# JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

CHAPTER 9: ELECTRONICS
9. 1: USES OF THE CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (C.R.O) 9.1.1: Thermionic Emission 1. What is Thermionic Emission? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. (a) Label the figure of a vacuum tube:

Figure 9.1

(b) The figure shows ………… emitted are accelerated ………….. the anode by the high … ………………… between the cathode and anode. (c) A beam of electrons moving at high speed in a vacuum is known as a ……………….. 3. Factors that influence the rate of thermionic emission Factor Effect on the rate of thermionic emission Temperature of the cathode When the temperature of the cathode increases, the rate of thermionic emission increases. Surface area of the cathode A larger surface area of the cathode increases the rate of thermionic emission. Potential difference The rate of thermionic emission is unchanged, when the between the anode and potential difference increases, but the emitted electrons cathode. accelerate faster towards the anode. 9.1.2 Properties of Cathode Rays 1. List the four characteristics of the cathode rays. (i) …………………………………………………………………….. (ii) ……………………………………………………………………. (iii) …………………………………………………………………… (iv) ……………………………………………………………………

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

Energy Change in A Cathode Ray

Figure 9.2

By using the principle of conservation of energy, , Maximum velocity of electron,

v = velocity of electron V = Potential difference between Anode and Cathode e = Charge on 1 electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C m = mass of 1 electron = 9 x 10 -31 kg

1. In a cathode ray tube, an electron with kinetic energy of 1.32 × 10-14 J is accelerated. Calculate the potential difference, V between the cathode and the accelerating anode. [ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C] Solution: 1 Kinetic energy = mv 2 = eV 2 -14 1.32 × 10 = 1.6 × 10 −19 V V = 8.25 × 10 3 V 2. In a vacuum tube, a cathode ray is produced and accelerated through a potential difference of 2.5kV. Calculate… (a) The initial electric potential energy of the cathode ray. (b) The maximum velocity of the electron.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg] Solution: (a) Electric potential energy = eV = 1.6 × 10 −19 × 2.5 × 10 3 = 4 × 10 −16 J (b)

1 2 mv = eV = 4 × 10 −14 2

v2 =

4 × 10 −14 ×2 9 × 10 −31

v = 8.89 × 1016 = 2.98 × 10 8 ms -1

3. If the potential difference between the cathode and the anode in a CRO is 3.5 kV, calculate the maximum speed of the electron which hit the screen of CRO.
[ e = 1.6 x 10 -19 C; m= 9 x 10 -31 kg] Solution:

1 2 mv = eV = 1.6 × 10 −19 × 3.5 × 10 3 = 5.6 × 10 −16 2 5.6 × 10 −16 2 v = × 2 = 1.24 × 1015 v = 1.24 × 1015 = 3.53 × 10 6 ms -1 −31 9 × 10

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JPN Pahang Student’s Copy

Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics

9.1.3 Structure of the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

1. Label all parts of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope below.

Figure 9.3 2. Fill in the blank all components and its functions. Main part Component Function

Electron gun

Deflecting system

Fluorescent screen

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The uses of cathode-ray oscilloscope are: (a) ………………………………………. Solution: V = 1. calculate the value of Vpp.0 = 3.s = Vp 2 Short time intervals. 1 2.5 4 . Vp = (Y-gains) × (h) 2 Effective voltage or root-mean-square voltage.4 : The working Principle of the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope.C voltage: Peak-to-peak voltage. (b) ……………………………………….m.. Vpp = (Y-gains) × h 1 Peak voltage.4 9. Vr.C voltage: The unknown voltage.1. 1.5 × 2.5 Uses of the CRO.5 Vcm-1. 1. V = (Y-gain) × h To measure a A. t = no. of divisions between two pulses × time-base value.1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 9. Fill in the blank the structure of CRO. (c) ………………………………………. To measure a D.0 V Figure 9. If the CRO in figure uses Y-gains of 1. Figure 9.

5 Vcm -1 × × 4 cm 2 V P = 3. Vpp (b)Peak voltage. (c)Root-mean-square voltage.5 Vcm-1 and the time-base is 2 ms cm-1. Solution: T = 4cm × 2 ms cm-1 1 T = 8 ms ∴f = = 125 Hz T (c) Sketch the trace displayed on the screen if the settings are changed to 1 Vcm-1 and 1 ms cm-1. If the Y-gain is set to 1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 3.c source.s Solution: 5 Figure 9.c voltage is connected to the Y-input.7 5. f of the a. Calculate the value of : (a) Peak-to-peak voltage. Figure 9.c source.0 V (b) Calculate the frequency. The diagram shows the trace on the screen of a CRO when an a. Solution: 1 V P = 1. Vp = (Y-gains) × (h) 2 1 V P = 5 V/div × × 4 divs Figure 9.Vp of the a.c source.m.6 2 V P = 10 V 4. (a) What is the maximum voltage (peak voltage) indicated? Solution: 1 Peak voltage. The figure shows a trace on a CRO set at 5 Volt per division on the vertical axis. Figure shows a trace on an oscilloscope for an a.8 . (a) Calculate the peak voltage. The Y-gain control is set at 2 V/div and the time base is off. Vp. Vr.

s = 2 2 6. Vpp = (Y-gains) × h = 2V/div × 6 divs = 12 V (b) Peak voltage.25 Hance. Figure shows the trace displayed on the screen of a CRO with the time-base is set to 10 ms/div. An ultrasound signal is transmitted vertically down to the sea bed. What is the depth of the sea? Solution: Time taken for ultrasonic waves to travel through a distance of 2 d = time between P and Q = 5 cm × 50 ms sm -1 = 250 ms = 0. Vp = 6 V 1 1 Vp = × 6 = 4.25 s 2d Speed of ultrasonic waves. The speed of sound in water is 1200 ms-1.11 . both pulses will be displayed on the screen at a short interval apart as shown in figure below.m.05 s 5 divs connected to Figure 9.9 10ms/div 7. The diagram shows the trace of the two signals on the screen of the oscilloscope. d = = 150 m 2 9. Measure the time lapse between the two claps.2 SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES 6 Figure 9. When two claps are made close to a microphone which is the Y-input and earth terminals. V = t 1200 × 0.10 8. What is the frequency. f of the wave? Solution: Distance for two complete wave = 2 divs ∴ Time taken = 2 divs ×10ms/div = 20 ms 1 1 ∴frequency. f = = = 50 Hz T 20 ms Figure 9. t = 5 divs × 10 ms/div = 50 ms ∴Time interval = 0.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (a) Peak-to-peak voltage. Solution: Length between two pulses = 5 divs Time taken. Transmitted and reflected signals are input into an oscilloscope with a time base setting of 150 ms cm-1.24 V (c) Vr.

2.. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 10. to increase its conductivity. (a) n-type semiconductors Figure 9.. Give the examples of pure semiconductor: Silicon (a) …………………………… Germanium (b) …………………………. Selenium (c) …………………………… 9.. What is the “doping” process? Doping is a process of adding a certain amount of other substances called dopants such …………………………………………………………………………………………… as Antimony and Boron to a semiconductor. The ….12 pentavalent antimony or Silicon like Silicon doped with ………………atoms such as …………… phosphorusincreases …………. …………………………….……………… negative electrons …. valence electrons. as majority charge-carriers and it thus known as an n-type semiconductor. Semiconductor is ………………………………………………………………………… a group of materials that can conduct better than insulators but not as …. complete the statement below. 2.. The silicon has ….1 Properties of Semiconductors 1. the number of free electron.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 9. The phosphorus atoms have … five four being used in the formation of covalent bonds. 7 . with …… fifth electron is free to move through the silicon. good as metal conductors. Base on the figure..

What is the function of semiconductor diode? The function of semiconductor diode is to allow current to flow through it in one direction …………………………………………………………………………………………… only. hence ………. The Boron atoms have only …………. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 2.2. This missing electron is called a ‘positive hole’.2 The p-n junction (Semiconductor diode) 1.13 8 .13 trivalent Boron Semiconductor like Silicon doped with ………………. 9. The majority charge-carriers in positive holes this semiconductor are the ………………. atoms such as ………… three or indium has more positive holes. of the covalent bonds has a missing electron..JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (b) p-type semiconductors Figure 9. one valence electrons. and this semiconductor is thus known as a p-type semiconductor. p-type n-type Positive hole p-n junction Negative electron Symbol Figure 9. Label the p-n junction below and draw a symbol of the diode.

electrons and holes flow in the diagram. (ii) Complete the diagram below to show the diode is in reverse-bias. and the nnegative terminal type is connected to the …………………… of the battery. - + The bulb is light up The bulb does not light up Figure 9. What the meaning of rectification? Rectification is a process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode. (a) Forward-biased positive terminal (i) In forward-bias. the p-type of the diode is connected to …………………. (ii) Complete the diagram below to show the diode is in forward-bias.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 3.14 (iii) Draw arrows to show the current. the p-type of the diode is connected to negative …………………. positive terminal type is connected to the …………………… of the battery. 5. electrons and holes flow in the diagram. Draw arrows to show the current. + The bulb is light up The bulb does not light up Figure 9. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 . (b) Reverse-biased terminal .15 4. and the n(i) In reverse-bias.

16 (ii) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when a capacitor is connected in parallel across a resistor. The figure shows a half-wave rectifier circuit that is connected to CRO.17 7. Figure 9. The figure shows a full-wave rectifier circuit that is connected to CRO.18 10 . (i) Draw arrows to show the current flow in the first half cycle and to show the current flow in second half cycle in the diagram. (i) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when the timebase is on.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 6. Figure 9. a To CRO Figure 9. (ii) Sketch the waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when the time-base is on. R.

.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (iii) Sketch waveform of the voltages observed on the CRO screen when a capacitor is connected in parallel across a resistor.19 8. What is the function of the capacitor? Acts as a current regulator or smoother. E n-p-n transistor 3. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. a To CRO Figure 9. What is a transistor? A transistor is a silicon chip which has three terminals labeled as base.. R. E p-n-p transistor (a) The emitter. State the function for each terminal in a transistor.3 TRANSISTOR 9. B Emitter.. 11 . collector and emitter. providing electrons to the collector. C Base. E : …………………………………………………………………… Acts as a source of charge carriers. …………. 1. ………………… …………………………………………………………… (c) The collector. B Base... Emitter. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. B : Controls the movement of charge carriers (electrons) from the emitter (E) to the collector (C). C Collector. Collector. 3. 9.1 Terminals of a Transistor. Draw and label symbol of n-p-n transistor and p-n-p transistor. C: Receives the charge carriers from the emitter (E) ………………………………………………………………………………. (b) The base.

 Rx Vx =  R +R y  x  V    Ry VY =  R +R y  x  V   12 . No Ic 2. BE CE Ib Ic circuit :Base …………………………………. Supply energy to the base circuit :Supply …………………………………. : ………………………………….. Limit the base current : …………………………………..2 Transistor circuit 1. The voltage across Rx and Ry can be calculated as follows.21 ∆Ic >>>>∆Ib No Ib..JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 9. Collector current : …………………………………. energy to circuit...3.. circuit :Collector …………………………………. current :Base …………………………………. (a) Transistor circuit with 2 batteries.20 (b) Transistor circuit with 1 battery. The working circuit of a transistor used as a potential divider can be connected as shown in figure. Remember: Ie = Ib + I c Ie > Ic > Ib Ie Figure 9.. divider :Potential ………………………………….... divider :Potential …………………………………. Limit the collector current : ………………………………….. R1 R2 E1 E2 Rx Ry Ie Figure 9..

Complete the statement below. If the variable resistor is set to zero. the base voltage will……………. the base voltage is ………. What type of transistor is used in an automatic switch circuit? Transistor n-p-n ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 13 . a resistor. if the resistance of the variable resistor is increases increased. RX Battery voltage Base voltage RY Figure 9. 1.3 Transistor as an Automatic Switch. the base current.22 9. are being used to form a zero potential divider. V across resistor P is 2V and resistance P is 10 kΩ. S so that the bulb is lighted up. However. Solution:  Rp  V Vp =  R +R  p  Bulb  s  10 × 10 3  2V =  R + 10 × 10 3  6 V  s  3 RS + 10 × 10 = 30000 RS = 20000 Ω = 20 kΩ ( ) Figure 9.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (a) Figure shows a transistor circuit. Calculate the maximum resistance. RX and a …………………………. A large collector current. 2. IC flows to light up the bulb. In a working circuit variable resistor shown in figure. IB switches on the transistor. The bulb can be lighted up when potential difference. When the base voltage reached a certain minimum value.23 IB IC IE The switching action is produced by using a potential divider. and off the transistor switches ……….2.

The LDR and R form a potential divider in the circuit. This circuit can be on used to automatically switch …… the bulb at night. (ii) Complete the table below. Condition Daylight Darkness RLDR low high VLDR R VR high low high high low low Remember ∆Ic >>>>∆Ib Transistor (ON or OFF) OFF ON (iii) How can the circuit in figure be modified to switch on the light at daytime? The circuit can be modified by interchanging the positions of the LDR and resistor R. the base low to switch on the transistor. (a) Light Controlled Switch (i) Complete the statement below. (b) A Heat-Controlled Switch 14 .. (LDR) has a very high resistance in the ……. Therefore. R is a fixed …………….… and a low bright light resistor resistor in ………………. voltage of the transistor is too ……. low In bright light.24 Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that functions as a light controlled switch. the resistance of the LDR is very large ……… and the voltage across the LDR is high ……… enough to switch on the transistor and thus lights up the bulb. In darkness... 10 kΩ R 1kΩ IC 6V IE LDR Figure 9.. light-dependent resistor dark The ……………………….. resistance compared to R. the LDR has a very ………. ………………………………………………………………………………………….JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 3.

…………………………………………………………………………………………. At room high temperature. resistance When the thermistor is heated. (ii) What is the function of a diode is used in the heat-controlled circuit? To protect the transistor from being damaged by the large induced e. Complete the statement below. the thermistor has a ………. When the thermistor is heated. Temperature High Low RThermistor VThermistor R VR high low low high high high low low Remember ∆Ic >>>>∆Ib Transistor (ON or OFF) ON OFF mA 9.is a special type of resistor. its resistance ………… rapidly. µA R2 R1 15 IB IE IC R . the transistor. Thermistor Diode RB Relay R Figure 9. thermistor high A ……………. its …………….. the ……………. resistance compared to R..JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (i) Complete the statement below.. the base voltage of the transistor is too low to switch on the transistor. Its resistance becomes very ……… when it is drops cold.4 Transistor as a Current Amplfier 1. The circuit can also be used in a fire alarm system.25 Alarm Figure shows a transistor-based circuit that function as a heat controlled switch.. IC drops to zero. VB is high enough to switch ……. drops considerablely compared to R. Therefore.2. When the on transistor is switch on. (iii) Complete the table below. when the collector current. the relay switch is activated and the relay is switched ………. base voltage on Therefore.m.f in the relay coil ………………………………………………………………………………………….

Name the type of the transistor used. change in the base current. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (d) What is the function of the resistor. The current amplification can be calculated as follows: Current Amplification = ∆I C ∆I B 2. IB will cause a ……..4. What will happened to the readings of the miliammeter. n-p-n transistor ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.26 A transistor functions as a current amplifier by allowing a small current to control a larger collector current current. mA and microammeter... A ………. IC is primarily determined by the …… base current big small ……………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Explain the meaning of the ‘OFF’ state of a transistor. (a) Explain the meaning of the ‘ON’ state of a transistor. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 9. …………………………………………………………………………………… (c) What is the function of the rheostat. there is no current in the base and in the collector ………………………………………………………………………………………… circuit. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. change in the collector current. S? To control and limit the base current. IC.. R? To change the base current. A transistor is said to have two states.1 Analysing Logic gates 16 . the ‘ON’ state and ‘OFF’ state.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Figure 9. When a transistor is in the ‘ON’ state. µA when the resistance of R is reduced? The readings on miliammeter and microammeter increase. The magnitude of the …………………. IB.4 Logic Gates 9. currents flow in the base and in the collector circuit. When a transistor is in the ‘ON’ state..

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 1. Complete the table below. What is a logic gate? A switching circuit that is applied in computer in computer and other electronic devices. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Gates Symbol A 0 0 1 1 Truth table Input A AND gate B Y B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 0 0 1 Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OR gate Output Y 0 1 1 1 A Y B A Y Input A 0 1 Output Y 1 0 NOT gate 17 .

000 0011 P 18 .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Input NAND gate B A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A Y Output Y 1 1 1 0 Input A Y B A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 NOR gate Output Y 1 0 0 0 9.27 0100 2. Find the output Y for each combination of logic gates.2 Combinations of logic Gates 1.4. A 0011 P 1100 Y B 0101 The truth table: Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 0 0 Output Y 0 1 0 0 Figure 9.

0011 A B 0101 The truth table: X 0001 Figure 9.29 Y 0100 B 1010 19 .28 Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 0 0 Output Q 1 0 1 0 Y 1 0 0 0 3.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics A 1100 Y 1000 B 0101 The truth table: Q 1010 Figure 9.

B 0 1 0 1 P 1 1 1 0 Output Q 0 1 1 1 Y 0 1 1 0 A 0011 P 1110 0111 Y 0110 The truth table: B 0101 Figure 9.30 Q Input A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 B 1 0 1 0 Output X 0 0 0 1 Y 0 1 0 0 20 .JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Input A 0 0 1 1 4.

JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 5. Figure shows a logic gate system which switches on an air-conditioner automatically. 21 . Input P 1 Light 0 detector 1 0 Heat detector Q Input J 0 1 1 0 R 1 1 0 1 Output Q 1 0 0 L 1 S 1 0 0 1 Air-conditioner Input K Figure 9.31 6. logic “1”. P Q The truth table: R S Q Figure 9.32 Keys: The light detector (Input J): In the day.

logic “0”. C. Which of the following is not a property of cathode rays? A.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics At night. state the conditions in which the air-conditioner conditions in which the air-conditioner will operate and function normally. (b) Based on the truth table in (a). It travels in a straight line. It is positively charged. It can be deflected by magnetic field. The heat detector (Input K): Hot. logic “1”. . . Cool (a) Complete the truth table below: logic “0”.On a hot say or daytime – On a hot night Input Output J K L 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 ………………………………………… ………… ………… ………… ………… ………… Reinforcement Chapter 9 Part A: Objective questions 1. It can be deflected by electric field. D. 22 B.

The potential at plate P is positive. D. A beam of electrons is being deflected due to a potential difference between plates P and Q. The number of the holes are more than the number of electrons.35 3. The majority charge carriers in the diode are electrons. D. C. Figure 9. Atom P is a trivalent atom. E. The deflection would be greater if the potential difference is greater.5 V 7.5 V 5. 8. 6. C. It can only conduct electricity when it is connected in forward in forward bias in a circuit. Which of the following statements is true? P Q Figure 9.5 V 12.0 V 5. The deflection would be greater if the electrons are moving faster. 4. Fluorescent particles B. 23 .33 Q Which of the following statements is not true? A. The number of holes are equal to the number of electrons. C. The number of the holes are less than the number of electrons. C.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 2. D.75 V/div. It is formed by joining an n-type and a p-type semiconductor. The figure 9.36 A. B. The figure 9. The conductivity of the semiconductor increases.34 Which of the following is not true? A. P Figure 9. The majority charge carrier is electron. The figure 9. Which of the following is not true about diode? A. B. D. 2. 35 shows the arrangement of silicon atoms after an atom P is doped to form an extrinsic semiconductor.34 shows the trace displayed on a CRO with the Y-gain control is turned to 3. Cathode rays consists of A. What is the maximum value of the potential difference being measured? Figure 9.36 shows a rectifier circuit. Light rays from hot filament B. 7. B. It can be used to rectify alternating current. The electron beam will return to straight line if a suitable magnetic field is applied between the plates. C. The semiconductor becomes an ntype. B.5 V 15. Beams of fast moving particles D. Light rays from a screen C. In p-type semiconductor A.

Q and S only 11. Connect a resistor in series with the bulb. D. 10.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics A.37 IB. 9. The figure 9.38 Figure 9. D. A transistor can act as an amplifier B. P. R and S.37 shows a circuit consisting of two diodes and a bulb. P and Q only B. Replace the diode with a new one. Device P allows current to flow in any directions.c. 24 . C. Which of the following bulbs will light up continuously when the switch is on? A. Figure 9. When the switch is on. The rectifier circuit would still work if device P is reversed. Q. Q and R only C. the bulb does not light up. Device Q acts as a rectifier. C. What needs to be done to light up the bulb? Figure 9. Which of the following statements about a transistor is not true? A. D.c to a. B. C. A transistor can act as a relay switch. Reverse the connection of the diode. P. emitter current. A rectifier changes d. and four electronic components connected in a circuit. R and S only D. IE and collector current. B. A transistor is a combination of two types of semiconductors. P. The function of a transistor is the same as that of two diodes. Which of the following circuits shows the connect directions of the base current 12. Increase the number of bulbs.38 shows four identical bulbs. IC? A.

As a modulator 14. IB = IC C. 13.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Figure 9. 42 shows a transistor circuit being used to amplify sound. What is the function of the transistor circuit shown in figure 9. 17.41 shows a circuit consisting of a transistor which acts as an automatic switch. The figure 9. Figure 9. The capasitor prevents d. T is an npn transistor B. 6 kΩ E.42 M. D.40 Which of the following is correct? A. The figure 9. R1 and R2 act as potential divider.39? A. Figure 9. Speaker amplifies the sound.43 Which of the following is the output signal? 18.c current but allows a. C.43 25 .c current to pass through it.40 shows a transistor being used as a current amplifier..43 shows a logic gate circuit with input signals.41 A. X and Y. IB > IC B. 4 kΩ Figure 9. When the potential difference across the thermistor is 3 V and the resistance of the thermistor is 1000 Ω. Figure 9. 7 kΩ 16.39 C. the resistance value of resistor.Speaker Figure 9. The figure 9. IB IC Figure 9. 5 kΩ D. R is .44 shows a logic gate circuit. 3 kΩ B. As an amplifier B. As a rectifier C.Microphone C. The figure 9. IB < IC 15. As a switch device D.Capacitor S. Which of the following is not correct about the circuit? A.

2 x 3 = 6V ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (c) Determine the time for one complete oscillation on the screen. What is gate X? A. 45 shows a combination of three logic gates in a logic circuit. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Determine the peak voltage of a. B. Figure 9. C. Scale: 1 division = 1 cm The Y-gain is set at 3 V/cm The time base is set at 5 ms/cm Figure 9.46 (a) Explain what is meant by thermionic emission.45 Y Figure 9. NAND Which of the following logic gates can be used to represent J and K? A. NOR C. D.46 shows a trace obtained on an oscilloscope screen when an a. OR D.c voltage. 1010 C.44 shows the combination of three logic gates. J K Figure 9. 20. 0110 B. Emission of electrons from the surface of a metal by heat. AND B. The figure 9. J AND NAND OR NOR K NOR NOR AND AND Part B: Structured Questions.c voltage? f =1/T=50 Hz ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 26 . When inputs P and Q are both 1 output Y is 1. The figure 9.c voltage is connected to the Y-plates of an oscilloscope.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Which of the following is the output signal Z? A.44 The truth table for the combination of tree logic gates is as follows. 1. 2 x 5 = 10 ms ……………………………………………………………………………………………… (d) What is the frequency of the a. 1110 D. 0101 19.

49. The a. sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor if a capacitor is connected across the resistor if a capacitor is connected across the resistor R parallel with the resistor. D2 and D4 …………………………………………………………………………………………… (c) Using the axes in figure 9. Figure 9. state the two diodes which are forward biased. (b) When the polarity of the a.c supply voltage is negative at A. 27 .47 (a) When the polarity of the a. state the two diodes which are forward biased. sketch the voltage-time graph across the resistor.48 Time/ms (d) On the figure 9.5 ms/cm and the Y-gain setting is altered to 2 V/cm.c supply has a frequency of 50 Hz. D1 and D3 ………………………………………………………………………………………….. Voltage/V Figure 9. Figure 9. the time-base setting is altered to 2. 2. sketch the new trace would appear on the oscilloscope.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (e) With the same a. 47 shows a full wave bridge rectifier.c supply voltage is positive at A.c voltage applied to the oscilloscope. R. On the space below.48.

49 Time/ms (e) Explain how the capacitor causes the voltage across the resistor to vary with time in the way that you have drawn. A student wants to build a simple lift motor control system which operates using two buttons. logic “1” Motor Figure 9.50 (a) The truth table below shows the operations of the logic gates in a lift motor control system. logic “1” Not pressed. The charging of the capacitor by the power supply and the discharging of the capacitor ……………………………………………………………………………………………… through the resistor will smooth the output. 28 . A: Up button B: Down button The lift motor only activates when someone presses any one of the buttons. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. A and B for a two-storey building. logic ”0” Motor is activated. 12 V A B X 240 V Logic gate Relay switch 0V Keys: Buttons A and B : X Output : When pressed. Figure 9.50 shows the circuit that can be used to activate the motor.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Voltage/V Figure 9.

Figure 9. (b) Why is a relay switch needed in the circuit? Activates large current in the main secondary circuit supply// small current at …………………………………………………………………………………………… the output cannot activate the motor.51 240 V R Motor (i) State the relationship between the resistance and the intensity of light received by the light dependent resistor. the relay switch is activated and the lift door will close. LDR. AND Gate ………………………………………………………………………………… In the space below.51 shows an electronic circuit for the control system of the lift door. complete the truth table. If the light dependent resistor detects light.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics Input A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 keys given. 29 .50. LDR. The higher the light intensity. Figure 9. (ii) (iii) Output X 0 1 1 0 (i) Us ing the Name the logic gate in the circuit in the figure 9. draw the logic gate symbol in 3(a)(ii). …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… (c) The door of the lift is fitted with a light transmitter and a detector which is a light dependent resistor. the lower the resistance of the resistor.

Resistor Light dependent resistor (iii) Explain how the circuit functions. 30 . – High light intensity produces lower resistance and high base voltage ………………………………………………………………………………… .A big collector current flows through the relay switch and activates the ………………………………………………………………………………… circuit of the door motor.A bigger base current flows and activates the transistor ………………………………………………………………………………… .51 by drawing the resistor and the light dependent resistor using the symbols given below. ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… Part C: Essay Questions 1.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Complete the circuit in figure 9.

X. Describe and explain the production and the characteristics of a p-type semiconductor and a n-type semiconductor. bulb and battery in circuit X and circuit Y of figures 9.53.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (a) The diode.52 and figure 9. 31 [1mark] [3 marks] . Figure 9. Circuit W Circuit Y Circuit X Circuit Z (i) (ii) What is meant by rectification? Explain the working principle of a transformer. Relating the connection of the diodes and the conditions of the bulbs.52 (i) (ii) (iii) Figure 9. [5 marks] State the use of a diode.52 and 9. deduce the function of a diode.53 What is meant by a direct current and an alternating current? [2 marks] Using Figures 9. Y and Z. each has an ideal transformer and the circuit are used for the purpose of rectification. compare the connection of the diodes and the conditions of the bulbs.53 are identical. Figure 9. [4 marks] 2. [1 mark] (b) A semiconductor diode is made by joining a p-type semiconductor with a n-type semiconductor.55 shows four circuits W.

0 5 mA (a) IB = 10µA Rheostat R3 is then adjusted to lower value so that microammeter A1 gives IB = 20 µA. 40 µA.56. X. 9. IC recorded by miliammeter A2 is shown in figure 9. 9. R1 = 1kΩ A2 R2 = 2kΩ R2 = 56kΩ IC A1 IB T 6V Figure 9.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (iii) You are asked to make a 12 V battery charger. 30 µ A. 31 32 . • Type of rectification • Characteristics of output current Explain the suitability of the above aspects and hence. Study the circuits W. A student carries out an experiment to determine the relationship between the collector current IC to the base current IB of a transistor. 2 shown in figure 9.57(c). The battery supplies a voltage Rheostat R3 is adjusted until A1 is 10 µA. 50 µA and 60 µA.57(d).57(a). The corresponding readings of IC on miliammeter.57(e) and 9.57(f). 9.57(b). The 1 the current IB detected by microammeter 4 collector current.55 and consider the following aspects: • Type of transformer • The number of turns in the primary coil and in the secondary coil. A2 are shown in figure 9. determine the most suitable circuit to make the battery charge. [6 marks] 3. Y and Z in figures 9.56 Transistor T is connected to fixed resistor R1 =1kΩ and R2 = 56 kΩ and a rheostat R3 as 3 of 6 V to the transistor circuit.

IC the responding variable : ………………………………. The supply voltage 33 .……………………………… 32 The collector current.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics 2 1 mA 0 3 4 0 5 1 2 3 4 mA 5 (b) IB = 20µA (b) IB = 30µA 2 1 mA 0 3 4 0 5 1 2 mA 3 4 5 (c) IB = 40µA 1 0 2 3 (d) IB = 50µA 4 5 mA (e) IB = 60µA (a) For the experiment described identify… (i) (ii) The base current. IB the manipulated variable : ...

an amplified sound is given out through the loudspeaker. In your description. IB/µA 10 20 30 40 50 60 (c) On a graph paper. (b) From the figure in 9. determine the relationship between IC and IB.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (iii) the fixed variable : ……………………………….1 3..58 Using the information based on the observation of the brightness of the bulbs. (c) Design an experiment to investigate the hypothesis stated in (b). (d) Based on your graph. Figure 9. Ic is directly proportional to IB ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4.57. (a) Make one suitable inference. draw a graph of IC against IB. (b) State one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. Choose suitable apparatus such as a diode.8 1.4 3. When the microphone has detected a sound. 50 and 60µ A.8 Volume control Microphone Figure 9. Tabulate your results for IB and IC in the space given below. record the collector current. IC when IB = 10. The sound becomes louder if the volume of the amplifier is turned on to increase the power. state clearly the following: 34 . rheostat and others. 20.58 shows a microphone connected to a power amplifier. 40.6 2.9 4. Power amplifier Loudspeaker IC/mA 0. 30.

Variables in the experiment. List of apparatus and materials. 35 . That way you would analyse the data. Arrangement of the apparatus.JPN Pahang Student’s Copy Physics Module Form 5 Chapter 9: Electronics (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Aim of the experiment. The way you would tabulate the data. The procedure of the experiment. which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.