. etc. permitting herself to be abused without rancor. also Prsni.

the bull.” suggesting that he was syncretized with a older local tree god at Memphis whose symbol is the moringa tree. a rejected suitor of Rhiannon. A spirit associated with justice and honorable living who punishes those who are evil or violent. meaning “he who is under his tree. PtahNaunet. His most distinctive features are the invariable skull-cap exposing only his face and ears. Yukaghir [eastern Siberia]. Eventually the true parents of Pryderi were identified and he was returned to his family. Pu’gu Sun god. NUN represents the amorphous primeval matter out of which Ptah generated himself as a bisexual entity. Ptah is depicted in human form wearing a closely fitting robe with only his arms free. He is otherwise symbolized by his sacred animal. by implication only. the sun god of Heliopolis.’ PTAH Egyptian.. With ATUM. consisting of a staff surmounted by the ankh symbol of life. his son is NEFERTUM. In this cosmogony. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3000 BC. Generic name for deities. etc.Pu’gu 255 abducted as an infant from his cradle by a huge talon or claw. Pu Ma Ptah is the patron deity of Memphis in Lower Egypt at the southerly approach to the Nile delta. the Shabaka Stone. papyrus illustrations. His consort is the lion-goddess SAKHMET and. wall paintings. Creator god and god of craftsmen. Ptah is also the patron deity of craftsmen and his presence is often denoted in art by dwarfish craftsmen who work at various trades including jewelry. In Greco-Roman times he became identified with the Greek god of smithies. he is the main rival claimant to seniority as a creator god in the Egyptian pantheon. ORIGIN According to the genealogy laid down by the Memphis priests. possibly earlier. ART REFERENCES sculptures. relief carvings. The title given to any god of high rank.” He generated not only Atum but the whole Heliopolis pantheon (see ENNEAD) by thinking and speaking the cosmos into existence. Roman. her cult fell from popularity as the Roman Empire veered increasingly toward decadence. Ptah is envisaged as molding mankind out of base materials. Khery-bakef. Pudicita Goddess of chastity. In addition to his role as creator god. the god of the primeval lotus flower. the maleness of which is Ptah-Nun and the femaleness PtahNaunet. but with sanctuaries throughout the Nile valley. Ptah is occasionally known by the title Khery-bakef. perhaps the family of Gwawl. Pryderi was found in a stable and rescued by Teirnyon. Ptah upstaged Atum as the “father of the gods. . All life and matter was generated by the heart and the tongue of Ptah. who brought the child up as his son. until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. HEPHAISTOS. and the was or rod of dominion which he holds. CENTER(S) OF CULT chiefly at Memphis. His consort is Cigfa and he succeeded Pwyll to the title ‘Lord of Dyfed. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. SYNONYMS Ptah-Nun. Depicted as a matronly lady. with the implication that the abduction was instigated by an adversary from the underworld. Polynesian.

Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). Minor goddess of fortune. Attributes: four lotuses. Attribute: waterjar. A moderately disposed NAKSATRA. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Hindu. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). One of the group of ASTAMATARAS (mothers). Color: golden. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A benevolent NAKSATRA. Polynesian [Tikopia]. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Color: white. Color: yellowish white or blue. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). (growth) Fertility goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic).256 Pukkasi Pukkasi Goddess of terrifying appearance. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). A moderately disposed NAKSATRA. One of a group of gauri. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). but elsewhere may also be linked with VIS SARASVATI and named as a consort of GANESA. Puspatara (flower-Tara) Minor goddess. Described as the primordial being from whom the cosmos was formed. Pusan (nourisher) Punitavati (purified) Local goddess. including Pusan. Pusi Fish god. He is the charioteer of the sun and a guardian deity of journeys and pathways. A benevolent NAKSATRA. The apotheosis of the reef eel who probably accompanied the Tongan ancestors who migrated to Tikopia. The deification of a Brahman businessman’s wife. Color: white. in later times. was. Hindu (Vedic). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Attribute: a forest garland. Hindu (Vedic). Puranai Sun god. . Pustí Purvabhadrapada Minor goddess of fortune. Purvaphalguni Minor goddess of fortune. Purvasadha Punarvasu Minor goddess of fortune. In northern India she is the second consort of ˇ NU. Purandhi Minor goddess of prosperity. In later Hinduism regarded ˇ NU. Buddhist (Vajrayana) and Lamaist [Tibet]. A NAVASAKTI and one of the consorts of Aiyanar. MATA. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. all of whom take the role of sun gods. Concerned with restoring lost or stolen property. Associated with the acquisition of wealth and sometimes identified with Indra or other male deities. enlarged to twelve. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. The original Vedic list of six descendants of the goddess ADITI or ADITYAS. Puspa (flower) Purusa Primeval creator god. Attribute: a flower. Worshiped at Karaikkal near Ammaiyar. possibly the male component of the great mother. (fullness) Mother goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). as an avatara of V IS Mother goddess.

Celtic (Welsh). Specifically responsible for the proper pruning of trees and shrubs. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). according to tradition. A benevolent NAKSATRA. The so-called “Lord of Dyfed” who. His consort is RHIANNON and his son is PRYDERI. Pwyll Chthonic god. in payment for an unintended slight to Arawn. whom he met one day while out hunting. He earned the reward by substituting for Arawn and fighting his enemy Hafgan. Puta Goddess of agriculture. the underworld god. brought the pig to Wales having received it as a gift from ARAWN. Roman. .Pwyll 257 Pusya Minor goddess of fortune.

a precious commodity during the long winter months. Canada]. Western Semitic. His attributes include a headband of red cedar bark. Depicted seated on a throne flanked by bulls. The brother of Big Raven. Qeskina’qu (big light) Sky spirit. QUIKINNA’QU. Apparently known as the deification of an outcrop of black basalt on the north side of the Wadi Hesa [near Kirbet Tannur]. probably originating in Syria. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Dza’wadeenox Indian [British Columbia. until she conquered them and reduced them in size. Attributes include a branched thunderbolt held in the left hand. (the holy one) Fertility goddess.Q 6 Qaitakalnin Guardian spirit. Atsa’axl. Qos Local weather god. from where she controls the earth. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. Qamai’ts Creator goddess. Qa’wadiliquala Supreme god. She is usually depicted nude standing on the back of a lion (see ˜ A) between Min to also INANA and NINHURSAG whom she offers a lotus blossom. A worshiper is seen offering him an eagle. he is the apotheosis of daylight. and Res ˇ ep for whom she bears snakes. According to tradition the mountains were once malevolent beings who made the world uninhabitable. The guardian of the tribe but also a river deity responsible for bringing the salmon each year. and of the mother spirit Ha’na (A’na). Also Tsi Sisnaaxil (our woman). Also a god of rainbows. She was adopted by Egypt with the fertility gods ˇ EP and became partly associated MIN and RES with the goddess H ATHOR . Said to live in the upper heaven. One of the sons of QUIKINNA’QU. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Her cult followed the Quades ˇ 258 . Bella Coola Indian [British Columbia. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Canada]. Ek Yakimtolsil (afraid of nothing). the god of goat hunters. Qaynan God of smithies. She epitomizes female sexuality and eroticism in the mold of ASTARTE. She is never invoked or prayed to. His eldest son is TEWI’XILAK. Known from inscriptions. Said to live in the river Gwae.

According to tradition. As with many Polynesian deities. the god is depicted as being very inactive. He presided over the second of the five world ages represented by the sun EHECATL. his aspect or avatara Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli was perceived as the Morning Star. Xochicalco. Qudsu Personification of holiness. Malinalco and others. . The bearded Spanish conquistador Cortez was believed by the emperor Motecuhzoma to be Quetzalcoatl. Worshiped at Teotihuacan from circa AD 750 or earlier. he is also identified as the god of the wind. Known from inscriptions at Tyre where a human figure stands naked on a lion. Quat Creator god. White Tezcatlipoca. TLAHUIZCALPANTECUHTLI. he was known to the Nahua Indians as Quetzalcoatl who also revered him for his gift of science and arts. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP coatl and the black Tezcatlipoca resulted in the creation and destruction of four worlds or suns prior to the current sun. wearing a spiral headdress and holding lotus blossoms and serpents. and the huge manmade pyramid of Cholula on the Puebla plain. The heroic creator god of the Aztecs. According to one of many traditions he fashioned mankind from his own blood and provided food by turning himself into an ant so as to steal a grain of maize which the ants had hidden inside a mountain. Later Quetzalcoatl descended to the underworld Mictlan to obtain from its rulers the bones and ashes of generations of mankind to create the humanity of the fifth sun.028 heavenly years. Represented iconographically as a composite feathered hybrid. Polynesian [Banks Islands]. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca together bore the responsibility for restoring the shattered universe and initiating the fifth sun. thus accounting for the differing statures of men. They are said to have passed through the body of the earth monster TLALTECUHTLI and split it in two to form heaven and earth. A titanic struggle between Quetzal- Quiahuitl Creator god. LITERARY SOURCES pre-Columbian codices. sitting around all day doing nothing.Quiahuitl 259 typically ancient Near Eastern pattern of a sacred marriage carried out by her votary priestesses and their priests or kings. murals. First depicted as a feathered serpent. Assigned to the element fire and presided over by the rain god TLALOC. the age ended in a cataclysmic destruction caused by a great fiery rain. One of the four suns which are manifestations of the sun god TEZCATLIPOCA. CENTER(S) OF CULT Teotihuacan. the largest ancient structure in the New World. QUETZALCOATL (the feathered serpent) Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. NOTE: Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl was also a historical figure born circa AD 935. Temples of Quetzalcoatl include a sixtiered step-pyramid at Teotihuacan. SYNONYMS nine-wind. The sun deity representing the third of the five world ages each of which lasted for 2. ART REFERENCES stone sculptures. circa AD 750 to AD 1500 and probably much earlier. Ollin. each heavenly year being fiftytwo terrestrial years. Cholula. Western Semitic. Conversely. He is said to have dropped the bones and broken them. codex illustrations.

Also claimed to have been known near Mecca. Pre-Islamic northern ˇ and worArabian. Everything had existed before. SYNONYMS none. Attributes include a bow which shoots arrows of hail. turkeys and butterflies. . living on the Quirinal.a’qu. He possesses a raven cloak with which he can indulge in shape-changing and fly to the heavens. including the Kovyak in the Kamchatka Peninsula. Tletonatiuh. Acts as a celestial majordomo and an intercessor with the creator god. Roman. LITERARY SOURCES Jochelson Memoirs of the American Natural History Society Vol. According to legend. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP from early times until circa AD 1900. QUIKINN. A spirit of a primitive culture still heavily influenced by animism. Models of the deity were made from the leaves of the plant and kept for a year before being burned in a ritual to ensure a good quinine harvest. CENTER(S) OF CULT no fixed sanctuaries. His warrior status is primarily one of defense and he is depicted bearded and in a compromise of military and clerical clothing. He originated as the tutelary god of the Sabines. Quirinus God of war. Probably equating to QOS shiped by the Idumaean tribe to the south of Judea as a storm god. Illustrated by the “Stone of the Four Suns” [Yale Peabody Museum]. the most significant of whom are EME’MQUT and Yina-a-naut (see also AESIR) who are in constant conflict with the evil spirits or Kalau. He is married to MITI and said to have twelve children. Quikinn.A’QU The human population perished and in doing so were transformed into dogs. In 1900 the Swedish-American ethnologist Waldemar Jochelson spent a considerable time living with Siberian tribes. Quikinn. but he was responsible for revealing that which hitherto had been concealed. 10 (1905). One of a triad of warrior gods including JUPITER and MARS. ART REFERENCES none specific. PreColumbian Indian [Peru]. and discovered an extensive repertoire of tradition surrounding Quikinn.a’qu is the subject of many heroic adventures in which he undertakes to make safe the activities of mankind. swallowed the sun.A’QU (big raven) ORIGIN Koryak [Kamchatka peninsula. southeastern Siberia]. The myrtle is sacred to him. he died when he Quinoa-Mama Minor goddess of the quinoa crop. Little of this deity was known to the outside world until the turn of the 20th century. though wooden carvings may relate. Founder of the world.260 QUIKINN. one of the seven hills of Rome.a’qu is not only a deity but also the first man and a powerful shaman. Also Quiauhtonatiuh. His daughter took it from his mouth and returned it to the sky. Quzah (archer) Mountain and weather god.

ART REFERENCES virtually none. including the Brahma-vaivarta-purana. The son of KASYAPA or RUDRA. Hindu. She always stands as the personification of emotional love in stark contrast to SATI. Other mythology accounts that Radha enjoys an illicit relationship with an adolescent Krsna. as Bhumidevi. one of which is Radha. (seizer) Primordial cosmic deity. according to legend he seizes the sun and moon to generate eclipses. who places her as a cosmic queen. Shinto [Japan]. Their tryst is set in the village of Vraja and in the surrounding forests at a time before Krsna takes as his consort RUKMINI and later SATYABHAMA. sword and trident. Attributes: half moon. She only emerges fully as a goddess from the twelfth century AD onward and she is one of the central figures in the poetry of Vidyapati. or as a head alone. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1000 BC and earlier until present day. Rahu Raijin Weather god(s). SYNONYMS BHUMIDEVI [southern India]. she becomes associated with SARASVATI. RAMA. Attribute: a lotus. They make love for an age and their sweat and heavy breathing become the world’s oceans and winds. Color: dark blue. A generic title for a large group of deities controlling thun- 261 . LITERARY SOURCES later Puranic literature—the works of Vidyapati (1352-1448). knife. and in southern India. One of the creation accounts describes how Krsna divides himself into two parts. which floats on the ˇ NU primal waters for a year until the god V IS emerges. Rahu is depicted with four hands and a tail. He stands upon a lion or in destroyed by V IS a chariot drawn by eight black horses. Radha is sometimes considered to be an avatara of LAKSMI and thus a consort of Krsna. Radha gives birth to the golden egg of the universe. his body having been ˇ NU.R 6 RADHA ORIGIN (prosperity) Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. Goddess of emotional love. In the bhakti cult she symbolizes the yearning of the human soul to be drawn to Krsna. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. Radha is a goddess whose role is limited to that of a favored mistress of KRSNA. the faithful and legitimate consort of Vis ˇ nu’s other avatara.

Rakta-Yamari (red Yamari) God. Rama began as a comparatively minor incarnation who became one of the great heroes of the Ramayana epic. Raktalokesvara God. lute. Color: red.” His attributes include a hook. Rama rides in a chariot and is depicted in human form with two arms. A variety of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA. typically holding a sugar cane bow and with a quiver at his shoulder. The seventh avatara (sun aspect) of Vis ˇ nu. each allotted a hole in the edge of the horizon through which to blow. . He received as a gift from his mother a great basket containing the winds. slew the demon Ravana that had captured his consort SITA and was upheld as a deity par excellence in respect of manhood and honor. The tribal chief converses with the god. Baventa [northern Transvaal. he was a king of Ayodhya who. Valmeeki portrayed Rama not as an incarnate deity but as a great mortal hero. Known chiefly from inscriptions circa eighth century BC. arrow and noose. the dragon god of thunder and rain. Hindu (Epic and Incarnation of the god V IS Puranic). in the Ramayana. moon and parrot. he is generally depicted sitting beneath an asoka tree with red blossoms and ˇ NU. which became his children. She stands upon a lotus. Attributes: blue lotus. The fifth child of VARI-MA-TE-TAKERE. The Ramayana epic was composed by the poet and sage Valmeeki during the reign of Ramachandra and it gave form to a story that had been in existence for many centuries as an oral tradition. the primordial mother. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. Raka Rakib-El Moon god. Among the most significant is RYUJIN. who is responsible for all natural phenomena from thunderstorms to floods and plagues. The son of Dasaratha and Kausalya. Western Semitic (Syrian).262 Rajamatangi der. South Africa]. irrespective of caste and language. Hindu. as well as featuring in the Mahabharata. His home is Moana-Irakau (deep ocean). Buddhist. bow. Associated with the acquisition of wealth. Rama (pleasing) (trouble) (2) God of winds. is popularly known as the “Red Lord. storms and rain. The saga is strongly political and serves to unite a vast and fragmented people in a common focus. Raluvimbha Creator god. Rajamatangi Goddess. The mother goddess also gave him knowledge of many useful things which he passes on to mankind. red lotus flower. Buddhist. An emanation of AKSOBHYA and a variety of YAMARI. It defines the historical schism between the Hindu culture of India and the largely Buddhist tradition of Sri Lanka. Raka (1) Minor goddess of prosperity.). Hindu (Vedic. though his subsequent treatment of his wife might be regarded as cavalier (see Sita). Also Ramacandra.

LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. RATNASAMBHAVA Ranginui Sky god. Persian [Iran]. She was propitiated with money and other offerings thrown overboard. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC until present. wanted to slay them. Buddhist. paintings. PRASANNATARA. the advice of TANEMAHUTA. TUMATAUENGA. A product of the A DIBUDDHA who represents the branch of the cosmos concerned with sensation. the PARAMITAS. One of five mystic spiritual counterparts of a human buddha in Vajrayana Buddhism. Ratnapani (with a jewel in the hand) God. Philosophical deity. Attributes: jeweled staff and moon on a lotus. Nordic (Icelandic). Color: yellow or green. Attribute: a sword. Attributes: a jewel and the moon disc. ORIGIN (born of a jewel) Buddhist [India]. the earth mother. Though one offspring. The head of a group of deities who carry jewels and are family symbols. The rays of the sun are his flaming spears. Nuer [Sudan]. The guardian of the bridge which leads to the otherworld. VAJRAYOGINI and VASUDHARA. Ratnaparamita Rang God of hunting. the forest god. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. During a prolonged period of inseparable intercourse they became the prime parents of the Polynesian pantheon of gods. The socalled sky father of the Polynesian culture whose consort is PAPATUANUKU. Emanations include APARAJITA. She was presumed to gather mariners in her net having carried them to the bottom of the sea in whirlpools. A form of RATNASAMBHAVA and also a dhyanibodhisattva or meditation BUDDHA.RATNASAMBHAVA 263 Ran Storm goddess. Rati Goddess of sexual desire. Color: yellow. SYNONYMS Ratnaheruka. One S ˇ NU in of twelve SAKTIS associated with the god V IS his various incarnations. . The consort of the god AEGIR. (See also AKSOBHYA. The children found life between the bodies of the parents too cramped and conspired to force them apart. Attributes: jewel and three monkish robes. RATNAPANI. Color: red. He originates from the yellow mantra symbol TRAM and lives in the southern paradise. his SAKTI is MAMAKI and he is normally accompanied by two lions or horses. JAMBHALA. Also Garang. VAJRATARA. The third DHYANIBUDDHA or meditation BUDDHA. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Buddhist. MAHAPRATISARA. A daughter of DAKSA (in some texts ˇ IVA) and the consort of the god KAMADEVA. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. Ratnasambhava is also taken as a tutelary deity in Lamaism [Tibet] in which case his attributes include a bell and a jewel. prevailed and RANGINUI and Papatuanuku were merely forced apart. Polynesian (including Maori). Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. He weighs souls in the scales at the final judgment. Rasnu God of passage and justice.

The consort of the thunder god HORAGALLES. Re-Khepri. Creator god and sun god. Rauni Storm goddess.” in which case he often rides in his barque as a human figure with a ram’s head surmounted by a sun disc and accompanied by the cobra goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). and who may be invoked to ensure safety through the hours of darkness. Osiris in Re. circa AD 400. Amun-Re. etc. One of a group of DHARANIS. According to legend he created himself out of the mound that emerged from the primeval ocean. Ratnosnisa God. In other depictions he arose as a child from the primeval lotus blossom. in southern India. Rbhus (skilful) Sun gods. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Ratri Goddess of the night. They are led by INDRA. with Agni the fire god. The notion of the . One of a group of nine NAVASAKTIS who. He is known in some inscriptions as “Re in OSIRIS. Consort of the thunder god UKKO and responsible for rainbows after storms. She deposits the gift of morning dew. He is generally depicted in the form of a falcon wearing the sun disc on its head. She is perceived as the guardian of eternal law and order in the cosmos and of the waves of time. AMOGHASIDDHI and VAIROCANA. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. Hindu (Vedic). wall paintings. Buddhist. Color: blue. rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. Attribute: jeweled staff. ART REFERENCES sculpture. CENTER(S) OF CULT Heliopolis and elsewhere through the Nile valley. circa 3000 BC until the end of Egyptian history. Identified in the Rg Veda as the craftsmen of the gods and linked with the Maruts. coffin texts.264 Ratnolka AMITABHA. emphasizing a fragmented tribal past in the pre-Dynastic period. carvings. She may also equate with the terrifying aspect of PARVATI as DURGA or KALI. stone reliefs. Her sister is USAS. However she also offers a bleaker aspect as one who brings gloom and barrenness. Hindu (Vedic). Raudna (rowan tree) Goddess. Buddhist. the Westcar Papyrus. An USNISA deity apparently linked with the guardian sky deities or dikpalas in the southern direction. Re is one of several manifestations of the sun god and creator god of Egypt. RE Egyptian. papyrus illustrations. Finno-Ugrian. surrounded by the serpentine form of the cobra-goddess WADJET. Ratnolka (jewel meteor) Goddess of light and deification of literature. Pre-Christian Lappish. Re-Atum. Color: yellow. Re is also perceived as god of the underworld. who. Ratri is generally regarded as a benign deity who offers rest and renewed vigor. chases her away. SYNONYMS Ra (Roman and Greek). Raudri Mother goddess. the dawn goddess. Ratri is the personification of darkness bedecked with stars. Attributes: bell and jewel.) Color: yellow.

The cobra element suggests his ability to deliver instant nemesis. His wife is Itum and he was also known as Res ˇ ep-Amukal and Res ˇ epSulman. warlike god. at the onset of night. Redarator Minor god of agriculture. pharaoh and in the linen bandages with which he is swathed in death. At Edfu Renenutet takes the title “lady of the robes. Introduced into Egypt by the XVIII Dynasty during the sixteenth century BC and rapidly achieved some prominence. Also Ras ˇ ap. There is some evidence that she enjoyed a cult in the Faiyum. in which case she bears close association with the goddess WADJET who is embodied in the uraeus. . Several minor deities were also. Hindu. lord of the western horizon. Res ˇ ep (A)Mukal War and plague god. Her gaze has the power to conquer enemies. He has links with the Theban war god MONTU and was thought of as a guardian deity in battle by many Egyptian pharaohs. In her capacity as a fertility goddess she suckles infant rulers and provides good crops and harvests.Revanta 265 “Eye of Re” is a very complex one. often with a gazelle’s head springing from his forehead. Known mainly from eastern India and Gujarat. Roman. by repute. She is depicted either in human form or as a hooded cobra. Res ˇ ep is probably modeled on the Mesopotamian NERGAL. originating in Syria. The influence of Res ˇ ep extended to Cyprus during the preHellenic period and at the time of Hellenization he was allied to and perhaps syncretized with APOLLO. the notion took shape that the combined deity was Re by day as the sun climbed above the eastern horizon and became Osiris. the highly fertile region of the Nile valley. Re was regarded with a considerable amount of fear. In Egyptian iconography he is depicted wearing the crown of Upper Egypt surmounted in front by the head of a gazelle. linked in this capacity to OSIRIS and the more ancient grain god NEPER. The son of SURYA and SANJNA. generated out of drops of blood falling from Re’s penis which he self-mutilated (see SIA). Egyptian. Renenutet Snake goddess. Also possessing fertility connotations. she became adopted by the Greeks as the goddess Hermouthis and was syncretized with ISIS. Associated with second ploughing and invoked by sacrifice. He also exerted a benign influence against disease. he is said to have created mankind from his tears. The cult of Re took on major importance at Heliopolis from the middle of the third millennium when the V Dynasty rulers entitled themselves as the sons of Re. in essence. Western Semitic (Canaanite and Phoenician). generally with TELLUS and CERES. Closely linked with the underworld god Osiris. He is depicted as a youthful. his power and perfection.” In the Greco-Roman period. she guarded the pharaoh in the form of a cobra. Infrequently depicted in art. suggesting several things including. he is said to have shot firebrands with a bow and arrow. and with a spear in his right hand. Res ˇ ef. By contrast. She is also a magical power residing in the linen robe of the Revanta (with wealth) God of hunters. he protects mankind against the dangers of the forest. Reret See TAWERET.

Rind Chthonic goddess. Greco-Roman.266 Revati Revati Minor goddess of fortune. . One of the consorts of GANESA. Goddess of learning. known only from the Theogony (Hesiod) and Iliad (Homer). daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Romano-Celtic. She is mentioned as a consort of OTHIN and mother of VALI. she is the consort of KRONOS and mother of ZEUS and other gods of Olympus. the deity responsible for the appear- Goddess. Known from inscriptions and associated with the Treveri tribe. Rheie See RHEA. Rhea Primordial goddess. Riddhivasita (control of prosperity) Minor goddess. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Northern Germanic and Nordic (Icelandic). Greek. Rindr. The deity was actually conceived by the Greeks and shrines were set up at centers including Smyrna and Ephesus. Buddhist. Rhiannon Chthonic horse goddess. 2. Ritona Goddess of river fords. He is the son of TANGAROA. Rigisamus God of war. Greek and Roman. She carries Laksmi’s attributes when standing alone. Celtic (Irish). Rohini (red) 1. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). She is also recognized in Roman literature under the same name. One of three judges attending the goddess of justice THEMIS evaluating the souls of the dead entering Hades. Polynesian and Maori. The daughter of OURANOS and GAIA. Minor goddess of fortune. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Roma Tutelary goddess. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). and the father of KAHUKURA. One of a group of VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Attribute: moon disc. she rides upon a white mare and is associated with the underworld and with fertility. Assimilated with MARS. A benevolent NAKSATRA. Color: green. A benevolent NAKSATRA. Also Rinda. Jain.” Authors suggest she is modeled on the goddess MODRON and she partly equates with EPONA. Rhadamanthos Minor chthonic underworld god. May be virtually synonymous with the Romano-Celtic goddess Rigantona whose name means “great queen. Riddhi (prosperity) Rongomai Whale god. but otherwise very close in appearance to LAKSMI. She is the mother of BUDHA. The daughter of Hefaidd Hen and consort of PWYLL. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. the creator deity responsible for the oceans and the fish. Also Rheie.

purse or cornucopia. she may bear a twin-headed ax or. Polynesian and Maori. Rongomatane God of agriculture. though the latter is generally considered a distinct personality. Often linked with the fire god AGNI and the rain god INDRA. alternatively. who is revered mainly in Hawaii. Rongo is one of the five sons of the moon god. or Rongo.Rudra 267 ance of the rainbow. His sacred bird is the ibis. Said to be similar to the Jain avatara of V IS . ˇ IVA. When his older siblings set about separating the prime parents from their eternal lovemaking in order to allow light into the space between sky and earth. Ruamoko is of less importance than PELE. the chief volcano goddess of Polynesia. An androgynous being symbolized by the evening star. a guise in which he once challenged MARU. Rudiobus Probably a horse god. An early deity. Africa]. Rudra (howler) Weather god. Polynesian (including Maori). a preventative charm against witchcraft. Ruamoko God of volcanoes and earthquakes. Vatea. Generally a malignant Rsabha (the bull) God. Also ARSU (Palmyra). See also MERCURIUS. He is also regarded as the ancestor of several Maori clans. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). In addition to her purse. Ruamoko is the youngest son of RANGINUI and PAPATUANUKU and is possessed by a formidable temper. Rosmerta (great provider) Fertility goddess. Various traditions are associated with Rongomai. Papa. who controls the gales largely superseded by S and storms. According to tradition. including the power of kaiwhatu. As the god responsible for the well-being of whales Rongomai may take the form of a whale. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. An unusual ˇ NU. In the traditions of the Hervey Islands. Hindu (Vedic). he was enraged and his boisterous tantrum became revealed in the violence of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Consort to the god Mercury. He is the father of cultivated food and the special gardener of the kumara or sweet potato which is a vital crop in Polynesia. Known from an inscription at Neuvy-en-Sullias which includes a depiction of a stallion. a more widely recognized New Zealand war god. Rubanga Creator god. Alur [Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo. She and Mercury frequently appear together. deity Rsabhanatha and therefore may represent an attempt to meld the two religions by absorbing Jainism locally. Ruda Tutelary god. Romano-Celtic (Gallic and British). Probably locally worshiped and often depicted carrying a basket of fruit. Separate mythology places him in the heavens in the form of a comet. Rongomai is sometimes mistakenly identified with RONGOMATANE. and the mother goddess. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). she may carry Mercury’s caduceus (snake-entwined wand). In some regions of New Zealand he is also regarded as a god of war and is thought to have discovered the magic arts during a visit to the underworld. In New Zealand the first sweet potatoes are offered to Rongomatane.

she is the first consort of KRSNA . An epithet of DURGA. He does not appear in the sacred Shinto texts Kojiki or Nihongi. depending on the severity of the storm. Ryangombe Tutelary god. Rwanda [East Africa]. He is of Chinese origin and more Buddhist than Shinto. Shinto [Japan]. One of the ASTAMATARAS. impersonated by a young pre-menstrual girl in the Durga festivals. Rudrani Goddess. Roman. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. lakes and large ponds from which he ascends in mists and winds. Hindu. Rudracarcika Mother goddess. Her son is KAMA. East Africa]. Buddhist (Mahayana). She is also an avatara of LAKSMI. he is regarded as a distant figure and seldom invoked. Identified by the historian Saxo Grammaticus as inhabiting the island of Rügen. His main festival takes place in June. One of a group of nine NAVADURGAS. Rupini Minor goddess. alternatively a variety of the goddess DURGA. Associated with breastfeeding.” Minor goddess. particularly in times of drought. Also Rukmabayi. He brings death and disease to man and domestic animals through his “thousand shafts. Attribute: a lotus. Slav. he is symbolized by a double eagle carrying prey in its talons. Hindu. A deity controlling thunder and rain and probably the most significant of the group of weather gods known as the RAIJIN. Rugievit Local tutelary and war god. An ancestral deity and king of the spirit world who has an oracular capacity. depicted with seven heads and carrying a sword. Ruhanga Creator god. Also associated with hunting. The daughter of Bhismaka. The initiator of the world.268 Rudracandra god. known as the “nine durgas. He lives in the sea. Hittite and Hurrian. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). but enjoys shrines in many Shinto sanctuaries and is worshiped by farmers. Rudra lives in the mountains and is deemed to be either tall or dwarf. Hindu (Puranic). and typically stands to his right. Ryujin Dragon god. Bunyoro [Uganda. He generates dark rain clouds which then burst. Rundas God of fortune.” and is considered to be highly unpredictable. Rukmini (with gold ornaments) Goddess. Rumina Rudracandra Distinct form of the goddess DURGA.

was horrified at what she had created. His influence extended into Roman culture where he reached a height of popularity circa AD 200. in Gnostic cosmogony. The form of Avalokitesvara that is incarnate in the succession of Dalai Lamas. Eventually Hellenized. Sadaksari (Lokesvara) Variety of AVALOKITESVARA. One of a pair of creator deities. SYNONYMS none. He had a daughter who eloped with Alatangana and bore fourteen children.S 6 Sa Chthonic creator god. with ALATANGANA. but see below. Color: white. including the forces of chaos. 269 . identified with ZEUS and DIONYSOS and linked with Dionysiac mysteries. having been responsible for Yaldabaoth. Sa inhabited the primeval swamps before the sky or the light existed and before there were any living things on earth. Sabaoth. three pairs of black and four pairs of white. LITERARY SOURCES Nag Hammadi codices. West Africa]. conch. is one of the seven offspring of the “primal parent” YALDABAOTH. who had become arrogant and impious. ART REFERENCES none. and backed the primordial female force SOPHIA who. lotus and rosary. Sabaoth rebelled against his father. Sabazios SABAOTH Gnostic Christian [eastern Mediterranean]. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. ORIGIN God. Phrygian [northwestern Turkey]. YHWH. The narrative which emerges in such works as Origin of the World is confused and in places contradictory.” Sabaoth is joined by seven benign archangels and in the first great battle of the cosmos comes to rule over all. Kono [eastern Guinea. appearing in Athens from circa 400 BC. Arguably Sabaoth equates to the god of Israel. Creator god. As late as AD 300 there are frescoes of Sabazios in the tomb of Vibia whose husband was a priest of the god’s cult. His device is a right hand cast in bronze and decorated with symbols representing his benevolence. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP uncertain origins until circa AD 400. SAMAEL. She describes Yaldabaoth as “a blind god. all of whom spoke different languages and to whom Sa gave the tools of survival. Attributes: book. jewel. CENTER(S) OF CULT undefined cells within the area of early Christian influence.

Attributes: arrow. In iconography Sakhmet is generally depicted in human form. A BODHISATTVA or buddhadesignate. Songhai [eastern Mali. ART REFERENCES sculptures. AMUN. He may have developed from an Egyptian god Sai (Greek: Psais). Attributes: staff. Egyptian. . to the Greek coast. who is the consort of the sun god of Thebes. syncretized with the goddess MUT. Also Satrapis (Greek). but with the head of a lioness surmounted by a sun disc. LITERARY SOURCES coffin texts. etc. The ritual is accompanied by a rain dance. blue lotus. and sword with staff. image of Amoghasiddhi on crown. like HATHOR in her attempt to destroy the human race. Sajara Rainbow god. One of several deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. lotus and rosary. West Africa]. and sword on a blue lotus. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3000 BC until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. the mother of the god of the primordial lotus blossom. by implication. wall paintings. particularly at Karnak from sixteenth century BC onward. Buddhist. Sai’ Al Qaum (the good and beautiful god who does not drink wine) Local guardian deity. Memphis and other sanctuaries along the Nile valley. during the Hellenic period. possibly S CENTER(S) OF CULT Heliopolis. NEFERTUM. Known from inscriptions. royal tombs at Thebes. Sakhmet is a significant deity in the Egyptian New Kingdom at Memphis.270 Sadbhuja-Sitatara Sadbhuja-Sitatara God. Western Semitic (Syrian) and Pontic. Sahar Moon god. to an extent. (see IS Sakhmet is. In the Karnak complex large numbers of Sakhmet’s statues. Western Semitic (Nabataean). Her father is the sun god RE and she is the consort of PTAH. Occasionally she is drawn with a rosette pattern over each breast ˇ TAR). Perceived as a rainbow-colored snake and symbolized by a tree where white rams are sacrificed and hung. Known originally from Palmyra. etc. typically hewn in black granite and in which she holds the ankh symbol of life or a papyrus stem. Known from two inscriptions at Palmyra which suggest him to be a protector of caravans. Goddess of war. royal tombs at Thebes. Color: white. SYNONYMS Sachmet. bow. Buddhist. She is. Color: white. she can be the vengeful Sagaramati (mind of the ocean) God. were raised in the precinct of the Mut sanctuary. his popularity spread to Carthage and. An emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI and a variety of SITATARA. Attributes include a helmet. The animals’ blood is sprinkled on the tree. Buddhist (Vajrayana). SAKHMET ORIGIN (the powerful one) Sadrapa God of healing. Three-headed. Sadhumati (good) Minor goddess. He is depicted on reliefs as a youth holding a scorpion or snake. Attributes: conch. Western Semitic (Aramaic). ˇ ESMETET. Color: white. She is said to breathe fire against the enemies of the pharaoh and.

or creative force. The god of the month asvina and an epithet of the Vedic god INDRA. Hindu. The Sakti may frequently have the same characteristics and carry the same attributes as the principal god. Salus (salvation) Minor god of health. particularly the creative force of the god S ugra or violent aspects DURGA and KALI. who became pregnant and gave birth to Moa in the center of the earth. erally linked with S Salm of Mahram (image of Mahram) Local tutelary god. Gan [Accra region. Western Semitic (Syrian). Polynesian. the SAKTI identifies the ˇ IVA. Sakumo God of war. Color: golden. god of the dead.Salus 271 “eye of Re. one of the seven hills . Sakhmet is a guardian goddess against disease.” In a more benign aspect. the earth mother. Sumuqan. A consort of ADAD. (Moa may have been the ancestor of mankind. the god of dawn. of a deity in the form of a female aspect. Sakyamuni (the sage of the Sakyas) God. In a more specific context.” She is sometimes linked with Hathor who is described as the “mistress of the house of Sakhmet. she carries a doubleheaded mace-scimitar embellished with lion heads. Also Amakandu. the unity of opposites is defined by the Sakti. A sanctuary dated to 302 BC on the Quirinal. The historical BUDDHA. and the consort of PAPATUANUKA. Correspondence of the Babylonian king Nabonidus (559-539 BC) mentions that this deity was worshiped at Taima. Buddhist. probably deriving from the Sumerian god LAHAR. male lingam of S ˇ alim S God of evening. He is the brother of SAVEA SI’ULEO. Salagrama ˇ NU. West Africa]. ˇ akka(n) S God of cattle. Gods in the region were often named after local places and personified by a stone stele carved with schematic anthropomorphic features and a winged disc showing strong Egyptian influence. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). A Aniconic form of the god V IS fossil ammonite shell embodying the god and forming a part of daily ritual in many Vaisnava households as well as appearing in monasteries. In Tantrism. Roman. known mainly from Tibet. Sakti (energy) Personification of a god. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Attribute: a bowl. The guardian deity of the Gan tribe. Sakra (the mighty one) Salevao Primordial god of rocks. Genˇ AR.) God. ˇ ala S War goddess. Ghana. A patron god of herdsmen. Hindu (late). Jain and Buddhist. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. which is the yoni or female sexuality that unites with the ˇ iva. an important trade and religious center where he was head of the pantheon. roughly equating to Adam. The effective power. He stands upon a lotus. Also Salman.

His sanctuary is known as the E-babbar. His consort ˇ amas is the mother goddess A-A. Also one of the minor incarnations of Vis ˇ nu worshiped in the cult of the pancaviras by the Vrisni clans. is dedicated to the deity. There is an altar at Corbridge in Northumberland. alternatively the son of ˇ NU. Gnostic Christian. Attributes: bell. He was also worshiped within the colonies of the empire. is also his stepmother. and a staff. See also BO HSIAN. His unnamed consort. Also associated with human-headed bulls. and Kettu. righteousness. justice.” See also YALDABAOTH. One of several deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. He is associated with justice. Pre-Islamic Arabian. Heroic god. The younger brother of the god of love KAMA and equating to SAMBA. derived from S . He came to much greater prominence in the pantheon at Babylon from about the eighteenth century BC. Sampsa Samantaprabha (possessing universal splendor) Minor goddess. in the south female. S ˇ derives from ˇ ams S Sun deity. England with a votive inscription to Salus. (sedge) Vegetation god. The patron deity of Sippar and Larsa. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). green or white. In Tibet he is also known as Kun-tu-bzan-po. His attendant deities include Mes ˇaru. He is perceived as a giver of life to seed which lies dormant through the winter months. Samkarsana Localized form of BALARAMA. In the north the being is male.272 Sama of Rome. The younger brother of the god KAMA V IS and consort of INDUKARI. the god UTU in the Sumerian pantheon. ˇ amas S ˇ Sun god. A form of VAIROCANA and a dhyanibodhisattva (spiritual meditation buddha). cup. He may carry a single-headed scimitar embellished with a panther head. to whom he is wed in a form of sacred marriage which takes place at sowing time. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. Color: red. lotus with prayer wheel or sword. worshiped in northern India. Color: blue.” wears a blue robe with a red garland and carries a nanjil (plough). Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India and Sri Lanka]. Buddhist (Vajrayana). The son of KRSNA and RUKMINI. His symbol is the sun disc and a star surrounded with radiating sunbeams. He sits on a throne carried by a white elephant. Sama Obscure heroic god. Samba Samael Creator god. Probably ˇ AMAS ˇ. Attributes include a bowl and a snake. jewel. Buddhist. Attributes: an image of AMITABHA carried in the hand. The “blind god. Has a complexion “white like milk. Samantabhadra (all-good) God. Hindu [northern India]. Pre-Christian Finnish. Known circa first to fifth century AD.

Astral god. lotus. Originally a Bon deity who became syncretized as a variety of the god YAMA in Lamaism. after which the rest of the grain is sown round about. Sango God of thunder. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Javan. Color: red. jewel. Attributes include an ax which is worn on the head and bears six eyes. NANA. At transplanting. West Africa]. 2. His SAKTI is VAJRAVARAHI. Buddhist (Mahayana). Attributes: bell. image of four-faced BRAHMA. His animal is the bull and he may appear bull-headed. Color: blue. Represented by parts of the rice plant known as indoea padi (mother of the rice). In Lamaism he is a four-headed tutelary yi-dam god. Attribute: a staff. Saning Sari Sandhya Goddess. rosary. Stands upon a lotus or rides in an iron chariot drawn by eight piebald horses. knife. A Hellenized version of an Asiatic god whose daughter. ter of BRAHMA and consort of S Rice mother. Attributes: arrow. Buddhist. Attributes: cup. Sangarios River god.Saning Sari 273 Samvara (keeping out) God. Hindu. gSan Sgrub God. regal trappings. bow. staff and trident. bell. At harvesting. skin. At planting. Stands upon a tortoise. the shoots making up the rice mother are given a similar special place in the paddy field. She impregnated herself with an almond seed. drum. is. Threeeyed and three-headed. . image of Aksobhya on the crown. the mother of the vegetation god ATTIS. the rice mother plants are “found” and brought home for the following year’s planting. The daughˇ IVA or other deities. Typically she displays an enigmatic smile. Attributes: ax. Astral god. First deified during the Sung Dynasty (AD 960-1279) to combat the popularity of KUAN YIN. Color: blue or black. the finest grain is picked out and sown in the nursery bed in the form of the goddess. cup. no mortal existence is recognized for this deity who is referred to simply as “heavenly mother. staff and trident.” the three mythical islands which are the home of the gods. prayer wheel. Color: black or blue. Bon and Lamaist [Tibet]. Sani 1. according to some traditions. One of the emanations of AKSOBHYA and also of HEVAJIRA. One of a group of Lamaist tutelary or yi-dam deities chosen on an individual basis as personal guardians. He stands upon one or more four-armed Hindu deities including Kalaratri and BHAIRAVA. She is depicted wearing a yellow robe signifying imperial rank and carries the attribute of a scepter. Color: blue-black. staff and sword. San Chou Niang Niang Mother goddess. knife and prayer wheel. moon disc. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Chinese. San-Dui Tutelary god. The son of SURYA and CHAYA and the personification of the planet Saturn. Phrygian [northwestern Turkey].” By tradition she rules over the “islands of the blessed. Yoruba [Nigeria. His sacred animal is the ram whose bellowing is likened to the noise of thunder.

the mother of YAMA. she is perceived as a bird that acts as a messenger. The father of the goddess SANJU and an adversary of the war god GISH. nude to the waist. Chinese. threshing and winnowing of grain and the safe storage of wheat and butter. She first appeared in northern India in 1960 and has since developed a sizeable cult following. Sanmukha (six-headed) God. Also CAMUNDA. A littlereported deity. Hindu. Described as a “Muslim. Modeled on the Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) ˇ AMAS ˇ. His SAKTIS include VIJAYA and Jaya. Sao Ching Niang Niang Mother goddess. Kafir [Afghanistan]. a consort of SURYA and. Also Sulmech. ˇ apas S ˇ Sun god. Hindu. Hindu. Santi (peace of mind) Goddess. Sankha(pala) Snake god. Also Sanru. Three-eyed. God of the month asadha. God of obscure affinities. One of the SAPTAMATARAS. She removes rain clouds when they threaten to flood crops. Santoshí Mata Mother goddess.” so perhaps of foreign import. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Sanju Harvest goddess. A form of SKANDA and the son of PASUPATI and Svaha. Kafir (Afghanistan). She controls the harvesting. the consort of the war god GISH and daughter of SANU. Attributes: cup and rosary. Mother goddess. One of a group of seven MAHANAGAS or nagadevas. Modern Hindu. She is invoked to assist in gaining personal advancement and prosperity. The daughter of TVASTAR. She carries a golden winnow and is either depicted in human form or as a goat. Also the personification of one of the five trees of paradise. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Santana (offspring) Minor god. part of which reportedly still exists. He holds a large variety of attributes. One of the “nine dark ladies” of the pantheon who adopt a protective role. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). The consort of TRIVIKRAMA. Alternatively. god S . Hindu (Epic and Puranic). in some texts.274 Sanjna Sanjna (conscience) Santa (appeased) Goddess. Her cult is known chiefly from the village of Pronz in the southern Hindukush where she enjoyed an important sanctuary with stone seats around the icon. Also Arumukan. Sanu Sankari Mother goddess. A SAKTI who is one of a group of both SAPTAMATARA and ASTAMATARA mothers. SANU. The blood of sacrificial animals was poured over the figure. Wooden statues depict her in human form. Western Semitic (Canaanite). The son of Ugra and DIKSA.

Associated with autumn. He was worshiped extensively in the Roman Empire period. Hindu (Vedic. and an attendant of the goddess SRIDEVI. Mainly identified with the city of Umma. and Puranic) [India]. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally in bronze. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 600 BC. See also VIVASVAN. but also in stone. and at Merida in Spain. SARASVATI (flowing water) Sarama (the nimble one) Attendant goddess. but she is accounted as having an impetuous nature. ORIGIN Saranyu (the fleet one) Primordial goddess of uncertain affinities. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Sarapis is perceived to epitomize both the fertility of the land and the life of the sacred bull after death. Her consort is Vivasvat. ˇ ar S God of the dawn. YAMA and YAMI. Ramayana epic and Puranic texts. until present. Hindu (Vedic). Generally linked with the god of evening. LITERARY SOURCES Rg Veda and other Vedic texts. ASKLEPIOS and DIONYSOS. Reliefs. Epic and Puranic). A sanctuary at York in England was dedicated by a soldier of the sixth legion. patron of the arts. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Hindu (Vedic. Saranyu is the daughter of the god TVASTAR. Seven deities of evil influence. Sarapis God. Attributes: cup and lotus. BuddhistLamaist [Tibet]. Mother goddess and goddess of wisdom. and the sister of VISVARUPA. who symbolizes the earthly presence of PTAH. who generally inflict disease or other harm on children. Late Egyptian. the twin progenitors of the human race. S ˇ ara S Minor war god. Epic. Attributes: cup. Other epithets include BHARATI. Western Semitic (Syrian). but undoubtedly based on much earlier prehistoric models. SYNONYMS Brahmi. She acts as a messenger to the god INDRA and guards his herds. HELIOS. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout India. Common color: red. Known only from the Greco-Roman period of the early Ptolemies (fourth century BC) but persisting in Europe until second or third century AD.SARASVATI 275 Saptamatara Generic title of a group of mother goddesses. Vagdevi (goddess of speech). and magnificent statues were discovered in the Walbrook Mithraeum in London. ˇ ALIM. knife and peacock feather. Also Seraphis (Greek). and ˇ TAR). Little else is known of her.” The Rg Veda accounts her as having punished the minor deity Panis for stealing cows. and APIS. Her sacred animal is an antelope. In Egyptian religion Sarapis is a hybridization of certain aspects of OSIRIS. identified in some texts as the son of INANA (IS Saraddevi (goddess of autumn) Fertility and vegetation goddess. by whom she is said to be the mother of Sarasvati. may have begun as a Vedic river goddess (the actual river . the bull god. Later. north east of Unug (Uruk). the underworld god. as an identifiable personality. In later Hindu texts Sarama is reputedly the mother of all dogs and is given the epithet the “bitch of heaven. In Greek mythology he takes on aspects of ZEUS.

jewel. of the weather god TES His sacred animal is a panther. One of a group of DHARANIS. waterjar and other items. Originally a Hurrian deity adopted by the Hittite state religion. She is generally depicted with either two or four arms. sword and staff.” A Hindu festival in her honor is celebrated in early January or late February. Sarvabuddhadharma-Kosavati virtues of all the buddhas) (with the God of literature. ˇ u-Sin. Other texts offer her ˇ NU. The deification of texts. Attribute: staff. bow. A dhyaniboddhisattva or spiritual meditation buddha. Attribute: ax. prayer wheel. hook. Color: green. In the Vedic capacity her waves are said to smash mountains and her voice is the roar of the torrent.276 Sarpanitu(m) Sarasvati has now disappeared but she may also be linked with the Indus. Roman. She may be seated or ride upon a swan or a peacock or a lotus. in antiquity. by inference. Attributes: basket of jewels and staff. She may offer a piece of sugar cane or a flower to Brahma. She is said to have invented Sanskrit and is identified as goddess of wisdom and of the arts. Invoked during growing and harvesting of crops. Color: white. Since her source of strength is the primeval water. Attributes include particularly the lute but also arrow. moon disc. in contention with LAKSMI as consort of V IS She also became syncretized with the goddess VAC. Color: yellow. She is a patron goddess of students. In her capacity as a Vedic goddess she is invoked on the sacrificial field with the lesser goddesses ILA. Buddhist. bell. By Hellenistic times deity of the city of S she probably became the more important goddess Sarrahitu who is included in the pantheon at Uruk and mentioned in various cult texts where she is described as “the bride” and was presumably involved in a sacred marriage ceremony. The deification of texts. pencils and pens are offered to her by children before they begin classes. and books. etc). Sarvakarmavaranavisodhani (washing away the obstruction of all deeds) God of literature. Her presence purifies and. Originally the tutelary . One of a group of DHARANIS. Color: white. ˇ arrahitu S ˇ ARRA ITU. she also provides prosperity. ˇ arruma S God. Thus. Sarvanivaranaviskambhin (remover of stain) God. See S Sarritor Minor god of agriculture. the demonic god of chaos. The son ˇ UB and his consort HEBAT. Her image often appears on the portals of school gates. MAHI and HOTRA. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Buddhist (Mahayana). Infrequently three-headed. she slew VRTRA. Sarpanitu(m) ˇ arra Itu S See ZARPANITUM. book. rosary. club. conch. Attributes: book. Fertility goddess. In later Puranic literature Sarasvati (Brahmi) becomes the first consort of the creator god BRAHMA (see also GAYATRI). Buddhist. The Vedas are her inspiration and she may be known as the “mother of the Vedas. she is inexhaustible and she is a bringer of fertility and bountiful harvests. BHARATI. Hittite and Hurrian.

as a ˇ IVA. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). According to legend her father was DAKSA and her mother PRASUTI. The consort of the ram god KHNUM and.Satis 277 Sarvapayanjaha (remover of miseries) God. The mythology is the basis of the practice of self-sacrifice which came to be known as sati or suttee. Satarupa (with a hundred forms) Minor goddess. A dhyaniboddhisattva or spiritual mediation buddha.” Eventually she dies at Daksa’s feet from the selfimmolating heat of her own purity and zeal. Sati is the older incarnation of the benign aspect of the goddess Sakti. A dhyanibodhisattva or spiritual meditation buddha. Jain [India]. SATI ORIGIN (truth) Sarvasokatamonirghatamati sorrow) (destroyer of God. She is depicted wearing the conical white crown of Upper Egypt. Buddhist. but also in stone. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 400 until present. Mother goddess. Egyptian. She is reincarnated as Parvati. (she who shoots. LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana and other texts. but the marital association is consort of S generally recognized when he is in his form known as Bhava. Satabhisa Minor goddess of fortune. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally in bronze. Alternatively she is perceived as an incarnation of LAKSMI. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. A guardian of the southern (Nubian) border of Upper Egypt. SYNONYMS Sakti. Generic name for one of a group of twenty-four who minister to the tirthankaras or saints of Jainism. the mother of ANUKIS. bearing tall plumes or antelope horns. At her maiden. the youngest of whom was Sati. Hindu (Puranic). A group of seven female deities fathered by BAAL. She is perceived as an ideal Hindu wife and mother who. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). an epithet meaning “existence. The daughter of B RAHMA with whom he committed incest and whose beauty caused him to generate four heads so that he might view her from all directions. whereupon ˇ iva appears in front of her. A malevolent NAKSATRA. Buddhist (Mahayana). PARVATI CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. She bore sixteen daughters. She becomes the S ˇ iva. Color: white. Jain [India]. Attribute: hook in two hands. She is also connected with fire-walking rituals. Satis is Satis . Western Semitic (Canaanite). by implication. she who pours) Minor goddess. falls in love with the god S choosing-of-a-husband ceremony she is disˇ iva and tressed that her father has not invited S throws her bridal wreath into the air. Sarvastramahajvala weapons) (the great blaze of all Goddess of learning. Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. Sasuratum Midwife goddesses. Also Kosharot (Hebrew). Sasanadevata Messenger goddess.

Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. but thought to have originated as an agricultural deity concerned with sowing of seed. Known particularly from southern India as the second consort of K RSNA . Pre-Christian Latvian. See also LAKSMANA. Also Satjit.278 Satrughna described in Pyramid Texts. ˇ NU. Saturnus Astral god. hair and horns of a goat. Hindu (Puranic). (with true luster) Goddess. Satrughna (destroyer of foes) Minor god. Buddhist. She is depicted in human form with wings. Attribute: also as the secorid consort of V IS a flower. The brother of SALEVAO. she is perceived as living on a heavenly farm atop a mythical mountain and invoked to induce fertility and ripening among crops. Attributes: holding the mountain known as Meru. Hindu-Dravidian (Tamil). who stands on her left. and waterjar with jewels. Color: red. Saturnus was celebrated in the Saturnalia festival (December 17-19) during which masters and slaves exchanged roles and candles were given as gifts to symbolize the winter darkness. God of the dead. particularly the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. The original Vedic list of six descendants of the goddess ADITI or . One of a group of gauris. Hittite and Hurrian. Saubhagya-Bhuvanesvari (buddha of good fortune) Goddess of good fortune. also functioning as the imperial treasury. Savitar (impeller) Sun god. S ˇ ka is known in detail only because she became the patron goddess of the Hittite king Hattusilis II (1420-1400 BC). The brother of LAKSMANA and a half-brother to the god RAMA. A sanctuary existed on the Roman forum from as early as 450 BC. Saule Sun goddess. Generic term for an assortment of divine beings with a human torso and the legs. S ˇ ka was adopted by the Hittite state religion. Satyabhama Savari Goddess of terrifying appearance. Attributes: red lotus. They include the god PAN and the demigod Silenus who raised the adolescent BACCHUS. His mother is Sumitra. Greco-Roman. Identified with the planet Saturn. god of rocks. Also having agricultural links. He may be depicted holding a fly whisk in each hand. Her consorts are the sky god DIEVS and the moon god MENESS. She is also identified with war and is particularly renowned as a goddess of healing. standing with a lion and accompanied by two attenˇ aus dants. Of Hurˇ aus rian origin. Polynesian. Roman. Color: white. Savea Si’uleo Satyr Woodland god. A gentle and benevolent deity. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). and there is reference to a sanctuary built for her at Elephantine. Satet (both Egyptian). ˇ aus S ˇ ka Fertility goddess.

The mother of all the creatures of the sea and invoked by fishermen.Semele 279 ADITYAS. They are. Depicted Probably a form of the goddess SES in human form bearing a seven-pointed star or rosette on her head below a bow-shaped object. She becomes largely syncretized with HEKATE and in Roman culture equates with the goddess LUNA. Egyptian. Color: golden. Selardi Moon god. The fostermother of the god HORUS and particularly invoked to safeguard cattle. Attributes: club. According to legend she fell in love with the sleeping Endymion. Sefkhet-Abwy (she who has seven horns) Local goddess of libraries and writing. ˇ AT. Egyptian. Popular as a personal deity and often identified on protective amulets. S Ani papyrus as being present at the ritual of the weighing of the heart. in company with funerary goddesses including Meskhenet. Greco-Roman but probably of Thracian or Phrygian origin.” He may also equate with the German god Tyr. Egyptian (Lower). The counterpart of the Mesopotamian deity SIN. Sekhet-Hor Cow goddess. in later times. The children of the god ANU who follow the war god ERRA into battle. ˇ ed S Guardian god. According to legend . The name may derive from the word sahsginot meaning “companion of the sword. Egyptian. Securita Guardian goddess. Greek. The tutelary deity of magicians. The daughter of HYPERION (a TITAN) and sister of the sun god HELIOS. Sebitti Group of minor war gods. The god of the rising and setting sun. Urartian [Armenia]. prayer wheel and two lotuses. Saxon. ˇ ay S Minor god of destiny. He is mentioned beside Woden and Thunor as one of the deities to be renounced at Christian baptism. all of whom take the role of sun gods was. Sea goddess. of good or evil influence. in alternative traditions. In Greco-Roman S times he was syncretized with the snake god Agathodaimon. Roman. including Savitar. enlarged to twelve. Inuit [Baffin Land]. ˇ EPSET and R ENENUTET . As Saxneat he was allegedly the founder of the Saxon royal dynasty in Essex. In Greek tradition they become the Pleiades. She was invoked to ensure the continuing stability of the Roman empire. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). she rides in a chariot drawn by two horses. Selene (radiant) Moon goddess. Depicted ˇ ay is mentioned in the wholly in human form. Semele (earth) Mother goddess. Sedna Saxnot Tutelary god.

280 Semnocosus
she was the mortal daughter of Cadmos and became the mother of the god DIONYSOS (BACCHUS) after a brief liaison with ZEUS (JUPITER), also in mortal guise. Semele was burned to death on Olympus, unable to withstand the presence of Zeus in godly form, but was subsequently deified by him. remedial properties. A bronze statuette of a goddess was found wearing a diadem, with arms spread and standing in a boat. The prow is in the shape of a duck, her sacred animal, with a cake in its mouth. Also found were models of dogs, an animal specifically associated with healing through its affinity with the Greco-Roman physician deity AESCULAPIUS.

Semnocosus
God of war. Romano-Iberian. Popular locally with troops of the Roman legions who occasionally sacrificed prisoners to him.

ˇ erida S
Mother goddess. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Became known as AYA in the Akkadian pantheon.

Senx
Sun god. Bella Coola Indian [British Columbia, Canada]. The ruler of the lower heaven, Sonx, in which is situated the home of the gods, Nusmeta (the house of myths). The only deity to whom the Bella Coola pray and make offerings. Hunters throw small pieces of mountain goat or seal flesh into a sacrificial fire. Also Ta’ata (our father); Smai’yakila (sacred one).

Serket(-hetyt)
Minor mortuary goddess. Egyptian. Known from the middle of the third millennium BC, she protects the throne of the king in the guise of a scorpion. She is depicted in human form wearing a headpiece in the form of a scorpion with its sting raised. In the Pyramid Texts she is the mother of the scorpion god NEHEBU-KAU. In her role as a mortuary goddess she is partly responsible for guarding the jars containing the viscera of the deceased. Although she is never identified as warding off the effect of scorpion stings, her influence has been regarded as effective against other venomous attacks. Also Selkis (Greek).

ˇ epset S
Local funerary goddess. Egyptian. Known chiefly at Memphis, where she appears as an attendant at the ritual of the weighing of the heart.

Sequana
River goddess. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). The tutelary goddess of the Sequanae tribe. A pre-Roman sanctuary northwest of Dijon near the source of the Seine has yielded more than 200 wooden votive statuettes and models of limbs, heads and body organs, attesting to Sequana’s importance as a goddess of healing. During the Roman occupation the site of Fontes Sequanae was sacred to her and was again considered to have healing and

Sesa(naga) (remainder)
Snake god or naga. Hindu (Vedic, Epic and Puranic). The great serpent lying in the primeval sea and encircling the world. The son of KASYAPA ˇ NU and KADRU. A many-headed attendant on V IS who uses the snake as a couch on which to rest between cycles of the universe. Its many hoods overshadow and protect him. Not technically a deity but important enough in literature to be included here. Also Adisesa; ANANTA.

SETH

281

Ses ˇ at
Goddess of libraries and the art of writing. Egyptian. Known from 2500 BC, or earlier, until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. She is depicted anthropomorphically bearing a seven-pointed star or rosette on her head, sometimes atop a wand and below a bow-shaped object. Early in her career she was associated with the ritual of “stretching the cord” during which boundary poles were rammed into the ground by the king before measuring out the foundations of a sanctuary. As a scribe she recorded the lists of foreign captives and their tributes. At Karnak in Upper Egypt and at Dendara she recorded the royal jubilees on a notched palm stem. See also SEFKHET-ABWY.

Set, Setekh, Setes ˇ , SUTEKH, Suty. chiefly a sanctuary in Upper Egypt at Ombos-Naqada, but also in Lower Egypt, in the northeast of the Nile delta. ART REFERENCES sculptures, stone reliefs, wall paintings, etc. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts, coffin texts, Book of the Dead, etc.
SYNONYMS CENTER(S) OF CULT

Sese
Chthonic goddess. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo, central Africa]. One of seven deities invoked at sunrise each day.

ˇ esmetet S
Egyptian goddess. See also SAKHMET.

Seta
Fertility goddess. Pokot and Suk [Uganda and western Kenya, East Africa]. The consort of the creator god TORORUT who is embodied in the Pleiades. Their children are ILAT, the rain god; ARAWA, the moon goddess; and Topoh, the evening star. The appearance of the Pleiades in the night sky marks the start of the planting season.

SETH
ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP

Egyptian. God of chaos and adversity. from 3000 BC or earlier until the end of Egyptian history, circa AD 400.

Seth is a deity who generally represents hostility and violence, but who has also claimed considerable respect. His parents are GEB and NUT and his fellow siblings include ISIS, OSIRIS and NEPHTHYS, who at times is also seen as his consort. More typically he is linked with Semitic war goddesses including ANAT and ASTARTE. Legend has it that he tore himself violently from his mother’s womb. He is depicted in human form with the head of an animal that seems to bear faint similarity to an aardvark with erect ears and a long curving snout. He is also depicted in wholly animal form, in which case the beast bears no real similarity to any living creature, but has a stiffly erect tail. Other animals symbolizing the god include the oryx, pig, boar and the hippopotamus when it is a disruptive element of the river. Seth is also represented by the crocodile (see Geb). Sometime during the middle of the third millennium, in the II Dynasty, there was a break with the tradition whereby the kings of Egypt were linked with the god HORUS. The falcon symbolism of Horus was replaced with that of the creature of Seth. Several Egyptian rulers followed his cult closely. Tuthmosis III in the XVIII Dynasty, for example, titled himself “the beloved of Seth.” In the Osirian legend first recorded in the Pyramid Texts and later popularized and embellished by the Greek writer Plutarch, Seth is the jealous adversary of his brother Osiris (see Osiris for details). Later he fought an eighty-year war of attrition with the son of Osiris, the falcon god Horus (see also Horus). During this time, the

282 Seyon
implication remains that he was favored by the sun god and only forceful wrangling resulted in victory falling to Horus as rightful overlord of the two Egyptian kingdoms. A separate mythology credits Seth with defense of the sun god RE as he is about to be swallowed by Apophis, the perennially hostile serpent god of the underworld. The so-called Book of the Dead accounts Seth as the “lord of the northern sky” who controls the storm clouds and thunder. Rameses II, in a treaty with the Hittites, implied a fusion of Seth with the Hittite storm ˇ UB. god TES natural beings called Sga’na Qeda’s for whom the land was first created. Also Masset San.

Shadanana-Subrahmanya
Form of the god KARTTIKEYA. Hindu (Puranic). The form possesses six heads and twelve arms. According to legend, the six heads arose because the fire god AGNI had an adulterous relationship with the six consorts of the risis (astral gods) who all needed to suckle the offspring. Like Karttikeya, he is usually depicted riding on a peacock.

Shang Kuo-Lao Seyon
(the red one) Creator god. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India and Sri Lanka]. An early deity associated particularly with hilly regions in parts of southern India and thought to live in trees. Also Muruga.
Immortal being. Taoist (Chinese). One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology, tradition has it that he was embodied as a bat which achieved immortality in human form. His sacred animal is an ass. Attributes include drum and drumsticks. See also BA XIAN.

ˇ ezmu S
Minor god of wine and oil presses. Egyptian. Known from circa 3000 BC until the end of Egyptian history, circa AD 400. In later iconography he is depicted as a lion, but more generally is ˇ ezmu had a definite cult followin human form. S ing in the fertile Faiyum region of the Nile valley, but was probably represented in most sanctuaries, particularly where ritual unguents were made and stored. He is recognized in both benign and malevolent roles. In the latter he is reputed to squeeze human heads like grapes, but in beneficent mood he provides aromatic oils and ointments.

Shang Ti
Creator god. Taoist (Chinese). See also YU HUANG SHANG TI.

Shango
Chthonic storm god. Yoruba [Nigeria, West Africa]. As an earth deity he was once a mortal man, the king of Oyo, who transformed himself into an immortal. According to tradition, during his life he breathed tongues of fire. He then ascended into the sky by climbing a golden chain and became the god of thunder and lightning. He is also god of justice, punishing thieves and liars. His consorts include OYA, Oshun and Oba. Cult followers of Shango are believed to be able to make lightning strike an adversary. In shrines to Shango, the image of the god is adorned with a ram’s head. Also SANGO.

Sga’na
Sea god. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island, Canada]. Embodied in the killer whale (Orca). The universe is believed to be inhabited by super-

Shina-Tsu-Hime

283

Shani
Astral god and bringer of misfortune. Hindu (late). The cult of Shani evolved in about the eighth century AD with the advance of Indian astronomy. He is propitiated frequently to ward off ill-luck and may be depicted sitting on a lotus or riding in a chariot. Attribute: a staff.

gShen-Lha-Odkhar
God of light. Bon (pre-Lamaist) [Tibet]. In the ancient religion he is a creator deity from whom all other gods are engendered. In Lamaism he evolves into a god of wisdom.

gShen-Rab Shankpana
Plague god. Yoruba [Nigeria, West Africa]. The son of SHANGO, he is credited with having once been a god of war who invaded the country (as a disease). He is particularly identified with smallpox. His symbol is the sesame plant which takes the form of a taboo and brings disease to those who take it into their house. A festival is held in September to propitiate Shankpana with sacrifices of animals and fruit. Supreme god. Bon (pre-Lamaist) [Tibet]. In the ancient religion he is the remote and barely defined creator deity. Attributes include a lotus and swastika.

Shichi-Fuku-Jin
Gods of luck. Shinto [Japan]. The seven principal deities concerned with fortune: EBISU, DAIKOKU, BENTEN-SAN, BISHAMON, FUKUROKUJU, HOTEI and JUNROJIN. The group is often represented together on their treasure ship Takara-Bune, which carries various magical devices including a hat of invisibility, a roll of brocade, an inexhaustible purse, keys to the divine treasure house and so on.

Sheela Na Gig
Mother goddess. Celtic (Irish). The primal earth mother closely associated with life and death. One of the rare depictions of Irish Celtic deities that have survived into the Christian era. She is shown naked, with large breasts, with her legs apart and holding open her vagina. The image frequently adorns walls of Irish churches. Also Sheila na Cioch.

Shina-Tsu-Niko
God of winds. Shinto [Japan]. The most senior of his group of wind deities, he disperses the morning mists and brings soft rustling breezes. His consort is Shina-Tsu-Hime and the couple are extensively worshiped by farmers and seafarers. They were allegedly responsible for bringing about a miracle in the thirteenth century AD when they kept at bay, with off-shore winds, the army of Gengis Khan. They are honored in the main IseJingu temple of Shintoism but their chief sanctuary is at Tatta, a small town in Yamamoto. Also Shina-Tobe-No-Mikoto.

Shen Nung
God of agriculture. Chinese. Known as the divine farmer. According to tradition, during his lifetime he invented the plough and taught basic agriculture and the use of herbs. In a more destructive aspect, he is also the god of the hot winds. He is depicted with the head of an ox and is regarded by some authors as a successor to NU KUA. Also Shen Nong.

Shina-Tsu-Hime

See SHINA-TSU-NIKO.

284 Shomde Shomde
Creator god of localized observance. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Known from various villages in the southern Hindukush. Shomde is regarded either as equating or senior to the more generally recognized god IMRA. According to observers he provides gold, silver and silk as well as butter, cheese, cream and flour. The main sanctuary was probably at the village of Dewa and in various wooden sculptures Shomde is depicted in human form. Also Wushum; Usum.

Si
Moon god. Chimu Indian (pre-Columbian) [coastal regions of Peru]. The head of the pantheon and guardian of weather and of harvests. He is depicted subtended by a sickle moon, wearing a feathered crown and an armored projection on his back. May also be represented as a goddess.

Sia
God of perception. Egyptian. Minor deity depicted at RE’s right hand where he holds the papyrus of intellect. He travels in the sun god’s barque. According to legend he was one of several deities formed in drops of blood falling from Re’s penis.

Shong Li-Kuan
Immortal being. Taoist (Chinese). One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology, he was once a mortal being who achieved immortality through his lifestyle. Attributes include a fan which he waves over the dead to revive them. See also BA XIAN.

ˇ i’a S
Minor attendant goddess. Western Semitic (Phoenician). The personification of the holiness ˇ AMIN. In Hellenic times of sanctuaries of BAAL S she may have become syncretized with TYCHE.

Shong-Kui
God of literature. Taoist (Chinese). According to tradition he committed suicide when he failed in his examinations. Also a guardian deity against demons, his attribute is a sword.

Siddhi

(accomplishment, success)

Shou Lao
God of longevity. Chinese. He originates as an astral deity but comes to head the heavenly ministry responsible for setting the span of a person’s life. He is also known as Nan-ji Hsian Weng, “the ancient of the South Pole.” His sacred animal is the crane, embodiment of long life.

Minor goddess of good fortune. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A deity who grants favors. Sometimes associated with the elephant god GANESA or MAHA-GANAPATI, on whose knee she may sit. In earlier times she was described as a consort of BHAGA.

Si’duku
Mother spirit. Kamchadal [southeastern Siberia]. The daughter of KUTKHU, Si’duku is the consort of her brother TI’ZIL-KUTKHU and the mother of Amle’i. Amle’i married another unnamed daughter of Si’duku and fathered the Kamchadal race.

Shurdi
Storm god. Illyrian [Albania]. Believed to send thunder and lightning and revered into more recent times.

Sina

285

Siduri
Minor goddess of brewing. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). Also identified with wisdom.

NOTE:

the term also defines the symbolic use

of fire.

Silaparamita (perfection of character) Sif
Corn goddess. Nordic (Icelandic) and Germanic. The consort of THOR. She is mentioned in the Eddaic Lay of Lokasenna and in the Lay of Harbarth. According to Snorri Sturluson she was originally a prophetess called Sibyl. She possesses great beauty and has long golden hair. Her sons are ULL and Loridi. According to tradition, LOKI cut off Sif’s hair in mischief, but when confronted and threatened by Thor, he had the dwarfs make her a magical hairpiece of pure gold which, when it touched her head, became a living part of her and grew. Philosophical deity. Buddhist. Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. Color: white. Attributes: floral prayer wheel and jeweled staff.

Silma Inua
Supreme god. Inuit. A remote and vaguely defined figure only rarely invoked or prayed to.

Silvanus
Minor god of woodlands and forests. Roman. Worship of Silvanus seems largely to have been limited to northern Italy. He became incorporated into the Celtic pantheon where his symbolism includes a bill-hook, pots and hammers. His sacred animal is the stag. The name was extended to embrace groups of woodland deities, the Silvani or Silvanae.

Sigyn
Goddess. Nordic (Icelandic). The consort of LOKI and listed among the AESIR goddesses. Her son is Nari or Narfi. According to tradition, SKADI, the consort of NJORD, set a poisonous snake to drip poison on to a captive Loki but Sigyn collected most of the venom in a bowl and threw it away.

Si’mskalin
Guardian spirit. Kamchadal [southeastern Siberia]. One of two sons of KUTKHU.

Sikhandin

Sin
Moon god. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). Derived from the older Sumerian model of NANNA. His consort is NIKKAL (NINGAL). He is symbolized by the new moon and perceived as a bull whose horns are the crescent of the moon. Cult centers are identified at Ur, Harran and Neirab. Also Suen (archaic).

(with a tuft of hair) Minor deity. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). One of a group of emancipated VIDYESVARAS (lords of ˇ IVA. knowledge) considered to be aspects of S Attributes: knife and sword.

Sikhin
Physician god. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Accounted among one of a series of medicine buddhas or SMAN-BLA. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes. Color: yellowish red.

Sina
Moon goddess. Polynesian (Samoan). See also HINA.

286 Sindhu Sindhu
River goddess. Hindu (Vedic). Identified only in the Rg Veda and of unknown source.

Sipe Gialmo
Mother goddess. Bon (pre-Lamaist) [Tibet]. The so-called “queen of the world.” Her animal is a mule. Attributes: banner, bowl, parasol, swastika, sword and trident. Three-eyed.

Singala
Local god. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Mentioned only in name by the Babylonian king Nabonidus, worshiped at Taima and influenced strongly by Egyptian culture. See also SALM OF MAHRAM.

Sipylene
Mother goddess. Smyrna (Anatolia) [west coast of Turkey]. The localized name of the great mother, worshiped in the Metroon sanctuary.

Sinhanada

(lion’s roar)

Sirara
Goddess of the Persian Gulf. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). In creation mythology she is given charge over the waters of the Gulf by the god ENKI.

Physician god. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. A variety of AVALOKITESVARA. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes and attended by a lion. Color: white. Attributes: cup, fly whisk, image of the AMITABHA on the crown, lotus, moon disc, rosary, skin, snake, sword and trident. Three-eyed. Also accounted among one of a series of medicine buddhas or SMAN-BLA.

Sirona
Local goddess of healing. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Known from limited inscriptions in which she is usually associated with the god GRANNUS or with the Celtic APOLLO. A sculpture from Hochscheid in the Moselle basin in Germany describes her with a snake round her wrist reaching toward a bowl of three eggs in her left hand. She may also have a small lapdog. Some authors suggest she has sky associations. See also DIVONA and ONUAVA.

Sinivali
Minor goddess of prosperity. Hindu (Vedic). Associated specifically with the boon of children. The mistress of the nuclear family. She is depicted as a matronly lady.

Sins Sga’nagwai heavens)

(power of the shining

Supreme god. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island, Canada]. The god who gives power to all things.

Sirsir
God of mariners. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). The guardian of boatmen.

Siofn
Goddess. Nordic (Icelandic). Listed by Snorri (Prose Edda) as one of the AESIR goddesses.

Sirtur
Sheep goddess. Mesopotamian (Sumerian and Babylonian-Akkadian). Known from inscriptions

Sitatara

287

and passing comments in texts. Syncretized with NINSUN.

Sisyphos
Sun god. Corinthian. Specifically the god of the faded sun, probably equating to the Hittite ˇ UB. weather god TES

inner fire of her purity, Rama grudgingly has her back, though only briefly. His doubts return and, pregnant, she is banished to exile where she gives birth to twin sons. Rama’s rejection finally takes its toll. Sita begs her mother, the earth, for salvation, whereupon a golden throne rises from the ground. She takes her place on it and descends forever while Rama is left eternally to mourn his loss. Attributes: blue lotus and a single braid of hair.

SITA (furrow)
Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. Chthonic or earth goddess. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 300 BC and earlier through to present day times. SYNONYMS an avatara of LAKSMI. CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally in bronze, but also in stone. LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana of Valmiki and later Puranic literature.
ORIGIN

Sitala(mata)

(possibly meaning ‘mother cold’)

Mother goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). One of seven SAKTIS who in later Hinduism became regarded as of evil intent, inflicting sickness. Particularly known from Bengal where she may be identified with the goddess KALI. Usually standing naked upon a lotus or riding an ass. Alternatively symbolized by a stone on which a face is painted. Attribute: waterjar.

In Vedic mythology Sita is strictly an earth deity, born from a furrow and associated with ploughing and ploughed fields. She appears as the consort of the rain gods INDRA and PARJANYA. She usually stands to the right of R AMA. In later times, effectively from AD 200 onward, Sita (see also RADHA) is the consort of Rama, one of the ˇ NU, though major reincarnations of the god V IS she is generally eclipsed by the goddess Laksmi with whom she is seen as a separate aspect. Legend gives Sita an unhappy life, though she epitomizes the perfect Hindu wife. Early in her marriage to Rama she is abducted by the foreign god Ravana, who carries her off to Lanka [Sri Lanka], where he imprisons her in a garden. Maintaining total fidelity to her husband, she returns to him inviolate, but he is skeptical of her purity and rejects her. Eventually, when she has threatened to immolate herself through the

Sitapatra (with a white umbrella)
Goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). An emanation of VAIROCANA and a female BODHISATTVA or buddhadesignate. Color: white. Attributes: arrow, bow, hook, noose, parasol, prayer wheel and white staff. Sometimes three-eyed and three-headed.

Sitatara (the ‘white Tara’)
Goddess. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Of mild disposition, she is regarded as one of the forms of the goddess TARA and an emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI or VAIROCANA. In later times she became identified as a female variety of AVALOKITESVARA PADMAPANI. By tradition she is the incarnation of a Chinese princess. Color: white. Attributes: arrow, blue or white lotus, bow, image of Amoghasiddhi, jewel, moon disc and rosary. Three- or seven-eyed.

He personifies the inexorable passage of time and out of destruction he creates new life. but also in stone. Urartian [Armenia]. KHANDOBA).” NATARAJA. As the ascetic. is Sakti. He has a strong association with fire and may hold a ball of flame—the destructive corollary to creation. reliefs. He dances in a circle of fire. S enjoys popular worship as a domestic deity. representing the rhythm of creation. See also PANCANANA. etc. He is generally depicted in the role of an ascetic with a blue-painted throat. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally in bronze. a drinker of wine ˇ iva which and a hunter. sanctuaries to S are often home to devadasis. His sacred animal is the bull NANDI. and probably earlier as Rudra. treading upon the dwarfish figure who is the personification of ignorance (see also VAMANA). As the linga. The Yogi is naked. His symbol is the linga (phallus). a drum (damaru). attributed to holding the primal poison HALAHALA in his throat before swallowing it to save mankind from its deadly effect. often accompanied by the female yoni and these objects in stone may form the focus of worship. He may have evolved from the Vedic storm god RUDRA. S follow the rhythm of the universal forces. smeared with ashes and with matted hair. sitting under a banyan tree holding a beggar’s bowl. Principal creative and destructive god. One of the AESIR goddesses. represented by the Yogi. troupes of dancing ˇ iva also girls who also serve as cultic prostitutes. He destroys without emotion. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). SYNONYMS accredited with more than a thousand epithets in Hindu writings (see also BHAIRAVA. more generally the latter. preThe Saivite sect envisage S server and destroyer and he is manifest in three aspects of his own divine power. but he is also closely linked with the terrible KALI and the goddess SATI. As ˇ iva’s steps the “lord of the dance. ˇ iva as creator. and a noose.ˇ IVA 288 S ˇ IVA (the destroyer) S Hindu [India]. Known from inscriptions. he is in his destructive aspect. He bears four arms (less commonly two) which hold a variety of attributes including a bow. the form of S devotees generally worship. Sivini Sun god. LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana epic and Puranic texts. ORIGIN ˇ IVA is a deity with the linked roles of both creator S and destroyer of life. though he is now thought to be an older pre-Indo-European deity whose attributes appear on seals from the Indus Valley civilization. One of a group of emancipated VIDYESVARAS (lords of ˇ IVA. may carry a small stone linga mounted in a silver box and worn round the neck or arm. knowledge) considered to be aspects of S Skadi Goddess. Nordic (Icelandic). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 300 BC. a place Legend has it that S beyond the Himalaya. until present. His consorts are Kali and DURGA. ˇ iva lives in Kailas. ˇ iva) Sivottama (highest S Minor god. The Lingayats. The daughter of the giant Thiassi and . In this aspect he can be drawn as a jolly figure. Chiefly ˇ iva centered on southern India. he is the symbol of creative powers. or more precisely his female aspect. In his cosmic capacity he appears as Nataraja. His consort. a particular Saivite sect founded in the twelfth century AD. a club to which is fastened a skull. CENTER(S) OF CULT Benares.

BRAHMA placed it on the mountain of the rising sun where. LITERARY SOURCES Ramayana and Mahabharata epics.” a huntress who travels on skis and hunts game with a bow. Ewe and Hua [Togo and southeastern Ghana. when he had been captured and held down with stones. SKANDA ORIGIN Hindu (Epic and Puranic) [India]. Puranic texts. hatchet. He is also seen as “one who jumps” while fighting and his sacred animals include the peacock and the cockerel. Smertrios God of war. after ten millennia. SUBRAHMANYA. Bella Coola Indian [British Columbia. SYNONYMS Snulk’ulxa’Is Archetypal god. The tutelary deity of the Treveri. God of circa 300 BC Smrti (tradition) war. His consorts include KAUMARI (DEVASENA) and VALLI. Egyptian. He may also carry a wider assortment of objects and weapons. Buddhist (Mahayana). The gods persuaded S PARVATI to curb their incessant love-making. The old ruler of mankind. As Karttikeya he is often depicted bearing six heads and twelve arms. it became Skanda. An emanation of the combined personae of the deities SOGBLEN and SODZA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Minor god. the latter being both aggressive and a jumper. but also in stone.Sobek 289 consort of the god NJORD. peacock feather and staff. Regarded as the leader of the divine army of gods. Attributes: banner. the creator goddess of Sais. Visakha and NAIGAMEYA. The crocodile imagery suggests an ability to attack and kill with sudden speed. She is constantly at odds with the god LOKI and on one occasion. or earlier until present. cockerel. She is described as “ski lady. Perceived as virile and youthful. he preferring the coast and she the mountains. After shuttling it between fire (AGNI) and water (Ganges). West Africa]. she tried to poison him by suspending a poisonous snake over his face. Loki’s consort SIGYN saved him by collecting the venom in a bowl. and his sons are Sakha. but was particularly prominent in the fertile Faiyum region. So Weather god. Allegedly the subject of a votive monument which depicts a bearded god holding a snake. He is depicted as a crocodile wearing a plumed headdress. Sobek (rager) God epitomizing the might of the pharaohs. Canada]. KARTTIKEYA. his name may signify the emission of semen. his birth is accounted in One of the sons of S ˇ iva and bizarre fashion. CENTER(S) OF CULT various. ART REFERENCES sculptures generally in bronze. By tradition she lives apart from her husband. Said to be the son of NEITH. who provided a conflict of benign and malevolent treatment. Sobek’s cult was extensive along the Nile valley. He was superseded by the gods SENX and ALK’UNTA’M. ˇ IVA. or as a part-human hybrid. many other minor epithets. Celtic (Gallic). Kumara. Near Aswan in Upper Egypt a sanctuary dedi- . The vast quantity of unused semen then had to be disposed of.

Ewe and Hua [Togo and southeastern Ghana. Identified as the apotheosis of the actual scarecrow made by Japanese farmers and known as a kakashi. West Africa]. Sol (1) Sun god.” Sokar Sodasi (girl of sixteen) Minor goddess. Shinto [Japan]. His festival was celebrated annually on August 9. Aspects include Divyaratri. erected in Rome . Known by the full title of Sol Indiges. he controls thunder and lightning and is a god of fire and rain. bringing the boon of fertile crops and children. Sodza Sky god. as Sol. but there are also inferences that this deity is of more ancient origin. The name refers specifically to the dark sky at the beginning of the rainy season which stimulates the growth of crops. He is propitiated with the sacrifice of a white sheep in an annual festival. Also Suchos (Greek). West Africa]. Sokar also enjoyed a major cult at Thebes where. Generally benevolent. Sogbo Storm god.290 Sodasi cated to Sobek identifies him as the consort of HATHOR and the father of KHONSU. in an annual festival celebrating the healthy continuation of the divine kingship. Also Sokaris (Greek). of S Chthonic underworld god. One of a group of MAHAVIDYAS personifying the SAKTI ˇ IVA.” which may suggest a purely Roman cult on the Quirinal Hill. Sogblen Messenger god. “though his legs do not walk he knows everything under heaven. According to the sacred texts. The sibling of the gods LISA and MAWU. West Africa]. Egyptian. Propitiated with yams and the sacrifice of a white sheep in an annual festival and his priests pray to him weekly to send rain. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). or in human form with the head of a hawk and an elaborate atef crown (see Osiris). Traditionally it is constructed from reeds and wears a round peasant hat. Coins from southern Italy depicting the god with a radiate image date back to circa 200 BC but he rose to particular prominence during the republican period. He is depicted either as a hawk on a boat. Roman. Sohodo-No-Kami God of scarecrows. Soko Sky god. meaning “the indigenous Sol. he was conveyed in an elaborate barque. Fon [Benin. Ewe [Togo. Guardian deity of the necropolis at Memphis with possible fertility connotations and with strong links to OSIRIS beside whom he is also perceived as a restored god of the dead. Nero had a huge statue of himself. Nupe [Nigeria. He is also syncretized with the Memphis creator god PTAH in the Old Kingdom (circa 4500 BC). West Africa]. Considered to relay the prayers of devotees to the great gods and to return with blessings or punishment. where he may have originated as a god of various crafts associated with the manufacture of funerary trappings. The priests wear white robes.

SOPHIA descended from PISTIS (faith) before the . Roman. and lives in a remote cave beside the According to the Gnostic Christian writers whose thoughts were a syncretization of Jewish. headdress. corpse a boy). goddess of night. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). His cult was followed chiefly at Saft el-Henna in the Nile delta. Sol (2) Sun goddess. Epic and Puranic). She drives the horses which draw the sun chariot across the sky. CENTER(S) OF CULT undefined cells within the area of early Christian influence. usually depicted as a falcon or a Bedouin with a headdress of tall plumes. He equates with the Greek god HYPNOS. See also CANDRA. Attributes of Skanda: book. ART REFERENCES none. Particularly noted from the art of the Lacedaemonians who placed statues of Somnus and MORS side by side. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP unknown origins to circa AD 400. wearing a crown of poppies and holding a goblet of opium juice. Sol may sometimes be linked with AURORA. His attendant is MORPHEUS and he oversees the spirits of dreams and nightmares. According to legend he is one of the two sons of NYX. ORIGIN Somnus Minor god of sleep. Somtus See HARSOMTUS. Also the consort of SURYA. Of uncertain origin. Attribute of Uma: lotus. the goddess of dawn.SOPHIA 291 and the emperor Aurelian elevated Sol to supreme god in the Roman pantheon when Jupiter Conservator gave way to Sol Invictus (the unconquered sun). Lethe river. Egyptian. Attributes of S and hatchet. SYNONYMS PISTIS SOPHIA. Regarded in later Hinduism as the dikpala of the northern direction and as one of a group of VASU deities answering to the god INDRA. Four-armed. Sopedu (essence) Minor god. He is depicted by Ovid dressed in black but with his robe scattered with stars. Soma Guardian deity. LITERARY SOURCES Plato and other Greek philosophers. Greek principle adopted by Gnostic Christians. ancient Near Eastern and Greek philosophical elements. Aspect of ˇ IVA. The daughter of Nubdilfaeri (Mundilferi). Primordial female force in the cosmos. Hindu (Vedic. SOPHIA (wisdom) Somaskanda God. Also Sopdu. The deification of the sacred yellow drink soma. He also acted as a patron deity of the turquoise mines in the Sinai with inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim. but possibly the god S ˇ iva with representing a composite trio of S his consort UMA (PARVATI) and his son SKANDA (as ˇ iva: ax. Nordic (Icelandic). Attributes: hook. Nag Hammadi codices. lotus and prayer wheel. mango fruit and ornament. One of the AESIR goddesses. Sopedu is linked in Pyramid Texts with the hawk god HORUS. A god who protects the eastern border.

Spiniensis Sothis [Greek] Astral goddess. His devotees wear white and daub white chalk on their faces. She is described as a likeness of Pistis and seems to be the primeval element of light. Under Christian influence. embodied in the shape of a golden ram with long fluffy wool. Guardian of the river Saône and known chiefly from inscriptions at Chalon. Roman.292 Sore-Gus formation of the cosmos. She is associated with gardens and depicted as a young woman bearing a bunch of flowers. Spandaramet Chthonic goddess. southern Africa]. In the Nag Hammadi text On the Origin of the World. . Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Hua [southeastern Ghana. Roman. Sravistha Minor goddess of fortune. Derived from the Greek model of TYCHE. Hottentot [Namibia. Spes Goddess of hope. Roman. Souconna River goddess. A benevolent deity who can bestow wealth as well as good harvests. Foundations of a sanctuary were commenced by the emperor Tiberius. West Africa]. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A benevolent NAKSATRA. he is the deity responsible for the uprooting of thorn bushes. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). She is depicted as a nude figure wearing the conical white crown of Lower Egypt surmounted by a star. linked with a similar building dedicated to the god JANUS. Also Srona. The sun god. Minor god of agriculture. He is also god of medicine and of the sounds of music. Sravana (lame cow) Minor goddess of fortune. His symbol is the cowrie shell. Soului Vegetation god. Concerned with the fertility of the earth and with death. Late in Egyptian history she becomes largely syncretized with ISIS. Sors God of luck. the father or “prime parent” of the seven androgynous beings who rule the heavens in the likeness of the original authorities so that the likeness may persist forever. She acts as a mediator or “veil” between the immortal beings (Archons) and mankind. he is less prominent in the pantheon than the goddess FORTUNA. Mentioned by the writer Fabius Pictor. her name equates with hell. A benevolent NAKSATRA. Pistis Sophia generates YALDABAOTH. She is also the challenger to the primordial “shadow” which becomes chaos. She heralds the Nile inundation as the personification of the star Sirius which rises coincidentally in the dawn sky in July. Pre-Christian Armenian. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). Also Sopdet (Egyptian). Egyptian. Sore-Gus Sky god. See also Pistis and Yaldabaoth. Hindu (Epic and Puranic).

Jain. Sterculius Minor god of agriculture. Three-eyed and may be three-headed. Of youthful appearance. Buddhist (Mahayana). Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. . ˇu S Primordial god of the air.Subhadra 293 Sri(devi) (prosperity) Stanitakumara God. S represented in human form standing over the supine form of Geb and holding Nut aloft with his raised arms. Attributes: hatchet and trident. Greek. She may appear standing beside JAGANNATH. Slav. According to the genealogy of the priests of Heliopolis. One of a group of emancipated VIDYESVARAS (lords of ˇ IVA. Egyptian. One of the deities grouped under the general title of BHVANAVASI (dwelling in places). Goddess. 1. Goddess. he is the first born of the creator sun god ATUM and by his sister TEFNUT is the father of the chthonic ˇ u is typically god GEB and the sky goddess NUT. Hindu. and mother of NIKE. (very splendid) Goddess. The daughter of VASUDEVA and sister of KRSNA. A deity of terrifying appearance. Buddhist (Mahayana). An attendant of VASUDHARA. An early name which was syncretized with that of LAKSMI to form Sri-Laksmi. One of a group of DHARMAPALA with terrible appearance and royal attire who protect the Dalai Lama. Srikantha Chthonic underworld goddess. Attributes: chiefly cup and staff but on occasion several other objects including a pink lotus. Srivasundhara (earth) Minor goddess. Stribog God of winds. A manifestation of the goddess DEVI sometimes seen in comˇ NU. 3. as can his sister. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Her breasts are covered by a narrow band of cloth. Goddess. Also one of the EKADASARUDRAS or eleven forms of RUDRA. Mentioned in the Chronicle of Nestor. as one of several manifestations of the “eye of RE. teeth. and the euphemism “Stribog’s grandchildren” refers to the winds. Subhadra Srividyadevi (of excellent knowledge) Minor goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). He can also. An attendant of VASUDHARA. 2. Srivasumukhi (excellent-faced) Minor goddess. Color: blue. She may be invoked to provide wealth (see also Laksmi). The deity of the river Styx beside which the gods swear their oaths.” be represented as a lion. Also LHA MO. Roman. Concerned with the manuring of the fields. Jain [India]. Styx (beautiful throat) Minor deity. Attributes: necklace of bones. when conventionally she stands on pany with VIS his right. A daughter of OKEANOS and TETHYS. in knowledge) considered to be aspects of S this instance referring to his darkish blue neck. Her retinue includes the goddesses of the seasons and her animal is a mule.

Alternatively he sprang from a juniper branch. Suijin Collective name for water gods. ART REFERENCES bronze and stone sculpture and reliefs. supported RAMA. Sugriva (beautiful strong neck) Monkey god. Subhamekhala (with a marvellous girdle) Minor goddess. In at least two instances. Shinto [Japan]. and a link with funerary practices. Unterseebach [Lower Rhine] and Varhely [Romania]. Buddhist (Mahayana). A form of KARTTIKEYA which is depicted with six heads and twelve arms. Hindu. both with springs and with dogs and snakes. Attributes: emerald and staff. Primordial god. Cerberus. He was created from the breath of the supreme god IMRA. SUCELLOS ORIGIN (the good striker) Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Buddhist. LITERARY SOURCES votive inscriptions. Buddhist (Vajrayana). Sucellos carries a long-handled hammer and a cup or dish which is arguably the equal of the Irish Celtic Dagda’s caldron. As a deity specifically concerned with rain. is associated Sudurjaya (very difficult to conquer) Minor goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana). circa AD 400. he lives in a sacred lake. Sataram. in France. He is known principally from the valleys of the Rhone and Saône and is often coupled in art and votive inscriptions with the river goddess NANTOSUELTA. Suddhodana (having pure rice) Subrahmanya Minor warrior deity. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. his consort is MAYADEVI. according to epic tradition. CENTER(S) OF CULT various. SYNONYMS Sucellus. The father of the BUDDHA. Kafir [Afghanistan]. Sucellos is accompanied by a raven and a three-headed dog suggesting the Roman guardian of the underworld. at which all wild animals must drink once to survive. These deities are worshiped at shrines at the . One of several deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. Sucellos also has associations with the woodland god SILVANUS. The son of the sun god and leader of the monkey army which. Sudrem Weather god. He is depicted as a great golden buck with horns reaching to the sky. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until Christianization. which suggest healing and rejuvenating powers (dogs were more generally linked with the Roman healing god AESCULAPIUS than with death). Sudrem Sur. Color: yellow. Also Sujum. His wife is the goddess NangiWutr and he is the father of the major fertility goddess DISANI. see also SKANDA.294 Subhaga Subhaga Minor goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Little is known of this deity. The deified king of the Sakya tribe from which the Buddha descended. Also SHADANANASUBRAHMANYA. suggesting a fertility connotation and. Sudaram.

purse. Buddhist (Mahayana). West Africa]. Color: white. Suleviae Goddesses of passage. Attributes: book. he established the various methods of healing diseases and the means for control of. lakes and ponds. Considered to be an emanation of all the DHYANIBUDDHAS (meditation buddhas). Rides in a golden or silver chariot drawn by eight or ten horses. Also a deity concerned with knowledge and prophecy. He may. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) and western Semitic. ˇ ullat S Minor god. Sukla-Tara Goddess. One of a group of emancipated VIDYESVARAS (lords of ˇ IVA. Mesopotamian (Babylonianˇ AMAS ˇ. Animal: lion. Sukuna-Hikona God of healing. staff. but also regarded as being indistinguishable from the “white Tara” (see also TARA). Sukarasya (face of a sow) Minor goddess. Buddhist. owing to the fact that he was once made to swallow his attendant Kaca and then restore him to life. The tutelary goddess of the thermal waters at Bath. wild beasts. on occasion. was often installed by the authorities in the temples and shrines of conquered lands. and the people on earth. Shinto [Japan]. Of terrible appearance. Collective name for female deities associated with crossroads. He is worshiped in Buddhism as Yakushi-Bosatsu-Hyojin. An attendant of the sun god S Suku Creator god. He created the sky. He is also worshiped as a tutelary god of traders.ˇ ulman(u) S 295 sources of irrigation canals. she is closely linked with the Roman goddess MINERVA. during the Japanese Empire period. Hindu. He is the KAMI of communications and. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). ˇ ulman(u) S Chthonic and fertility deity. Sulini Minor goddess. Suksma (very small) Minor deity. Sukra (bright) Astral god. Also . both maritime and on land. With the god O-KUNI-NUSHI-NO-MIKOTO. Akkadian). Romano-Celtic (Gallic). knowledge) considered to be aspects of S Attributes: hatchet and trident. Romano-Celtic. Color: white. Chief among them is the goddess MIZU-HA-NO-ME. eels and fish and invoked particularly by women. Ovimbundu [central Angola. be represented as female. Attribute: trident. prayer wheel. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). England. the rivers and mountains. The personification of the planet Venus and the tutor of the demons. They are depicted as snakes. and protection against. insects. etc. snakes. treasure and waterjar. Sulis Chthonic underworld goddess.

Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Etruscan. whom they escorted to Korea. Specifically a deity responsible for lightning and thunderbolts. the consort of the mother ˜ A. Known only as a personal deity to Entemena. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Attribute: snake noose. Color: blue. ˇ ulsaga S Astral goddess. they include the three MUNAKATA-NO-KAMI. A dikpala or guardian of the nadir direction. Sumati (very wise) Sun Hou-Shi Monkey god. Attributes: jewel. Storm god. They are also patrons of poets and have a purifying role. Buddhist. Shinto [Japan]. In creation mythology he is given charge by the god ENKI over the flat alluvial lands of southern Mesopotamia. Chinese. Buddhist. also has underworld connections. He emerged from a cosmic egg conceived out of emptiness and engendered by the wind. including fishermen. Three-headed. king of the city of Eninnu. One of a group of DHARANIS. in one list. Buddhist. A sanctuary was dedicated to him in Rome. Color: blue. ˇ umugan S God of the river plains. Concerned with love and war. Attributes: ear of rice and staff. he provides Deification of literature. Sumbha Goddess. Western Semitic. Thought by some authors to be the immediate derivation of the biblical “Shulamite woman” (Vetus Testamentum Song of Solomon 6:13). Found in Assyria circa 1400 BC to 700 BC and known from Bronze Age inscriptions at Sidon. Sumbharaja God. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. . staff and sword. A female dikpala or guardian of the nadir direction (her male counterpart is SUMBHARAJA). The main sanctuary is the Sumiyoshi Taisha at Osaka. Sumiyoshi-No-Kami ˇ ul-pa-e S (youthful radiance) Fertility and astral god. Recognized chiefly at Sidon. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Color: yellow.ˇ ulmanitu 296 S identified as a war god. Sumalini (well-garlanded) Minor goddess. lotus. Summamus ˇ ul-utula S Tutelary god. They are the focus of special worship by the Jingu-Kogo sect. goddess NINHURSAG Sea gods. A general name for guardian deities of seafarers. Identified as the personification of the planet Jupiter and. Buddhist (Mahayana). Mesopotamian (Sumerian). ˇ ulmanitu S Fertility goddess. but included in the Ugaritic pantheon.

Suresvara (lord of the gods) God. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. he is head of the ADITYA group of sun deities. YAMA and YAMUNA. Also Sun Wu-Kong. including erotic reliefs at the “Black Pagoda. Buddhist (Mahayana). In the Vedas Surya is a prominent figure. Hindu. Attribute: sword.” usually in bronze. bowl. SURYA (1) Hindu (Vedic. club. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). CHAYA and SANJNA. iron rod. Attributes: arrow. prayer wheel and trident. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes. Of youthful appearance. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1700 BC until present. Epic and Puranic) [India]. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Sura (wine) Goddess of wine. She is considered to be of terrible appearance and has no consort. Sun god. Accounted as one of a series of medicine buddhas or SMAN-BLA. Surya is depicted either standing or seated. Accounted among a series of medicine buddhas or SMAN-BLA. A prosperous ˇ IVA. pure jewel splendor) Physician god. ax. Color: white. One of the groups under the general title of BHVANAVASI (dwelling in places). drum. Threeeyed. ART REFERENCES sculptures from circa AD 600. Suparikirtitanamasri (lord with a celebrated name) Physician god. Sundara (charming) 1. Color: yellowish white. aspect of the god S 2 Minor goddess. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. also throughout India. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes. Goddess. He is the son of Dyaus and ADITI and his consorts include LAKSMI. bow. LITERARY SOURCES Rg Veda and other Vedic texts. One of the eleven EKADASARUDRAS or RUDRA gods. Buddhist (Mahayana). not only the personification of the sun in the heavens and of cosmic order. Color: yellow. ORIGIN Suparnakumara God. CENTER(S) OF CULT the “Black Pagoda” shrine at Konorak in Orissa. Suraksini Minor goddess. sometimes driving a one-wheeled chariot drawn . Buddhist (Mahayana). Surya Narayana. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. His children include MANU. hook.SURYA (1) 297 various arts and skills to mankind. Survarnabhadravimalaratnaprabhasa (the bright. Epic and Puranic texts. A BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate. less frequently in stone. REVANTA. but also a source of infinite knowledge. SYNONYMS Diakara (day-maker). and a sun goddess also called SURYA. Grahapati (king of planets). bell. Considered to have been introduced from Iran. Surangama (bright colored) God. Hindu (Puranic). Jain [India]. According to tradition he discovered the elixir of immortality in a fruit which he consumed. lotus.

Other legends account her consorts to include SOMA and PUSAN. YaShima-Ji-Nu-Mi. two lotuses. prayer wheel.298 Surya (2) across the sky by up to seven horses. by whom he fathered a son. Identified on the seal of a Hittite/ Egyptian treaty between Hattusilis II and Rameses II in 1271 BC. The daughter of the sun god SURYA. When he tries to enter her house in the heavens she hides herself away in a cave from which she emerges only after considerable effort and ruse on the part of the other members of the pantheon. Also a guardian deity of crops. Attributes: band. . CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout Japan. god TES The brother of the sun goddess AMATERASU. Surya (2) Sun goddess. Amaterasu finds his excesses repugnant. trident and war drum. Svantevit God of war. SUSANO-WO Shinto [Japan]. She is the essence of the cosmos. In northern India he is usually found wearing knee-length boots. Epic and Puranic). In the south he goes barefoot. His offspring by her include the great harvest god O-TOSHI-NOKAMI. According to legend she was courted by all the gods. See also AMATERASU. May be three-eyed. but won finally by the twin ASVIN gods with whom she rides in a chariot. His consorts include the goddess Inada-Hime. Elamite [Iran]. staff with lion. he was born from the nose of the primordial creator god IZANAGI and represents the physical. He bears four arms. Sometimes identified as a consort of RUDRA or AGNI. club. Hittite and Hurrian. material world. Mentioned by the author Saxo Grammaticus as riding upon a white horse and holding a cornucopia. Susano-Wo is expelled from heaven and takes up residence on earth where he first has to beg food from the goddess O-Ge-Tsu-HimeNo-Kami. the eight-island ruler. Chthonic and weather god. but incorporated into the Hittite state pantheon. ART REFERENCES sculptures and paintings. The daughter of DAKSA and PRASUTI. The patron deity of Susa. LITERARY SOURCES Nihongi and Kojiki texts. SYNONYMS none. ORIGIN ˇ utekh S Weather god. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 600 and probably earlier until present. The appearance of Susano-Wo and Amaterasu in the creation account marks the final separation of the ethereal cosmos into a vast multiplicity of Svadha (invoked with offerings) Minor goddess. Probably another name for the ˇ UB. The god and goddess are obliged to join each other in order to survive. but while Susano-Wo recognizes the necessity for this union. Pre-Christian Latvian. Susinak Local god. knife. conch. and the goddess Kamu-O-Ichi-Hime. Hindu. Of Hurrian origin. Also Savitr. material objects. Hindu (Vedic. he is known locally from the island of Rügen.

Slav. Color: scarlet. A gracious form of the goddess TARA. and further linked with marriage. . Hindu. Syamatara Svasthavesini (entering a natural state) (the “black Tara”) Goddess. Also Nistya. Color: black. Accounted among a series of medicine buddhas or SMAN-BLA. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Color: yellowish red. Goddess. One of terrifying appearance. Also the giver of fire and the smith god. possibly green. Svarozic Sun god. A benevolent NAKSATRA . Attribute: drum. Typically depicted with stretched earlobes. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Also an emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI and a form of AVALOKITESVARA. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. Svati Minor goddess of fortune. daughter of D AKSA and wife of C ANDRA (S OMA ). Also Svarog.Syamatara 299 Svaraghosaraja Physician god. Three-eyed and three-headed. Attribute: blue lotus.

a universal characteristic of serpents. The spirit of the universe who was present before the cosmos was 300 . The imagery of the snake god is closely linked with aboriginal T’ai Shan God. Her blood. The Romans syncretized her with the hearth goddess VESTA. Egyptian. otherwise identified in Chinese mythology as the Purple Planet. He is revered mainly by tribal groups living on the western seaboard of the Cape York peninsula in northern Queensland. His consorts include the snake goddesses Mantya. Chinese. T’ai Yi Primordial god. Also Vidyddhara. During the Sung Dynasty (AD 960-1279) he was elevated to the head of the ranks of astral gods and he is embodied in the Pole Star. Taipan has the typical attributes of many other Australian snake gods. By tradition the consort of Eochaid of the TUATHA DE DANANN. is considered to possess magical and remedial properties against the poison. Tuknampa and Uka.T 6 Tabiti Goddess of fire. Scythian. Taipan Snake god. she is the foster mother of the god LUG and associated with the Lughnasad festival on August 1. Tailtiu Goddess. Attributes: lightning in the form of a creeper. Buddhist. He is able to kill or cure and is the deity who originally fashioned the blood of living things during the Dreamtime. Taditkara (lightning) Goddess of light. He exercises judgment over life or death and possesses great wisdom. Celtic (Irish). Titled the “god of the eastern peak. Ta-Bitjet Scorpion goddess. Color: green. The senior deity in the heavenly ministries. In incantations against scorpion bite she is identified as a consort of the god HORUS. Australian aboriginal.” Also Di Zang. Also the guardian deity of all animals. created and who is known as the great unity. which flowed when Horus ruptured her hymen. Chinese. including the rainbow snake. he is the immediate controller of the earth and mankind.

He appeared in the Takama-No-Hara (plain of high heaven) after AME-NO-MINAKA-NUSHINO-KAMI. Her sacred tree is a form of fig. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The apotheosis of the planet Jupiter which orbits the sun in a twelve-year cycle. he was-born alone in the cosmos and hides himself from mankind. Taka-Okami-No-Kami rain in the mountains) (great producer of Rain god. One of a group of seven MAHANAGAS. Tai-Sui-Jing God of temporal time. The earth and all plant life belong to her and she is regarded as the mother of the gods. Takkiraja God. His attendant is Ho Wang. jewel. a classic Veracruz site whence they control the thunder clouds. sword and trident. Shinto [Japan]. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. Primordial creator being. See also FUTSU-NUSHI-NO-KAMI. storms and rain. According to tradition he was an eight-year-old boy emperor. One of the RAIJIN gods of thunder. A deity with control over rain and water and who extinguishes fires. particularly of the fire god TATEVALI. Taksaka Snake god. He also has an oracular function. who joined him in death. the salate. A dikpala or guardian of the southeastern quarter. NINIGI on his descent from heaven to earth. Chinese. swastika and waterjar. His worship is restricted to a coastal region between Hong Kong and Macau. also known as the “god of the dividing of the waters. the last of the Sung Dynasty. lotus staff. A sanctuary in Coloane Take-Mika-Dzuchi-No-Kami God of thunder. A tutelary god of swordsmen and judoka artists. Shinto [Japan]. Also Vajrajvalanalarka and Vajrayaksa. A remote and vaguely defined being. Tajin Generic title for a group of rain gods. Worshiped by a modern tribe and believed to reside in the ruins of El Tajin. Specifically the god of rain generated in mountains. Shinto [Japan]. he is also one of the warrior deities who guarded Prince . who committed suicide by jumping over a cliff in the face of Kublai Khan’s advance in AD 1276. Chinese.” See also KURA-OAKMI-NO-KAMI. Buddhist. The second of the deities listed in the sacred Kojiki text. Tam Kung Local sea god. Attributes: blue staff. Ta’lab Moon god. Attributes: rosary. Takotsi Nakawe (our grandmother growth) Taka-Mi-Musubi-No-Kami producing wondrous deity) (high august Chthonic vegetation goddess. She is very old and is invoked to give the boon of longevity.Tam Kung 301 shamanism and with the healing rituals of shamans. A god of fierce rain. See also TLALOC. Totonac (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Color: blue.

The god is normally depicted seated and holding a bell. His son Pili married SINA. Polynesian [Hervey Islamds] The third child of the primordial mother VARI-MA-TE- . formed the earth and sky. Yakut [central Siberia]. whom he joins each evening when he descends to the underworld. Tamats Palike Tamoyeke (our eldest brother walking everywhere). known as a god of winds and a tutelary deity of fishermen. He is the progenitor of mankind (as distinct from TUMATAUENGA who has authority over mankind). It was he who proposed that his parents should be pushed apart rather than slaughtered. The messenger of the gods. Tanara Sky spirit. which are depictions of ancestors. Polynesian [Marquesas Islands]. is represented only by inconspicuous. Also god of trees. In a separate tradition Tangaroa went fishing and hauled the Tongan group of islands from the depths of the ocean on a hook and line. sited at the end of a narrow peninsula. Also KANE (Hawaiian). like all deities. Tane(mahuta) God of light. boat-builders. Tangaroa Sea and creator god. In Hawaiian belief he was the primordial being who took the form of a bird and laid an egg on the surface of the primeval waters which. his consort is the goddess HINEAHU-ONE and he is the father of HINE-ATA-UIRA who descended to the underworld to become the goddess of death. In Maori culture Tanemahuta. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. the tropic bird and they produced five children from whom the rest of the Polynesian race was born. slightly worked stones or pieces of wood and not by the large totems. is dedicated to him. forests and Tango God. He then engendered the god of light. A local variation on the Polynesian god TANGAROA. when it broke.302 Tama-No-Ya Town in Macau. Tam Kung is strongly linked with the symbolism of dragons and the shrine contains a sacred whale rib which is modeled into the shape of a dragon boat. like all deities. God of wind and air. Tama-No-Ya God of jewelers. one of the lures which enticed the sun goddess AMATERASU from the cave where she hid herself. One of the children of the prime parents RANGINUI and PAPATUANUKU. he fashioned the world inside a gigantic mussel shell. ATEA (cf. is represented only by inconspicuous. According to Tahitian legend. which may be interpreted as an instrument of warning or as a means of calling attention to the voices of the ancestors. Polynesian (including Maori). TANE). slightly worked stones or pieces of wood and not by the large totems which are depictions of ancestors. he also put the world into its present form and shape. The deity who made a complete string of curved jewels nearly three meters long. HINE-NUI-TE-PO. Tana’ao Weather and sea god. Shinto [Japan]. Polynesian (including Maori). In Maori culture Tangaroa. The deity responsible for the oceans (moana) and the fish (ika) within them. The apotheosis of the sky. In other traditions he is the consort of Hine-Nui-Te-Po.

Pre-Christian Finnish. Epic and Puranic). Tiv [Nigeria. Phoenician and Pontic (Carthaginian). since the word can be interpreted as “star.Tara 303 TAKERE. Tanu’ta is the consort of YINE’ANE’UT (in other legends she is married to the son of the supreme being TA’YAN). Known largely from inscriptions at various sites along the North African coast and linked with the goddess ASTARTE. each representing an army and bearing the character for wealth. See also HIKO-SASHIRI-NO-KAMI. She holds a sword by its scabbard end. Goddess. comparable with the Egyptian god GEB. the land of the red parrot feather immediately below the home of TINIRAU in the world coconut. Chinese. Tapio Hunting god. Tanu’ta Earth spirit.” until usurped by the Roman goddess JUNO. Shinto [Japan]. Ta-No-Kami Agricultural deity.” Tanit was the supreme goddess at Carthage. he was plucked from her right side and lived in Enua-Kura. The goddess CERES was also worshiped in the TANIT temple at Carthage. One of her cult centers. One of the gods who built the beautiful sacred hall designed. Hindu (Vedic. Tar is depicted as a prostrate figure with his head toward the east. Believed to inhabit forests and invoked before a hunt. the Temple of Jade Vacuity in Cheung Chan. in part. which involves potential danger for the family with the introduction of an unknown element. Engendered by the creator god AONDO. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Also Tenit. (power of hunger) 1. she survived under the name CAELESTIS. Her symbol is a triangular device with horizontal bars supporting a moon disc. to lure the sun goddess AMATERASU from the cave in which she hid herself. The wedding ceremony includes a ritualized kidnapping of the bride. The figure is also placed in a doorway to ward off evil. Both deities are described as “ladies of the sanctuary. Tar Chthonic earth god. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island. She is primarily a guardian deity who defends against evil. West Africa]. A guardian of the earth and its plants and animals. Ta’ngwanla’na (greatest one in the sea) Supreme sea god. Tanit Moon goddess. A generic name for several gods of crops and harvests. known as the “face of BAAL. holds a celebrated statue in which she is depicted holding the scabbard only. Tara T’ao Hua Hsiennui (peach blossom girl) Goddess. The spirit of the peach blossom and the deity of the second spring month. May originally have had astral connotations. A figure of the goddess was traditionally brought by a mother for the protection of a bride and she is closely connected with marriage.” One of a . May also be identified as a mountain KAMI. His home is said to be in the deeps. Shinto [Japan]. Taoki-Ho-Oi-No-Kami God of carpenters. T’ao Hua Hsiennui is depicted in warlike posture wearing a skirt with four black flags. Canada].

Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). but may emulate the Germanic god DONAR and is possibly the same as Taranucos. As Tarvos Trigaranos. 2. An epithet of the mother of the BUDDHA. EKAJATA. Also Taranos. She may also be the consort of CANDRA S (SOMA). The consort of HORUS as HAROERIS and regarded as a minor emanation of the goddess HATHOR. Tas ˇ mis ˇu Attendant god. Maya. Goddess. Known from inscriptions as the father of TELEPINU. Indian (Khond). In Tibetan Buddhism she is known as sGrol-ma. he is drawn as a bull with three cranes on its back and can be seen at such places as Dorchester in England. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Egyptian. It depicts ESUS. Hittite and Hurrian. The Romans equated him with JUPITER and a Jupiter Tanarus inscription at Chester in England may refer to Taranis. Attributes: knife. Taru Weather god. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). his voice is the wind and he controls the changing of the seasons. . The sibling ˇ UB. The bull may alternatively bear three horns. The consort of the god NABU. Known ˇ KUR. skull. Known from the sanctuary of Kom-Ombo. the subject of regular propitiation human sacrifices in the notorious meriah rituals in Orissa province. in which case she is characterized by their colors. Aspects include Krodharatri. She may also be the Sakti of ADIBIDDHA and of the various DHYANIBUDDHAS. Hittite and Hurrian.304 Taranis group of MAHAVIDYAS personifying the SAKTI of ˇ IVA. Buddhist (Mahayana and Vajrayana). Sioux [USA]. She is identified as a malevolent deity. the DHYANIBUDDHASAKTI considered to be aspects of the Sakti of AVALOKITESVARA or of AMOGASHIDDHI. He is also the guide of the spirits of the dead. Tate Creator god. snakes and sword. Taranis Thunder god. Hurrian (Anatolian). His symbol is a spoked wheel and he is presumed to be the object of savage rites. These Taras thus become “White Tara” and so on. Tarvos Trigaranos Bull god. SITATARA and SYAMATARA. Three-eyed. Tasenetnofret Goddess. The modern Breton word for thunder is taran. Also one of a series of female deities. skin. Created by the sky gods BOORA PENNU and BELLA PENNU so as to conceive the rest of the pantheon. VULCANUS. Tarhunt Weather god. TELEPINU. KURUKULLA. from inscriptions and equating with IS Probably of Hurrian origin. He appears in the clouds. See also BHRKUTI. Tas ˇ metu(m) Goddess. Known chiefly from a four-sided monument erected near Paris by boatmen of the Seine during the reign of the emperor Tiberius. See also TARHUNT. Known only from limited inscriptions. of the weather god TES Tari Pennu Chthonic goddess. He is the deity with whom the Sioux shamans intercede. JUPITER and Tarvos.

Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. but also the patron goddess of Laguna de Magdalena. Tate Naaliwahi (mother east water) Tatenen (exalted earth) Chthonic god. Attribute: white lotus. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. in Santa Catarina. guards it. In human form the night sky with its stars are her dress. Tate Kyewimoka (mother west water) Rain and water goddess. His animals include the macaw. A deity regarded as the son of TATEVALI. Rain and water goddess. Similar to TATE KYEWIMOKA. and brings the rain from the west. Also Mara Kwari. Her animals include deer and ravens and she is also the goddess of the corn. Appears in lightning and brings rain from the east. Appears in lightning and is said to resemble a red snake. cardinal bird. where she is believed to take the form of a water lizard. Egyptian. puma and opossum. . Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Rain and water goddess.Tatosi 305 Tate Hautse Kupuri (mother north water). having been created from the plumes of his father. Also a deity of life and health. Color: white. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. where he is described as “father of the gods” and is perceived as an androgynous being. She lives in a deep gorge with caves. involved in the creation process and mentioned on the Shabaka Stone (Memphis). perceived as a shaman who prophesies and cures disease. Tate Rapawiyema (mother south water) Rain and water goddess. Buddhist. Tatosi Tate Velika Vimali Sun goddess. Originates as a vegetation god from Memphis. Similar to TATE KYEWIMOKA. royal eagle. the apotheosis of the Nile silt which appears after the inundation has subsided. Perceived as a young girl or as a royal eagle who holds the world in her talons and (great grandfather deer tail) God of fire. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He is the tutelary god of shamans and is said to have built the first Huichol temple with the god TATOSI. he is depicted anthropomorphically with green face and limbs and wearing a crown with plumes subtended by ram’s horns. Tatevali (our grandfather) Tate Oteganaka (mother corn) Corn goddess. but also responsible for mists and fogs. One of a group of VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. but also the chief god of deer. He also protects the royal dead. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. By the time of the Old Kingdom (twenty-seventh to twenty-second centuries BC) he is recognized as an emanation of the god PTAH. God of fire. As a vegetation god. Tathatavasita (control of the such-ness) Minor goddess. His sacred animal is the white-tailed hawk. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. in Santa Catarina. She lives in a deep gorge with caves. The mother of the sun god TAYAU.

Tawhaki is the third child of Hema and Urutonga. He was uniquely opposed to the separation of his mother and father. LITERARY SOURCES generally in texts including magical spells. A descendant of the creator god Rehua and grandson of Whatitiri. In Maori culture Papatuanuku. Polynesian (including Maori). A vaguely defined being who is chthonic and lives under the ground. which are depictions of ancestors. like all deities. and in consequence spends his time harassing and troubling mankind. an animal whose destructive behavior in the river and adjacent fields was well known. SYNONYMS Thoueris (Greek). with holes at the nipples through which milk could be poured during rites. Taumata-Atua Vegetation god. During this time attempts were made to kill him. Talismanic vases are fashioned in the shape of the goddess. In some Polynesian traditions Tawhaki is thought of as a mortal ancestor whose consort was the goddess Tangotango on whom he fathered a daughter. He fathered children by Hine-Piripiri. CENTER(S) OF CULT no obvious cult centers. Polynesian (including Maori). including Wahieroa. like all deities. . In Maori culture Taumata-Atua.306 Tatqa’hicnin Tatqa’hicnin (root man) intended to frighten off malignant forces before and during childbirth. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. One of the children of the prime parents RANGINUI and PAPATUANUKU. Arahuta. which are depictions of ancestors. presumably controlling edible roots and their availability. is represented only by inconspicuous. at the time of the creation of the cosmos. Tawhaki’s father was killed during tribal warfare with a mythical clan known as the Ponaturi and he himself was the subject of jealous rivalry concerning the goddess Hine-Piripiri. Her benign nature contrasts with that of SETH. TAWERET ORIGIN (the great one) Egyptian. is represented only by inconspicuous. Goddess of childbirth. Taweret often holds the SA symbol of protection clasped over her vulva. often depicted as a male hippopotamus. sky and earth. slightly worked stones or pieces of wood and not by the large totems. Tawhaki Heroic god. Polynesian and Maori. He presides over the fields and may be the god Rongomatane under an alternative name. human breasts and swollen belly. He is the younger sibling of the goddess Pupu-mai-nono and the god Karihi. who is generally perceived as being embodied in comets. Pueblo Indian [USA]. Tawa Creator god. This unusual aspect is Tawhirimatea God of winds. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP probably circa 2500 BC until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. The apotheosis of the sun and father of the tribe. She is depicted either in human form or as a hybrid with the head of a hippopotamus. the goddess of thunder. slightly worked stones or pieces of wood and not by the large totems. Taweret is a goddess who enjoyed popularity among rank-and-file Egyptians and whose protection was sought particularly by women in pregnancy. Vegetation spirit. leonine limbs and a crocodile tail. but represented in the Karnak complex at Thebes. ART REFERENCES a favorite subject for amulets and perforated vases.

In late May. The personification of the darkness of chaos before light came into being. regarded as the assistant of TAYAU. this being is one of three spirits which govern and ensure the permanence of the universe. Perceived in the form of a giant worm. YA’HALAN. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico].Tecciztecatl 307 Ta’xet God of death. Also Tau. QUIKINNA’QU. this being is one of three spirits which govern and ensure the permanence of the universe. According to tradition. Perceived in the form of a giant worm. Perceived in the form of a giant worm. See also TIA. Polynesian (including Maori). Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. the void. See also TENANTO’MWAN. The heart of Nanahuatl ascended to become the new sun and that of Tecciztecatl became the moon. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. he was created by the ancient shamans. Polynesian (including Maori). the unknown night. Usually coupled with TE KORE. Te-Tanga-Engae (breathing) Creator being. Lapna’ut and his son is Cloud Man. Tayau Sakaimoka Sun god. Te-Manava-Roa (long-lived) Ta’yan Supreme being. Tayau Primordial being. He lives in the highest part of the root of the coconut shell which represents the world. the Huichol sacrifice a sheep and a turkey in a ritual fire. Te Po (father sun) Sun god. He traveled underground and emerged in the east as the sun. The deity responsible for those who die violently. Canada]. this being is one of three spirits which govern and ensure the permanence of the universe. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. who threw the youthful son of the corn mother TATE OTEGANAKA into an oven in full ceremonial attire. He conducts business with the physical earth through his majordomo Big Raven. after which they sing all night until sunrise. He lives in the lowest part of the root of the coconut shell which represents the world. Creator being. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island. His consort is Supervisor Woman. The personification of the night which existed in chaos before the creation of light. Usually coupled with TE PO. An indefinite character living somewhere in the zenith and generally out of touch with ordinary mortals. The deity of the setting sun in the west. Taverik. while Tecciztecatl is Te-Aka-la-Roe (root of all existence) Creator being. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. when on the fifth day of creation the gods sat in judgment to elect the new sun god. NANAHUATL and Tecciztecatl cremated themselves in the sacred fire. He lives in the middle part of the root of the coconut shell which represents the world. In cosmogony. Te Kore (the void) Primordial being. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Tecciztecatl (conch shell lord) Moon god. Tradition suggests that Nanahuatl is diseased and impoverished but of great courage. . Polynesian [Hervey Islands].

the pair are sons of QUETZALCOATL and of TLALOC and were hurled into the fire by their fathers. sculptures. lightning and rain. Apparently connected with the guardian deities or dikpalas in the southeastern quarter. ˇ U. Teicauhtzin (younger brother) Minor god of war. and the She is the sister of S mother of GEB and NUT. Buddhist. ART REFERENCES seals and seal impressions. like S one of several manifestations of the “eye of RE” in which case she appears as a lion. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. can become ary was at Heliopolis. Finally the goddess HANNAHANNAS sends a bee which finds and stings the sleeping Telepinu.308 Tefnut wealthy and a coward. Telepinu is a fertility god. Tefnut was created out of the breath or spit of the creator sun god ATUM. In a different context she takes the form of a snake encircling a scepter. According to the Pyramid Texts. LITERARY SOURCES texts from Boghazkoy. His adversary is the demonic figure Tawiskaron. He goes missing and is rediscovered to symbolize the annual demise and restoration of nature. A patron god of Mexico and one of the group classed as the HUITZILPOCHTLI complex. Vegetation and fertility god. Her main cult sanctuˇ u. ORIGIN Tegid Foel Water goddess. The story of his disappearance is told in several differing narratives. symbolizing darkness. Tefnut. One of a pair with CERIDWEN. Attribute: sun disc. Egyptian. who brings thunder. Teharon(hiawagon) in his hands) (he who holds heaven Creator god. identified by the poet Taliesin. Tejosnisa (sharp) Tefnut Primordial goddess of moisture. she creates pure water from her vagina. First an eagle. According to the genealogy laid down by the priests of Heliopolis. Mohawk Indian [USA and Canada]. then Tes ˇ ub himself. Color: whitish red. The sun god gives a feast for the thousand gods of Hatti. TARU. God. monumental rock carvings. etc. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1800 BC or earlier until 1100 BC or later. in alternative tradition. Celtic (Welsh). He engendered the world and all living things and is invoked by shamans to provide good health and prosperity. provoking still further rage in nature . Teisbas Tutelary god. Alternatively. NOTE: eventually all the gods sacrificed themselves for mankind. but also known down into the Syrian plain. but is unable to feed all the guests because there is not enough food in the land. go out to search. CENTER(S) OF CULT associated with at least four cities in the Turus region. SYNONYMS Telipuna. Essentially the legend describes how Telepinu departs from the Hittite kingdom in a rage with boots on the wrong feet. Urartian [Armenia]. Also one of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. including Nerik. the son of TES ˇ UB or. or in human form but with a leonine head. Known from inscriptions. and his role is sometimes taken by the weather god Tes ˇ ub. god of the air. He may be of Hurrian origin. TELEPINU Hittite and Hurrian (Anatolia) [Turkey].

Also TERRA MATER. Tenanto’mni Creator spirit. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. West Africa]. He engendered the sun god SAULE and is described as the heavenly smith. Telepinu eventually returns home. According to tradition the water god FARO challenged him in a primordial struggle and smashed him against a mountain. An indefinite and remote character living somewhere in the zenith of the sky. An indefinite and remote character living somewhere in the zenith of the sky.Terra Mater 309 (the Finnish legend of the hero Lemminkainen tells a comparable story). One of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. One of the group classed as the Ometochtli complex concerned with the maguey plant and the brewing of the alcoholic drink pulque. A universal and generally malevolent power. symbolized by the jaguar and later adopted into the Aztec pantheon. Tepoztecatl Minor fertility god. . which was then transformed into its present state by the raven-like majordomo KU’URKIL. See also YA’QHICNIN. Bambara [Mali. Teljavelik Creator god. Terminus God of passage. Tenanto’mwan is the name always used when addressing the creator in incantations. Tenanto’mwan Creator spirit. Derived from Greek model. One of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. Chukchee (eastern Siberia]. Pre-Christian Lithuanian. Roman. generally regarded as benevolent. He created the world which was then transformed into its present state by QUIKINNA’QU. and nature returns to prosperity. but also a goddess of the dead. See also TELLUS. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Telpochtli (male youth) Omnipotent god. The god may have received a form of tree worship in which a hollow trunk was filled with harvest offerings. He was originally an earthquake god. A corn deity. He created the world Terra Mater Chthonic primordial earth mother. Identified particularly with the reindeer-hunting Koryak on the Taigonos peninsula. Embodied in boundary marker stones. Tellus Chthonic primordial earth mother. Enemy armies were offered to her and cursed in her name. calmed. Both she and the corn goddess CERES were propitiated with human sacrifice. Roman. Roman. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Teliko God of hot winds. Tepeyollotl (hill heart) Minor chthonic or earth god. He was celebrated in the Terminalia festival on February 23. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].

Tes ˇ ub sometimes plays the role of the missing vegetation god (see TELEPINU). . Tes ˇ ub is involved in a typical confrontation battle with the forces of disorder in the form of a dragon. Teteo Innan Teteo (gods their mother) Minor god of fire. many other sanctuaries in the Taurus region and northern Syrian plain. Greek. thus symbolizing the re-invigoration of the earth after winter and the triumph of life over death. Phylakopi and Delos. Bronze Teteoinnan-Toci Goddess of midwives. Teteoinnan Goddess of curers and medical diviners. A patron god of Mexico and one of the group classed as the HUITZILPOCHTLI complex. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. as befits a mountainous region experiencing frequent storms and otherwise changeable climate. in company with temple prostitutes. Tes ˇ ub is depicted holding a bow and standing on a horned animal or in a chariot drawn by bulls. Tes ˇ ub was imported into Greece during the Mycenaean period (circa 1500-1200 BC). Sculptures at Malatya identify ram sacrifices. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1800 BC or earlier until circa 1100 BC or later. A fragmented document describes a ritual in which the statue of the god is taken.” His consort is generally identified as HEBAT. sculpture.310 TESUB TESUB Hittite and Hurrian (Anatolia) [Turkey]. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. A paternalistic deity associated with fire. Tiryns. A patron god of Mexico and one of the group classed as the HUITZILPOCHTLI complex. ˇ UP and possibly S SYNONYMS TES CENTER(S) OF CULT Hattusas (Boghazköy). The king of the Hittite kingdom was Tes ˇ ub’s high priest. Illuyankas. the daughter of OURANOS and GAIA and both the sister and the consort of OKEANOS. although he may be subservient to the Sun God(dess) of ARINNA. Tes ˇ ub is the most important deity in Hittite state religion. One of the TITANS. Tethys Sea goddess. According to legend. lord of the land of Hatti. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Weather god. The head of the group classed as the Teteoinnan complex. The drama seems to have been enacted in a New Year spring festival of Purulliyas. Principally a weather god. ORIGIN statuettes of the god have been discovered at Mycenae. Arinna. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He defeats the dragon. ˇ UTEKH. to a Tarnu (cultic or bath) house in a sacred grove where various rites are performed over it. Tetzahuitl (fearful omen) Minor god of war. Also a god of battle and “king of heaven. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform and hieroglyphic texts from Boghazköy and elsewhere. rock carving. Known locally in the Valley of Mexico and invoked by women in childbirth. One of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. ART REFERENCES seals and seal impressions. Tetzahauteotl (god of fearful omen) Minor god of war.

KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 750 to AD 1500. Teutates may be less the name of a deity than an epithet meaning “great. He becomes assimilated variously to Mercury or MARS. codex pre-Columbian codices. TEZCATLIPOCA (smoking mirror) Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. but alternatively they work together to restore the shattered universe and initiate the fifth (present) sun. A sacrificial victim was chosen annually and killed by having his heart torn out.” According to the Roman writer Lucan. in the south blue (see . Tezcatlipoca and QUETZALCOATL are. Tezcatlipoca is the patron deity of young warriors and is capable of excesses of cruelty. His only ally was his sister COYOLXAUHQUI. according to the position of the sun. Known only from limited inscriptions. until the moment when Tezcatlipoca emerged. Totatis. he is one of three Celtic gods encountered by Caesar’s army in Gaul and the object of savage rites in which victims were drowned in sacrificial lakes. but probably much earlier. They were restrained in a cavern. Tezcatlipoca transformed himself into an avatara MIXCOATLCAMAXTLI.TEZCATLIPOCA 311 Teuhcatl (he of Teutlan) ART REFERENCES stone sculptures. who was lost in the battle and whose head the god hurled into the heavens to live there as the moon. He is also the great magician who dragged the earth mother from the primordial waters in the form of a huge alligator. LITERARY SOURCES Teutates Local tribal deity. illustrations. CIPACTLI. CENTER(S) OF CULT none. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The god is perceived in various aspects and colors. but to prevent her from sinking back into the waters of creation he tore out her lower jaw. Also a hunting god and one of the group classed as the Mixcoatl complex. Tewi’xilak God of goat-hunters. Tezcacoac Ayopechtli tortoise bench) (mirror serpent Birth goddess. He presides over the first of the five world ages personified by the sun 4 OCELOTL. He is also the ruler of the tenth of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. the great mother in the thirteenth heaven became pregnant and the 400 star gods who were jealous of her child plotted to destroy it at birth. Dza’wadeenox Indian [British Columbia. The eldest son of the supreme god Q A’ WADILIQALA . Teotl Iztacan (the place of the white god). Said to kill goats with great ease and feed the tribe. from his mother and destroyed his enemies. In the struggle she bit off his left foot. to create fire. antagonists. Attributes include a head band of red cedar bark. ORIGIN According to creation mythology. fully armed. Canada]. murals. Sun god. the “red Tezcatlipoca” (also said to be his son). Alternative tradition describes Tezcatlipoca as the product of the self-created primordial beings TONACATECUHTLI and TONACACIHUATL. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. An aspect of XOCHIQUETZAL. In the east he is yellow or white. in some contexts. Also Teutatis. Romano-Celtic (Gallic). Local god of war. He may equate with a British god. however. SYNONYMS Moyocoya. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].

Attended by three lesser judgment deities. Hindu. His consort is DHARTI MATA. often associated with the sky god TIN. Attribute: a snake in the form of a noose. Also Theia. god of sleep. One of the group classed as the Ometochtli complex concerned with the maguey plant and the brewing of the alcoholic drink pulque. CENTEOCIHUATL and MICTLANTECUHTLI. Bon (pre-Lamaist) [Tibet]. Thalna Goddess of childbirth. She is the impartial deity who sits blindfolded in Hades and judges the souls of the dead to determine whether they will pass to the Elysian fields or to the fires of Tartarus. Greco-Roman. since she brings new life into the world each day with her light. May appear with a white horse. goddess of indignation. AEACOS. . Tezcatzoncatl Minor fertility god. Also invoked at childbirth. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Tezcatlipoca-Itztlacoliuhqui Temple deity. See also TONATIUH. Thea Goddess. Thatmanitu Local goddess of healing. A daughter of the sky god OURANOS and earth mother GAIA. Known from various villages in northern India. Thab-Iha Hearth god. Greek. Known only from Greek and Roman inscriptions. Theandros God. but also included in the Ugaritic pantheon. and lives in a remote cave beside the river Lethe which he shares with his twin brother HYPNOS. Etruscan. According to legend. Color: red. he is one of the two sons of NYX. A consort of ZEUS and the mother of the Horae and Moires. Recognized chiefly at Sidon. Also Thakkur. One of four described in the codices Borgia. Thakur Deo Local god. At Rhamnus in Attica. The guilty are handed over to the Furies—the Dirae. Depicted as a youthful woman. MINOS and RHADAMANTHOS. Pre-Islamic northern Arabian. Themis Goddess of justice and order. Cospi and Fejervary-Mayer. Etruscan. Greek. Western Semitic.312 Tezcatlipoca-Itztlacoliuhqui also HUITZILPOCHTLI). in the west red and in the north black. Thanatos Minor god of death. Erinyes or Eumenides. Thesan Goddess of the dawn. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. the goddess of night. was built in the fifth century. consort of HYPERION and mother of the sun god HELIOS and of the goddesses EOS (dawn) and SELENE (moon). Themis was accorded a sanctuary built in the sixth century BC beside which that of NEMESIS. One of the TITANS. though not classed as one of the Titans.

CENTER(S) OF CULT Khemnu [el-Ashmunein] or Hermopolis (Greek). Thor possesses a prodigious appetite for food and drink. Greek. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period circa AD 700 and earlier. Primarily god of war but also a deity of the sky. including scientific. the prima materia of earth. ART REFERENCES small sculptures and reliefs. whose wheels cause the sound of the thunder. He rides the heavens in a chariot drawn by two goats. The name Thor is the origin of Thursday. Prose Edda (Snorri). but she is particularly significant as the mother of Achilles by an unnamed mortal. in Nubia and in the Dakhleh oasis in the western desert. probably the subject of other anonymous carvings. He is strongly linked with trees and sacred groves. Historia Danica (Saxo). stone reliefs. and wielding a short-handled hammer. champion wearing iron gloves and a girdle of might. He may also carry an ax and both may represent fertility symbols. storms. many others throughout the Nordic region. according to mythology she is a mermaid. She is among the lesser known deities. the chief defender of the realms of Asgard. coffin texts. Thor is one of the more important AESIR sky gods in Norse religion. etc. Described as a massive red-bearded Thoth is the patron deity of scribes and of knowledge. She failed because the heel by which she held him had remained dry. thought to derive from the ax.THOTH 313 Thetis Goddess of rivers and oceans. probably until AD 1100 or later. until well into the Christian era. SYNONYMS Djeheuty (archaic). and he lives in the hall Bilskirnir. THOR ORIGIN (thunder god) THOTH Egyptian. He probably achieved greater popularity than OTHIN. Tanngniost and Tanngrisnir. sea journeys and the administration of justice. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. Mjollnir. for the oceans and rivers. LITERARY SOURCES Pyramid Texts. place names. His mother is said to be lord. and is said to have given mankind the art of hieroglyphic writing. with OKEANOS. SYNONYMS HORAGALLES (Lappish). God of the moon and of wisdom. She was surrounded by attendant sea creatures known as Nereids and after Achilles’s death she returned to the ocean depths. According to legend she attempted to render him immortal by immersing him in the waters of the Styx. Thetis takes responsibility. His education she entrusted to the centaur Chiron. wall paintings. but according to mythology he was born from the head of the god SETH. Thoth is described in some inscriptions as a son of RE. Also in the Sinai. ART REFERENCES sculpture. votive inscriptions. The swastika. . One of the daughters of NEREUS. medical and mathematic writing. which creates lightning when struck against stone and becomes a thunderbolt when thrown. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 3000 BC until the end of Egyptian history circa AD 400. He is important as a mediator and counselor among the gods and is the scribe of the Heliopolis ENNEAD pantheon. CENTER(S) OF CULT Uppsala (Sweden). ORIGIN Nordic (Icelandic). He may be depicted in human form with the head of an ibis. Dublin (Ireland). etc. Thunor (Anglo-Saxon). becomes associated with him and he may be further symbolized by a sacred gold or silver arm-ring.

as her second consort. Thoth is generally regarded as a benign deity. The name given to each of the three holy images in a Taoist temple: the “perfect holy one. Tiberinus River god. . Thuremlin God of passage. He is also scrupulously fair and is responsible not only for entering in the record the souls who pass to the afterlife. He flies through the air. Tiamat is the power of the ocean waters and is intimately involved with the Babylonian creation story. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island. CENTER(S) OF CULT Babylon. Tia (death by violence) God of death. Chinese. She is said to flash her mirror at an intended victim of the god LEI KUNG’S thunderbolts to ensure his aim. Local deity of several tribes in New South Wales. His consort is one of the Vestal Virgins sacrificed by drowning. glyptics. Those who are about to die a violent death are said to hear him groaning about the camp and see him as a headless corpse with blood flowing endlessly from his severed neck. See also TA’XET. but its use was forbidden by official decree. etc.” restored to life and endured a tooth being knocked out to signify the arrival of adulthood and full incorporation into the society of the tribe. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 2000 BC until circa 200 BC. His attributes include a crown which consists of a crescent moon surmounted by a moon disc. Said to oversee the transition from adolescence to manhood. but of ajudicating in the Hall of the Two Truths. Canada]. Tien Mu TIAMAT Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian) [Iraq]. SYNONYMS none. ART REFERENCES plaques. T’ien Tsun (heavenly and honored) Generic title of gods. and heaping the mountains over her head. The Pyramid Texts reveal a violent side of his nature by which he decapitates the adversaries of truth and wrenches out their hearts. Taoist (Chinese). She combines with the underground fresh waters of APSU to give birth to eleven monstrous beings and is said to have been enraged by the death of Apsu at the hands of ENKI and at the behest of a group of gods headed by MARDUK. votive stelae. making the vault of heaven out of one half. or as a seated baboon sometimes with its torso covered in feathers. until some time during the Republican period. Primordial creator goddess. using her eyes as the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates.” the “highest holy one” and the “greatest holy one. His sanctuary was built on an island in the river and. Roman.” Also Tian-zhu. Australasia. LITERARY SOURCES cuneiform texts. In revenge she forms other deities in the primordial cosmos into a rival group and chooses. Marduk ultimately splits her in two. all bridges across the river were made wholly of wood so as not to offend him. The initiate was taken away by the god. Also Daramulun. particularly the creation epic Enuma Elis ˇ. The deity of the river Tiber.314 Thuremlin wholly as an ibis. “killed. The adverse connotations of iron are unclear. ORIGIN Goddess of lightning. the minor god Kingu to lead her army against Marduk.

and his mother is one of the Sa-Nguti-Te-Moana.TIN HAU 315 Tienoltsodi God of oceans and fresh water. In some Polynesian traditions he is represented as the first man. TIN HAU ORIGIN (queen of heaven) Taoist (Chinese). as distinct from those in the heavens. His attribute is a bunch of lightning flashes and he may appear in association with THALNA. engendered the earth mother PAPATUANUKU. Also Pu-I-Te-Moana. Tin Tiki Creator god. Only thirty or so examples of these are known. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. vehicle of the weather god TES (lord of the land) Chthonic fertility god. Primordial being. Attributes: book and sword. The female principle which. akin to Adam. Also Ki’i (Hawaiian). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 1300 until present. Kolyma Tungus [Siberia]. His father is Pusiuraura. Navaho [USA]. The attendant and ˇ UB. LITERARY SOURCES various philosophical and religious texts. Tifenua Timaiti-Ngava Ringavari (soft-bodied) Primordial being. SYNONYMS Lin Ma-Tzu. with TIMATEKORE. In Roman culture he becomes syncretized with JUPITER. most having been destroyed by Christian missions. CENTER(S) OF CULT Hangchow and throughout Chinese culture. The name by which the Christian god was still addressed after local culture was influenced by Russian Orthodoxy. He controls the waters which have fallen on earth. with TIMAITI-NGAVA RINGAVARI. which are ruled by the rain god TONENILI. engendered the earth mother PAPATUANUKU. Polynesian [Tikopia]. Goddess of waters. Hittite and Hurrian. Buddhist. Ma-Niang. Tiksnosnisa (hot and sharp) God. The word is also incorporated in tikiwananga or “god stick. Polynesian (including Maori). He is linked with the sea god FAIVARONGO and with the sky god ATUA I KAFIKA. Timatekore (nothing more) Ti’hmar Supreme god. a powerful deity personified by the reef eel. Etruscan. One of the children of RANGINUI and PAPATUANUKU who created mankind.5 inches tall. Sky god. Tin Hau originates as a mortal born on the island of Mei-Chou in the Fukien province of China. goddess of birth. The celebrated large Maori totems are depictions of ancestors who appear as human/bird or reptile hybrids. Tilla Bull god. Color: sky green (possibly meaning “overcast”). ART REFERENCES paintings and sculptures. mostly inadequately researched and as yet untranslated. Apparently connected with the guardian deities or dikpalas in the northwestern . The male principle which. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. Ma-Tzu.” which describes the wooden or stone images of deities that are usually minimally worked and stand about 19. quarter.

Lightning is the flashing of his eye. Pontic (Carthaginian). headed by the sky god OURANOS and the earth mother GAIA. Titans A race of gods. They have six pairs of children: OKEANOS and TETHYS.316 Tinirau the daughter of a minor official. See also TANIT. Greek. Tin Hau was deified in 1278 by the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan. According to legend the children usurped their father but were eventually beaten by ZEUS.” Tir God of wisdom. Probably regarded as the tutelary deity who engendered mankind and equating therefore to the more widely recognized Polynesian god TANGAROA. A universal and generally malevolent . In to reside in trees and equating with V IS later Hinduism used as an epithet of Vis ˇ nu. In art she is frequently depicted with two grotesque attendant figures known as “Thousand League Eyes” and “Favoring Wind Ears. Thought ˇ NU. This tradition was inscribed on the walls of a sanctuary in Hangchow in AD 1228. Tino Taata Creator god. Polynesian [Society Islands]. She died at the age of twenty-eight. but her role was extended so that she became the deity of oceans and fresh waters. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Koeos and Phoebe. Early Dravidian (Tamil). Pre-Christian Armenian. She is celebrated in a festival on the twenty-third day of the third month. A remote and vaguely defined figure who is present in the elements of wind and storm. Tirumal (the excellent black one) Creator god. having perfected herself and having experienced recurrent dreams of saving fishing boats from the waters close to her village. Tis ˇ pak Tinirau (innumerable) Fish god. Tirawa Creator god. KRONOS and RHEA. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). The secondary group of deities in the pre-Hellenic pantheon. Also concerned with writing and revered as an oracle. He provides the tribe with all their needs and is invoked by the Pawnee shamans. The tutelary deity of the city of Es ˇ numma. who hurled them into the abyss of Tartaros.” The first of the Ch’ing emperors subsequently conferred on her the title “imperial consort. heading the major group of the pantheon. Titlacahuan (we his slaves) Ominoptent god. God. Tin Hau was first worshiped as a guardian goddess of boats and fishermen. He is depicted as half man (right side) and half fish (left side) in the form of a sprat. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. who introduced the title “queen of heaven. He is said to live in the coconut of the world on a sacred isle called Motu-Tapu immediately below the home of Avatea and to own ponds full of all kinds of fish. Pawnee Indian [USA].” She was thus subordinate only to Yu Huang Shang Ti. the Jade Emperor. IAPETOS and Klymene. The second offspring of the great mother VARI-MA-TETAKERE and the younger sibling of AVATEA. Tinnit Goddess. HYPERION and THEA. Kreos and Eurybe.

god of war. SYNONYMS Tyr.Tlalehitonatiuh 317 power. having sacrificed his hand to the jaws of the wolf Fenrir so that it might be bound up. England. one of two contenders on which O THIN may have been modeled in Nordic (Icelandic) culture. The ruler of the twelfth of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. he resides in the east. Tiw or Tig (Anglo-Saxon). This may have been the origin of a practice by which. In other traditions (described in codices Borgia and Vaticanus B) he is one of the four gods supporting the lowest heaven at each cardinal point. One of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. Classical writers identified the Roman war god M ARS with Tiwaz. thus for the third day of the week we have mardi in French but Tuesday in English. ART REFERENCES reliefs in stone and metal. One of the group classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. Tiwaz is a one-armed god. possibly Fenrir by another name. Place names such as Tlacahuepan (human beam) Minor god of war. dieus) Germanic (northwestern Europe). Tlalehitonatiuh (on the earth sun) Chthonic underworld god. . the Germanic Semnones tribe bound the hands and feet of those entering a woodland sanctuary. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC and probably earlier until Christianization circa AD 1100. Teiwa (archaic). Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli (lord of the dawn) God of the morning star (Venus). One of the sons of the creator spirit KUTKHU. Tuesley in Surrey. Often identified with the supreme being AYI’URU’N TOYO’N. according to Tacitus. TIWAZ (derives from Indo-European word for god. derive from the name of the god. According to legend. According to Snorri (Prose Edda) the wolf Garm. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. CENTER(S) OF CULT scattered forest sanctuaries. Kamchadal [southeastern Siberia]. Germanic war god and probably chief among their sky gods. presumably to offer talismanic protection. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. ORIGIN Ti’ykitiy Sun spirit. Yakut [southeastern and central Siberia]. Teotl Tlatlauhcan (the place of the red god). Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. At Ragnarok (doom) it is believed that Fenrir will break free and swallow the sun. kills Tiwaz in the final battle of the gods. An incarnation or avatara of the god creator QUETZALCOATL and one of the group classed as the Mixcoatl complex. The runic symbol for Tiwaz is sometimes cut on spears. Ti’zil-Kutkhu Guardian spirit. Chief sky god. A patron god of Mexico and one of the group classed as the HUITZILPOCHTLI complex. LITERARY SOURCES runic inscriptions (see Wodan). Tiwaz represents law and order and appears as a more honest judiciary than Othin (see Othin). probably dedicated to Tiwaz. his consort is SI’DUKU and he is considered to be the progenitor of the Kamchadal tribe.

ART REFERENCES stone sculptures. The personification of small. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].318 TLALOC TLALOC Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the group classed as the TLALOC complex. One of the best sculptures is from Cuilapan. Hidalgo. the Great Temple is dedicated jointly to HUITZILOPOCHTLI and Tlaloc. He is also perceived as the ruler of the eighth of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. Teotihuacan. Ilhuicatl Xoxouhcan (the blue heaven). CENTER(S) OF CULT Tenochtitlan. Tlaloc was fashioned with the water goddess CHALCHIUHTLICUE. SYNONYMS none. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP mainly circa AD 750 to AD 1500. Tula. In Aztec cosmogony. white. According to some traditions he is the father of the moon god TECCIZTECATL. rainbearing hills. He is perceived in four forms—black. At Tula. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Known locally from the gulf coast region of Huaxteca. but probably much earlier and still continuing among peasants in rural areas. She is said to swallow the sun each evening and disgorge it in the dawn. He was propitiated to bring rain at the end of the dry season by sacrificing large numbers of small children on mountain altars. One of the principal personalities in Aztec creation mythology. blue and red—but typically blue with “goggles” over the eyes and serpent fangs. The ruler of the second of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. LITERARY SOURCES pre-Columbian codices. See also CIPACTLI. ORIGIN human figures. He has control over lightning. A tableau among the palace murals of Tepantitla is allegedly dominated by the god from whose hands flow droplets of water with a background of trees. Oaxaca (early classic period). whom he sacrificed in the great fire to engender the moon. etc. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. At Tenochtitlan. One of the group of fertility deities classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. toad-like figure whose body is cleaved in two by the gods TEZCATLIPOCA and QUETZALCOATL to fashion heaven and earth. holding dishes which are believed to have held human hearts for Tlaloc. . Pyramid B used by the Toltecs includes human sculptures known as chacmools. A maternal goddess linked with sexual sin and personifying filth. Tlaltecuhtli is a monstrous. Tlazolteotl (Ixcuiname) Chthonic or earth goddess. She also devours the blood and hearts of sacrificial victims and the souls of the dead. Wall paintings including a mural depiction exist at Zacuala. which he ended with a great fiery rain. Ilhuicatl Tlalocan Ipan Metztli (the heaven of the paradise of the rain god over the moon). butterflies and Tlaltecuhtli Chthonic creator goddess. He is a fertility god who created water and rain and presided over the third of the five world ages. she is also one of the group classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. Tlaloque-Tepictoton (the small molded ones) Fertility and rain god. murals and codex illustrations. Rain god. It has been suggested that he evolved from a jaguar-type animistic deity worshiped by the Olmecs.

Tomiyauhtecuhtli efflorescence lord) (our male maize Fertility and rain god. In Koryak tradition. His priest wears similar attire to that of Nayenezgani. The female consort of the dawn. Considered younger and inferior to NAYENEZGANI. Chukchee [southeastern Siberia]. the mother of the Koryak people. His chief antagonist is the moon goddess METSAKA. . Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. one of the “owners” of the world. QUIKINNA’QU. Navaho [USA]. Tnecei’vune (dawn walking woman) Spirit of the dawn. One of the group classed as the TLALOC complex. Oversees the hunting of mountain goats. MRATNA’IRGIN.Tomwo’get 319 Tloque Nahauque the adjacent) (ruler of the near and Creator god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. One of the group classed as the Omeotl complex. the master and creator of the Pacific Ocean. Tomwo’get (child of the water) War god. through the magical power of a waterfall. Also a god of the winds. In some legends he is the father of MITI. and of Big Raven. but the mask is painted with red ocher except for a triangular black area bordered with white. LIETNA’IRGIN and NA’CHITNA’IRGIN. His mother conceived him (self-created) Tobadzistsini Archetypal creator being. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The apotheosis of the first light of dawn in the eastern sky. Toa’lalit God of hunters. the chief war god of the Navaho. moccasins or mountain staff moving about. His name is that of a large sea crab. Sacrifice is made and blood is sprinkled in the appropriate direction. It also has a fringe of yellow or red wool. Tomor Creator god. Tne’sgan (top of the dawn) Spirit of the dawn. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Toko’yoto (crab) Guardian spirit. The consort of Ha’na and father of Supreme Being. He is invisible. Canada]. Illyrian [Albania]. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. but great hunters may catch a glimpse of his hat. Tna’nto (dawn coming out) Spirit of the dawn. Tokakami God of death. One of four beings controlling the dawn in different directions. See also TNE’SGAN. TENANTO’MWAN. Huichol Indian (Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Bella Coola Indian [British Columbia. Chukchee [southeastern Siberia]. His animals are the lynx and raven. Depicted in human form attended by eagles and still invoked by rural peasants.

Primordial deity. See also TLAHUIZCALPANTECUHTLI. In the most widely accepted Aztec cosmogony. In alternative mythology Tonacatecuhtli is the ruler of the sixth of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. aided by four unnamed beings. Navaho [USA]. but is otherwise naked save for a scarlet loin-cloth and a leather belt with silver ornamentation and a fox skin dangling at the back. The ruler of the fifth of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. raised the fallen sky which they propped up on great trees created by Tezcatlipoca and QUETZALCOATL at the four cardinal points. He wears a blue mask with a fringe of hair and a spruce collar. East Africa]. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Primordial deity. Also one of the group classed as the OMETEOTL complex. One of the group classed as the Omeotl complex. Tonaleque Goddess. It exists in the highest. specifically codices Borgia. In other texts. He presides over the fifth (present) world age. The so-called “lord of the celestial waters. Of terrifying appearance. EHECATLQUETZALCOATL and MICTLANTECUHTLI. in mythology only. His four sons. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. He is also the water-carrier for the other gods in the pantheon. transferring souls from heaven to the mortal womb. Ilhuicatl Yayauhcan (the blackish heaven). Tork Mountain god.320 Tonacacihuatl Tonacacihuatl (our flesh lady) Ilhuicatl Huixtotlan (heaven of the salt fertility goddess). rivers and seas. It exists in the highest. Also OMETECUHTLI. Tonenili Rain god. According to tradition Tonacatecuhtli drove four roads through the center of the earth after the cataclysm of the fourth world age (Atl) to disperse the flood waters of the deluge. male principle who combines with TONACACIHUATL to create all life. whose strings are rainbows. from whom all other deities in the pantheon stemmed. he is depicted as a temple deity. The son of the creator god TORORUT and his consort SETA. one blue and one black. His attributes. this is the self-created. Pokot and Suk [Uganda and western Kenya. this is the self-created. . He is said to scatter his waters to the four cardinal points and storm clouds begin to gather. Pre-Christian Armenian. also called Ilhuicatl Tonatiuh (the heaven of the sun). he is god of the evening star. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. eternal. Tonatiuh (soaring eagle) Tonacatecuhtli (our flesh lord) Creator god.” he controls the rain from the skies as opposed to that of lakes. are two wicker water-bottles. Also Omecihuatl. from whom all other deities in the pantheon stemmed. thirteenth heaven and once engendered the sun god TEZCATLIPOCA. he is the guardian deity of mountains and their inhabitants. female principle who combines with TONACATECUHTLI to create all life. In the most widely accepted Aztec cosmogony. personified by the sun Ollin and destined to end in a cataclysmic earthquake. eternal. thirteenth heaven and once engendered the sun god TEZCATLIPOCA. He is the ruler of the fourth of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. Topoh Astral god. Cospi and Fejervary-Mayer.

Supreme being. Pokot and Suk [Uganda and western Kenya. He is described as being of vague appearance. Shinto [Japan]. Tou Mou Goddess of measure. Toumou God of uncertain function. at which time she rumbles and shakes and produces children. Touia Fatuna (iron stone) Tororut Creator god. suggesting that she derives from the goddess of the aurora. though in Greenland Inuit tradition he lives in the sea. One of the group classed as the Ometochtli complex concerned with the maguey plant and the brewing of the alcoholic drink pulque. . Inuit. Mayan (Tzotzil. He is essentially benevolent and can be communicated with through the individual tornak of a shaman. Her main sanctuary is the Geku in Ise. possibly a cuttlefish). in Indian Buddhism. Earth goddess. The same ritual is performed in times of drought. With the introduction of Christianity he was syncretized with the devil. Chinese. His brother is ASIS the sun god. An ambiguous deity often identified with Inari. famine or plague. she is the apotheosis of rock deep in the earth and is periodically in labor. appearing as a large fat seal with long tentacles (i. which involves the sacrifice of an ox. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Polynesian [Tonga]. whither she was allegedly removed from Tamba after the emperor had received a dream-message from the sun goddess AMATERASU in AD 478. A deity whose mummy was allegedly kept at Heliopolis. The daughter of Kele (slime) and Limu (seaweed). The master of the tornat. Egyptian. He devours the souls of those he can capture. He is invoked in a special annual ceremony. Toyo-Uke-Bime Goddess of foodstuffs. ARAWA the moon and TOPOH the evening star. Totilma’il (father-mother) Creator being. who is both the spirit of the dragonfly and the symbol of the sacred river Oubangui. He is perceived as a great serpent. possibly in the guise of a huge bear. His consort is SETA and their children include the rain god ILAT. the group of controlling deities. She is considered to live in the constellation of Ursa Major and may also be an aspect of the astral goddess TIN HAU. central Africa]. An androgynous personality who represents the ancestral source of creation. MARICI. she is said in the Kojiki to be a daughter of WakuMusubi-No-Kami and a great granddaughter of IZANAGI and IZANAMI. the son of KANGALOGBA. East Africa]. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo.e. Usually depicted with many arms and with a caste mark on her forehead. to ensure safety of crops and cattle. Toro Creator god.Toyo-Uke-Bime 321 Tornarssuk (big tornak or shaman) Totoltecatl Fertility god. Totatis See TEUTATES. His home is in the underworld in the land of souls.

An obscure form of Indra with strong water attributes. staff and sword. silver and iron. Of terrible appearance. ˇ IVA. he is described in chronicles as bearing three heads. V IS ˇ IVA as one entity. ˇ NU and S V IS Mother goddess. bell. twelve ADITYAS. would be included here with only one. Roman. The head of the pantheon in Stettin and also mentioned in association with Brandenburg. Hindu deities Mahesvara (S Color: blue. one in heaven. eleven RUDRAS and two ASVINS. hook. Triglav God of war. the DEVAS were separated into eight VASUS . Hindu. S Tripura is depicted attended by vultures. Trailokyavijaya (lord of three worlds) God. Slav (Baltic). Known from the Rg Veda. prayer wheel and teeth. noose. Generally included in the royal court of the god Neptune. club. Buddhist (Mahayana). Attributes: conch. Trita (Aptya) God(dess). which ˇ iva destroyed in his form as Tripurantaka. Tritons Minor sea gods. The “three cities” are the cities of gold. It may originally have been the name of a sun god. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Also Aptya. Also the deity of sweet water remedial baths. Trimurti Collective title for the major triad. this one is contained in the Rg Veda and includes thirty-three names divided into three groups of eleven in each of the three worlds. Also an alternative name for ACALA. noose and rosary. God. an ugra (terriˇ IVA. The children of POSEIDON and AMPHITRITE who are depicted as hybrid fish-men. Color: part red. two lamps. who argue that Brahma. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. who is almost invariably represented with four heads. but is taken as ˇ NU which strides the world the incarnation of V IS in three steps in his dwarfish manifestation. See also NEPTUNUS. part black. A ˇ NU three-headed representation of BRAHMA. Subsequently. In later Hinduism the number thirty-three is increased hyperbolically to 330 million and deva refers to gods excluding the major triad of B RAHMA . and is linked with the Hindu perception of the three . Attributes: conches. Contested by some and S authors. alternatively ble) representation of the god S a form of the goddess PARVATI. bow. Attributes: book. hook. Hindu. Tripura (lady of the three cities) Trayastrinsa (the thirty-three) Collective name for the group of deva gods.322 Tozi Tozi Goddess of healing. Seen standing on the ˇ IVA) and GAURI. In Hinduism the SAKTI of Tripurantaka. one in the air and one on earth. prayer wheel. Hindu and Jain. Attributes: arrow. In Jainism regarded as one of the ASTAMATARAS. Trivikrama (taking three steps) Trikantakidevi (goddess of three thorns) Goddess. Hindu (Vedic). One of the many lists of deities in Hinduism. Hindu (Vedic).

carried in the hand. plough. Khoi [Namibia. Shinto [Japan]. He is never depicted in art nor impersonated. staff and sword. Chinese. Tsohanoai (day bearer) Sun god. Tsai Shen may appear in company with FU SHEN. a lotus motif of fertility on the breast and a golden mushroom. including the two TsukiYomi-No-Miya shrines in the Ise Jingu temple. air and earth. a symbol of longevity. conch. His consort is the fertility goddess ESTSANATLEHI and he is the father of the war Tu (2) Primordial god. Canada]. while the other carries a bowl of money and a sheaf of golden grass. Celtic (Irish). His injury was sustained in a primordial battle with his arch rival GAUNAB. Qwe’gsotenox Indian [British Columbia. Not regarded as a supreme god. As his name suggests. who existed in chaos and night which they broke into pieces. Also Tsuki-Yomi-Otoko. bow.” his attributes include head ring and neck ring of bark to which heads are attached. His attributes include a ring of coins around the hem of the robe. Tu (1) Chthonic earth goddess. Tsunigoab used to be invoked at dawn each day.Tu (2) 323 parts of the world—heaven. behind the disc of the sun. Tsohanoai moves across the sky. lotus. symbol of potency. Creator god. and SHOU LAO. Polynesian. The deity associated with mandarins. which is his shield. knife. Tsunigoab (wounded knee) Tsa’qamae God of salmon migration. Tsai Shen God of wealth. He is depicted wearing a pink robe associated with Yin and the season of spring. A fertility spirit also identified as she who was invoked to bring good harvests by phallic-shaped mounds of earth left in the fields. he walks with a limp. southwestern Africa]. His SAKTI is SANTI. He is thought to walk on a rainbow and ride a blue steed. Normally depicted with the left leg raised. invisible. The so-called “head winter dancer. with TANE and LONO. He also enjoys an ancient sanctuary on the island of Iki. club. noose. prayer wheel. One of three elements. . Chinese. Tsuki-Yomi Trograin Minor god. There is very little reference to him in the sacred texts and his is a highly aesthetic form of worship. sa. the god of darkness. god NAYENEZGANI. One of his attendants carries a deer horn. who was eventually driven away to live in the black heaven. He is also attributed with the creation of all the big game animals. Navaho [USA]. Allegedly he slew the food KAMI Uke-Mochi. Attributes: arrow. god of luck. He is depicted riding a horse and a number of sanctuaries are addressed to his cult. Engendered from the right eye of IZANAGI immediately after AMATERASU was engendered from the left. Moon god. god of longevity.

324 TUATHA DE DANANN allowing day to come in. Tumuteanaoa (echo) Goddess. No further details are given. Africa]. Polynesian (including Maori). Inuit. He is also regarded as a war god. are also known from Welsh mythology. Cycles of Kings. The fourth child of VARI-MA-TE-TAKERE. the powers of destruction and misfortune. The Tuatha de Danann mythology is familiar to all the Celtic races and the names of the gods and goddesses. they are said to have become the rulers of Ireland. An association of deities probably going back to pre-tribal times. CENTER(S) OF CULT various throughout Ireland. TUATHA DE DANANN (peoples of the goddess Danu) Celtic (Irish). Tradition claims that the Tuatha arrived in Ireland under the leadership of the god NUADA from somewhere in the north. he proposed the slaughter of his parents when it was decided to separate them as sky and earth. and the Fir Bolg who were allegedly an agricultural tribe from Greece. A fearsome being of huge stature (13 feet tall) who lives on the ice . The sixth child of VARI-MA-TE-TAKERE. Tumuteanaoa lives in Te-Parai-Tea (hollow gray rocks) below the home of the god TANGO. Also KU (Hawaiian). which he imbued with his lust for the warfare and violence that was a characteristic part of Maori culture. grated and individual members were placed in the ranks of fairies. He was subsequently given charge over mankind (tangata). with local variations. Also Kumatauenga (Hawaiian). Having defeated the Fomoire and the Fir Bolg. carrying all plants and seeds. Under Christian influence the position of the pantheon was deni- Tu-Metua (stick-by-parent) God. LITERARY SOURCES Books of Invasions. Finias. he stays with her in the confined space at the bottom of the world coconut and lives in endless silence. ORIGIN Tule Spider god. Four places relating to their country of origin are mentioned in old text—Falias. Collective name for the pantheon. votive inscriptions. GOBNIU. Tunek God of seal hunters. He was also responsible for giving mankind water and the tools of cultivation. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. the primordial mother. Torn from her right side. Zande [Sudan and Democratic Republic of Congo. the primordial mother. LUG. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until Christianization circa AD 400. Tumatauenga God of war. One of the children of the prime parents RANGINUI and PAPATUANUKU. Gorias and Murias. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. Nuadu Argatlam and others and represent a possibly non-tribal hierarchy of the supernatural joined against a common foe. He descended from the sky on a rope. ART REFERENCES various stone sculptures and reliefs. These were prehistoric invaders of Ireland who were defeated in two battles fought at Moytura. the Fomoire. Tu represents stability. but chiefly Tara. Torn from her right side. SYNONYMS none. The deities include the DAGDA.

Turan Goddess of love. winged shoes and cloak. having borne him five sons and two daughters. She became widely identified with the Asian mother goddess KYBELE but was replaced. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). A group of deities who combine the features of earth and rain gods. Although there are considered to be an indefinite . Elsewhere she is identified as the daughter of ZEUS and HERA. There is a record that the Emperor Julian sacrificed to Tyche at Antioch in AD 361-2 and her temple was still intact during the reign of Theodosius (379-95). The tutelary deity of Vulci. in Roman times. Minor underworld god. near Babylon. Greco-Roman. Chinese. One of the “nine dark ladies” of the pantheon who are regarded as having a protective role. One of the group classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex.Tzultacah 325 fields and is capable of running very fast. on the island of Taiwan. alternatively. One of her more famous sanctuaries. is the Yin Yang Stone. VISVAKARMAN. ladle and two lotuses. Etruscan. The tutelary god of Borsippa. She appears as a nereid in the Hymn to Demeter (Homer). especially sons. An ADITYA or sun god and the father of SARANYU. he leads the souls of the dead toward the underworld. and special cakes are eaten by the bride and groom. Tzontemoc (head-descending) Tutu God. a dove and a blossom. Tvastar (carpenter) Creator god. she is depicted bearing wings and with attributes including a swan. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. She is depicted Tzultacah (mountain valley) Chthonic and thunder gods. According to Hesiod’s Theogony she is the daughter of OKEANOS. committed suicide in order to ensure her future chastity. during the reign of Hammurabi in the old Babylonian period. by the goddess FORTUNA and associated symbolically with a wheel device. Tyr See TIWAZ. Modeled on the Greek messenger god HERMES. Attributes: homajakalika (an uncertain fire device). the consort of Agathos Daemon. cornucopiae. She retained popularity for a long time. The “divine builder” who fashions living creatures on earth. She is invoked at weddings to provide children. He also sits in his kaiak in the fog and catches seal in huge traps. Turms Chthonic underworld god. but later superseded by NABU. Also Tastar. Hindu (Vedic). carrying a rudder or. Tzu Sun Niangniang Mother goddess. Also mentioned as Agathe Tyche. Tyche Goddess of fortune. with caduceus (winged rod). The Hindu equivalent of the Roman god VULCANUS. Etruscan. She was the mortal wife of a minor official and. Tvashtri. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].

only thirteen are invoked in prayers. . but each is the owner of a specific mountain. springs and rivers. rattlesnakes for more serious depravity. They live in. and may personify.326 Tzultacah number of Tzultacahs. They are attended by snakes which are dispatched to punish mankind for wrongdoing. Non-poisonous varieties are sent to discipline against minor offenses.

Known particularly from the reign of Tiberias in the second century BC and associated with prosperity. An emanation of AKSOBHYA or RATNASAMBHAVA. They have youthful appearance. Udadhikumara Generic name of a god. Hindu (Puranic). 327 . One of a group of deities under the general title of BHVANAVASI (dwelling in places). the Hindu god of riches. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). ichneumon fly. the “nine durgas. Attributes: ax. who lies with jewels spewing from his mouth. Drives a cart which generates flashes of lightning as the horses’ hoofs hit stones along the way. Three-eyed. Attributes: cup. (violent Tara) Goddess. The deity responsible for pastures and poplar trees. Ukko Thunder god. hammer and sword. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). blue robe. Jain [India]. Possibly linked with the Canaanite city of Ugarit [Ras ˇ amra]. Also a form of JAMBHALA. moon disc and snakes. the noise of thunder comes from the wheels or from Ukko grinding corn with a big stone.” Ugratara Ucchusma God. He is depicted as pot-bellied and stands upon Kubera.U 6 Ua-Ildak Vegetation goddess. Pre-Christian Finnish. Ugar Vegetation god. S Ubertas Minor god of agriculture. Buddhist. Roman. Ukur Chthonic underworld god. Ugracandika (violent Canda) Distinct form of the goddess DURGA. One of a group of NAVADURGAS. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). image of Aksobhya in the hair. A terrible deity who carries a cup and a corpse upon her head. Western Semitic (Syrian).

he is responsible for justice. but with some links to the VANIR gods. Unkulunkulu Creator god. capacity. He engendered all plants and animals on earth and is the father of the god UNKULUNKULU. ART REFERENCES possibly the subject of anonymous carvings. Zulu [South Africa].” presumed to be a reference to the use of Ull’s shield as a boat. but several place names in Norway and Sweden allude.328 ULL ULL ORIGIN [Gothic] (glory) Nordic (Icelandic) and Germanic. Uma A form of the goddess PARVATI. See also SOMASKANDA. Hindu (Puranic). Uma is identified as the consort of Chanˇ IVA which includes drashekhara. but possibly has maternal connotations. ULU’TUYAR ULU TOYO’N horrible lord) ORIGIN (titular Yakut [central Siberia]. Zulu [South Africa]. He lives in the upper world. As Uma Maheshvara she fought with demons including Mahisha. A creative being superintending the ICCI (masters or owners) and generally seen in a destructive Uni Tutelary goddess. The consort of the sky god TIN and linked with the region of Perugia. a form of S the moon among his attributes.” He may also have a role in the fertility of crops. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until Christianization circa AD 1100. place names. SYNONYMS none. A scabbard excavated in Denmark in the third century AD bears a runic inscription “servant of Ull. mirror. he was born from a reed. Umashi-Ashi-Kabi-Hiko-Ji-No-Kami (pleasant reed shoot prince elder deity) Creator being. The son of SIF and stepson of THOR. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP prehistoric times until circa AD 1900. SYNONYMS Ullr. Attributes: lotus. LITERARY SOURCES The Yakut (Jochelson). Saxo describes him crossing the sea on a magic bone—a ski? He may have a sister. but also connected with fertility and with the sea. ART REFERENCES possibly wood carvings. Etruscan. The meaning of her name is unclear. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. CENTER(S) OF CULT none known. who was born from a reed and engendered mankind. and oaths were once sworn over the “ring of Ull. Skaldic verse mentions the “ship of Ull.” According to Snorri he wears a bow and snow shoes. Malevolent creator spirit. and the progenitor of mankind. May have originated as an early northern German sky god. Umvelinkwangi Creator god. rosary and waterjar. He was engendered from the reeds floating on the primordial waters and is perceived as a remote and vague figure who hides himself from mankind. . Ullin.” See also URU’N AJY TOYO’N. and “in the west. Historia Danica (Saxo). The fourth of the deities to be listed in the Kojiki sacred text. Shinto [Japan]. A sky god of Asgard. Prose Edda (Snorri). CENTER(S) OF CULT no fixed sanctuaries. The androgynous son/daughter of UMVELINKWANGI.

Singhalese [Sri Lanka]. she is also drawn as a mother goddess in the guise of a cow. Generally addressed by a beneficent or white shaman (ajy ayuna). Epithets include “mother of the gods” and “mother of cows. URU’N AJY TOYO’N (white creator lord) Yakut [central Siberia]. Creator spirit. One of the named consorts of the sky god AN and the mother of NIN’INSINNA.” She is invoked to give the boon of longevity. One of a group of VASITAS personifying the disciplines of spiritual regeneration. Buddhist. An auspicious deity. Philosophical deity. heralding Surya. West Africa]. Usas brings the dawn. See also ULU’TUYAR ULU TOYO’N. CENTER(S) OF CULT no fixed sanctuaries. In addition to being perceived as a sky goddess. LITERARY SOURCES The Yakut (Jochelson). prehistoric times until circa 1900 AD. the consort of the sun god SURYA. Attributes: jeweled staff and staff on yellow lotus. and drives away darkness. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Upakesini Minor god. She is the all-seeing eye of the gods. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). Attribute: a creeper. according to one theon. Engendered all living things on earth. Identified with V IS tradition his specific task was to protect the culture of Sri Lanka from Buddhism. The daughter of Dyaus and. Buddhist. He tends to act for good and horses were sacrificed to him. Conversely he stood by Gautama BUDDHA against the Hindu MARA. Color: green. She sets all things in motion and can render strength and fame to her devotees. Uranos See OURANOS. SYNONYMS AYI’-URU’N TOYO’N (lord bright creator). Upayaparamita enemies) (perfecting success against A creator being said to live in the zenith of the upper world. according to some texts. Upapattivasita (control of fitness) Minor goddess. The most senior of the four great gods of the Singhalese panˇ NU. Buddhist. Bassari [Togo. Concerned with anointing the bridegroom’s door. ART REFERENCES possibly sculptures in wood. Roman. Unxia Goddess of marriage.Usas 329 Unumbote Creator god. . He may also personify the sun.” superintending the ICCI (masters or owners). In the Rg Veda she is depicted as a beautiful young virginal figure who rides in a hundred chariots. but a Upulvan (like the blue lotus) Local god. Hindu (Vedic). Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. Uras ˇ Chthonic earth goddess. Usas Goddess of the dawn. Color: mixed. An attendant of ARA PACANA. and also “in the northeast.

noose. George. UTU ORIGIN Mesopotamian (Sumerian) [Iraq]. Buddhist. . and a dikpala or guardian of the zenith direction. Usas sometimes enjoys a domestic worship as a guardian hearth goddess who drives away darkness and evil spirits. Usnisavijaya (victorious) Primordial goddess. however. Pre-Christian Latvian. three-headed and with eight arms. Also a deification of literature. prayer wheel and sword. image of the BUDDHA on a lotus leaf. Uttu is a minor deity whose father is ENKI. jewel. lotus. Associated with both the morning and evening star and also has links with bee-keepers and spring. Enki first impregnated the mother goddess NINHUR˜ A. Under Christian influence he becomes absorbed into the figure of St. She is depicted as the goddess of weaving and of spiders. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Uslo Spirit of mountains. A moderate NAKSATRA. a type of curled hairstyle found in the characteristic iconography of buddhas. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). NOTE: the word describes. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). According to legend. additionally. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP to circa 1750 BC. Sun circa 3500 BC god. from the later traditions of Hinduism. Also a collective term for a group of eight deities. bow. Attributes: arrow. Yakut [central Siberia]. She disappears. One of a group of DHARANIS. A moderate NAKSATRA.330 Usins more malignant aspect reveals her as a huntress who wastes human life. gave birth to the goddess NINKURRA. She in turn was impregnated by goddess NIN-S Enki and. Color: white. Threeheaded. A benevolent NAKSATRA. whose nine-day gestation produced the SAG ˇ AR. Uttarasadha Minor goddess of fortune. Color: yellow. Mesopotamian (Sumerian). including Usnisa. after a similar nine-day gestation. Buddhist (Mahayana). Usnisa God. Uttarabhadrapada Minor goddess of fortune. prayer wheel. Through the same procedure with her grandfather. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). A dikpala or guardian of the zenith direction. Attributes: jewel. Form of VAIROCANA. Usins Astral god. who are perceived as extensions of the DHYANIBUDDHAS. Regarded as a female BODHISATTVA or buddhadesignate. Three-eyed. Uttu Vegetation goddess and goddess of weaving. Uttaraphalguni Minor goddess of fortune. staff and waterjar. One of the guardians of the natural world answering to the mountain owner XAYA ICCITA. Not to be confused with UTU the sun god. Ninkurra conceived the goddess Uttu. daughter of DAKSA and wife of CANDRA (SOMA). widely worshiped in Tibet.

” He is usually depicted wearing a horned helmet and carrying a saw-edged weapon not unlike a pruning saw.UTU 331 ˇ AMAS ˇ (Akkadian). symbolizing the dawn. . SYNONYMS Utu is the power of sunlight and. votive stelae and glyptics. He rises “in the mountains of the east” and sets “in the mountans of the west. He is the son of the moon god NANNA and the ˇ KUR goddess NINLIL. of justice and the implementation of law. S CENTER(S) OF CULT Sippar. ART REFERENCES plaques. LITERARY SOURCES various creation epics and other texts. in a social context. which it is thought he has used to cut through the side of a mountain from which he emerges. His brother and sister are IS and INANA. He may also carry a mace and stand with one foot on the mountain.

Also known by the epithet “queen of the gods. Roman. Vahagn God of victory. She also personifies truth and sustains soma—the liquid essence of vision and immortality. Vacuna Minor goddess. The embodiment or apotheosis of consciousness representing the sacred word. Buddhist (Mahayana). SARASVATI. A sanctuary dedicated to this deity is known to have existed near the villa belonging to the poet Horace. The tutelary deity of Nepal. speech and sight and she can lead a man to become a Brahman. God. but in the secondary capacity of a mother goddess she is also drawn as a cow.” Vac is the personification of the phenomenon of speech and oral communication. An attendant of MARICI. Alternatively she is the daughter of Ambhrna. She is generally depicted as an elegant womanly figure dressed in gold. Goddess of the spoken word. 332 . Hindu (Vedic). Considered to epitomize bravery. She gives the boon of hearing. Though she takes a prominent place in the Rg Veda. Buddhist. Sabine. Hindu (Puranic). noose and staff. The guardian of the infant’s first cry at birth. An emanation of all DHYANIBUDDHAS (spiritual meditation buddhas) and a variety of MANJUSRI. he is depicted born from a fire and with flames for hair. 2. She may have become syncretized with the goddess of wisdom. She may be synonymous with DIANA or MINERVA. Vagisvara (lord of speech) God of speech. Vagbija (seed of speech) Minor goddess. the basis of the earliest Hindu mythology. Accompanied by a lion or seated upon a lion throne. Vadali Minor goddess. Vac largely disappears from later Hindu traditions. She is said to have created the four Vedas. In some texts she is a daughter of DAKSA and consort of KASYAPA. Attribute: blue lotus. Vagitanus Minor god of passage. Pre-Christian Armenian. An emanation of AMITABHA and a variety of MANJUSRI. Attributes: flower. needle.V 6 Vac (speech) 1. Buddhist. An aspect of the goddess SARASVATI in the form of a bija mantra.

Sikh. He is also depicted as a heroic figure who once One of five mystic spiritual counterparts of a human buddha in Vajrayana Buddhism. or living within. Vairacocha is perceived to rule the heavens in the fashion of an Inca emperor. CENTER(S) OF CULT Cuzco ART REFERENCES various sculptures in stone and precious metals and carvings (all lost). in northern India. where the central head is human. GARUDA. SYNONYMS Buddhaheruka. SYNONYMS Huiracocha. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP VAIROCANA (coming from the sun) Buddhist [India]. He is seen with four heads in an attribute known as caturmukha. Comparable with the Koryak deity TENANTO’MWAN.VAIROCANA 333 Vahguru Creator god. ORIGIN The creator of all other supernatural beings and of men and animals. He is the source of all divine power. is Ilya-Tiqsi Wiraqoca Pacayacaciq (ancient foundation. VARAHA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 500 BC to present. but with the thumb and forefinger stretched out. CENTER(S) OF CULT pan-Asiatic. Va’irgin (I exist) Vaimanika Generic title for a group of deities. A remote and poorly defined character who lives in the zenith of the sky and who created the world. paintings. and facing behind. VAIRACOCHA Inca [Peru]. Viracocha. A class of gods said to be borne by. known as Vaikuntha. The first and oldest dhyanibuddha or meditation buddha. that of Vairacocha being the most important. Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. to the right NARASINHA. Vis Aspect of VIS ˇ nu is depicted under this title residing in his own heaven. lord. He is said to have crossed the Pacific Ocean walking upon the water. The title Vairacocha has been used by South American Indians into recent times to address white people. Vaikuntha ˇ NU. traveled the world teaching mankind various arts and crafts. In the chief sanctuary at Cuzco the deities of the pantheon were represented in gold statues. It is described as having been the size of a small boy. Creator god. right hand upraised with fist clenched. LITERARY SOURCES none. or he reposes on the serpent ANANTA (SESA). instructor of the world). Jain [India]. A product of the A DIBUDDHA who represents the . He has no icons. ART REFERENCES metal and stone sculptures. the vimana. contracted by the Spanish invaders. that to the left is Sakti. a flying palace. Hindu (Puranic). As such Vis ˇ nu’s vehicle is either the mythical bird. but not immediately concerned with administration of the world and appears only in times of crisis. circa AD 400 to circa AD 1500. Supreme being. His full Inca name. LITERARY SOURCES Sadhanamala and Tantric ritual texts. The aspect may also be known as Trailokyamohana. Worshiped in the Golden Temple of Amritsar.

regal ornaments and staff. Attributes: staff with bell. Color: blue or gold. Vajradaka God. noose. Buddhist (Vajrayana). His SAKTI is VAJRADHATVISVARI and he is normally accompanied by a lion or two dragons. hook. Buddhist (Mahayana). club. Color: white. Known particularly from Nepal and Tibet. image of Aksobhya on the crown. rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. Also one of a group of eight ASTAMATARAS. Color: blue. Vajramrta (immortal of the Vajra sect) God. Attributes: many. Vajracarcika Goddess. Vajraghanta Minor goddess. Vajradhara God. Emanations include chiefly S AMANTABHADRA but also CUNDA. Vaisnavi Mother goddess. Vajragarbha (substance of a thunderbolt) God. MARICI. Buddhist (Mahayana). His icon is normally placed in the innermost part of a stupa or shrine. An emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI. knife. USNISAVIJAYA and Vajravahi. Her vehicle is the hybrid beast GARUDA. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Three-headed. Buddhist (Mahayana). Buddhist (Mahayana). In later Hinduism she became one of a group of MATARAS regarded as of evil intent. SitatapatraAparajita. Three-eyed. His SAKTI is PRAJNAPARAMITA. noose. Buddhist. Vairotya (having an ax and a goad) Goddess of learning. hook. jewel. In another grouping one of nine NAVASAKTIS who. NAMASANGITI. Vajragandhari Minor goddess. An emanation of AKSOBHYA. See also AKSOBHYA. conch. lotus. Buddhist (Mahayana). staff. three or four heads. Attributes: arrow. also regarded as a form of SAKTI of V IS LAKSMI. sword. Attributes: cup. Attributes: blue lotus. Color: green or white. Attributes: cup. Color: red. Vajradhatvisvari (lady of the adamantine world) Goddess. book and staff. An epithet of the ADIBUDDHA but also an allegory for the highest buddha. skull with noose. MAHASAHASRAPRAMARDANI. bow. including an image of Vairocana on the crown. prayer wheel.334 Vairotya branch of the cosmos concerned with bodily form. lotus and prayer wheel. in southern India. Buddhist. He originates from the white mantra syllable OM and lives in the zenith paradise. Jain [India]. and trident. AMITABHA. ax. An emanation of AKSOBHYA bearing one. staff and sword. AMOGHASIDDHI and RATNASAMBHAVA. A BODHISATTVA or buddha-designate. His vehicle is an animal of . Attributes: three monkish robes and prayer wheel. The SAKTI of VAIROCANA and also a variety of MARICI. One of sixteen Vidyadevi headed by the goddess Sarasvati. she stands upon a corpse. image of AMOGHASIDDHI. bell. A female dikpala or guardian of the northern direction. GRAHAMATRKA. He is also taken as a tutelary deity in Lamaism [Tibet] in which case his attributes include bell and prayer wheel. A ˇ NU. Attributes: child.

mane. Alternatively considered to be a counterpart of the Hindu god INDRA. One of the Mahayana deities said to be an emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI. Color: green. staff and sword. Vajratara Goddess. his mother is RIND. Also identified as an Vali God. and staff. noose. blue lotus. A female dikpala or guardian of the western direction. Vajrapani God. Attributes: arrows. Buddhist. banner. Vajravarahi (diamond sow) Goddess. bold .Vali 335 uncertain identity. In Lamaism she accompanies VAJRADAKA. Five-headed. Attributes: staff with noose. image of Vairocana on the crown and knife. Some texts describe her as the SAKTI of HEVAJIRA. Vajravidarani (tearing asunder) Minor goddess. A hardened. Color: golden. Considered to be an emanation of all the DHYANIBUDDHAS or spiritual meditation buddhas. 2. One of the sons of OTHIN. Vajrosnisa God. Acarya-Vajrapani. Color: red. staff and sword. Buddhist [mainly Tibet]. Attributes: club. shield. Color: dark blue or white. An emanation of AKSOBHYA but also sometimes identified with ADIBUDDBA. snake and staff. cup. Three-eyed. Three-eyed. but with an assortment of other attributes from time to time. Color: yellow. Attributes: noose. Attributes: arrow. bow. She stands upon a lotus. Minor goddess. hook. An emanation of VAIROCANA and sometimes identified as the SAKTI of HEVAJIRA. Buddhist. Also AcalaVajrapani. Vajrasphota Goddess. Three-eyed and three-headed. bow. A female dikpala or guardian of the southern direction. Sometimes depicted with a peacock. Generally thought to reflect the second DHYANIBUDDHA or spiritual meditation buddha. Attributes: arrow. Nordic (Icelandic). Attributes: bell. Color: yellow. See also PADMANTAKA. hook. Color: white. image of Amoghasiddhi on the crown. Three-eyed and three-headed. images of the five Dhyanibuddhas on the crown. Attributes: principally club. Buddhist (Mahayana) and Lamaist [Tibet]. bow. Goddess of learning. club. Attribute: staff. knife and staff. One of sixteen VIDYADEVI headed by the goddess SARASVATI. emanation of RATNASAMBHAVA or a form of Bhrkuti. Buddhist. Buddhist (Mahayana). Color: green. She is depicted treading on a man. She can sometimes be identified carrying her severed head in her hand. Buddhist (Mahayana). noose and staff. cup. Buddhist (Mahayana). prayer wheel. conch. cup. Jain. Apparently connected with the guardian deities or dikpalas in the easterly direction. noose skin. Vajrayogini Vajrasrnkhala (personification) 1. Minor goddess. hook. Vajrapasi Minor goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana).

The third avatara of Vis ˇ nu. The fifth avatara of Vis ˇ nu which appears as a dwarf. Historia Danica (Saxo). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Viking period circa AD 700 and earlier.” Valtam God. Nordic (Icelandic). Vamana ˇ NU.336 Valli warrior and an excellent shot. He slew HODER and thus avenged the death of BALDER. She often wears an elephant skin. LITERARY SOURCES Icelandic codices. According to legend. Varahi Vana-Durga Aspect of DURGA. one of nine NAVASAKTIS who. the god took the guise in order to trick BALI. Mother goddess. According to the Poetic Edda (Balder’s Dreams) Valtam is the father of OTHIN. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). The second consort of SKANDA. artwork on weapons. usually depicted standing to his right. Hindu (Epic and Incarnation of the god V IS Puranic). Vis ˇ nu returned to his proper stature and claimed heaven and earth in two steps. VANIR Nordic (Icelandic). had originally been a Vanir but became hostage to the Aesir when the two races were at war. A major group of Norse deities concerned primarily with peace and prosperity and with the fertility of the land. etc. CENTER(S) OF CULT various throughout areas of Nordic influence. In another grouping. He retrieves it in the shape of a girl. . Attributes: umbrella and waterpot. Prose Edda (Snorri). various classical authors. but particularly at Uppsala in Sweden. is eight-armed and carries an assortment of weapons. Hindu (Epic and Incarnation of the god V IS Puranic). whose prestige had begun to overshadow that of INDRA. Varaha (boar) ˇ NU. In its original context the word Valli may mean “earth. NJORD. He declined to take the third which would have also claimed the underworld. Idavoll. he descends in this guise to the bottom of the primeval sea to rescue the earth. Hindu (Puranic). SYNONYMS none. One of the survivors of Ragnarok destined to live in the land which replaces Asgard. which appears as a boar. A smaller race of deities than the AESIR gods led by OTHIN. The avatara may be depicted in wholly animal form or as a human with a boar’s head. Epithets include Adivaraha. The sea god. a greatgrandson of Hiranyakashipu (see NARASINHA). until Christianization circa AD 1100 and in some instances beyond. According to legend. but instead gave its rule to Bali. which has been removed there by a demon. The most important among them are FREYR and FREYJA. ORIGIN Valli Goddess. symbolizing the puny state of mankind in the cosmos. ART REFERENCES stone carving and sculpture. The dwarfish form bears two arms. Also one of a group of eight ASTAMATARAS. Hindu. A SAKTI who in later Hinduism becomes one of a group of MATARAS regarded as of evil intent. A form of the goddess invoked by woodsmen and foresters. Also Ali. To restore a proper balance Vamana requested from Bali a plot of land three paces wide on which to meditate.

Vari-Ma-Te-Takere (the very beginning) Vasantadevi Goddess of spring. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. VARUNA (coverer) Hindu (Vedic. Generally carrying a rosary and with a SAKTI. . Attributes: conch. Vasita (willpower) Generic title for a group of goddesses. sacred thread. or in a chariot drawn by seven horses. noose. etc. ORIGIN Vasu(s) (excellent) Generic title for a group of gods. a dikpala or guardian of the western direction. sword and trident. TANGO. club. Her animal is a mule. Hindu. Consorts include DEVAKI. knife. plough. rank higher than the SAPTAMATARAS. he is thought to equate with the Persian deity Ahura MAZDA. SYNONYMS none. sun. water and wind. In southern India he is still worshiped during periods of drought. three of which she plucked from her right side and three from her left. Mother goddess. ROHINI. all deities. snake noose. Attributes: arrow. An attendant of MARICI. See also AVATEA. trident and water jar with jewels. Buddhist (Mahayana). etc. moon. Hindu (Vedic). bow. fire. comprising day. Color: white. bow. Particularly known from Tibet. Twelve deities who personify the disciplines which result in spiritual regeneration. pole star. He rides upon a fish or sea monster. The princely father of KRSNA and BALARAMA. Varahmukhi (having a boars head) Minor goddess. sitting in a cramped space with her knees and chin touching. flower and staff. Buddhist (Mahayana). buffalo or elephant. where she appears in the retinue of SRIDEVI. Vasudeva God. The creator being who lives at the very bottom of the world coconut. needle. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1700 BC until present. Puranic and early Tamil) [India]. Eight deities attendant on the Vedic weather god INDRA. the son of Kardama and consort of GAURI. Varuna is one of the major Vedic gods. lotus. He is also regarded as an ADITYA or sun god. TINIRAU. Pot-bellied and four-headed. Hindu. noose and staff. RAKA and TU-METUA.Vasudeva 337 in southern India. parasol. Varali Minor goddess. particularly in coastal regions where he is thought to live in trees. Attributes: boar’s head. CENTER(S) OF CULT throughout India but as a rain god in the south. concerned with the secure operation of the world’s systems and of water. TUMUTEANAOA. Polynesian [Hervey Islands]. Major guardian deity. Attributes: flower. Lord of the ASURA class of deities. dawn. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs in metal and stone. In Vedic times his sacred animal was the ram. Attributes: cup and sword. In later times. cup. She sits upon a boar. An attendant on MARICI. LITERARY SOURCES Rg Veda. She lives in Te-Enua-Te-Ki (mute land) in eternal silence and is the mother of six children.

Hindu (Vedic) and Persian [Iran]. including Rg Veda. Color: dark blue. Attributes: blue lotus and image of Amoghasiddhi on the crown. Color: green. Vatapattrasayin (reclining on a fig leaf) ˇ NU. or KRSNA. Buddhist (Mahayana). The three gods are said to have made the land and sea out of the flesh and blood of the primeval giant Ymir. A dikpala or guardian of the northwestern quarter. Buddhist. The SAKTI of Kuvera. ear of rice. appeared to Zarathustra in the guise of Vata. Attributes: book. A female bodhisattva or buddha-designate who is the Sakti of Vajrasattva and a form of AKSOBHYA or RATNASAMBHAVA. VERETHRAGNA. See also BURI. God of the winds. God. Fertility goddess. According to Asvestan tradition the god of victory. Ve God. hook. prayer wheel. Buddhist (Mahayana). reposed on a fig leaf that floats upon the primeval ocean of a new cosmos after the previous world order has been destroyed. Goddess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Jain [India]. Color: yellow. One of the groups under the general title of BHVANAVASI (dwelling in places). the brother of OTHIN and VILI. Vayukumara Vata God of wind. See also KUBERA. LITERARY SOURCES the Vedic texts. staff and waterjar. among the gods of Asgard. Of youthful appearance. ART REFERENCES sculptures and carvings in metal and stone. SYNONYMS PAVANA. 2. One of the most important deities of the Vedas. . An attendant of VASUDHARA. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 1700 BC to present. Buddhist. VAYU (1) (the wind) Hindu [India]. images of Aksobhya and Ratnasambhava on the crown. Attributes: arrow. ORIGIN Vasumatisri (beautiful with an excellent mind) Minor goddess. Vayu (2) God. He is also depicted in some texts as a chariot-driver for the god AGNI. An emanation of AMOGHASIDDHI and considered to be indistinguishable from ARYA-TARA.338 Vasudhara Vasudhara (treasurer) 1. parasol. An attendant of VASUDHARA. CENTER(S) OF CULT none specific. Vasya-tara (the subjected Tara) Goddess. The image is Aspect of V IS found in classical bronze sculptures and represents either Vis ˇ nu in a violent form. Listed by Snorri in the Prose Edda as one of the sons of Bori and. In later Hinduism he evolves into a dikpala or guardian of the northwestern quarter. Nordic (Icelandic). The name appears in the Rg Veda as a deity of violent personality. Hindu (Puranic). pearl and waterjar with jewels. Vasusri (beautiful one) Minor goddess. Buddhist (Mahayana).

The “queen of the dead. Veja Mate Goddess of winds. King of Troy. An ancient vegetation deity. Venus was celebrated in the Veneralia festival on April 1. The name is neuter in form but Venus is modeled on the Greek goddess Aphrodite. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 400 BC to circa AD 400. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). The personification of the sedges and therefore guardian of the boggy tundras and their animals. it was restored as late as the fourth century.Verbti 339 Ve’ai (grass woman) Vegetation spirit. Velu Mate Chthonic underworld goddess. She is also linked romantically with Anchises. His animal is a goat. Venkata ˇ NU. Cytherea. Etruscan. A youthful deity whose attributes include arrows.” Also Volos.” She is depicted wearing white and she greets the dead at the cemetery. thought to live in trees and equated with Indra. Venda Creator god. Venkata is a deity of considerable importance in southern India. He is worshiped extensively by Hindus but particularly in the Tamil shrine of Tirupati where ˇ IVA there is argument that the deity depicted is S or KARTTIKEYA. Dione. She is a goddess of gardens. He is associated with the north winds. VENUS Roman. Dravidian (Tamil) [southern India]. Verbti God of fire. Worshiped in villages on the plains. Under Christian influence he becomes identified with the devil. According to the Aditya Purana. Slav. Hindu (Epic and Form of the god V IS Puranic). Goddess of sexual love and beauty. SYNONYMS APHRODITE (Greek). Her consorts include Mars and the ill-fated ADONIS. Pre-Christian Latvian. Also identified as the “cattle god. She is perceived as a shamanka and is the consort of EME’MQUT. Pre-Christian Latvian. The image appears to carry ˇ iva on the attributes of Vis ˇ nu on the left and S right. etc. In Roman mythology she is a daughter of JUPITER and Dione. Veive Minor god. Also responsible for birds and woodlands. Eryx [Sicily] (as Venus Erycina). . Veles Chthonic underworld god. In the second century AD the Emperor Hadrian dedicated a sanctuary to her on the Via Sacra in Rome. ART REFERENCES various sculptures including the Venus of Milo. The name does not occur in the north. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Also Venkatesa. ORIGIN Velaute’mtilan (sedge man) Vegetation spirit. The personification of the grasslands and their guardian deity. CENTER(S) OF CULT various. Pre-Christian Albanian. Koryak [southeastern Siberia].

Nordic (Icelandic). Known particularly from the second century BC and closely linked with JUPITER. SYNONYMS HESTIA (Greek). he is the consort of the goddess POMONA. Attribute: a chain. he is said to wear a shoe made of material collected throughout time which he will place between Fenrir’s jaws before he tears them apart and runs the beast through with his sword. Roman. Vetali Goddess of terrifying appearance. During Vestalia festivals. Roman. Usually represented with garden implements and offered fruit and flowers. She enjoyed a small sanctuary at the foot of the Palatine Hill. Associated with sacrifices to TELLUS and CERES. Vertumnus Minor god of gardens and orchards. The worship of Vesta was abolished by the Emperor Theodosius in AD 380. but she was also popular as a household guardian. donkeys were decked with wreaths. but centered on the circular temple in Rome where allegedly the Palladium of Troy with the sacred flame of the gods was preserved. He was celebrated annually in the Vertumnalia festival on August 13. destined to live in Asgard’s successor. Color: red. One of the sons of OTHIN. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). The prospective avenger of Othin’s death by the wolf Fenrir at Ragnarok. She is generally depicted as a woman of great beauty holding a lighted torch and a votive bowl. Roman. One of a group of gauri. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Goddess of victory. etc. described as the silent one. He is embodied by the wild boar which possesses iron-shod feet to crush opponents and is perceived to be present in the wind. Became adopted by the Christian church in an angelic capacity. Victoria VESTA Roman. The Vestals dressed in white gowns edged with purple and were highly respected members of Roman society. ART REFERENCES sculptures and reliefs. One of the survivors of the final great fire and flood.340 Verethragna Verethragna God of victories. circa 400 BC to AD 400. during which they were expected to maintain strict vows of chastity on penalty of burial alive. Vervactor Minor god of ploughing. enjoying many privileges. A little known AESIR god. selected for office as guardians of the sacred flame from the age of six for a minimum of thirty years. Persian [Iran]. Goddess of fire and the hearth. Her mortal attendants are the Vestal Virgins. A god of great strength and support in times of danger. Vesta was worshiped with considerable celebration in the various public Vestalia festivals. Idavoll. An alternative tradition places him as the offspring of a brief liaison between THOR and the giantess Gird. BuddhistLamaist [Tibet]. CENTER(S) OF CULT many sanctuaries throughout Italy. Vidar God of war. Of Etruscan origin. .

Vili God. hook. A popular ˇ IVA (colored black) and Pardepiction in art of S vati with their son GANESA after he has been decapitated by his father and given the head of an elephant by way of replacement. S ˇ NU. An emanation of AKSOBHYA who may equate with the Hindu god . in which case his color is green. Vimala (stainless) Minor goddess. He is also seen as a dikpala or guardian of the northerly direction. Attributes: cup. Nordic (Icelandic). Sixteen deities led by SARASVATI who are associated with knowledge or learning. Hiranyaksa is considered one of his incarnations. (Buddhist). She is often depicted trampling ˇ IVA and the four Hindu deities BRAHMA. Attributes: club. INDRA. An attendant of BUDDHAKAPALA. Vidyujjvalakarili Minor goddess. Color: blue. Vijaya is also the name of the bow of INDRA. Buddhist (Mahayana). Also Analarka. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). See also BURI. Vidyapati-Lokesvara God. Buddhist (Mahayana). Buddhist. Buddhist (Vajrayana). noose and staff. A variety of the BODHISATTVA AVALOKITESVARA. among the gods of Asgard. GANESA. Vikalaratri (twilight night) (tongues of fire) Goddess. Of youthful appearance. Belonging to one of the groups under the general title of BHVANAVASI (dwelling in places). Color: white. Attributes: lotus and staff. Listed by Snorri in Prose Edda as one of the sons of Bori and. Depicted resting on a lotus. drum. Vidyraja Tutelary god. Vidyutkumara God. Vighnantaka (remover of obstacles) God. knife. his attributes include a fly-whisk. Hindu. One of several deified BHUMIS recognized as different spiritual spheres through which a disciple passes. Attributes: many V IS and varied. Three-headed. Hindu (Puranic). Color: blue or black. sidered to be aspects of S Vijaya (victory) God.Vimala 341 Vidyadevi Generic title for a group of goddesses. Buddhist (Mahayana). One of several deities who are concerned with the implementation of the law. Vidyesvara Generic title for a group of deities. Vighnesvaranugramurti Family of deities. Jain [India]. An EKADASARUDRA (one of the eleven RUDRA deities). the brother of OTHIN and VE. Jain [India]. A twelve-headed form of Akajata who is said to have been formed in the BUDDHA’s sweat. Eight liberated or emancipated “beings” who are conˇ IVA. The three gods are said to have made the land and sea out of the flesh and blood of the primeval giant Ymir. knife. rosary and staff.

Attributes: arrow. rosary. Attribute: a lute. Epic and Puranic) [India]. Buddhist. SYNONYMS appearing as ten major incarnations or avataras: MATSYA. drum. Attributes: skin from the head of an elephant and sword. Threeheaded. VAMANA. and KALKI(N). Aniruddha. Three-eyed and three-headed. Attributes: ax. Narashima. Vindhya Mountain god. Epithet of S EKADASARUDRAS or eleven RUDRA deities. He is depicted bearing four arms. KURMA. Viryaparamita Philosophical deity. Attributes: jewel. to be a form of S ˇ Virabhadra acts as a martial aspect of Siva against the god DAKSA. lotus. Considered ˇ IVA. Buddhist. and occasionally of V IS ˇ NU. RAMA. BUDDHA. He sometimes wears a necklace of skulls. a mortal who had been trampled to death by his horses and made immortal by Aesculapius. Hindu. Abjayoni. Viraratri (night of courage) Hindu. Varcha. Virtus God of military prowess. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Identified as the active female creative principle in the Rg Veda. Color: yellow. Virabhadra (great hero) War god. Adhoksaja. snake and stupa or domed shrine. Attributes: blue lotus and jeweled banner. Sakti and sword. Known particularly from the second century BC. Color: green. hook. KRSNA or BALARAMA. One of a triad of creator gods. ˇ IVA and one of the 1. Roman. KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP possibly from circa 1700 BC until the present day. For this reason the Arician woods were barred to horses. prayer wheel. A dikpala or guardian of the southerly direction. bow. A dikpala or guardian of the western direction. ORIGIN . cup. Virupaksa (misinformed eyes) Viraj Primordial goddess. 2. Virbius was reputed to prowl these woods and to be an emanation of Hippolytus. who according to some accounts ˇ iva’s wife SATI and drove her to angry suiabused S cide by self-immolation to avenge the slight. bell. Personification of the hills forming the northern edge of the Deccan area of central India. knife. shield and sword. A malevolent underworld deity who was frequently invoked during the worship of Diana in the Arician woodlands surrounding her sanctuary at Nemi. Hindu (Vedic). Roman. ˇ NU VIS Virbius Minor chthonic god. PARASURAMA. Hindu. God. Color: red. Virudhaka (sprouted) God. Buddhist. See also CHINNAMASTAKA. Other epithets include Abjaja.342 Vina Vina Goddess of music. God. God of snakes. Color: blue or green. Spiritual offspring of RATNASAMBHAVA. Also identified as the head of a group of demons. the kumbhandas. Buddhist. club. Anantasayana. Hindu (Vedic. The personification of a lute.

and through the concept of karma he maintains a moral balance which he corrects occasionally in the guise of one of his incarnations. The followers of Vis ˇ nu are the Vaisnavas and are mainly in the north of India. The Puranas also provide complex classifications for various aspects of Vis ˇnu. Visvaksena (the all-conquering) Minor god. Hindu (Vedic). Vis ˇnu’s prestige developed with the Epics and of the three deities making up the apex of the modern Hindu pantheon. the kausrabha. Hindu (Epic and Form of the god V IS Puranic).Visvamitra 343 many sanctuaries throughout the subcontinent. Vis ˇ nu is depicted with many heads or with four heads. His most frequent consort is the goddess of fortune. Visvamitra Minor god. and has the power to repel death. he is described as the artist of the gods who may be linked or identified with TVASTAR. as the son of PRABHASA and Yogasiddha. He is a chief adversary of YAMA. Reliefs. The and pre-eminent (see also BRAHMA and S keeper of civilized morality and order. zenith and setting. He may also carry a discus. he is partly identified with Krsna. carried by S His attributes include a wheel. LAKSMI. Vis ˇnu was created from the left side of the primordial creator force. and typically he has an obvious shock of chest hair. with whom he is often depicted standing or resting on a lotus. CENTER(S) OF CULT Vis ˇ nu began. The Vaisnava caste mark is a V-shaped sign identified with water which has a property of descending. He evolved. According to legend. Around his neck may be the sacred stone. his presence pervading the Ganges. Mahabharata and Ramayana epics. into an occasional consort of the mother goddess SARASVATI. the god of the dead. but also in stone. The bodyguard ˇ NU. typically holding a wide assortment of attributes including conch and prayer wheel. Hindu (Puranic). ART REFERENCES sculptures generally in bronze. In the Mahabharata. He is believed to sleep for four months each year. resting on the serpent SESA with a lotus sprouting from his navel. His sacred animal is GARUDA. Tradition maintains and gatekeeper of VIS ˇ IVA when he that Visvaksena was slain by S refused the latter an audience with Vis ˇ nu. Vis ˇ nu Trivikrama ˇ NU. Puranic literature. which reflects a destructive aspect. Vis ˇnu is the preserver of the world. but became briefly associated with the movements of the sun in the sky. Visvakarman (architect of the universe) Poorly defined creator god. . Hindu (Puranic). he is the most widely worshiped ˇ IVA). in order to confirm his dominance over the world by covering it in three huge strides. For this reason he is generally depicted in the form of a skeleton impaled on the trident weapon ˇ iva in his aspect of KANKALAMURTI. the father of the god NARADA. a mace of authority and a lotus. as a minor cosmic deity imagined striding the sky in three giant steps—rising. according to the Vedas. LITERARY SOURCES Rg Veda. Trivikrama is the transformation into a giant from Vis ˇ nu’s dwarf avatara VAMANA. He rules real time. after which he is roused by a special rite. Similar to DYAUS PITAR. club and conch shell. According to one Puranic legendary source. generally with four arms. or history. though there exists a strong following among the Tamils in the south. He was never a solar god. He is also closely identified with sacred water or NARA.

Panduranga. as well as M ANU and the ASVINS. punishing those who break them. In Vedic literature he is identified as the son of TVASTAR. Roman. Voltumna Tutelary god. The origin of the term voodoo in the Caribbean region. Also Vithoba. Vor Goddess. Virginal female worshipers created an image of the deity from dough consisting of maize flour. two lotuses and a trident. Invoked twice a year. Originally a vegetation deity who was elevated to the position of supreme god in the Etruscan pantheon and known in Roman culture as VERTUMNUS. where he is the object of devotion by the Varkari sect. all of whom take the role of Vosegus Mountain god. An USNISA apparently connected with the guardian deities or dikpalas in the southerly direction. Possibly also Var(a). Generally depicted standing on a brick.344 Visvarupa Visvarupa ˇ NU. Vivasvan (shining) Sun god. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican). in May and December. A lesser known ˇ NU (or KRSNA). during an agrarian festival. Attributes: many. He suggests that Vor may be concerned with the making of oaths and of marriage agreements. Etruscan. Romano-Celtic. including Vivasvan. sun gods was. Lesser known incarnation of the god V IS Hindu. Volumna Vitzilipuztli Aspect of H UITZILPOCHTLI . beet seed and honey. wearing a fez-like hat and with hands on hips. The original Vedic list of six descendants of the goddess ADITI or ADITYAS. The guardian deity of the nursery and of infants. One of his titles is the “embodiment of ancestral law. Hindu (Vedic and Puranic). near Bombay. Color: green. . West Africa]. Vis ˇ nu took the avatara at the request of ARJUNA. His color is golden and his attributes a forest garland. The image was given eyes and teeth using pieces of colored glass and whole maize seeds and was paraded. Buddhist. though Snorri lists her as a separate Aesir goddess. Fon [Benin. Also Vivasvat. Also Viratapurusa. His animal is GARUDA. Visvosnisa God. The incarnation of the god V IS cult of Vitthali is centered mainly on Panharpur. in later times. before being broken into pieces and eaten as a form of sacrament.” His consort is SARANYU and he is identified as the father of YAMA and YAMI . Nursery goddess. A local deity from the Vosges known only from inscriptions. Vodu Collective name for gods. enlarged to twelve. Vitthali God. Of Germanic origin. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). Nordic (Icelandic). one of the AESIR goddesses listed by Snorri in Prose Edda.

Attached to the smithy and rarely ascending Olympus. Sumanta. SYNONYMS HEPHAISTOS (Greek). In the texts he is depicted as darkskinned and accompanied by four students. He may be bearded. He is generally depicted as a rather grotesque figure with one leg shorter than the other. Paila. CENTER(S) OF CULT tutelary god at the sea port of Ostia. He ranks with Hyagriva and SARASVATI as a lord of knowledge and wisdom. LITERARY SOURCES Aeneid (Virgil). VULCANUS Roman. Thereafter he determined to shun the company of other gods and set up home in the heart of Mount Etna. in Roman genealogy he is the son of JUPITER and JUNO. Also Vedavyasa. where he fashioned a giant forge. and is responsible for dividing the Tree of Knowlege into parts. The patron god of artisans and blacksmiths. He was celebrated in the Vulcanalia festival on August 23. Vyasa is said to be the author of the Vedas. and with one of the Graces. Vaisampayana and Jaimini. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP wrath. Vulcanus is modeled closely on the Greek Hephaistos. He enjoyed short-term relationships with various goddesses. which coincides with the period of greatest drought and the highest risk of fire in Italy. His offspring seem generally to have been monstrous. Hindu Minor incarnation of the god V IS (Vedic. ART REFERENCES various sculptures and relief carvings. Vyasa ˇ NU. His workers are the one-eyed Cyclopes.Vyasa 345 Vrtra Demonic god of chaos. A primordial being who existed before the formation of the cosmos and who was slain by the mother goddess SARASVATI. including VENUS and MINERVA. the Mahabharata epic and the Puranas. a deformity gained as a result of being hurled to earth by Jupiter while trying to protect his mother from the god’s . Hindu (Vedic). God of fire and forges. Epic and Puranic). He created a golden throne for Juno and he fashioned both Jupiter’s magical thunderbolts and Cupid’s arrows. etc. circa 400 BC to circa AD 400.

His sacred animal is the snake. Wadjet Goddess of royal authority. he personifies the Mediterranean Sea or the major lakes of the Nile delta. She forms an integral part of the symbolism of the sun god RE. Sometimes depicted in androgynous form.W 6 Wadd Moon god. He has a son. Largely syncretized with the Christian god. but regularly invoked in the morning. A remote and vaguely defined deity invoked by the shamans of the tribe. central Africa]. NEFERTUM. Ntomba [Democratic Republic of Congo. coiling around the sun disc to symbolize Re’s powers of destruction. she epitomizes the power of sovereignty. Also involved with weaving the garments of the KAMI. Wai Wadj Wer (the mighty green one) Fertility god. with her main cult center at Buto (Tell el-Farain) in the Nile delta. Dakota Indian [USA]. as the uraeus symbol worn on the headdress of the ruler. she created the papyrus swamps of the delta. Also a generic term equating to the 346 . She is described as a wet nurse to the god HORUS and is the mother Waka-Hiru-Me Sun goddess. Shinto [Japan]. and a loaf. Egyptian. Wadjet takes the form of a fire-breathing cobra and. Waka Creator god. Pre-Islamic southern Arabian. According to mythology. Mokele. of the god of the primeval lotus blossom. or an early manifestation. She is a goddess of Lower Egypt equating to NEKHBET in Upper Egypt. Arguably the younger sister of the great Shinto sun goddess AMATERASU. Oromo [Ethiopia]. she is associated with the morning sunrise. Sun god. Probably originating as a god of hunters who protects and controls the animals in the forest. The figure often appears pregnant and is associated with the richness of the Nile delta waters. He is depicted carrying the ankh symbol of life. Egyptian. Wakan Tanka Creator god.

domestic animals and crops. Revered as a creator and guardian deity. all things existing in nature possess. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). In a similar context he is linked to the sun god RE when he “opens the dawn sky” to the deceased. The object was known as a “brother. Shinto [Japan]. East Africa]. Waka-Sa-Na-Me-No-Kami Agricultural goddess. he also opens the way to the womb. See also WAKA-SA-NA-ME-NO-KAMI and KUKU-TOSHI-NO-KAMI. in an animistic and shamanistic religion. His attendant is the fierce guardian of . The apotheosis of a tall Storm god. A sanctuary has existed near the royal palace and Wamala is propitiated to give the boon of children. Bunyoro [Uganda. He is perceived preceding the ruler either to or from battle.Wer 347 spirit which. all things existing in nature possess. Wer Wanka Guardian spirit. A minor deity linked with ADAD and AMURRU. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru.” Waka-Toshi-No-Kami Agricultural god. As a god of passage. Omaha Indian [USA]. Depicted as a jackal. His name tablet hangs on the wall in many Chinese houses. Generally served by Buddhist priests. Inca (pre-Columbian South America) [Peru. Wawki Guardian spirit. or to the afterlife. See also WAKA-TOSHI-NO-KAMI and KUKU-TOSHI-NO-KAMI. Egyptian. Waralden Olmai Tutelary god. but his cult spread along the whole of the Nile valley. A remote and vaguely defined deity invoked by the shamans of the tribe. A son of Ha-Yama-To-No-Kami and O-GeTsu-Hime. etc]. when his adze is used to break open the mouth of the dead person. Generally served by Buddhist priests. The deity specifically concerned with the transplanting of young rice. Lappish [Finland]. in an animistic and shamanistic religion. Wamala God of plenty. He is also closely linked with the falcon god HORUS. Taoist (Chinese). The deity specifically concerned with the growing of young rice. Also a generic term equating to the spirit which. He is also seen in an oracular capacity and has an official intermediary. he was born beneath a tamarisk tree in the sanctuary of the goddess WADJET at Buto. Shinto [Japan]. According to Pyramid Texts. etc]. Weng Shiang God of literature. Wakonda Creator god. Wepwawet God of passage. stone or boulder (HUACA) set upright in the center of a field. A daughter of Ha-Yama-To-No-Kami and O-Ge-Tsu-Hime. The apotheosis of a stone or HUACA which each Inca emperor carried with him as a personal tutelary deity. Wepwawet began as a god of Upper Egypt.

The word means spear. Gishu [Uganda. including the owl and the bat. Woden (Anglo-Saxon). ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP Whope Goddess. embodies him. ART REFERENCES stone carvings and engravings on metal. Wodan may have possessed similar characteristics to OTHIN. are earthly representatives from his kingdom. prehistoric times until circa AD 500. The father of the goddess WHOPE. including mutilated weapons. Whiro is said to have fought an epic battle against Tanemahuta in the newly formed heavens. CENTER(S) OF CULT scattered forest sanctuaries. his sacred animal is the bison. the focus of one of the Gilgames ˇ epic sagas. Booty. During the time of creation from chaos. and consort of the south wind. Nuer [Sudan]. Wi Sun god. animals and . History of the World (Orosius). There are said to be many windigos. the creator god of light. the Celtic Cimbri and the Goths all practiced sacrificial appeasement rites to Wodan. God of war. WODAN Germanic. Geography (Strabo). Huwawa. Whiro stands as the chief antagonist of TANEMAHUTA. Regarded as an errant son of the creator deities. as are such malignant insect pests as the mosquito.348 Weri Kumbamba the pine forest. LITERARY SOURCES Germania (Tacitus). SYNONYMS Wotan. believed to have been a Norse descendant of Wodan. in the past. including stabbing and burning. A deity embodied in rocks and specifically invoked before and after circumcision to ensure the speedy recovery of the patient. a symbol of death. the personification of darkness and evil. The daughter of WI. He was vanquished and forced to descend into the underworld where he became ruler over the dead and chief among the lesser underworld deities who are responsible for various forms of disease and sickness. Weri Kumbamba Creator god. The Cimbri hung their captives over bronze caldrons while priestesses cut their throats. RANGINUI and PAPATUANUKU. Sioux [USA]. In the temporal world the lizard. Polynesian and Maori. She is credited with giving the Sioux Indian the pipe of peace through which (narcotic) they commune with the great spirit WAKAN TANKA. Ojibwa [Canada]. gold and silver. Germanic tribes including the Heruli. Cult centers include Afis. Sioux [USA]. Gothic War (Procopius). Windigo Ice god. but they are always referred to in the singular. East Africa]. Wiu God of war. south of Aleppo. often been muddled with those of the god. A terrible being formed of ice who symbolizes the starvation of winter. therefore. Whiro God of death. and various creatures of the night. History of the Goths (Jordanes). Cannibalistic. He is. the sun god. This deity is not to be confused with the legendary human voyager and adventurer of the same name whose traditions have. the windigo appears as an ice skeleton and a human being can be turned into one through possession.

Wosret Localized guardian goddess. according to some inferences. the spirit of the left-hand dawn. Chukchee [eastern Siberia]. West Africa]. the Wu-no. Also Wosyet. strangled or had their throats cut. Chinese. thus the same day of the week is called Wednesday in English but mercredi in French. Australian aboriginal. an early consort of the creator god AMUN and was superseded by MUT. Wu’squus Spirit of darkness. Wong Taisin (the great immortal Wong) Wuriupranili Sun goddess. from public funds. His priest. Probably an incarnation or avatara of the god HUANG TI (the yellow emperor). Closely associated with a district in Kowloon which is named after him. facing the sea and backed by Lion Rock. The position of Wuriupranili in the godly hierarchy is unclear. Wosret is. . With a cult center at Thebes. Wu Sea god. His cult arrived in Hong Kong in 1915 from Kwangtung in the form of a painting brought by a man and his son. The classical writers substituted the name of the Roman god Mercury. but mythology explains that she carries a burning torch made from tree bark and that she travels from east to west each day before descending to the western sea and using the embers to light her way through the underworld beneath the earth. In 1921 a larger sanctuary was built. The personification of the night and the sibling of NA’CHITNA’IRGIN. God. Many Anglo-Saxon kings traced their royal lineage back to Wodan as divine ancestor. It was installed in a small temple in Wanchai. he is considered benevolent. The colors of the sunrise and sunset are said to be a reflection of the red ocher body paints with which she adorns herself.Wu’squus 349 human sacrifices who had been hanged. invokes the god whenever the weather is too severe for the fishing boats to land. Egyptian. She is identified with the protection of the young god HORUS. He is propitiated with offerings delivered from the shore and in past times was occasionally appeased with human sacrifice taken out to sea and thrown overboard. Ewe [Benin. was also thrown into sacred lakes as sacrifices for Wodan.

SYNONYMS CENTER(S) OF CULT Xewioso Thunder god. Vegetation god. Xiuhtecuhtli Astral god. Haida Indian [Queen Charlotte Island. Xipe Totec is also the tutelary god of precious metallurgists. Canada]. Ewe. XIPE TOTEC (our lord the flayed one) Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. he is also perceived as a fertility deity whose thunder and lightning are accompanied by rain. West Africa]. Xilonen Minor vegetation goddess. The skin was worn for twenty-one days. Yakut [central Siberia]. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. seen to be the new vegetation of the earth which emerges after the rains. LITERARY SOURCES pre-Columbian codices. Depicted as a ram accompanied by an ax. murals and codex illustrations. Often represented in ritual by a priest wearing the flayed skin of a human sacrifice. but probably much earlier. Xil Sga’nagwai Medicine god. Red Tezcatlipoca. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Teotihuacan. including goldsmiths.X 6 Xaya Iccita Mountain spirit. The ruler of the first or lowest of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. An aspect of the maize goddess Chicomecoatl. ORIGIN Xochiquetzal Goddess of fertility and childbirth. The red avatara of the sun god TEZCATLIPOCA (see also MIXCOATL-CAMAXTLI). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa AD 750 to AD 1500. Tlalticpac (on the earth). Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Tenochtitlan. God of spring and a symbol of the annual renewal of vegetation. ART REFERENCES stone sculptures. The mother of the demigoddess (unnamed) whose consort was Piltz- 350 . [Benin. Said to appear as a raven. personifying the young maize plant. The owner or master of the mountains. A major deity of the Mesoamerican pantheons.

Depicted as a youthful deity associated with sexual love. regarded as patron of the ball game. Xolotl Nanahuatl (rumour) Xochiquetzal-Ichpuchtli (maiden) Minor fertility goddess. flowers and pleasure. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. but was himself executed by EHECATL-QUETZALCOATL. The bride plaits her hair and coils it around. Pottery figurines are adorned with plumes of feathers. One of the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. leaving two “plumes” representing the feathers of the Quetzal which is sacred to Xochiquetzal. described as a twin of XOLOTL and co-patron of ball games. Xolotl (monster) Monstrous deity. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. In alternative tradition he tried to evade his own fate. A popular deity among Aztec women. He then sacrificed himself. He performed the role of executioner when the gods sacrificed themselves to create mankind. the goddess is invoked particularly to make a marriage fruitful. Also recognized as the patron goddess of weavers. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. One of the group classed as the TETEOINNAN complex. Monstrous deity. including Tula (Hidalgo). Worshiped at various sites. Also one of a pair of twins in the group classed as the XIUHTECUHTLI complex. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. .Xolotl Nanahuatl 351 intecuhtli and who engendered the first mortals Oxomoco and CIPACTONAL.

but can also be represented by the falcon and the ibis. Yacapitzahuac (sheep-nose) Minor god of commerce and merchants. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. The son of the supreme being TENANTO’MWAN. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Ya’halan (cloud man) Guardian spirit. 352 . He is mentioned largely from the twentieth century BC onward and is depicted in human form. One of the group classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Yacatecuhtli (nose lord) God of commerce and merchants. In alternative tradition he is the son of the supervisor being. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico].Y 6 Yacacoliuhqui (curved nose) Yah Moon god. ˇ NU and God. his consort is YINE’ANE’UT. With her consort YACATECUHTLI she engendered the night in Aztec cosmogony. Hindu. Yacahuiztli (nose spine) Underworld goddess. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Ya’china’ut (moon woman) Yajna (sacrifice) Moon spirit. A minor avatara of VIS embodiment of the Brahmanic ritual. Ya’halna’ut Guardian spirit. Minor god of commerce and merchants. and youths beat a sacred drum invoking the spirit to turn the heart of a girl. INA’HITELAN. One of the group classed as the YACATECUHTLI complex. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The personification of the moon. He is a protector of young couples. Head of the group classed as the Yacatecuhtli complex. Yah may have been an import to Egypt brought by Semitic immigrants who based his profile on the Mesopotamian god SIN. One of the group classed as the YACATECUHTLI complex. Egyptian.

he is humbled. Also CAMUNDA.Yamm 353 Yaksas Tree spirits. He evolved into a dikpala or guardian of the southerly direction. Yami Mother goddess. Color: black. Guardian deity. placing them in seven heavens. His attributes are most commonly a noose and staff. Her vehicle is a buffalo. a shield. Specifically the deity who comes down to the rice paddies in spring and returns in autumn. Buddhist (Mahayana). His SAKTI is Vidyadhara. He stands upon a man. Gnostic Christian. and possesses thirty-two arms and sixteen legs. Yama is also the judge of the dead and the twin sibling of Yami. The festival of Nolde-No-Shinji marks his descent. his color red and his attributes a club. or of SURYA and SANJNA. One of a group of DHARMAPALA with terrible appearance and royal attire who guard the Dalai Lama. whereupon Pistis Sophia names him SAMAEL (blind god). Of his offspring. Yama-No-Kami Mountain god. He is also a dikpala or guardian of the easterly direction. His colors may be red. alternatively the restrainer) 1. goddess of death. By tradition he stifled the great rage of YAMA. Attributes: cup. 2. provided with form and given charge over the substance of the cosmos. He tramples a number of creatures including a man. knife and lotus. at first. Yaldabaoth Creator God. Semitic. fly whisk. He decrees himself alone and allpowerful. An emanation of AKSOBHYA and one of a group of DHARMAPALA with terrible appearance and royal attire who guard the Dalai Lama. a trident and two tusks. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. . Yamm God of the ocean. white or yellow. God of death. black or white. An attendant of YAMA. His vehicle by the Hindu deities S is a buffalo. his eye-teeth are Yama. Shinto [Japan]. Hindu (Epic and Puranic). a cup. Color: red. Buddhist (Vajrayana). When KRSNA is perceived as the embodiment of the cosmos. Buddhist-Lamaist [Tibet]. by his own powers. but may also be a club. blue. his consort is DHUMORNA or YAMI. engenders seven androgynous beings. Generic title for animistic beings mentioned circa fifth century BC by Panini. Yamantaka (destroyer of Yama) Guardian deity. Hindu (Vedic). Yaldabaoth is. Attributes: many. Color: blue. Yamaduti Messenger goddess. The son of Vavasvan and Saranju. a noose and a staff. the most significant is SABAOTH. His animal is a black buffalo. blue. A Syrian deity who is mentioned briefly in an Egyptian papyrus as an extortioner of tribute from other deities. When she eventually reveals herself to Yaldabaoth as pure radiant light. a net. a sword. who stands against his father and on the side of Pistis Sophia. The so-called “prime parent” of Gnostic cosmogony. One of seven SAKTIS who in later Hinduism became regarded as of evil intent. Yamari (enemy of Yama) God. Yama (twin. Hindu. Probably influenced ˇ IVA and YAMA. engendered by PISTIS SOPHIA out of the nothingness of chaos. unaware of the existence of Pistis Sophia and.

354 Yamuna Yamuna Minor river goddess. One of the group of deities classed as the TLALOC complex. One of a group of “nine dark ladies” who have a protective function. Yayu Sky god. Yhi Sun goddess and bringer of light. Yen Kuang Niang Niang Mother goddess. Australian aboriginal. Color: blue. Ngbandi [Democratic Republic of Congo. Nkombe opened the gray parcel and the world was flooded with light. She is chiefly worshiped by women and the sacred river water is considered a remedy for infertility. Yukaghir [Siberia]. A benevolent deity who personifies justice and morality. Chinese. TENANTO’MWAN. he gave the sun god Nkombe three parcels when the people complained the world was too dark. West Africa]. Hindu. Yauhqueme Fertility and rain god. She is said to have been jointly responsi- . Buddhist. The name given to the Christian god by the Koryaks to distinguish him from their own supreme being. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. YAW Sun god. Ya’qhicnin Creator god. Yaro Creator god. The daughter of Dandapani and the consort of the BUDDHA before he attained his full status. She is described in Puranic texts and associated with the river Yamuna on which lies the city of Mathura. Attributes: cowrie shells. Became largely syncretized with the Christian god. One of seven gods invoked at daybreak. Also Yero. Also PU’GU. One of the group classed as the TEZCATLIPOCA complex. She is propitiated with animal and vegetable sacrifices. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. particularly the river Ogun. Kafa [Ethiopia]. Yemoja Goddess of water. two were brightly colored and one was a dull gray. The rainbow is said to be his tongue. A sky god to whom sacrifice is still possibly enacted on hill tops and river banks in rural areas. central Africa]. A universal and generally malevolent deity. She cures the eye disease ophthalmia. Yasodhara (preserving glory) Goddess. Yeloje (enemy) Omnipotent god. Yemekonji Creator god. Mongo and Nkundo [Democratic Republic of Congo. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. Realizing that he was about to be tricked. The creatrix of all the rivers in the area. central Africa]. Yoruba [Nigeria. Ye’rpeyen. According to tradition. A daughter of SURYA and SANJNA and the sister of YAMA.

Arguably the first surviving concept of a truly universal deity. in English translation. During the period of Hellenic occupa- Yina’mna’ut (fog woman) Spirit of mists and fogs. introduced by the pharaoh Amenhotep IV in the fifteenth century BC.” “Jehovah” is a corruption introduced circa AD 1200-1300.Yine’ane’ut 355 ble. EL. Qum’ Ran manuscripts. particularly the Psalms. Yakut [southeastern Siberia]. Translators have substituted euphemisms such as “saints” and “holy men. with BAIAME. As she opened her eyes the world became light and as she walked the earth plants grew in her footprints. His presence is identified in Jewish tradition only by the empty space of the Mercy Seat. it is now generally replaced by the term “Lord. ART REFERENCES none extant.” Although Yhwh is perceived in human form. humankind. the ten tablets of law.” It survived into Christian religion. Mythology records that she was asleep in the darkness of the primordial Dreamtime until she was awakened by a loud roaring or whistling noise from Baiame. Yakut [southeastern Siberia]. the sanctuary of Yhwh on Mount Gerizim in Samaria (northern kingdom) was re-dedicated to ZEUS. Elsewhere. QUIKINN.A’QU. according to tradition. One of the daughters of Big Raven. according to Judao-Christian tradition. The name Yhwh is an enigmatic “no name. was revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai (Mount Horeb) and who provided the Covenant. circa 1200 BC until present day. to become supreme deity of Israel. His consort is fog woman YINA’MNA’UT and he is believed to live in a mythical settlement with other spirits. he was not represented other than in romanticized Christian art. Jerusalem until 587 BC but subsequently throughout the Christian world. finally. Possibly a copy of the Egyptian deity ATUM (ATEN). The creator god of the southern tribes of Israel headed by Levi and Benjamin. He is wholly transcendent. without physical needs. Yine’ane’ut Guardian spirit. JEHOVAH. Yhwh eventually superseded the northern god. Her consort is fog man YINA’MTIAN and she is believed to live in a mythical settlement with other spirits. are littered with references indicating acceptance of many gods in the pantheon. Koryak [southeastern Siberia]. for the creation of humankind and in particular for the Karraur group of aborigines. ORIGIN KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP tion. the Ark of the Covenant (VT Exodus 25). The object of monolatrous but not necessarily monotheistic worship by the Hebrew settlers in Palestine. Yhwh is the god who. to be followed by animals and. Creator god. LITERARY SOURCES Vetus Testamentum. CENTER(S) OF CULT Hebron. He is said to sit in judgment between two facing cherubim on the Mercy Seat which rested above the focal point of Israelite worship. Yina’mtian (fog man) Spirit of mists and fogs. and. has no consort. . though it appears regularly only in the Jerusalem Bible. SYNONYMS Yahweh. YHWH (I am what I am) Judaic [Israel]. The Old Testament writings. This universal deity became known as ALLAH in Islamic tradition.

sword and trident. club. Yspaddaden Pencawr God. Also SHANG TI. Taoist (Chinese). Taoist (Chinese). the father of the Baltic coastal tribe. Olwen is identified as his daughter. Yobin-Pogil Forest spirit. He engendered the universe from chaos and is the unifying principle of the cosmos which is perceived to be divided into thirty-six heavens above the earth. ING. she was engendered by the gods. Yng Creator god. Shang Di. Also. who gave life to an image made from white shells. ESTSANATLEHI. He achieved paramount prominence during the Sung Dynasty and the Jade Emperor is his earthly. mortal incarnation. With his consort YACAHUIZTLI he engendered the night in Aztec cosmogony. Yocahu Tutelary god. Yoalli Ehecatli (night wind) Creator god. in Germanic tradition. Yoaltecuhtf (lord of night) Creator god. This is presumably a distorted fertility legend. He sets Culhwch several difficult tasks before he can obtain Olwen’s hand. Yu Huang Shang Ti Supreme god. The apotheosis of the woodlands and their guardian deity. Navaho [USA]. Yu Shih Rain god.” Believed to live in the sun. A benevolent deity. Nordic (Icelandic). Also Marcoti. Possibly the counterpart of the Irish deity Balor and the Icelandic BALDER. the son of the universal mother. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The so-called “master of the rain. Yogesvari Mother goddess. Progenitor of the earliest Swedish kings. Personifying desire and listed among both the SAPTAMATARAS and the ASTAMATARAS. and known as the “great spirit. Celtic (Welsh). Culhwch retaliates by wounding him severely. No iconography is applied to him and he has no physical description. As a deity he is remote and out of touch with ordinary people. but he cannot be killed until Olwen marries. The ruler of the sixth of the thirteen heavens known at the time of the Spanish conquest. JocakuvagueMaorocon. drum. the original meaning of which is lost. Puerto Rico and Haiti. Buddhist (Epic and Puranic). Her sister is Cana’ina’ut and she is the consort of the earth spirit TANUTA.” he provides rain to ripen the harvest. Yolkai Estan Fertility goddess. the Ingwaeones. The sister of the principal fertility goddess. the kalau. Attributes: bell.356 Yng regarded as a shamanka engaged in a constant struggle with the underworld demons. . Teotlcozauhcan (the place of the yellow god). In the legend of Culhwch and Olwen. One of the group classed as the Omeotl complex. One of the group classed as the MICTLANTECUHTLI complex. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Yukaghir [southeastern Siberia]. shield.

Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. The Chinese emperor is his earthly and more accessible incarnation. but also of husbandry in general. Depicted as a youthful figure with an ear of corn in his headdress. He wears bell-like ornaments fastened in the hair. Also God A. The deity concerned with the growing and harvesting of maize. bare ribs and spiny projections from the vertebrae. He is depicted with the body of a bird and a human face. LEI KUNG. He emerges as a deity circa AD 1000-1100 during the Sung Dynasty. classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Yu-ti Yum Cimil God of death. The title by which the “Jade Emperor. Yu-Chiang God of ocean winds. Mayan (Yucatec. is commonly known. Chinese.Yu-ti 357 He is often accompanied by the god of thunder. Depicted with a skull head. Taoist (Chinese). Also God E. or with bloated flesh marked by dark rings of decomposition. See also Yu HUANG SHANG TI.” the most senior deity in the Taoist pantheon. Yum Kaax Vegetation god. . Sky god. Sacrificial victims were offered to the god by drowning in the sacred pool or cenote.

The consort of MARDUK whose marriage was celebrated annually at New Year in Babylon. they are the parents of all other deities. The sun and the moon were believed to have emerged from the cave. Zara-Mama Maize goddess. Also Zamama. Deity of medicinal turpentine and ointment-dealers.Z 6 Zababa God of war. Pre-Christian Lithuanian. Known from the writings of Herodotus. SARPANITUM. A deity with responsibility for vegetation and 358 . wood or clay figures and are invoked in prayers. Mesopotamian (Babylonian-Akkadian). whose sanctuary is the E-meteursag. South American Indian [Peru]. Zemepatis Chthonic god. models of whom were made from the leaves of the plant and kept for a year before being burned in a ritual to ensure a good maize harvest. Zemi One of a pair of primordial beings. The tutelary god of the city of Kis ˇ. A tutelary deity of farmers and guardian of cattle. Zarpanitu(m) Birth goddess. According to tradition he lived for some time on earth and then became ruler of the underworld. Zalmoxis Sky god. A minor deity. Aztec (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. though they did not create the cosmos which. Two wooden ZEMIS used to be kept in a sacred cave at Toaboyna in Haiti and were the subject of several annual pilgrimages. Zapotlantenan Healing goddess. Zemyna Chthonic goddess. One of the group classed as the TLALOC complex. Thracian. Known as Morobo and Binatel. Mesopotamian (BabylonianAkkadian). His makeup may have been influenced by the Osirian cult in Egypt. Also Erua. according to belief. They are depicted in stone. Puerto Rico and Haiti. has always been in existence. Pre-Christian Lithuanian.

Homer pictures him carrying the golden scales of justice. etc. Zeus is the strongest among the deities. The father of gods and men alike. Announces the arrival of spring. SYNONYMS Dyaus (Indo-European). he lives on the mountain in Thessaly which came to be known as Olympus and where the storm clouds are said to gather. Theogony (Hesiod). in every city. thus combining strength and wisdom in a single godly entity. victors once draped his statues and other monuments with spoils of war. Diu-pater. though barely more so than in name. delivers lightning and hurls thunderbolts forged by the one-eyed Cyclopes. ORIGIN Zeus leads the pantheon of twelve great Greek gods illustrated on the Parthenon frieze and is probably modeled on a western Asiatic precedent. He earned the finest and most opulent sanctuaries throughout the Greek world. Zephyrus God of the south winds. His official consort. and ATHENA whose mother was said to be Metis. Comparable to Kastor. the major temple is that of Zeus. Tradition also has it that his grave is on Mount Yuktas. where he was “buried” by the KOURETES. JUPITER (Roman). KNOWN PERIOD OF WORSHIP circa 800 BC but undoubtedly earlier until Christianization circa AD 400. According to tradition. He is a universal deity and through him comes all mortal sovereignty. The great and enduring festival of Zeus is that of Olympia. His noos. near Knossos on the sand of Crete. His fathering of other deities included APOLLO and ARTEMIS through LETO. but Zeus’s mother Rhea saved him by turning him into a stone and Zeus overthrew his father. which became the modern Olympic Games. Zethos God. the thunderbolt being his invincible weapon. Symbolized by the eagle and earning the sacrifice of bulls. his mother RHEA. according to tradition. PERSEPHONE and DIONYSOS by DEMETER. became renowned and infallible and his judgment was beyond criticism.ZEUS 359 crops. TES ˇ UB (Hittite) and lelling IS HADAD (Semitic). Perseus. He swallowed Metis. His father is KRONOS. In the same vein he is said to determine the outcome of battle. is HERA. CENTER(S) OF CULT Athens (sanctuary begun by Pisastratus and completed by Hadrian) and throughout Greek sphere of influence where. Greek. He rules the clouds and rain. Zeus is surrounded from birth by attendant youthful warriors known as Kouretes or Korybantes. She was invoked at sowing and harvesting times. but in origin he is a weather god paralˇ KUR (Sumerian). but who emerged in full armor from her father’s forehead. ZETHOS . Theban twin god who had mortal weaknesses. his ability for pragmatism. votive inscriptions. Kronos swallowed all his other children. In this respect his philandering became an embarrassment in the late Hellenic philosophical age. Head of the Greek pantheon. ART REFERENCES abundant sculpture and carving. ZEUS (sky father) Greek. LITERARY SOURCES Iliad (Homer). or in alternative tradition METIS (wisdom). Zeus won his position of authority in a primeval battle against the TITANS who had held sway in the time of his father Kronos. HERMES whose mother is MAIA. Roman. He is possessed of enormous sexual vigor and sired a vast number of offspring through an incessant parade of goddesses and mortal partners. Among the more notable of his mortal children are HERAKLES.

Kafir [Afghanistan]. He is perceived as a god of destiny and the controller of all roads which mankind may take. One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology. Attributes include a bamboo drum and sticks and his attendant animal is an ass. god of darkness. He was adopted into Manichaean religion. According to tradition. and AHRIMAN. Manifest in the form of a bat. Once mortal beings. they achieved immortality through their lifestyle. Attributes include a fan. Mon lives by a lake surrounded by fire. Mayan (Zotzil Indian. Zhong-li Quan God. Zhiwud Messenger goddess. See also BA XIAN. the god of light. Usually coupled with the god KABRAKAN and identified as a creator of mountains which Kabrakan subsequently destroys. Also Zhuwut. Taoist (Chinese). Zhang Guo-lao was a bat before he took human form. Mesoamerican) [Guatemala]. Thracian. Zoe (life) Goddess of life. Once mortal beings. Greek and Gnostic Christian. Zurvan God of temporal time and fate. Mayan (classical Mesoamerican) [Mexico]. Persian [Iran]. in Zoroastrianism. Believed to send thunder and lightning. and the goddess’s wings (a solitary inference that she can appear in the form of a bird) are scorched in the process until Mon heals them. He was also suspected of homosexuality with the young Trojan Ganymede. Zipakna Earthquake god. carried vital messages to the heroic god MON during a primordial battle between gods and giants.360 Zhang Guo-lao and AMPHION. In some variations Mon lives in the form of a bull which breathes fire. according to Gnostic mythology. Zhang Guo-lao God. became the consort of SABAOTH to create the angels. Zibelthiurdos Storm god. they achieved immortality through their lifestyle. . Israel and Jesus Christ. HELEN and MINOS. See also BA XIAN. The daughter of PISTIS SOPHIA who. according to legend. Taoist (Chinese). Once the focus of a cult of Zervanism in which he appeared as the father of AHURA MAZDA. leading ultimately to the otherworld. A deity connected and possibly syncretizing with the goddess DISANI but who. Also Zervan. One of the “eight immortals” of Taoist mythology. Zotz Tutelary god.

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92. 78 367 . Adimurti 4 Aditi 4 Aditya 4 Agni 7 Ansa 21 Aryaman 31 Bhaga 50 Daksa 71 Dhatar 76 Diti 80 Iksvaku 135 Mitra 201 Pusan 256 Savitar 278 Surya (1) 297 Vivasvan 344 Aditya 4 Ansa 21 Aryaman 31 Bhaga 50 Daksa 71 Dhatar 76 Parjanya 243 Pusan 256 Savitar 279 Surya (1) 297 Trayastrinsa 322 Tvastar 325 Varuna 337 Venkata 339 Vivasvan 344 Adonis 4. 335 Abnoba 2 Abonsam 2 Aborigines. 271. 71 Aeolos 6. 89. 322 Acan 2 Acat 2 Acca Larentia 2 Acchupta 3 Achilles 37. 4. 263 Aeneas 24 Aeneid (Virgil) 43 Aengus 5–6. 3 Adhimukticarya 3 Adhimuktivasita 3 Adibuddha 3. 280. 16. Ibo. 194. 93. 6. 123 Acolmiztli 3 Acolnahuacatl 3 Adad 3. 82. Yoruba Abonsam 2 Adro 5 Age 7 Akonadi 11 Akongo 11 Ala 11–12 Alatangana 12 Amma (2) (African) 16 Aondo 23 Apap 23 Apedemak 24 Arawa 26 Arebati 27 Asase Yaa 31 Ashiakle 32 Asis 32 Astar 34 Ataa Naa Nyongmo 35 Atete 36 Bacax 43 Bagba 44 Banga 46 Buadza 55 Buk 56–57 Bumba 57 Cagn 58 Cghene 62 Chikara 65 Col 68 Dedwen 73 Deng 74 Dongo 81 Emeli Hin 89 Esu 94 Faro 95 Fidi Mukullu 96 Gibini 104 Hammon 111 Hara Ke 112 Huvi 131 Ifru 134 Ilat 135 Imana 136 Inkanyamba 139 Iruva 140 Isa (2) 140 Itonde 143 Jakomba 147 Jokinam 149 Ka Tyeleo 151 Kaikara 152 Kalunga 154 Kangalogba 156 Ketua 159 Khadir 159 Kianda 161 Kibuka 161 Kwoth 169 Kyumbe 169 Lesa 173–174 Libanza 174–175 Lisa 175 Lomo 177 Lubangala 178 Mamlambo 187 Mawu 193 A A-a 1 A’as ˇ 1 Abandinus 1 Abasy 29 Abellio 1 Abeona 1 Abgal 1 Abhijit 1 Abhijnaraja 1 Abhimukhi 1 Abibuddha 251. 121. See Australian aborigines Abu 2 Abundantia 2 Abzu 2. 100 Afghanistan. 26 Ac Yanto 2 Acacila 2 Acala 2.INDEX 6 Note: Boldface numbers indicate major treatment of a topic. 175 Aegir 5. 91 Aeolus 6 Aequitas 6 Aericura 6 Aesculapius 6. 77. 294 Aesir 6 Aegir 5 Bor 53 Buri 57 Frigg 98 Gefjon 103 Hoder 127 Hoenir 127 Ing 139 Kvasir 169 Mimir 199 Njord 225 Othin 236 Sigyn 285 Siofn 286 Skadi 288 Vanir 336 Vidar 340 Vor 344 Aether 7. 347 Adamas 3 Adeona 1. 159. See Kafir Africa xi. 333. 53. 161 Adrastea 4–5 Adro 5 Aeacos 5. 111. 136. 334 Adidharma 4 Adikia 4. 304. 176. 263. 312 Aed 5. See also Fon. 11.

269 Alaunus 12 Alcis 12 ale-brewing 105 Alemona 12 Alisanos 12 Al-Khidir. See Khadir Alk’unta’m 12. 200. 29. 125 Ame-No-Toko-Tachi-NoKami 15 Ame-No-Uzume 15 Ame-Waka-Hiko 15. 104. 9. 302 Ajalamo 10 Ajaya 10 Aje 10 Aji-Shiki-Taka-Hiko-Ne 10 Ajysyt 10 Akasagarbha 10 Akelos 10–11 Aken 11 Aker 11 Akeru 11 akitu (festival) 21. 289 Allah 12–13. 192. 293. 208. See Hades Aine 10 air 90. 9. 117 Am-Heh 15 Amida 15 Amimitl 15 Amitabha 15–16 Amida 15 Bhrkuti-Tara 51 Dharmadhatuvagisvara 75 Ekajata 87 Halahala 111 Hayagriva 117 Khasaparna 160 Kurukulla 168 Lokesvara 176 Mahabala 181 Mahasitavati 183 Manjusri 188 Pandara 242 Sinhanada 286 Vac 332 Amm 16. vegetation deities. 37 Amma (1) (Tamil) 16. 200. 20. 360 Ahriman 27 Ahura Mazda 9. 200. 298. 29. 187. 225 . 360 Ahurani 10 Ai Apaec 10 Aides. 48. 301 Ame-No-Mi-Kumari-NoKami 14 Ame-No-Minaka-NushiNo-Kami 14–15 Ame-No-Tanabata-HimeNo-Mikoto 15. 17. e. 355 Allat 13 Allatu(m) 13. 243 Amaterasu-O-Mi-Kami 13–14 Ama-Tsu-Mara 14 Ame-No-Uzume 15 Futo-Tama 99 Hiruko 126 Ishi-Kori-Dome 141 Izanagi-No-Kami 146 Kushi-Dama-NigiHaya-Hi 168 Mika-Hiya-Hi 198 Susano-Wo 298 Tama-No-Ya 302 Taoki-Ho-Oi-NoKami 303 Toyo-Uke-Bime 321 Tsuki-Yomi 323 Waka-Hiru-Me 346 Ama-Tsu-Mara 14 Amaunet 14.g. specific gods.: Obarator Amaethon 13 Aralo 26 Hastehogan 114 Kahukura 152 Lauka Mate 172 Mi-Toshi-No-Kami 201 Occator 230 Oko 232 Puta 257 Rongomatane 267 Shen Nung 283 Ta-No-Kami 303 Waka-Sa-Na-Me-NoKami 347 Waka-Toshi-No-Kami 347 Agu’gux 7 Ah Bolon Dz’acab 7–8 Ah Cancun 8 Ah Chun Caan 8 Ah Ciliz 8 Ah Cuxtal 8 Ah Hulneb 8 Ah Kin 8 Ah Kin Xoc 8 Ah Kumix Uinicob 8 Ah Mun 8 Ah Muzencab 8–9 Ah Patnar Uinicob 8. 267. 22. 102. 289.368 Index Mbomba 194 Mbombe 194 Mbongo 194 Mbotumbo 194 Mlentengamunye 201 Mugasa 205 Mugizi 205 Muhingo 205 Mujaji 205 Mukasa 206 Mulindwa 206 Mungu 206 Munume 207 Musisi 207 Na Cha 209 Nai 210 Ndaula 215 Ndjambi 215 Ngai 219 Niamye 219 Nommo 225 Nsongo 226 Nyakaya 228 Nyame 228 Nyavirezi 228 Nzambi 228 Nze 229 Ogiuwu 231 Ogun 231 Oi 231 Opo 234 Osande 235 Osanobua 235 Pemba 245 Raluvimbha 262 Rang 263 Rubanga 267 Sajara 270 Sakumo 271 Seta 281 So 289 Sodza 290 Sogblen 290 Sogbo 290 Soko 290 Sore-Gus 292 Soului 292 Suku 295 Teliko 309 Toro 321 Tororut 321 Tsunigoab 323 Tule 324 Umvelinkwangi 328 Unkulunkulu 328 Unumbote 329 Wai 346 Waka 346 Wamala 347 Weri Kumbamba 348 Wiu 348 Wu 349 Xewioso 350 Yayu 354 Yemekonji 354 afterlife 66 Agamemnon 37 Agathos Daimon 7 Age 7 Aglibol 7. See also harvests. 190 Akkaidia. 222–223. 73. See Babylon Akonadi 11 Akongo 11 Aksayajnana-Karmanda 11 Aksobhya 11 Buddhakapala 56 Candarosana 59 Dhvajagrakeyura 77 Ekajata 87 Hayagriva 117 Heruka 123 Jambhala 148 Jnanadakini 149 Locana 176 Mahacinatara 181 Mahamantranusarini 182 Mahapratyangira 183 Mamaki 186 Manjughosa 188 Manjusri 188 Nairamata 211 Parna-Savari 243 Prajnaparamita 251 Rakta-Yamari 262 Samvara 273 Ucchusma 327 Vajracarcika 334 Vajradaka 334 Vajrapani 335 Vasudhara 338 Vighnantaka 341 Yamantaka 353 Ala 11–12 Alad Udug Lama 12 Alaisiagae 12 Alalu 12 Alatangana 12. 92 Almaqah 13 Alpanu 13 Ama-arhus 13 Amaethon 13 amaethwr (farmer) 13 Amas ˇ agnul 13. 185 Agni 7. 207. 20. 9–10. 282. 65 Ah Peku 9 Ah Tabai 9 Ah Uincir Dz’acab 9 Ah Uuc Ticab 9 Aha 9 Ahriman 9. 338 Agnibhavanavasi 51 Agnikumara 7 Agnostos Theos 7 agriculture. 231 Ame-No-Kagase-Wo 14. 13.

161. 236 Angru Mainyu 9. 81. 26. 30. 29 Arsu 30 Artemis 30 Aphrodite 24 Apollo 25 As ˇ palis 33 Baphomet 46 Bastet 47 Bendis 49 Ceres 61 Diana 77 Eileithyia 87 Hekate 119 Leto 174 Muso Koroni 207 Zeus 359 Arthapratisamvit 30 Artio of Muri 30–31 . 51. 270. 20 Anhouri 20 Ani 20 Anila 20 animals 7. 360 Amphitrite 17. 205. 24 Adonis 4 Allat 13 Aphrodisias 24 Ares 28 Astarte 34 Caelestis 58 Harmonia 113 Hathor 116 Hephaistos 121 Hermaphroditos 122 Hermes 122 Himerus 125 Hymenaios 132 Peitho 245 Priapos 252 Venus 24 Apis 24–25. 138 Anuradha 23 Aondo 23. 152. 263 Apedemak 24 Aphrodisias 24 Aphrodite xi. 333 Anantamukhi 19 Anantesa 19 Anat 19. 136. 176 Arimanius 28 Arinna 28–29. 281. 124. 51. 160. 207. 123. 255. 159. 108. 20 Anextiomarus 20 Anglo-Saxon 91. 190. 159. 141. 141. 154 Apsu 2. 354 Amurru 18. 347 An (1) (male principle) 18 An (2) 18 As ˇ nan 33 Enki 89 Enlil 90 Gatumdug 102 Gibil 104 Inana 137 Is ˇ kur 142 Jabru 147 Kis ˇ ar 161 Marduk 190 Nammu 211 Ningikuga 221 Nissaba 225 Uras ˇ 329 An (2) (female principle) 18 Anaitis 18 Anala 18 anandatandava 215 Ananke 19 Ananta 19. 21. 235 Anukis 22. 82. 329 Arawa 26. 349 amuna 297. 118. 277 Anu-Mate 23 Anunitu 21. 321 Arawn 13. 250. 274 animistic spirits vii Acacila 2 Anjea 20 Arnakua’gsak 29 Bagba 44 Eme’mqut 89 I’lena 135 Katajalina 157–158 Kutji 168 Lebien-Pogil 173 Naiades 210–211 Napaeae 213 Nereides 218 Anjea 20 Ankalamman 21 ankh symbol 118. 21 An(u) 12 Anu (1) (Mesopotamian) 21–22 Adad 3 An (1) 18 Ans ˇ ar 21 Antu 21 Dagan (1) 70 Danu (1) 72 Gerra 104 Ilabrat 135 Is ˇ tar 143 Kakka 152 Lahamu 170 Lahmu 170 Sebitti 279 Anu (2) (Celtic) 22 Anubis 22. 170 Anti 21 Antu 21 Antu(m) 18. 23. 303 Apa 23 Apacita 23 Apam Napat 23 Apap 23. 275 Aplu 25 Apo 25 Apollo 25–26 Amphitrite 17 Anextiomarus 20 Asklepios 32 Belenus 48 Daphne 72 Eileithyia 87 Gaia 100 Grannus 106 Hermes 122 Hyakinthos 132 Janus 148 Leto 174 Mabon 180 Maponos 189 Mercurius 196 Mlk-Amuklos 201 Res ˇ ep (A)Mukal 265 Sirona 286 Zeus 359 Apsaras 26. 27 Archon(s) 27 Arcismati 27 Ardhanari(svara) 27 Ardra 27 Arduinna 27 Arebati 27 Areimanios 27 Arensnuphis 28 Ares 28 Aphrodite 24 Aray 27 Athena 37 Eileithyia 87 Eris 93 Harmonia 113 Harpina 113 Hera 121 Hermes 122–123 Kemos ˇ 159 Onuris 234 argatlam (silver hand/arm) 78. 47. 314 Aquae Granni 106 Aquilo 6. 93 Amorite 31–32 Amphion 17. 231. 134. 227 Ariadne 28 Arianrhod 28. 270. 86 Aparajita 23–24. 244. 218. 139. 36. 322 Amun 17–18. 218. 344 Ark of the Covenant 355 Arma 29 Armaz 29 Arnakua’gsak 29 Arnemetia 29 Arom 29 ar (ploughed land) 20 Arsan Duolai 29 Arsay 13. 346 Anna Kuari 21 Annamurti 21 Anna Perenna 21 Ansa 21 Ans ˇ ar 18. 26 A’ra 26 Arabia Amm 16 Anbay 20 Arsu 30 Asar 31 Basamum 47 Datin 72 Hilal 125 Malakbel 185 Nahi 210 Qaynan 258 Quzah 260 ˇ ams 272 S Ta’lab 301 Theandros 312 Wadd 346 Arachne 26 Aralo 26 Aranyani 26 Arapacana 26. 104 Anunnaki 23.Index 369 Amma (2) (African) 16 Ammavaru 16 Ammut 16 Amoghapasa 16 Amoghasiddhi 16–17 Arya-Tara 31 Dhanada 74 Mahamayuri 182 Mahasri-Tars 183 Sadbhuja-Sitatara 270 Sitatara 287 Syamatara 299 Tara 304 Vajragandhari 334 Vajramrta 334 Vajrasrnkhala 335 Vasya-tara 338 Amor 17. 310 Aristaios 29 Arjuna 29. 42. 257 Aray 26. 281 Anatolia 117–118 Anaulikutsai’x 19 Anbay 20 Ancamna 20 Andarta 20 Andjety 20 Andrasta 5. 26.

280 Ayaba 40. 170 Asokottamasri 33 Asopos 33.: Chalmecatl Ah Bolon Dz’acab 7–8 Amimitl 15 Cailleach Bheur 58 Chalchiuhtlicue 62–63 Chalmecacihuilt 63 Cipactli 66 Coatlicue 67 Huehuecoyotl 130 Huehuecoyotl-Coyotlinahual 130 Huehuetotl 130 Huitzilpochtli 130 Huixtocihuatl 130 Intal 139 Ipalnemoani 140 Itzcuintli 144 Ixcozauhqui 145 Ixnextli 145 .g. 88 Asgard 6. 31. 338 As ˇ 31 asadha 274 Asalluha 31. 202 Attar 38 Attis 12. 322. 177–178 artos (bear) 20 Arundhati 31 Aruru 31. 31. 344 Ataa Naa Nyongmo 35. 308. 49. 132. 235 Aten 18. 89 Asar 31 Asase Yaa 31 As ˇ erah 31–32. 317. 47. 38 Atum 36. 221 Arvernus 31 Aryaman 31 Arya-Tara 16. 36. 19. 220. 321 Asklepios xi. 6. 210 Asira 32 Asis 32. 200. 90.g. 170. 316 Aveta 40 Avrikiti 40 Awonawilona 40 Axo-Mama 40 Aya 40. 210 Ataecina 35 Atargatis 35. 33. 34 Astarte 34 Allat 13 Aphrodite 24 As ˇ taroth 34 As ˇ toreth 34 Attar 38 Melqart 195 Milkastart 198 Quades ˇ 258 Seth 281 Tanit 303 Astlik 34 As ˇ toreth 24. See also sky. 255. See also specific gods. 302 atef (crown) 20. 32–33. 162. specific gods. 109. 329 Ayiyanayaka 40 Ayurvasita 40 Ayyappan 40 Azizos 30. : Mangala Akasagarbha 10 Allat 13 Ame-No-Kagase-Wo 14 Arundhati 31 Astar 34 Candamius 59 Hikoboshi 125 Hokushin-O-Kami 127 Huang Ti 129–130 Marici 190 Myoken-Bodhisattva 208 Sani 273 Saturnus 278 Shani 283 Sothis 292 Sukra 295 ˇ ul-pa-e 296 S ˇ ulsaga 296 S Topoh 320 Usins 330 Xiuhtecuhtli 350 Asuha-No-Kami 34 Asurabhavanavasi 51 Asurakumara 34–35 Asuras 35. 40 Aztecs ix. 208 Astabi 33 Astamatara 33 Brahmani 54 Camunda 59 Candika 60 Dhupa 77 Dipa 79 Gita 105 Indrani 139 Kaumari 158 Lasya 172 Mahesvari 184 Mala 185 Matara 192 Narasinhi 214 Nrtya 226 Puspa 256 Rudracarcika 268 Santa 274 Tripura 322 Vaisnavi 334 Varahi 336 Yogesvari 356 Astaphaios 33–34 Astar 34 As ˇ taroth 34. 206. e. 118 Ashiakle 32. 34 astral deities. 39–40. 97. 293. 359 Athirat 18. 94. xi Ah Bolon Dz’acab 7 Ah Kin Xoc 8 Arjuna 29 Balarama 45 Bali 45 Bhumidevi 51 Colop U Uichkin 68 Coyolxauhqui 69 Devaki 74 Dhanvantari 75 Dharani 75 Dharma 75 Dhruva 76 Goraknath 106 Hansa 111 Hayagriva 117 Mandhata 187 Matsya 193 Narasinha 214 Parasurama 243 Pradyumna 251 Prthu 254 Purusa 256 Quetzalcoatl 259 Radha 261 Rama 262 Rsabha 267 Rukmini 268 Sita 287 Tezcatlipoca 311 Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli 317 Vamana 336 Varaha 336 Vis ˇ nu Trivikrama 343 Visvarupa 344 Wong Taisin 349 Xipe Totec 350 Yajna 352 Avatea 36. 113 As ˇ palis 33 As ˇ ratum 33 Assur 33. 144. 355 Atunis 39 Aufaniae 39 Augean stables 122 Aurora 39. 249. 298. 315 Atua I Raropuka 38. 38. 38–39. 337 Asvayujau 35 asvina 271 Asvins 35. 95. 120. e. 74. 215. 205 As ˇ ertu 32. 109 Atars ˇ amain 35 Ate 35 Atea 35–36. 242. 28. 197. 169. 36–37. 25. 291 Aurora australis (Southern Lights) 206 Auseklis 39 Australian aborigines Baiame 44 Birrahgnooloo 52 Daramulum 72 Darawigal 72 Gunabibi 107 Katajalina 157–158 Kutji 168 Mungan Ngour 206 Nurelli 227 Taipan 300–301 Wuriupranili 349 Yhi 354–355 Avalokitesvara 39 Amoghapasa 16 Bodhisattva 52 Halahala 110 Khasaparna 160 Kuan Yin 165 Kwannon 169 Lokesvara 176 Namasangiti 211 Natha 215 Padmapani 239 Raktalokesvara 262 Sadaksari (Lokesvara) 269 Sinhanada 286 Sitatara 287 Syamatara 299 Tara 304 Vidyapati-Lokesvara 341 avatara x. 273 Atua Fafine 38 Atua I Kafika 38. 275 Aslesa(s) 33 As ˇ nan 33. 91. 177 Ayi’-Uru’n Toyo’n 40. 33. 205 Aticandika 37 Atl 37 Atlahua 37 Atlas 133 Atrahasis 89 Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade) 37 Atropos 37. 124. 355 Atete 36 Atharva-veda 254 Athena 13. 37. 190. 156.370 Index artisan deities 151.

337. Baal S 195.g. See ships Bodhisattva 52 Akasagarbha 10 Arapacana 26 Avalokitesvara 39 Bhrkuti-Tara 51 Bhumi 51 Cunda 69 B ba (soul) 124 Ba (1) (Chinese) 41 Ba (2) (Egyptian) 41. 116 Banga 46 Bangputys 46 Ba-Pef 46 Baphomet 46 Barastar 47 barbers. 261 Bhumiya 51 Bhutadamara 51 Bhutamata 52 Bhuvanesvari 52 Bhvanavasi 34. e. 97. 52. 272. 341 Bia 52. 297. 210 Bhima 29. 98. See also specific gods. 51. 336. 163 Bible 32 Bi-har 52 bija mantra 332 Birdu 52. 98. 52. 72. 160 Ba Xian 41 Baal 41–42 Anat 19 Arsay 29 As ˇ erah 32 As ˇ taroth 34 Attar 38 Dagan (2) 70 . 163 Balam 44 Balaparamita 44 Balarama 45. 83 Bagvarti 44 Baiame 44. 284 Baal Sapon 42. 213. 327. 174. 76. 319 Bella Pennu 48. 258. 356 Bali 45. 275. 280 Badb 43. 79 Bhrkuti-Tara 51 Bhumi 51 Abhimukhi 1 Acala 2 Adhimukticarya 3 Arcismati 27 Dharmamegha 76 Durangama 82 Prabhakari 251 Pramudita 252 Sadhumati 270 Samantaprabha 272 Sudurjaya 294 Vimala 341 Bhumi Devata 51 Bhumidevi 51. 177. 47. 336 Baltis 45 Banba 46 Banebdjedet 46. 171. 127. 83. 190 Bastet 47. 45. 168 boats. 355 Bala 44 Balakrsna 44. 123. 280. 289. 278. 276 Bhavanavasi 7. 72 birth. 52. 74. 338. 198. 293. 304 Bellona 49. 42. 78. 198. 50.Index 371 Ixquimilli-Itzlacoliuhqui 145 Kukulcan 166 Mayahuel 193 Mixcoatl-Camaxtli 201 Nahui Ollin 210 Nanahuatl 212 Ocelotl 230 Ome Tochtli 233 Ometeotl 233 Pahteeatl 240 Quetzalcoatl 259 Quiahuitl 259–260 Tecciztecatl 307–308 Teteoinnan 310 Teteoinnan-Toci 310 Tezcacoac Ayopechtli 311 Tezcatlipoca 311–312 Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli 317 Tlaloc 318 Tlaloque-Tepictoton 318 Tomiyauhtecuhtli 319 Tonacacihuatl 320 Tonacatecuhtli 320 Tonaleque 320 Tonatiuh 320 Totoltecatl 321 Tozi 322 Xipe Totec 350 Xiuhtecuhtli 350 Xochiquetzal 350–351 Xolotl 351 Xolotl Nanahuatl 351 Yacacoliuhqui 352 Yacahuiztli 352 Yacapitzahuac 352 Yacatecuhtli 352 Yauhqueme 354 Yoalli Ehecatli 356 Yoaltecuhtf 356 Zapotlantenan 358 Aztlan 130 Hadad 109 Il 135 Kotar 162 Mot 204 Pidray 247 Sasuratum 277 Tanit 303 Baal Malage 42 ˇ amin 34. 180. 64 Bacax 43 Bacchus 43. 111 Beg-Tse 47 Behanzin 48 Bel 48 Belatucadros 48 Belenus 48 Belet-Ili 48. 247 Baba 42 Babi 43 baboon god 117 Babylon (Babylon-Akkaidia) viii A-a 1 Adad 3 Antu 21 Dumuzi 82 Ea 85 Eres ˇ kigal 92 Ilabrat 135 Is ˇ ara 141 Is ˇ tar 142–143 Marduk 189–190 Nammu 211 Nergal 218 Ninhursaga 221–222 Ninurta 224 Tiamat 314 Bacabs 43. 204 Badi Mata 43 baetyls (stone stelae) 34 Bagala 43 Bagba 44 Bagisht 44. 78. 216 Bat 47 Baubo 47 bears 30–31 beauty 339 bees 8–9. 191 Beltine 58 Beltiya 49 Bendis 49 Benten-San 49.: Nirmali Adeona 3 Ah Cuxtal 8 Ajysyt 10 Alemona 12 Anukis 22 Bes 49–50 Eileithyia 86–87 Hesat 124 Is ˇ ara 141 Nammu 211 Tawhaki 306 Tezcacoac Ayopechtli 311 Thalna 312 Xochiquetzal 350–351 Zarpanitu(m) 358 Bishamon 52. 71 boars 62. 284 Bhagavan 50 Bhagavata-Purana 163 Bhairava 50. 80. 51. 221 Belet-Seri 48 Belili 48 Bella Coola Indians 12. 283 biwa instrument 49 blacksmithing Amaterasu-O-Mi-Kami 13–14 Ama-Tsu-Mara 14 Hasameli 114 Hephaistos 120–121 Kabeiroi 151 Kabeiroi (blacksmith gods) 120 Kinyras 161 Kotar 162 Kurdaligon 168 Ninegal 220 Qaynan 258 Vulcanus 345 blind god 127 blood sacrifice. god of 222 Bars ˇ amin 47 Basamum 47 Basque 185. 283 Benu 49 Beowulf Saga 123 Bera Pennu 49 Bes 49–50 Bethel 50 Bhadra 50 Bhaga 4. 189 Birrahgnooloo 44. See human/blood sacrifice Bo Hsian 52 Boann 5. 83. 50 Bhaisajyaguru 50 bhakti 261 Bharani 50 Bharat Mata 51 Bharati 51. 342 Bala-Sakti 45 balche 2 Balder viii.

372 Index Gaganaganja 100 Hevajira 124 Jalinprabha 147 Ksitigarbha 164 Mahamayuri 182 Maitreya 185 Mamaki 186 Manjusri 188–189 Marici 190 Mi-Lo Fo 198 Natha 215 Padmapani 239 Pandara 242 Parna-Savari 243 Pratibhanakuta 252 Raktalokesvara 262 Sagaramati 270 Sitapatra 287 Surangama 297 Usnisavijaya 330 Vajragarbha 334 Vasudhara 338 Vidyapati-Lokesvara 341 Boldogasszony 53 Bolon Ti Ku 53 Bombay Kamayan 53 Bonchor 53 Book of Maccabees 70 Book of the Dead 16. e.g. 133 Brahma 54 Ammavaru 16 Arundhati 31 Cathubodua 60 Daksa 71 Deva 74 Gayatri 103 Hari 113 Hayagriva 117 Hevajira 124 Kama(deva) 154 Kamalasana 155 Mara 189 Marici 190 Matsya 193 Nara 214 Narada 214 Prajapati 251 Prasannatara 252 Samvara 273 Sandhya 273 Sarasvati 276 Satarupa 277 Skanda 289 Trimurti 322 Vidyujjvalakarili 341 Brahmani 54–55 Bres Macelatha 55 Brhaspati 55 Brhati 55 Brigantia 55 Brigit 55. 72. 207 Buk 56–57 bull gods 24–25. 53 Borgia codice 61. 71.: Acala Aksobhya 11 Amitabha 15–16 Amoghasiddhi 16–17 Avalokitesvara 39 Buddha 56 Dhanada 74–75 Dharmadhatuvagisvara 75 Dombi 81 Ekajata 87 Ghasmari 104 Halahala 110–111 Isa (1) 140 Janguli 148 Karai-Shin 157 Kulisankusa 167 Lokapala 176 Mahapratisara 183 Maharaksa 183 Mahasitavati 183 Maitreya 185 sMan-Bla 187 Manjusri 188–189 Mara 189 Mari (1) 190 Marici 190 Maya(devi) 193 Muraja 207 Myoken-Bodhisattva 208 O-lwa-Dai-Myojin 231 Patadharini 244 Prajnavardhani 251 Pukkasi 256 Ratnasambhava 263–264 Ratnolka 264 Saraddevi 275 SarvabuddhadharmaKosavati 276 Sarvakarmavaranavisodhani 276 Saubhagya-Bhuvanesvari 278 Savari 278 Sikhin 285 Sinhanada 286 Suddhodana 294 Sumati 296 Suparikirtitanamasri 297 Survarnabhadravimalaratnaprabhasa 297 Svaraghosaraja 299 Taditkara 300 Tara 303–304 Usnisavijaya 330 Vagisvara 332 Vairocana 333–334 Vasantadevi 337 Vayu (2) 338 Vetali 340 Vina 342 Yama 353 Yamaduti 353 Yamantaka 353 Yogesvari 356 Budha 56. 53. 181 Buddhism viii. See also Buddha. ix. 282 Books of Invasions 55. 304 Bor 53 Boreas 6. 68–69. 212. 281. specific gods. 317. 133 Buadza 55 Buddha viii. 312. 275. 56 Abhijnaraja 1 Adibuddha 3 Akasagarbha 10 Aksobhya 11 Amitabha 15 Amoghasiddhi 16 Asokottamasri 33 Avalokitesvara 39 Bhaisajyaguru 50 Bhrkuti-Tara 51 Bhumi 51 Bodhisattva 52 Buddhalocana 56 Cunda 69 Dharmakirtisagaraghosa 76 Dhyanibuddha 77 Dipankara 79 Gaganaganja 100 Ghantapani 104 Hevajira 124 Kotisri 162 Kuan Yin 165 Locana 176 Lokesvara 176 Mahakapi 182 Mahapadma 182 Maitreya 185 Mamaki 186 Mandah 187 Mara 189 Marici 190 Maya(devi) 193 Mucalinda 205 Ratnapani 263 Ratnasambhava 263–264 Sakyamuni 271 Sarvanivaranaviskambhin 276 Sarvapayanjaha 277 Sarvasokatamonirghatamati 277 Sikhin 285 Sinhanada 286 Suddhodana 294 Sukla-Tara 295 Suparikirtitanamasri 297 Survarnabhadravimalaratnaprabhasa 297 Svaraghosaraja 299 Tara 304 Upulvan 329 Usnisa 330 Vagisvara 332 Vairocana 333–334 Vajradhara 334 Vajrapani 335 Vajratara 335 Vidyujjvalakarili 341 Vis ˇ nu 342 Yasodhara 354 Buddhabodhiprabhavasita 56 buddha-designate. See Bodhisattva Buddhakapala 56 Ajaya 10 Bhima 51 Citrasena 67 Kamini 155 Kapalini 157 Karini 157 Mahayasa 184 Mahodadhi 184 Ostaraki 236 Priyadarsana 253 Rupini 268 Subhaga 294 Subhamekhala 294 Sumalini 296 Sundara 297 Suraksini 297 Vikalaratri 341 Buddhalocana 56 Buddhi 56. 22. ix. 71 Brihaddharma-Purana 101 Brisingamen (necklace) 97 Britannia 55 Britian and British 1. 86. 55. 115. 39. 78 Boora Pennu 48. 17. 304. 60. 266 Bugid Y Aiba 56 buildings/builders 167. 315 . 320 Borvo 53 Bragi 53. x.

152–153. See also Gnostic Christianity Chronicle of Nestor 293 chronology xiii chthonic deities x. 60. 265. 318 Chalchiuhtlicue 62–63 Chalchiutonatiuh.: Mabon Abandinus 1 Aengus 5–6 Andarta 20 Anu (2) 22 Belenus 48 Brigit 55 Ceridwen 61 Cernunnos 61–62 Coventina 68–69 Dagda 70–71 Danu (1) 72 Diancecht 77–78 Epona 91–92 Gobniu 105 Govannon 106 Ialonus 133 Icauna 133 Iccovellauna 133 Lenus 173 Lug 178 Macha 180–181 Manannan (Mac Lir) 187 Manawyddan 187 Matres 192 Mor 203 Morrigan 203–204 Morvran 204 Nantosuelta 213 Neit 216 Nuadu 226–227 Ogmius 231 Onuava 233 Pen Annwen 245 Rhiannon 266 Sheela Na Gig 283 Sucellos 294 Tailtiu 300 Tegid Foel 308 Tuatha de Danaan 324 Yspaddaden Pencawr 356 Cenkalaniyammal 61 cenote (sacred pool) 357 Centeocihuatl 61 Cerberus 122 cereal crops. 273. 93 chaos 281–282. specific gods. e. 196.g. 62. 94. 86. 59. See love carpenter 125.g. 106. 309. 78 Cathubodua 60 Caturmurti 60 Cauri 60 Cautha 61 Ce Acatl 61 Celts xi. See also Gallic gods. 60. 135. See also earth.g. Ireland. 121 Charon 123 chastity 255 Chattrosnisa 64 Chaya 64. 164 Canaanite 19. 58. See corn. 57 Buriyas 57 Satabhisa 277 Sravana 292 Sravistha 292 Svati 299 Tara 304 Uttarabhadrapada 330 Uttarasadha 330 Candrasekhara 60 Cankilikkaruppan 60 Cao Guo-jiu 60 Carcika 60 Cariociecus 60 Carmentes 59. 303. specific gods. 248. 149. Tibet. 345 Charis 64. 308 Cernunnos 48. Romano-Celtic gods. 297 Chibirias 64 Chiccan 65 Chicomecohuatl 65 Chicomexochitl 65 Chiconahui 65 Chiconahuiehecatl 65 Chiconahui Itzcuintli-Chantico 65 Chikara 65 childbirth. specific gods. 58 Cakra 45. 267.: Chibirias Ah Uuc Ticab 9 Aken 11 Aker 11 Akeru 11 Ala 11–12 Alisanos 12 Alpanu 13 Am-Heh 15 Ammut 16 Andjety 20 Angru Mainyu 9. See birth children 23. 303 Cagn 58 Cailleach Bheur 55. See Atl Chalchiutotolin 63 Chalmecacihuilt 63 Chalmecatl 63 Chamer 63 Chang Fei 63. 66 Chantico 64 Chaob 64 Chaos 64. 355. 176 Chang Hs’ien 63 Chang Tao Ling 64. grain deities Ceres 61. 31–32. See also Taoism. e. 41–42. 63. e. 325 Caelestis 55. 344. 59. 142 Christianity 139. 185 Cakresvari 58 ‘caldron of abundance’ 71 Camaxtli 58 Camulos 59 Camunda 33. 152 caduceus (winged baton) 6. 175. 175. 61–62 Cghene 62 Chac 62 chacmools 318 Chac Uayab Xoc 62 Chaitanya 62 Chalchiuhtlatonal 37. 204. 178 carnal love. 340 Ceridwen 61. 92. 222. 204–205 canals and ditches 90 Canda 59 Candali 59 Candamius 59 Candanayika 59 Candarosana 59 Candarupa 59 Candavati 59 Candelifera 59. 303 cat 47 Catalogues (Hesiod) 119 Catalogues (Hesoid) 32.Index 373 ‘bull roarer’ instrument 44 Buluc Chabtan 57 Bumba 57 Buri 53.: Shen Nung Ba (1) 41 Chang Fei 63 Chang Hs’ien 63 Chu Jung 65 Erh Lang 92–93 Feng Po 96 Fu Shen 98 Han Xiang-Zhi 111 Huang Ti 129–130 Hung Sheng 131 Kuei Shing 166 Lu Pan 177–178 Ma-zu 194 Men Shen 195 Nu Kua 226 Pao Kung 242 San Chou Niang Niang 273 Sao Ching Niang Niang 274 Shou Lao 284 Sun Hou-Shi 296–297 Tai-Sui-Jing 301 T’ai Yi 300 Tam Kung 301–302 Tien Mu 314 Tou Mou 321 Tsai Shen 323 Tu (1) 323 Tzu Sun Niangniang 325 Yen Kuang Niang Niang 354 Yu-Chiang 357 Chinnamastaka 65 Chi Sung Tzu 64 Chiuke 65 Chors 65 Chos-Skyon 65 Christ 45. 350 China. 20 Anu (2) 22 Arawn 26 Areimanios 27 Arianrhod 28 Arsay 29 C Cacoch 58. underworld. 178 Candesvara 59 Candesvari 59 Candika 60 Candogra 60 Candra 60 Abhijit 1 Anuradha 23 Ardra 27 Aslesa(s) 33 Asvayujau 35 Bharani 50 Budha 56 Citra 67 Dhanistha 75 Hasta 114 Jyestha 150 Kaumudi 158 Magha 181 Mrgasiras 205 Mula 206 Naksatra(s) 211 Punarvasu 256 Purvabhadrapada 256 Purvaphalguni 256 Purvasadha 256 Pusya 257 Revati 266 Rohini 266 . 58.

69. 170. 69. 334 Cunina 69 Cupid. 72. 233 Coca-Mama 68 Cocidius 68 Cocijo 68 Co(co)chimetl 68 Col 68 Colel Cab 68. See Native Americans Daksa 71 Abhijit 1 Aditi 4 Anuradha 23 Ardra 27 Aslesa(s) 33 Asvayujau 35 Bharani 50 Citra 67 Danu (2) 72 Dhanistha 75 Dharma 75 Diti 80 Hasta 114 Jyestha 150 Kadru 151 . 71. 78 Cypriot 24 D Dabog 70 Dadimunda 70 Dagan (1) (Mesopotamian) 41. 85. 271.374 Index Asase Yaa 31 Ceridwen 61 Cernunnos 61–62 Eres ˇ kigal 92 Geb 103 Hine-Ahu-One 126 Shango 282 Susano-Wo 298 Tzultacah 325–326 Chu Jung 65 Chul Tatic Chites Vaneg 66 Chung K’uei 66 Cihuacoatl-Quilaztli 66 Cinxia 66 Cipactli 66. 197. 69. 351 Cit Chac Coh 66 cities. 324 Daikoku 71. 320 courtyards 34 Coventina 68–69 cows/cattle 78. 178. 283 Dakota Indians. 66–67 Citra 67 Citrasena 56. 169 Cycles of Kings 55. 203. 130. patron of Greek 36–37 Citlalatonac 66 Citlalicue 66. 52. 67 Cittavasita 67 Cizin 67 Clementia 67 Coatlicue 67. 70–71. 104. domestic 37 craftsmen 255 crane 129 Cratos 69 creation Adro 5 Agu’gux 7 Akongo 11 Alatangana 12 Amma (2) 16 Amun 17–18 An (1) 18 An (2) 18 Antu 21 Aondo 23 Apap 23 Archon(s) 27 Arebati 27 Ataa Naa Nyongmo 35 Aten 36 Atua Fafine 38 Atum 38–39 Awonawilona 40 Brahma 54 Bumba 57 Cagn 58 Cghene 62 Coatlicue 67 Dyaus Pitar 83–84 E Alom 85 E Quaholom 85 El 87–88 Emeli Hin 89 Enki 89–90 Fidi Mukullu 96 Gunabibi 107 Huracan 131 Imana 136 Imra 137–138 Itzam Na 143–144 Ix Zacal Nok 145 Jehovah 149 Ka Tyeleo 151 Kalunga 154 Keawe 158 Kitanitowit 161 Kiya’rnarak 161 Kukulcan 166 Kumarbi 167 Kumokums 167 Kwoth 169 Kyumbe 169 Lesa 173–174 Libanza 174–175 Lisa 175 Mal 185 Malamanganga’e 185–186 Manito 188 Manitu 188 Manohel-Tohel 189 Marduk 189–190 Mayon 194 Mbomba 194 Mbotumbo 194 Moma 202 Mungan Ngour 206 Mungu 206 Nahui Ollin 210 Na’ininen 211 Nainuema 211 Nammu 211 Nanahuatl 212 Nediyon 216 Neith 216–217 Ngai 219 Niamye 219 Nu Kua 226 Nurelli 227 Nut 227–228 Nyame 228 Nzambi 228 Ocelotl 230 Oduduwa 230–231 O-Kuni-Nushi-NoMikoto 232 Olodumare 232 Orunmila 235 Osanobua 235 Panao 241. See Amor Cybele 38. 223. 312. 279 Coyolxauhqui 67. 311 crafts. 70 Dagan (2) (Semitic) 70 Dagan (3) (Kafir) 70 Dagda 5. 311 Cipactonal 66. 252 Pemba 245 Pon 249 Pore 249 Prometheus 253 Prthu 254 Ptah 255 Qamai’ts 258 Quat 259 Quiahuitl 259–260 Raluvimbha 262 Re 264–265 Rubanga 267 Sabaoth 269 Samael 272 ˇ iva 288 S Suku 295 Tangaroa 302 Tate 304 Tawa 306 Te-Aka-la-Roe 307 Teharon(hiawagon) 308 Te-Manava-Roa 307 Te-Tanga-Engae 307 Tiamat 314 Tiki 315 Tino Taata 316 Tirawa 316 Tirumal 316 Tomwo’get 319 Tonatiuh 320 Toro 321 Tororut 321 Totilma’il 321 Tsunigoab 323 Ulu’tuyar Ulu Toyo’n 328 Umvelinkwangi 328 Unkulunkulu 328 Unumbote 329 Uru’n Ajy Toyo’n 329 Vahguru 333 Vairacocha 333 Vis ˇ nu 342–343 Waka 346 Wakan Tanka 346–347 Wakonda 347 Weri Kumbamba 348 Yaldabaoth 353 Yemekonji 354 Yhwh 355 Yng 356 Yoalli Ehecatli 356 Yoaltecuhtf 356 crocodile 228 Crowley. 55. 145 Colop U Uichkin 68 colwic 68 Condatis 68 confrontation theme 42 contracts 29 Contrebis 68 corn Ah Mun 8 Chicomecohuatl 65 Gabjauja 100 Halki 111 Kore 162 Osiris 235–236 Pekko 245 Pitao Cozobi 248 Sif 285 Tate Oteganaka 305 Zara-Mama 358 Corus 68 Cospi codice 61. Aleister 46 Cum Hau 69 Cunda 69.

272. 125. 184. 166. 72 Daramulum 44. 235 destroyer/destruction 153. 78. 241. 205. 269. 329–330 Daya 72 death and the dead. 225 Padmosnisa 239 Prajnantaka 251 Ratnosnisa 264 Soma 291 Sumbha 296 Sumbharaja 296 Takkiraja 301 Tejosnisa 308 Tiksnosnisa 315 Usnisa 330 Usnisavijaya 330 Vajraghanta 334 Vajrapasi 335 Vajrasphota 335 Vajrosnisa 335 Varuna 337 Vayu (1) 338 Vayu (2) 338 Vighnantaka 341 Virupaksa 342 Visvosnisa 344 Yama 353 Yamantaka 353 Diksa 78. 227 Diang 78 Dictynna 78 Didi Thakrun 78 Dievs 78. 125 desolation 175 destiny 19. 77. 332 Diancecht 77–78. 175. 71. 157.g. 288. 250 Demeter 73 Ceres 61 Erinys 93 Gaia 101 Gunabibi 107 Hades 110 Hekate 119 Kore 162 Kybele 169 Persephone 246 Plutos 248 Poseidon 250 Zeus 359 demetreioi 73 demonic deities 45. 73 Delphi 25.: Nirrti Deva 35. See also evil deities Dena 73 Deng 74 Dercetius 74 Derceto 74 dergflaith 96 desert 1 desire 60. 293 Dhanada 74–75 Dhanistha 75 Dhanvantari 75. 312. 203–204. See also specific gods. 182. 304 Diana 27. 277 Dhyanibuddha 77 Adibuddha 3 Aksobhya 11 Amitabha 15–16 Amoghasiddhi 16–17 Dhanada 74 Dhyanibuddhasakti 77 Gundari-Myoo 107 Jambhala 148 Locana 176 Lokesvara 176 Mahakala 182 Mahamantranusarini 182 Mahapratisara 183 Mahapratyangira 183 Mahasitavati 183 Maitreya 185 MayajalakramaKurukulla 193 Ratnasambhava 263–264 Sukla-Tara 295 Tara 304 Usnisa 330 Vagisvara 332 Vairocana 333–334 Vajrapani 335 Vajratara 335 Dhyanibuddhasakti 77. 210. 226. 74 Devaki 45. 278 Digambara 78 Dikbhavanavasi 51 Dike 4. 274 Dionysos 78–79 Ariadne 28 Bacchus 43 Dus ˇ ara 83 Hera 121 Indr 138 Leukothea 174 Liber 175 Orotalt 235 Persephone 246 Priapos 252 Sabazios 269 . 243 Dedwen 3. 52.Index 375 Kasyapa 157 Khasa 159 Ksama 164 Magha 181 Mrgasiras 205 Mula 206 Naksatra(s) 211 Prasuti 252 Priti 253 Punarvasu 256 Purvabhadrapada 256 Purvaphalguni 256 Purvasadha 256 Pusya 257 Rati 263 Revati 266 Rohini 266 Satabhisa