1

POWER ELECTRONICS II
PRACTICAL FILE

SUBMITTED TO: Prof. Dheeraj Joshi Group4 (E4)

SUBMITTED BY:

Khushboo (108588) Pranav (108624) Ankur (108637) Bhavya (108638) Shweta (108640)

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INDEX
S.NO. EXPERIMENT PAGE NO. REMARKS

1

To simulate single phase series inverter.

5-7

2

To simulate single phase parallel inverter.

8-10

3

To study single phase series inverter.

11-13

4

To study single phase parallel inverter.

14-16

5

To study speed control of DC shunt motor using Dc john chopper.

17-19

6

To study 3 phase inverter on psim.

20-23

7

To simulate single phase cyclo converter.

24-25

3

8

To study single phase step up chopper.

26-28

9

To study SCR based on cycloconverter.

29-30

10

To study single phase AC & DC power control.

31-33

List of Figures
Fig No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 5.1 NAME OF FIGURE Series Inverter Waveforms for series inverter Waveforms of series inverter with sine output wave Parallel bridge inverter Waveforms for parallel inverter Output voltage waveform for c=0.2uF Output voltage waveform for C=0.9uF series inverter Output voltage wave shape from CRO. Single phase parallel bridge inverter with feedback diode Waveform of output voltage obtained from CRO D.C. Jones Chopper PAGE NO. 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 12 13 15 16 19

4 6.1 7.C.1 6.C. Power Control 1 phase Half Wave Converter D.1 10.C. .3 Three phase inverter Switching sequence for 180 mode Output waveform for 180° mode R load Switching sequence for 120 mode Output waveform for 120° mode R load Single phase cycloconverter Output waveform for step down cycloconverter step up chopper Output waveform across L SCR based cycloconverter Output waveform of step down cycloconverter A.2 10.4 6. Jones Chopper Page no.2 9. Power Control 1 phase Full Wave Converter 20 20 21 21 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 31 32 List of Observation Tables Table no. 5.C.2 10.3 6. Power Control D.1 8.2 8.1 9.5 7.2 6.1 Name of Observation Table Observation table for D.

3 Ciruit diagram: Vt .1 Aim: “To study 1 phase series inverter circuits through simulation” 1. 1.2 Apparatus: Psim and Pc.5 Experiment 1 1.

5.8 = 1000 Hz Design of Inductance L A suitable value of L is chosen on the basis of the attenuation factor.6 Vin Vo ut Fig1. When wct = π/2.034 mH Design of Capacitance C Capacitance is obtained from the expression for fr. we can write.ln2) = 18. the peak value of Imax [in the expression for current i(t) = Imax e(R/2L)tπsinwct] will be reduced.2Toff] = (1/f0)[1-2f0Toff] Or fr = fo/[1-2f0Toff] For f0 = 800 Hz and Toff = 125 us.e. R π/4wrL = ln2 R= 100 Ω and fr = 1000 Hz or L = R/(8fcln2) L = 100/(8000. The optimum value of this attenuation factor(AF) is 0.1757 uF 1. Toff be the duration for safe turn-off of each of the two thyristors and fr is the ringing frequency of the inverter circuit. fr = 12π√(1LC-R24L2) C = 1. Therefore. i. fr = 800/0.4 Theory: Let f0 be the output frequency of the inverter.1 Series Inverter 1.5 Discussion: . Then (1/fr) = [(a/f0).

0 3 T i m e (s) 0 .2 shows the output waveform of series inverter for L=18. for given values of L and C.0 2 0 . This is because before T2 is switched on. R=100Ω. sometime has to be elapsed so that T1 regains its forward blocking capability.7 V in 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Vout 100 50 0 -5 0 -1 0 0 Vt 800 400 0 -4 0 0 0 0 .0 1 0 . respectively. C in the circuit sine wave output can be obtained as shown in fig 1. adjusting the values of L. . C=1. the values of inductance and capacitance are 48.0 6 Fig 1.1757µF. The output wave is not pure sinusoidal.2 Waveforms for series inverter Fig 1.034mH.963mH and 1.0 5 0 . after switching off T1.3.8uF. However.0 4 0 .

0 1 0 . 1.0 4 0 .6 Result: Circuit of single phase series inverter has been designed on Psim and various plots are taken as shown and results obtained are same as theoretically predicted.0 3 T i m e (s) 0 .8 V in 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Vout 100 50 0 -5 0 -1 0 0 Vt 200 150 100 50 0 -5 0 -1 0 0 0 0 .3 waveforms of series inverter with sine output wave. .0 6 Fig 1.0 5 0 .0 2 0 .

4. C= 0. for given values of L=100mH.0185uF.3 Circuit Diagram: Vt L=100 Vin V V o R=20 Fig 2.4Theory: Parallel inverter inthe given 1.” 2. indicating the presence of harmonics. R-20Ω. Waveform can made better by adjusting the value of capacitor.2.9uF respectively. . 2. For tc= 40 μ s and R = 20 Ω Commutating capacitor:-c=n2tc4R ln2=0.2 Apparatus: Psim and Pc. Output voltage waveform is like a square wave. The centre-tapped transformer has a turn ratio from each half primary winding to secondary winding Of 3:1.5 Discussion: Waveforms for parallel bridge inverter are shown in fig 2. not sine wave as required.3 and 2.9 Experiment 2 2.1 parallel bridge inverter. The wave form for parallel inverter ckt are shown in psim simulation.1 Aim: “To study 1-Φ parallel inverter circuit through simulation. Output voltage waveforms for different values of capacitor are shown in fig2.Φ capacitor commutated parallel inverter using two Thyristors and a centre-tapped transformer the source voltage is 200v dc. with C=0. 2.2uF and C=0. 2.0815 μ F Taking f0 = 1Khz and L = 100 m h .

004 T im e (s) 0.2 Waveforms for parallel inverter Vin 10 0 80 60 40 20 0 Vout 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 Vc 40 0 20 0 0 -20 0 -40 0 Vt1 40 0 20 0 0 -20 0 -40 0 0 0.01 Fig 2.0 0 8 0 .0 1 Fig 2.0 0 4 T i m e (s) 0 .2uF .006 0 .002 0.00 8 0.0 0 6 0 .3 Output voltage waveform for c=0.10 V in 80 40 0 Vout 40 20 0 -2 0 -4 0 Vc 200 0 -2 0 0 V t1 200 100 0 0 0 .0 0 2 0 .

5 K 0K -0.008 0.6 Result: Circuit of single phase parallel bridge inverter has been designed on Psim and various plots are taken as shown and results obtained are same as theoretically predicted. .5 K 1K 0.01 Fig 2.5K 0 0.5K -1K -1.11 Vin 100 80 60 40 20 0 Vout 200 100 0 -100 -200 Vc 1.0 02 0.006 0.4 Output voltage waveform for C=0.5 K 1K 0.5K Vt1 1.5 K 0K -0.9uF 2.5K -1K -1.004 Tim e (s) 0.

12 Experiment 3 3. Because of under damped nature of the circuit the current is not constant. CRO 5. The commutating elements L and C are such that R1L and C for an under damped circuit.1 Aim: “To study single phase series inverter. Since their already forward biased TH1 starts conducting and a current I flows in the circuit through TH1 and C1.2 Apparatus: 1.” 3. DC Power Supply 3.3 Circuit Diagram: T1 L batte C T 2 loa d Fig 3. When the current becomes zero the voltage across the capacitor is positive. The capacitor has an initial voltage Ec.4 Theory: Basic series inverter circuit shows the circuit of a series inverter. Inverter Circuit 2. Thyristor TH1 is turned on first. After this the current starts decreasing but voltage across capacitor increases. L and load. When the current is at its peak the voltage across the capacitor is equal to the source voltage V. Firing Circuit 4.1 series inverter 3. Load 3. It rises to a maximum value and then decreases to zero. At the point when current becomes zero TH1 is .

This is necessary to ensure that the stored charges in TH1 are reduced to zero so that at point 6 TH1 is in completely off state.2.13 turned off. The wave shape obtained are same as obtained from psim simulation of series inverter in exp1. Wave is not pure sine wave. Now cancel trigger o/p s from the firing circuit to gate and cathode of SCR. Check the trigger pulses by varying the frequency. The capacitor discharges and the current I flows in the opposite direction as of the previous current.. Now TH1 and TH2 are off. Repeat the same for different values of L and C. 3. Also T = 2*TT/(1/LC – R2/4C2) When TH1 is turned on the equations are V + Ec = Ri + Ldi/dt + i/c * INTEGRATION(I dt) Taking Laplace: V/s + Ec/s = I(s)[R + Ls + 1/Cs] Since the circuit is under damped the solution is I = (V + Ec)/(w+L)*exp(-Rt/2L)sin(wrt) 3. The frequency of output voltage is f = [1/2*(T/2 + Toff)] T is the time period of oscillations. but have discontinuity in between. At point 6 when the anode of TH2 is positive due to charge on the capacitor TH2 starts conducting.5 Procedure: To begin with switch on the power supply to the firing circuit. Hence. The across L is zero the time interval ab must be more than the Toff of the Thyristor. The voltage across capacitor is maintained at V+ Ec.6 Discussion: Waveform of output voltage obtained from CRO are shown below in fig 3. He current reaches its negative peak value and the decreases to zero at point C when TH2 is turned off. . The above sequence is repeated in the next cycle when TH1 is turned on. Vary the frequency and again observe the waveform. the results are verified. These discontinuities can be reduced by selecting appropriate values of L and C. Observe the waveform across the load. Make the connections as shown in the diagram.

7 Results: Single phase series inverter have been studied and the results are verified from exp1. as wave shapes in both cases are same.2 Output voltage wave shape. . 3.14 Fig 3.

1 Aim: “To study single phase parallel bridge inverter with feedback diode. when D2 and D3 becomes forward bias and begin to conduct. Bridge in inverter firing circuit unit (Gate drive current 200mA) Parallel bridge inverter power circuit (30V. 2.” 4. T2 and T2’ are fixed.1 single phase parallel bridge inverter with feedback diode 4.4 Theory: The bridge current with feedback diode and load is shown in figure. 5.2 Apparatus: 1.3 Circuit Diagram: D3 T2’ C(C1/C D1 batter y L/2 T 1 T 2 D 2 load T1’ L/2 D4 Fig 4. 4.15 Experiment 4 4. T1 and T1’ are turned off due to reverse biasing by the capacitor voltage. 3.2A) Power supply 230V AC CRO Load 4. The voltage across them drops almost to a . The capacitor is now charged up by the sum of the current in commutating inductance and load current. Initially SCR T1 and T1’ conducts. The commutation process starts with damped oscillations and the capacitor voltage tends to exceed Vdc at this instance t2.

Power Circuit: a) Vdc(in) – Terminal to connect i/p dc supply. 4.04A (T) Time period = 5ms (N) No.5 Procedure: Make all the connection of power circuit is built 1 phase bridge inverter. b) ON – Switch to ON the dc supply to tha power circuit. Different wave shapes are obtained by selecting appropriate values of L and C. Therefore. . d) T1. The wave shape obtained are same as obtained from psim simulation of series inverter in exp2.6 Observation: Voltage = 12. of div.005*4) = 50 Hz 4. don’t switch OFF the trigger output without switching OFF the DC supply.T1’T2. = 4 Frequency = 1/(N*T) = 1/(. Initially connect i/p DC supply to the power circuit. Current Vdc/RC flows through SCR2 and SCR3 and the diode current flowing through D2 and D3. the reactor current is divided into Z load.16 zero as a result the voltage across the commutating reactors is also zero.2. Connect the loads at load points. and the capacitor voltage and capacitor current cannot change. c) Fuse – 2A glass fuse for protection.D1’. To switch off the inverter. Observe output waveforms across the load whose voltage can be varied by varying dc input to power circuit.2V Current = 0. the results are verified.7 Discussion: Waveform of output voltage obtained from CRO are shown below in fig 4. is a square wave. e) D1.D2. It will lead to commutation failure. switch off the DC supply first and then trigger output. Apply firing pulse from firing circuit by off/on switch.T2’ – SCR’s TYN 6/6. If the commutation fails there is no voltage at the output. This can be visible by sudden voltage drop and current rise in regulated power supply. Hence. Wave is not sine wave. Connect the firing pulses from the bridge inverter firing circuit.D2’ – free wheeling diodes f) L/2 – Commutation inductance g) C1 – Commutation capacitance h) C2 – Commutation capacitance 4.

Waveform of output voltage obtained from CRO 4. and firing pulse. Hence results are verified.9 Result: The output wave obtained is a square wave which has been traced from CRO using a tracing paper and has been compared with the waveform Fig 2.2 and has been found to be approximate. devices.2.8 Precautions: If commutation fails. switch OFF the input DC supply and try again checking all the connections.17 Fig 4. 4. Experiment 5 .

Jones Chopper . Power circuit: DC Chopper firing circuit. 5.1 Aim: “To study speed control of DC motor using single phase half and fully controlled bridge converter” 5.3 Circuit Diagram: T1 batter y C T2 L D1 D m L loa d Fig 5.2 Apparatus: Firing circuit: DC Chopper firing circuit. Testing Equipment: Power Scope/CRO with 10:1 probe.1 D. Source : 220V De power supply. Load : 1HP/220V DC shunt motor with wading and speed measuring arrangement Using optical culoder pickup.18 5.C.

Since both the on and off time can be varied individually . The di/dt of SCR2 is limited by the circuit stray inductance. Connect 3 phase mains cable to unit switch ON the main supply to the unit. Since 4 and 0. The Vpeak across SCRs and capacitor = supply voltage.4 and D1. This discharge current does not flow through L2 and back to the battery because of the transformer action of T. The cycle repeats when SCR1 is again turned on. There is no starting problem .5-0. As the capacitor voltage swings negative. In this circuit .19 5. Voltage rating of SCSs should also be high. . The load current is picked up by SCR1 and the flywheel diode D1 is reverse biased and its current reduced to zero. it is flexible. Observe the trigger o/p pulses. 5. Vpeak = Vde +I1 √4/C The commutation capacitor however doer not retain all its energy and is –vely charged at the instant of commutation to n Vpeak where n lies betn 0.5 are closely coupled . the capacitor C discharges resonantly through SCR1 . After this. When SCR2 is turned on. The duty cycle of mani pulse should vary from 10-90% approx. SCR is the main switch and SCR2 is the auxillary switch which is of lower capacity than SCR . The commutating capacitor C must divert the load current long enough so that before C is changed to ov . ADVANTAGE: It allows the use of higher voltage and lower mf commutating capacitors. the enrgy ½ LI2 in inductance L2 is forced into capacitor C changing it +ve (Y2CV2). any SCR can be turned on initially. Observe the test point signals. This continues to time (L1C)^1/m.9.5 Procedure: 1)TESTINGOD DC – Chopper firing circuit. When SCR1 is turned on . the negative voltage on capacitor C is applied current which is nominally constant starts to flow in SCR2 and capacitor C. The flywhell diode becomes forward biased and begins to pick up load current and capacitor current starts to reduce. Main pulse and auxillary pulse. This is because the trapped energy of the inductor L2 can be forced into the commutating C range simply changing C by supply voltage.4 Theory: Jones Chopper is an eg. the capacitor always get sufficient energy to turn SCR1 off. The capacitor voltage assumes a polarity as shown in fig. Of class D commutation in which a changed capacitor is switched by an auxillary SCR to commutate the main SCR. The capacitor current continues to decrease increasing the current os SCR2 till the capacitor current reduces below the holding current of SCR2 when it is turned off. the reverse bias on diode D2 decreases. and is used to commutate SCR1 by the reverse voltage development across the capacitor C The special feature of the circuit is tapped autotransformer through a portion of which load current flows. Keep the INT-EXT switch in INT position. The capacitor C is charge positivelyt at first up to a voltage equal to the supply voltage Vdc. the SCR is off. Make sure firing circuit are proper before connecting to power circuit.

7 PRECAUTIONS: (1) Make sure that the firing pulse is proper before connecting to power circuit.8 Discussion: From observation table. 2. depicting the variation of o/p voltage and speed with duty cycle.no Input voltage (Vin)(V) 210 Output voltage (Vo)(V) 124 Duty Cycle (%) 10 Speed (rpm) 1192 1. 210 168 30 1623 4. (2) Check the continuity of pulses in back panel. 5. 5. 210 194.9 Result: Speed control of DC motor using single phase half controlled bridge converter have been studied successfully. (4) Interconnection should be tight. we can observe that output voltage and speed are directly varying with the duty cycle or firing angle.20 5.6 90 1893 Table 5. .1 Observation table for D. 210 189 70 1837 6. 210 151 20 1469 3. Graphs have been plotted. 210 184 50 1787 5. Jones Chopper 5.6 Observation table: S . (3) A small value of resistance in series with the armature should be used for commutation process.C.

1 Three phase inverter 6.2 Apparatus: Psim and Pc.” 6.21 Experiment 6 6. 6. A basic 3 phase inverter is a six step bridge inverter.6.1 Aim: “To study three phase inverter on psim.3 Circuit diagram: T T 3 T5 Vin T 6 T T Vbo Va o Va Vc Fig. using .4 Theory: Three phase inverters are used for providing adjustable frequency power to industrial applications.

5 T6 VI 4. there is no use of diodes in R load. There are two possible patterns of gating the thyristors. In pattern. As shown in fig 1.T6.e. i.3. 0° 300° T160° 120° T6 T5 I 5. i. T3.2 Fig 6. Thy pair in each arm.3 T5 IV 2.1.2. Three phase load is assumed to be star connected.4 V 3.6 II 6. 3 phase inverter consists of 3 half bridge inverters arranged side by side.T5 conduct at an interval of 120°.T3. T2. T1.2 Switching sequence for 180 mode For above shown firing strategy. The topology of circuit is shown.6. the output waveforms of line to phase and line to line voltages are shown in fig6.e.3 for R load respectively.T5 are turned on with a time interval of 180°. .1 360° 180° T4 240° T3 T2 III 1.4. discussed below: Mode 180° As shown in fig 6.22 minimum of six switches.5. Thy in upper group. T1. Diodes fed back current to dc source in case of RL load.T4. Same is true for lower group also.2. each thyristor conducts for 180 degrees and in other for 120 degrees. each thyristor conducts for 180° of a cycle.

T1.6 T4 T6 Fig 6.23 Fig.2 T2 III 2. Firing strategy is shown in fig 6.T5 are turned on with a time interval of 180°.4 V 4.3 180° mode R load Mode 120° As shown in fig 6.6.T6.T5 conduct at an interval of 120°.e.6. Thy pair in each arm.e. T2.3 T3 T5 IV 3. T1 conducts for 120° and for next 60° neither T1 nor T4 conducts.5 VI 5.1 II 1.T3.5 for R load .4 Switching sequence for 120 mode For above shown firing strategy. each thy conducts for 120° of a cycle. i. Thy in upper group. T3. i.T4. T1.5 0° 60° 120° 180° 240° 300° 360° T1 T6 I 6. the output waveforms of line to phase and line to line voltages are shown in Fig 6. Same is true for lower group also.

5. 3.0 1 Fig 6.6 Result: Waveforms obtain for R load for 180° and 120° as shown in Fig 6. we can clearly see that harmonic component in phase voltage for 180° mode is more than that of 120° mode.5 120° mode R load 6.On comparing the waveforms for 180° and 120° modes. there is an interval of 60°. . 2.0 0 4 T i m e (s ) 0 . In 120° mode. 180° mode has less harmonics.0 0 8 0 . there is a chance of direct short circuit across supply in case T1 and T4 turn on simultaneously. While using 180° mode. hence no chance of short circuit.0 0 2 0 .0 0 6 0 .24 V in 9 2 . Whereas for line to line voltage.9 5 7 7 Vao 20 0 -2 0 Vbo 20 0 -2 0 V co 20 0 -2 0 Vac 40 0 -4 0 Ia 0 0 0 . due to absence of commutation interval between turning off of T1 and turning on of T4. 6.5 Discusion: 1. Fig 6. Current waveform is better for RL load.3.

1 Aim: “To stimulate a single phase step down cycloconverter on psim software.3 Circuit diagram: .” 7.25 Experiment 7 7. 7.2 Apparatus: Psim and Pc.

1 Single phase cycloconverter 7.6667hz Switching point:60 120 • GN1 Frequency :16.4 Specifications: • GP1 Frequency :16.0001sec.6667hz Switching point:240 300 • SIMULATING CONTROL Time step:0.5 Waveforms obtained: .2sec • VOLTAGE SOURCE: Peak value:325 volt Frequency:50hz 7.6667hz Switching point:0 60 120 180 • GP2 Frequency :16. Total time:0.6667hz Switching point:180 240 300 360 • GN2 Frequency :16.26 Fig 7.

1Control circuit: 1. 7. Experiment 8 8.2.1 Aim: To study single phase step up chopper. 8.2 Apparatus: 8.2 Output waveform for step down cycloconverter.7 Result & Discussion: Circuit of step down cycloconvertor has been designed on Psim and wave obtain is shown above in fig 7.2 and results obtained are same as theoretically predicted. Frequency : Potentiometer to vary frequency .27 Fig 7. for 2 cycles of input one cycle of output.

2 are obtained for the above setup.28 2. VDC IN: Terminals to connect DC input from 30V/2A regulated power supply 2.2.: Driver output points to be connected to the base and emitter of the transistor 5. + or . Fuse: 2A glass fuse 4. the output voltage can be varied as shown in fig.5 Observation: Output waveform shown in fig 8. . L: Inductor -40mH/2A 6. +: +ve dc supply point after switch and fuse 5. ON: Switch for DC input 3. input voltage and L. a closed current path enclosing switch. As a result the voltage across the load exceeds Vi n. Driver output ON/OFF: From 0-70% approximately. Duty cycle: Potentiometer to vary the duty cycle 3. Here.the current through L cannot fall down suddenly . for different values of duty cycle. switch for driver output 4.3Circuit diagram: L T 20V RL load Dm Fig 8.1 step up chopper 8. Hence this circuit acts as a step up chopper. Mains : Power ON/OFF switch to the unit with built in indicator 8. D1 & D2: Diodes 10A/200V 8. Transistor: TIP 122 7. 8. Varying the duty cycle. When the switch is OFF . a large inductor is in series with source voltage.4 Theory: In this chopper. When the switch is ON.2Power circuit: 1. L stores the energy in the ON period. this current is forced through the diode and the load. As the current tends to decrease the polarity of the emf induced in L is reversed. C: Capacitor for filtering -470mf/200V 8.

The total current drawn from the voltage supply must be monitored and should be within the current rating of the power supply. 2. Duty cycle should not exceed beyond 75%.2 Output waveform across L 8. .29 Fig 8.6 Precautions: 1.

2 channel power oscilloscope 2.1 Aim: To study the SCR based Cycloconverter functions and also its associated waveforms. Experiment -9 9.30 8.7 Result & Discussion: Single phase step up chopper has been studied and voltage waveform obtain on CRO approximately same as theoretical expected. PE trainer with INV/CON panel . 9.2 Apparatus: 1.

Keep the firing mode selector switch on position 2. The load used is 10 ohm/40 W resistor from RHS panel from main unit.C input switch ON AC input to PE trainer. In simplest form frequency divisions in multiples of 2 is possible. Now observe the waveform. Keep D.The circuit can produce load voltage at 25 hz or 12.4 Procedure: The required SCR’s are Th1.31 3.2 and Th3 and Th4.3 Circuit diagram: Thy1 100Ω.C cycles • Then this process repeats. .C cycles • Further the circuit functions as centre tapped negative rectifier (Th3 and Th4) for same number of input A.The inverter transformer is used in step down mode as 230V/12-0-12 V.3 Theory: The cycloconverter configuration is shown in the figure and uses all four SCR’s .5 hz.1 SCR based cycloconverter 9. Lab multimeter battery supplied with PE trainer 9. 9. 40 W 230 V Thy 3 Thy Thy 4 Fig9. • The circuit functions ac centre tapped positive rectifier (using Th1 and Th2) for integral number of A. cycloconverters are used for frequency divisions .Make the connections as per schedule given above.

C frequency divisions in multiples of 2. Variable voltage output can also be offered by controlling firing angle of these SCR’s in each cycle. Fig 9. Fig 9. for above circuit.5 Hz.5 Observation: Following waveforms are obtained from C. 9. 4. Experiment -10 10.2 Apparatus: .2 and has been found to be approximate.R.6 Discussion: The SCR based Cycloconverter offers input A. hence the results are verified.7 Result: The output wave obtained is a lower frequency wave which has been traced from CRO using a tracing paper and has been compared with the waveform Fig 7. Hence results are verified. 10.1 Aim: To study single phase AC & DC power control. These results are same as obtained in expt 7 through simulation.2 Output waveform of step down Cycloconverter 9. respectively.2 shows o/p waveform for step down cycloconverter with o/p frequency (i) 25Hz and (ii) 12.O.32 9.

Power Control Fig 10.3 D.C.1 A.C.2 D. Power Control 1 phase Half Wave Converter Fig 10.33 a)firing circuit b)power circuit 10. Power Control 1 phase Full Wave Converter .C.3 Circuit diagram: Fig 10.

a fuse is also provided in series wuth the devices for short circuit or over current protection .This unit.The snubber circuit is connected for dv/dt protection .a voltmeter is provided and an ammeter is provided to measure the input /output voltage and current .3 diodes and a TRIAC . Front panel details :1)AC input:-terminals to connect AC input .op-amp.comparator and amplifier /pulse transformr isolation method Front panel details:1)power:.generates line synchronized to pulse transformer isolated trigger pulses .These trigger pulses can be used to trigger :1)1 -Φ AC phase control using SCR’s(antiparallel SCr’s ) 2)1 -Φ AC phase control using triac 3)1-Φ half wave rectifier (single scr) 4)1.ramp generator .4 Theory: a)Firing circuit:.Φ full wave rectifier (2 scr’s ) 5)1-Φ half controlled bridge rectifier(2 scr’s and 2 diodes ) The firing circuit is based on zero crossing detector.The power devices are mounted on suitable heat sink for dissipation .main switch for firing crcuit with built in indicator 2)firing:-potentiometero vary the α from 0 to 180• 3)SCR/TRIAC:selection switch for trigger output for scr /triac 4)OFF/ON:switch for trigger output with soft start feature 5)trigger output s:-T1/T2:-trigger output for SCR1 or TRIAC T2:-trigger output for SCR2 Power circuit:The power circuit consists of 2 SCR’s .in the input side a MCB is provided to switch ON/OFF the supply to the power circuit .34 10.

vary the fit=ring angle and note down the output voltage.select switch and observe the output waveforms across ‘R’ load by varying the firing angle of potentiometer .switch ON the MCB and trigger output switch .5 Procedure: Make the interconnections in the power circuit as given in the citrcuit diagram .Observe the triggering outputs .In the power circuit initially set the AC input to 30 V .35 2)AC output :-AC supply terminals after the MCB to be connected to power circuit 3)MCB :-A 6A/2 pole MCB for ON/OFF the AC supply to the power circuit 4) T1 and T2:.e 0-230 V gradually .If the output waveform is proper than you can increase the input voltage to rated value i.select the SCR’s /TRIAC .Make sure that the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit than connect the trigger output from firing circuit to corresponding SCR’s /TRIAC .switch ON the firing circuit . .SCR’s -16 A /600V 5)D3 and D4:-diodes -16A /600V 6)Dm:-free wheeling diode 7)Tr:-TRIAC -10A/600V 8)vometer :-0-300 V moving iron meter to measure input /output volatage 9)ammeter :0-5 A moving iron meter to measure current 10.

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