IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, VOL. 3, NO.

3, JULY 2012

349

Mitigating SSR Using DFIG-Based Wind Generation
Lingling Fan, Senior Member, IEEE, and Zhixin Miao, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—Subsynchronous resonance (SSR) phenomenon in wind farms connected with series compensated transmission network has been researched in recent literature. Mitigating SSR using FACTS devices such as TCSC, SVC, and STATCOM has also been explored in the literature. The ability of the power converters in doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind farms in mitigating SSR has rarely been investigated. In this paper, the DFIG converters will be explored for SSR mitigation. The investigation in this paper includes the design of auxiliary SSR damping controller and selection of control signals. Residue-based analysis, root locus diagrams, and time-domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink will be carried out. The major contributions of the paper are 1) investigation of the potential of wind farm converters for SSR mitigation and 2) identification of an effective control signal for SSR damping controller to simultaneously enhance both subsynchronous and supersynchronous resonance modes. Index Terms—Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), subsynchronous resonance (SSR) mitigation.

I. INTRODUCTION

UBSYNCHRONOUS resonance (SSR) phenomenon in wind farms connected with series compensated transmission network has been researched in recent literature [1]–[3]. The mitigation of SSR using FACTS devices in series compensated transmission line connected with wind power has been presented in the literature. In [1], Varma et al. explored TCSC and SVC’s capability in SSR mitigation while in [3], STATCOM’s capability in SSR mitigation is explored. The state-of-the-art wind energy systems use DFIGs with back-to-back power electronic converters. The capability of such converters in maximum power point tracking and voltage/reactive power control [4], compensation for unbalanced grid conditions [5] and oscillation stability [6], [7] has been explored in the literature. However, the control ability of these converters in mitigating SSR has not yet been investigated. A grid side converter (GSC) of a DFIG has a similar topology of a STATCOM yet exchanges both active and reactive power in fast speed. Hence, the objective of this paper is to explore the control capability of DFIG-based wind farms in mitigating SSR through an auxiliary damping controller at the GSC.
Manuscript received December 14, 2010; revised October 24, 2011; accepted January 12, 2012. Date of publication April 18, 2012; date of current version June 15, 2012. The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 USA (e-mail: fll@ieee.org). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSTE.2012.2185962

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The unique feature of SSR phenomena in wind farms interfaced with series compensated network is that induction generator effect (IGE) due to the network resonant oscillatory mode is the major cause of SSR. This feature has been identified by the authors in [8]. The low shaft stiffness of wind turbine drive train leads to low frequency torsional modes [9], which rarely interact with the network resonant modes in the electric system. The frequency of torsional modes in wind turbines can be as low as 1–3 Hz. In order to have torsional interaction, the network mode should have a frequency of 57–59 Hz. This requires a very high level of series compensation which rarely happens. The rotor speed has been used in SSR mitigation control [1], [3]. A preliminary study exploring the capability of the grid-side converters (GSCs) of a DFIG in mitigating SSR is presented in [10]. The rotor speed of the wind farm is used as the input signal to the auxiliary SSR damping controller added to the GSC’s reactive power/voltage control loop. The control scheme is demonstrated to enhance the SSR damping. A question naturally arises: Is there a better signal for such an SSR damping controller? Since the network resonant mode is the major cause of SSR, measurements closely related to such a mode should be chosen as control signals. Hence both the line current and the voltage across the series compensation are chosen and their effectiveness in control design will be discussed in the paper. Therefore, the objective of the paper is twofold: 1) to investigate the potential of SSR mitigation in DFIG converters; 2) to identify a control signal for SSR mitigation and for overall system stabilization enhancement. The paper is organized as follows. Section II presents the study system, the DFIG converter controls, and the auxiliary damping control for SSR mitigation. Section III presents residue-based analysis and root local diagram-based verification to choose a control input signal. Section IV presents the simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SSR damping controllers. Section V concludes the paper. II. STUDY SYSTEM AND SYSTEM MODEL The study system based on the IEEE first benchmark model for SSR studies [11] is shown in Fig. 1, where a DFIG-based wind farm (100 MVA from the aggregation of 2-MW units) is connected to a 161-kV series-compensated line. The collective behavior of a group of wind turbines is represented by an equivalent lumped machine. This assumption is supported by several recent studies [12]–[15] that suggest that wind farm aggregation provides a reasonable approximation for system interconnection studies. This approach has also been practiced in system studies [16], [17] which points out that “simulations of bulk system dynamics using a single machine equivalent is adequate for most planning studies.”

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Another option of modulation (Option 2) is through the dc-link voltage reference modulation. The differential equations-based model of the study system for SSR study has been presented in [8]. the torsional dynamics model. Through this lookup table. VOL. therefore. the per unit value of the inertia does not change. . a GSC is connected to an RSC through a dc-link. 3. the reference torque is obtained through the lookup table. power. The study system. the complete dynamic system model includes the series compensated network model. The machine and the network parameters are listed in the Appendix. the aggregated inertia is scaled up. JULY 2012 Fig. as shown in Fig. In this paper. the wind turbine is able to extract the maximum wind Fig. 3. 3. the supplementary control is added in the GSC reactive power/voltage control loop for the -axis to modulate the terminal voltage demand as shown in Fig. In the GSC control loops. The GSC is similar to a STATCOM in terms of the topology. the -axis loop is to regulate the dc-link voltage and the -axis loop is to regulate the terminal voltage. RSC control loops. The difference between STATCOM and GSC SSR mitigation is the consequent impact. Detailed modal analysis of system modes and impacting parameters have been studied in the authors’ previous research [18]. [3] on SSR in wind farms have both used the IEEE first bench mark model or its derivation and an aggregated self-excited induction generator model to represent the wind farm. For example. In [1]. Therefore. Supplementary control for SSR damping is proposed in STATCOM control [20]. 3. the power rating of the wind farm is scaled down to 100 MW and the voltage level of the transmission network is reduced to 132 kV. not suitable to explore SSR mitigation through RSCs. 2 and 3. Cascaded control loops similar to the ones in [19] are adopted in this paper. the focus is on GSC. Two recent studies [1]. 3. Instead. the wind turbine aerodynamic model. The rated power of the wind farm is 100 MVA. the induction generator model.350 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. 1. The focus will be using a residue method to select SSR mitigation input signal. B. an aggregated DFIG model is used and the voltage level of the transmission network is chosen to be 161 kV. However. The -axis loop is to regulate the active power and the -axis loop is to regulate the reactive power. In this paper. Similar to the SSR mitigation technique in STATCOM. it is a constant value and is the optimal torque corresponding to the measured rotating speed. As a summary. therefore. Modulation of the dc-link voltage reference is expected to cause more oscillations on the real power exchange through the dc-link and the electromagnetic torque. The control loops are shown in Figs. the base power is also scaled up. The auxiliary SSR damping control will be designed and added in for SSR mitigation study. Auxiliary SSR Damping Control It has been identified in [2] and [8] that the RSC control loop gains negatively impact the SSR network mode and these gains have to be limited. and the DFIG’s converter controls. the power rating of the wind farm is 746 MW and the transmission voltage level is 500 kV. SSR mitigation in GSC may cause impact on both GSC and RSC outputs. In [3]. The nominal voltage of the wind farm terminal bus is 690 V and the nominal voltage of the network is 161 kV. DFIG Converter Controls Both rotor-side converter (RSC) and grid-side converter (GSC) controls are modeled in this study. Fig. Hence. This is Option 1. The same also happens to other machine parameters such as impedances. the dc-link model. When wind speed is greater than the rated speed. The dotted box and line show the SSR damping controller and the injection point. the parameters of a 2-MW DFIG in per unit values can continue to be used for the equivalent wind generator. 2. When individual wind turbines are aggregated. Supplementary control schemes in the GSC control loop for SSR mitigation through either the terminal voltage modulation or dc-link voltage modulation. NO. It is. In the RSC control loops. A. The length of the transmission line is approximately 154 miles for which it is reasonable to install series compensation. detailed discussion on differential equations and impacting parameters are omitted.

Torsional interactions in wind farms are rare because the torsional modes have a low frequency due to the low shaft stiffness of wind turbine drive trains [9]. The electromagnetic torque will have both a 20-Hz mode and a 100-Hz mode.e. is the plant output. it is found that Mode 1 is a supersynchronous mode and Mode 2 is the network mode. the less the damping of the network mode. is the th column of matrix. measurements closely related to such mode should be chosen as control signals. This relation has been demonstrated in the eigenvalue analysis in Tables I and II. The root of the closed-loop system is determined by . The closed-loop system with a gain controller will have a transfer function with the following denominator: . The supersynchronous mode is reflected in the electromagnetic torque which is not a circuit variable. B. is the output matrix. Hence residues are effective in selecting control signals and designing controllers. Assume that all the dynamics due to the other eigenvalues can be ignored and the open loop system dynamics can be expressed by only one eigenvalue . The state-space model and the transfer function of a single-input single-output plant can be expressed as (1) (2) (3) (4) where is the vector of state variables. . besides the dc component. Hence the shift in the eigenvalue can be expressed as (5) . Both the line current magnitude and the voltage across the series compensation are chosen. i. A pair of complex eigenvalues can be said to be a system mode with an oscillation frequency . System Modes For the study system.. the less the damping of the network mode. This concept has been approved in the first author’s previous paper [21]. residues corresponding to the dominant system modes will be computed. Then the plant transfer function becomes: . Hence in the electromagnetic torque. one with a frequency of (complementary of the SSR network mode) and the other with a frequency of for the supersynchronous mode. the network resonance mode has a frequency of 20 Hz in the synchronous reference-frame-based analysis. Mode 3 is identified through participation factor as a mode related to both rotor circuit dynamics and rotor speed dynamics. The network resonance mode with a frequency of in stators will have a corresponding component induced in rotor circuits with a frequency of . A simple explanation of the residue is also presented in this paper. [3]. Hence in the synchronous rotating reference frame. alternative or better control signals are identified. Mode 3 has a relatively large damping and hence Modes 1 and 2 are the dominant system modes. where is the gain of the feedback control. In this study. the following system modes are listed and their characteristics are identified using mode shapes or participation factors. is the residue corresponding to . In this paper. this mode will be observed to have a frequency of . Interactions of the stator current and the rotor current lead to the electromagnetic torque. is the system matrix.FAN AND MIAO: MITIGATING SSR USING DFIG-BASED WIND GENERATION 351 SYSTEM MODES AT TABLE I VARIOUS WIND SPEEDS WITH LEVEL 75% A COMPENSATION SYSTEM MODES AT TABLE II VARIOUS COMPENSATION LEVELS WIND SPEED AT 7-m/s III. at 7 m/s and 75% compensation level. the models are built in a synchronous reference frame. In a root locus diagram. which indicates a 40-Hz resonance mode in the line currents in the physical system. is the input matrix. A positive real part of an eigenvalue indicates an unstable system with a negative damping. This feature has been identified in a recent paper [8]. represents the direction and speed of the closed-loop eigenvalue leaving the pole . Hence the network mode reflected in a stationary circuit with a frequency of has a frequency of when the stationary circuits are observed from the synchronous rotating reference frame. From Tables I and II. Both modes are related to the compensation level. is the th system root. and is the th row of matrix. The shaft mode with a very low frequency ( 1 Hz) is not listed in the tables. A. there will be two components. From Tables I and II. COMPARISON OF CONTROL INPUT SIGNALS The unique feature of SSR phenomena in wind farms interfaced series compensated network is that induction generator effect due to the network resonant oscillatory mode is the major cause of SSR. Their effectiveness in control will be discussed in the following subsections. Damping ratio is defined as . the residue is a complex number which can be denoted by a vector with direction. For a complex root . is the plant input. Since it is the network mode that is of the utmost concern. The rotor speed is used in SSR mitigation control [1]. The relation of the network mode (Mode 2) with wind speed and the compensation level has been analyzed in [8]: 1) the higher the compensation level. and 2) the lower the wind speed. Residues For different control signals.

the SSR mode and the supersynchronous mode will move in opposite directions. C. Residues of the SSR mode (in blue) and the supersynchronous mode as the input signal. The design of the feedback control design using is fairly simple. or the voltage across the capacitor. residues corresponding to eigenvalues can be computed based on (4). 6. 5. 7 and 8 are the root locus diagram when the rotor speed is used as the control signal for the two modulation scheme. The nonlinear system is first built in Matlab/Simulink. VOL. the results are not presented. Since the linear system is derived based on one operating condition. Residues of the SSR mode (in blue) and the supersynchronous mode as the input signal. The larger the magnitude of .352 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. (in magenta) with Therefore. 3. 4. 5 and 6 present the visual display of the residues when the voltage or the line current is the control signal. NO.” The derived linear system is expressed in terms of and . 4. To save space. Linearization at equilibrium points (or operating conditions) can be conducted by an embedded Matlab function “linmod. To have a 5% damping ratio for the SSR mode. 2) Residues of the SSR mode and the supersynchronous mode are of opposite polarity when the rotor speed or the line current is chosen as the control signal. Root Locus Diagrams The above three findings can be verified through root locus diagrams. From there. residue changes as well. Observations lead to the same conclusion that is the best signal for the SSR mitigation scheme. 3. Figs. line current. A simple proportional controller will enhance the damping of the SSR mode but will decrease the damping of the supersynchronous mode. Residues of the SSR mode (in blue) and the supersynchronous mode as the input signal. Figs. This will increase the difficulty of controller design. the more effective will be such feedback control. (in magenta) with Fig. JULY 2012 Fig. 4 presents visual display of the residues at different operation conditions for the SSR mode (in blue) and the supersynchronous mode (in magenta) when the rotating speed is the control signal. A proportional feedback control is sufficient to force both the SSR mode and the supersynchronous mode to move left thereby making the system stable. is the input and corresponds to the voltage injecting point at the GSC control loop in Fig. determines the direction of motion and speed of the closed-loop system root. with operating condition changes (wind speed or compensation level). The residues of the three signals for dc-link voltage modulation are also computed and plotted. Fig. 3) Residues of the SSR mode and the supersynchronous mode are of same polarity when the voltage across the series Fig. with an increasing gain. For this study system. (in magenta) with compensator is chosen as the control signal. the gain . Eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be computed using Matlab functions. Hence the feedback control needs a large gain. A comparison of the residues of the three signals leads to the following findings: 1) The residue magnitude of the SSR mode when the rotor speed is the control signal is very small. is the output of the system without SSR damping control or the input of SSR damping control. can be the rotor speed. For Option 1.

Fig. The “ ” signs denote the locations of roots corresponding to the gain. 2) The root locus diagrams corroborate the residue-based analysis and the capacitor voltage is the best control signal. it is found that a right half plane zero is introduced which makes the rotor speed an infeasible control signal. 9. . the SSR mode and the supersynchronous mode will both move towards the left plane. Root locus diagram when the control signal is the rotor speed and is to be modulated. The entire system is thus stable. Figs.FAN AND MIAO: MITIGATING SSR USING DFIG-BASED WIND GENERATION 353 Fig. The “ ” signs denote the locations of roots correand sponding to the gain. To have a 5% damping ratio for the SSR mode. Fig. The supersynchronous mode will move towards the right but will not cross the imaginary axis. Fig. The entire system is unstable. should be selected to be 27 000. the gain should be selected to be 14 for Option 1 and 32 for Option 2. 7. Figs. with an increasing gain. In both modulation options. Root locus diagram when the control signal is the capacitor voltage and is to be modulated. The “ ” signs denote the locations of roots corresponding to the gain. 9 and 10 are the root locus diagrams when the voltage across the series capacitor is used as the control signal. This indicates that rotor speed is not a universally good signal for SSR damping. the SSR mode and the supersynchronous mode will move in opposite directions. To have a 5% damping ratio for the SSR mode. The corresponding supersynchronous mode will move to the right plane and have a negative damping. 10. For Option 2. 8. With an increasing gain. Root locus diagram when the control signal is the rotor speed and is to be modulated. Important finding from the root locus diagrams include: 1) A right half plane zero will be introduced when the rotor speed is used as the control signal for dc-link voltage modulation. the gain should be selected to be 26.0726 for Option 1 and 46 for Option 2. The “ ” signs denote the locations of roots corresponding to the gain. 11 and 12 are the root locus diagrams when the current through the line or the series capacitor is used as the control signal. Root locus diagram when the control signal is the capacitor voltage is to be modulated.

the subscripts of the two phasors are omitted. Equation (10) becomes (11) Finally. We assume that the network is operating under 60-Hz ac. In time domain. The linearized expression is hence given by (9) can be expressed in terms of In -domain. the compensation level is set at 50%. Root locus diagram when the control signal is the line current and is to be modulated. initially. (12) where is a constant depending on the operation conditions. This can explain why and can have very different control characteristics at the SSR and supersynchronous frequencies. For simplicity. The dynamic responses of the system with and without SSR damping controller are plotted. The -domain expression is given by and Fig. There is a 180 difference. the system can suffer SSR instability when the compensation level reaches 75% due to IGE. In the simulation study. due to (8). SIMULATION RESULTS A previous study in [8] shows that when wind speed is 7 m/s. a simplified relationship is derived Fig. Let at certain operation condition and let . Assumptions are made to derive a simple expression between and . The above equation will be separated based on real and imaginary components (8) where and denote the real and imaginary parts of a variable. (10) The above expression demonstrates the complicated relationship between and . To explain the relationship between the two phasors at dynamics. the concept of dynamic phasor [22] is used. IV. the magnitude of a phasor can be expressed as . 12. D. JULY 2012 Therefore. At s. NO. Root locus diagram when the control signal is the line current and is to be modulated. 3. Discussion of Two Signals and The current magnitude and the capacitor voltage magnitude show radically different control characteristics at the SSR and supersynchronous frequencies. the compensation level changes to 75%. The “ ” signs denote the locations of roots corresponding to the gain.354 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. One may wonder what is the cause since the two phasors of the fundamental frequency have their magnitudes proportional to each other and a 90 phase shift at steady state. VOL. The instantaneous current and voltage have a relationship given by (6) . is plotted in a Bode plot in Fig. 3. It is found from the bode plot that at SSR frequency has a phase angle of 270 while at the supersynchronous frequency the phase angle is 450 . 13. 11. the relationship of the two dynamic phasors of the fundamental frequency (60 Hz) can be written as (7) and are two complex phasors for fundamental where frequency . The “ ” signs denote the locations of roots corresponding to the gain.

FAN AND MIAO: MITIGATING SSR USING DFIG-BASED WIND GENERATION 355 Fig. Case 2 In Case 2. while with the damping controller. The network resonance mode has a frequency of 40 Hz. 14. Dynamic responses. the SSR mode has a frequency of 20 Hz while the supersynchronous . 15–17. The simulation results are shown in Figs. the system remains stable. The gain is chosen to be 30. A total of four scenarios were simulated and they are as follows: Case 1) No SSR controller is implemented. 14 shows a comparison of the dynamic responses of the electromagnetic torque and the line current . 13. which induces both 20. The red denotes the system with the SSR damping controller (Case 3) while the blue line denotes the system without SSR damping controller. (c) terminal voltage . Case 3) A damping controller is implemented with as the input signal and as the output signal. Fig. is used as the control signal. a damping controller is implemented with as the input signal and as the output signal. (a) Electromagnetic torque . Dynamic responses of and . Case 1 Fig. Case 4) A damping controller is implemented with as the input signal and as the output signal. 16. (a) DFIG output power . Dynamic responses of and the line current . In the synchronous reference-frame-based simulation results.and 100-Hz oscillations in . rent A pure proportional control will be used for the SSR damping controller. The system is unstable in this case. (c) RMS voltage across the capacitor . the control signal. It is found that the system without damping control becomes unstable when the series compensation level increases to 75%. The gain of the controller is 10. (d) RMS line curreactive power . (b) rotor speed . Case 2) A damping controller is implemented with as the input signal and as the output signal. The gain is 46. Fig. A. Fig. The gain of the controller is 10. The thick line denotes the dynamic response with SSR damping controller while the thin line is used as denotes the dynamic response without SSR damping controller. Bode plots for the transfer function . 15–17 that there exist harmonics in the waveforms. (b) DFIG exporting . It is observed from Figs. B. 15. is used as the control signal.

18. capacitor voltage. (c) terminal voltage . It is clearly shown in that there is a 20-Hz oscillation. the damping of the SSR mode increases while the damping of the supersynchronous mode decreases. (c) . Dynamic responses. 18. SSR damping controller . (d) RMS line curreactive power . This is the SSR oscillation caused by a 40-Hz network resonance mode. 3. and the output of the SSR damping controller are shown in Fig. The two modulation options are compared by plotting the dynamic responses together. real and reactive power. (b) . and the terminal voltage are shown in Fig. rotor speed . is used as the input SSR damping controller signal. dc-link voltage will be greater than when is modulated. 18–20 show the dynamic responses of the system with such damping controllers. JULY 2012 Fig. 3. (d) the output of the is used as the control signal. (a) DFIG output power . line current. Figs. Cases 3 and 4 In Cases 3 and 4. The dynamic responses of the speed of the rotating masses in the wind turbine. (d) the output of the is used as the control signal. It is observed that with either one of the damping options. 20. (c) . (b) rotor speed . 17. (c) RMS voltage across the capacitor . SSR damping controller . the RMS voltage across the series capacitor and the RMS current through the transmission line are shown in Fig. SSR is effectively mitigated. The dynamic responses of the DFIG’s output power and reactive power . 19. VOL.356 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. The simulation results confirm the analysis in Section III that when the line current is used as the input signal. the torque between the two masses . (b) . mode has a frequency of about 100 Hz. (b) DFIG exporting . Dynamic responses. The 20-Hz oscillation due to SSR is obvious in the dc-link voltage. In turn. (a) . 19. C. Fig. 20. Dynamic responses. It is found that the magnitude of the oscillations in the electromagnetic torque . NO. . the dc-link voltage. The thick blue lines denote the dynamic responses for Case 4 when is modulated. The two superimposed on each other result in a waveform of 20 Hz with fifth harmonic. rent Fig. (a) Electromagnetic torque is used as the control signal. (a) . The red lines denote the dynamic responses for Case 3 when is modulated. The dynamic responses of electromagnetic torque . the rotor speed will show a 20-Hz ripple. is used as the control signal. Dynamic responses of and . Fig. Either the terminal voltage or the dc-link voltage will be modulated. .

the control signal can effectively damp SSR oscillations. Three integral units will be used to obtain another set TABLE IV PARAMETERS OF THE SHAFT SYSTEM . These signals are proportional to the instantaneous capacitor voltage. The purpose of the paper is to choose a control signal through smallsignal-based analysis. The relationship between the instantaneous current through the line and the instantaneous voltage across the capacitor is given by (13) Therefore. both the machine and the converters will have large reserves. it can be estimated through local measurements. Observer to estimate the capacitor voltage ment of currents . Obtaining the remote signal from communication links could be very expensive. Auxiliary damping control schemes to modulate either the terminal voltage or the dc-link voltage references of the grid side converter controls are proposed for SSR mitigation. Effective control signals are examined using residue-based analysis. Hence rotor speed is not a feasible control signal. Important findings from the paper include: 1) Rotor speed has been used as the control signal for SSR mitigation using STATCOM in the literature. APPENDIX The parameters of the DFIG and study system are shown in Tables III–VI. the answer is Yes. Our future work will investigate different operating conditions and large signal disturbance scenarios to determine the effect of converter size on controller performance. For this particular application. 2) Capacitor voltage is demonstrated to be an effective signal to enhance damping for both SSR and supersynchronous modes. through local measure- The following observations can also be made from Figs. 3) The terminal voltage shows SSR oscillation due to the damping controller. V. Can an estimation algorithm be used to estimate the capacitor voltage through the local current measurements? Fortunately.FAN AND MIAO: MITIGATING SSR USING DFIG-BASED WIND GENERATION 357 of signals . rotor speed as the control signal with the dc-link voltage reference being modulated is shown to introduce a right half plane zero. The performance of the auxiliary controller will be impacted by the converter’s limitation on current and voltage. This paper explores the control capability of DFIG-based wind farms for SSR mitigation. TABLE III SINGLE 2-MW DFIG AND THE AGGREGATED DFIG IN NETWORK SYSTEM PARAMETERS OF A D. the rotor speed reflects mainly the torsional mode. . three-phase balanced variables can be transformed into two dc variables. 21. Discussion of the Remote Signal Issue The analysis and verification carried out in this research demonstrates that the capacitor voltage is an effective control signal for SSR mitigation. The following figure (Fig. Overall. In the simulation studies since the wind speed is low. The following question remains: the control is implemented in wind farms and the series compensation could be far from the location. Though it is a remote signal. 21) presents the estimation diagram of obtaining the estimated voltage magnitude from the instantaneous current measurements. The fundamental component phasor magnitude can then be computed from the two dc variables. the capacitor voltage can be estimated through the local current measurements. and . and time-domain simulation validation. CONCLUSION Fig. root locus diagram verification. 2) Though the electromagnetic torque reflects the SSR oscillation. 18–20: 1) Both the transmission line current and the voltage across the series capacitor reflect the SSR oscillation well. Through to reference frame transformation.

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