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kurikulum

kurikulum

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bentuk kurikulum
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EPB3063: CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY IN EDUCATION/SEPTEMBERY2012

Topic 11:

Curriculum Design

Curriculum designs refer to the arrangement of the elements of a curriculum into a substantive entity. Designs means to develop or select. The design that is actually selected is influenced by his or her curricular approach and philosophical orientation. The parts, sometimes called components or elements, are arranged in a curriculum design are: 1 2. 3. 4. Aims, goals and objectives. Subject matter Learning experiences Evaluation approaches

Components of design Objectives

Subject matter

Methods and organization

Evaluation

Curriculum design is concerned with the nature and arrangement of four basic curricular parts. It suggests to the curriculum maker four questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What is to be done? What subject matter is to be included? What instructional strategies, resources, and activities will be employed? What methods and instruments will be used to appraise the results of the curriculum

Design Dimension Consideration Curriculum design is a statement of relationships that exists among the components or elements of a curriculum curricularists, when considering design, view it on several dimensions, scope, sequence, continuity, integration, articulation and balance

1

Knowledge is dynamic. An example of a process design is computer programming. not static. When considering the design of a curriculum educators need to address the breadth and depth of its content that is its scope.. The reason for addressing vertical articulation is to assure that t students receive those learning that are prerequisite to later learning n in the curriculum. a community of persons. Everything is integrated and interconnected. and vocational education is difficult to categorize as a discipline Process Designs. topics. This is knowledge and content are well accepted as integral parts of the curriculum and widely used curriculum designs schools have a strong g history of academic rationalism. furthermore. This organization of curricular content also assumes that subjects are best outlined in textbooks. In the discipline design. Writing and debugging a program force students to think logically and carefully about a subject. humanism. the materials available for school use also reflect content organization. Scope not only refers to cognitive learning but also to affective learning. concepts and principles. and quantified with precision. personal-social living. Articulation. The category of subject-centered designs has the most classifications of any of the design. a network of communications. Horizontal articulation takes place when curriculum designers attempt to develop interrelationships between grade levels of English courses. Programming may be the only generic subject that succeeds in teaching students about things as a process. Perhaps the greatest shortcoming of the design was that it caused the school to ignore the vast amount of information that could not be classified as disciplined knowledge. The teacher assumes the active role. Such knowledge. a domain. This refers to interrelatedness of various aspects of the curriculum the relation can be either vertical or horizontal. and an instructive community. topics or course appearing later. a heritage of literature. and some would argue to spiritual learning. educators are also concerned that appropriate weight be given to each aspect of the design so that distortions do not occur. a evaluative and affective stance. Balance. Subject Design. and perhaps their souls. deals with aesthetics. Subject centered designs.EPB3063: CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY IN EDUCATION/SEPTEMBERY2012 Scope. When designing a curriculum. It is likely that knowledge explosion continues and as the increase in computers and 2 . Discipline Design means that a discipline of a specific knowledge that thus the following essential characteristics. Knowledge cannot be separated. The vertical articulation depicts the relationships of certain aspect in the curriculum sequence to lessons. objectified. Logic is emphasized. Life is a series of emerging themes. the curriculum is organized according to how essential knowledge has been developed in the various subject areas. we usually are referring to the sequencing of content from one grade level to another. students are encouraged to see the basic logic or structure of each discipline – the key relationships. a mode of inquiry. Eisner’s point that we must arrange curriculum phenomena such that the individual’s intellects and hears. The subject design is both the oldest school design and the best known to both teachers and laypeople. In many ways the current knowledge explosion has made dealing with scope almost overwhelming. learning experiences and organizing threads comprising the educational plan. a conceptual structure. a tradition. Lecture. an expression of human imagination. recitation and large group discussion are major instructional techniques used with this design. a specialized language. Tyler referred to scope as consisting of all the content. Keeping the curriculum “in-balance” requires continuous fine-tuning of the curriculum as balance in one’s view of philosophy and psychology of learning so as not to fall prey to a particular cliché. When viewed vertically. In the subject matter design. This advocates students to learn process. are addressed.

This design believed that if we are to optimize learning then the student must be active in his or her environment.EPB3063: CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY IN EDUCATION/SEPTEMBERY2012 computer programming continues. to think of the child’s experience as vital and fluid. Dewey wanted educators. The child-centered design of curriculum flourished under the work of progressives such as Ellsworth Collings and William Kilpartick who crated “project method” which engaged children in their learning at the Lincoln School in New York City. These designs tend to stress the whole child. they differed from child-centered designs in their view that the interests and needs of children cannot be anticipated and therefore. However. The emphasis on the child displaced the emphasis on subject matter. These designs are more frequently at the elementary school level where teachers tend to stress the whole school. Process designs may be the most dynamic in the future. methods for organizing bodies of knowledge and subject matter. This new emphasis on the learner also led to “life-needs”. curricula with a process design will receive increasing attention. their needs and interests. it should be based on students’ lives. it creates curricula that are valuable to students. “life-adjustments education”. a curriculum framework cannot be planned for all children. “persistent life situations”. Experience-Centered Designs. Thus the curriculum would be ever changing in addressing the needs of students 3 . These designs closely resembled the child-centered designs in that they used the concerns of children as the basis for organizing the children’s school world. The process designs emphasize procedures to act that enable students to analyze their realities and creates frameworks by which the knowledge derived can be arranged. It is quite likely that process designs will meld increasingly with those designs identified as a learner centered. Child Centered Designs. Learner-Centered Design. dynamic as opposed to static. Thus. Learning should not be separated from the ongoing lives of students.

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