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5, OCTOBER 1998

691

**Current Control Techniques for Three-Phase Voltage-Source PWM Converters: A Survey
**

Marian P. Kazmierkowski, Fellow, IEEE, and Luigi Malesani, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract— The aim of this paper is to present a review of recently used current control techniques for three-phase voltagesource pulsewidth modulated converters. Various techniques, different in concept, have been described in two main groups: linear and nonlinear. The ﬁrst includes proportional integral stationary and synchronous) and state feedback controllers, and predictive techniques with constant switching frequency. The second comprises bang-bang (hysteresis, delta modulation) controllers and predictive controllers with on-line optimization. New trends in the current control—neural networks and fuzzy-logicbased controllers—are discussed, as well. Selected oscillograms accompany the presentation in order to illustrate properties of the described controller groups. Index Terms— AC motor drives, current control, inverters, power ﬁlters, pulsewidth modulation, switch-mode rectiﬁers.

Fig. 1.

Basic block diagram of CC-PWM converter.

I. INTRODUCTION

M

OST applications of three-phase voltage-source pulsewidth modulated (VS-PWM) converters—ac motor drives, active ﬁlters, high power factor ac/dc converters, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, and ac power supplies—have a control structure comprising an internal current feedback loop. Consequently, the performance of the converter system largely depends on the quality of the applied current control strategy. Therefore, current control of PWM converters is one of the most important subjects of modern power electronics. In comparison to conventional open-loop voltage PWM converters, the current-controlled PWM (CC-PWM) converters have the following advantages: 1) control of instantaneous current waveform and high accuracy; 2) peak current protection; 3) overload rejection; 4) extremely good dynamics; 5) compensation of effects due to load parameter changes (resistance and reactance); 6) compensation of the semiconductor voltage drop and dead times of the converter; 7) compensation of the dc-link and ac-side voltage changes. Development of PWM current control methods is still in progress. The purpose of this paper is to give a short review of the available CC techniques for the three-phase, twoManuscript received June 20, 1997; revised June 16, 1998. Abstract published on the Internet July 3, 1998. M. P. Kazmierkowski is with the Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland. L. Malesani is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy. Publisher Item Identiﬁer S 0278-0046(98)07015-4.

level converters. The basic approaches and performance of the various methods are summarized. However, due to space limitations, a quantitative comparison of the methods under discussion is not included. II. BASIC CONCEPTS A. Basic Scheme of CC-PWM The main task of the control scheme in a CC-PWM converter (Fig. 1) is to force the currents in a three-phase ac load to follow the reference signals. By comparing the comand measured instantaneous mand values of the phase currents, the CC generates the switching for the converter power devices which states Hence, in general, decrease the current errors the CC implements two tasks: error compensation (decreasing and modulation (determination of switching states

B. VS Converter as Power Ampliﬁer A three-phase VS bridge converter [Fig. 2(a)] is a discontinuously operated power ampliﬁer, the operation of which has been extensively investigated and analyzed in literature [1]–[5], [8], [9], [16], [18], [20]. However, some basic operation constraints and limitations, which are important from the point of view of current control, are recalled below. 1) Modulation: The VS converter generates, at each output a voltage with a two-level rectphase angular waveform [Fig. 2(c)]. In conventional hard-switched VS bridge converters, there are no mutual constraints between phase switching instants, so that the pulse length can be varied

0278–0046/98$10.00 © 1998 IEEE

a common term can be added to the phase voltages. delta modulation (DM). In some cases. (f) its vector representation. This shift is often used to extend the maximum phase voltage which can be produced by the converter (third harmonic PWM) and to minimize the ripple. If the latter is high enough. VOL. located around the switching frequency. 2(a)].g. Modulation generates should follow high-order voltage harmonics. thus shifting their without affecting load average currents mean value The current ripple. (a) and (b) Ripple and modulation frequency. is changed by the shift. 3(b). (c). In some cases. 3. (e) PWM pulse patterns and (d). (c) Time representation of the output ac voltages. phase currents depend only on the voltage difference between phases. [19]. the ripple amplitude depends on the duration of the modulation (or on the modulation frequency the period the ac-side average voltage and supply voltage With a purely inductive on the load parameters the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude can be load expressed as (e) (f) Fig. too.692 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. 9) allow commutations only at ﬁxed times. . for a constant the ripple amplitude modulation period (and frequency varies. (b) DC-link voltage for hard and soft switching [resonant dc-link (RDCL) inverter]. commutation mechanisms [RDCL inverters. 2) Current Ripple and Switching Frequency: Modulation also produces instantaneous deviations (ripple) of the current from its average as an effect of the voltage harmonics. the control system. Therefore. 5. Fig. Fig. (a) Simpliﬁed main circuit topology. (d) Vector representation of the output ac voltages. However. [8]. the waveform of which as closely as possible. however. or other needs may also require the switching frequency to be constant. continuously (PWM). as shown in Fig. Three-phase VS bridge converter. 3) Phase Interference Effect: If the neutral of the threeand the converter midpoint (when available) phase load are not connected [Fig. 3(a)].. ﬁltering. Usually. 45. OCTOBER 1998 (a) (b) (a) (b) (c) (d) (c) (d) Fig. [55]. if voltage varies [Fig. Irrespective of the kind of modulation technique used. if the ripple amplitude is kept constant. 2. 2(b)] or control systems (e. NO. the modulation frequency must vary. the two groups are quite separated from each other. or to reduce the average switching frequency (ﬂat-top PWM) [4]. however. losses put a limitation on the average switching frequency of each phase. Note that. The modulation process controls the phaseso that switching sequence according to a given command the phase voltage low-order harmonics result in a voltage (average over the modulation period).

is obtained when phase pulses are corresponding centered and symmetrical. Basic Requirements and Performance Criteria The accuracy of the CC can be evaluated with reference to basic requirements. 3(e). On the other hand. the converter requires a sufﬁcient supply voltage reserve to force the ac line current in the entire and load range. A sensible ripple reduction. and even the simplest one may be adequate. variable ac-side voltage (motor EMF). the compromise is easier as the switching frequency increases. b) AC power supply/UPS: This requires a narrow range of output frequency (UPS). LINEAR CONTROLLERS The linear controllers operate with conventional voltagetype PWM modulators [21]–[36]. settling time. high dynamic. Thus. D. Presentation of CC Techniques Existing CC techniques can be classiﬁed in different ways [3]. with the same resultant give equal mean voltages in an inductive load [Fig.. [8]. contradict each other. [14].KAZMIERKOWSKI AND MALESANI: CC TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE VS-PWM CONVERTERS 693 While phase voltages can be controlled independently. and variable dc-link voltage (ac/dc converters and power ﬁlter). C.. nearly constant amplitude and waveform of ac-side voltage. like active ﬁlters. This condition results in a maximum zero-state duration and. [1]. and overshoot factor. The optimization of the dynamic response usually requires a compromise which depends on the speciﬁc needs. Nevertheless. decoupled – control structure. e. rise time. for deadtime. insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT’s)]. time of the ﬁrst maximum. Vector sequences and.g. fast response and low harmonic content. linear controller schemes have clearly separated current error compensation and voltage modulation parts. [8]. therefore.g. in vector representation [Fig. This may also inﬂuence the choice of the CC technique according to the application considered. the CC techniques are presented in two main groups. phase currents are determined not only by their own phase voltage. 1) VS PWM inverters a) AC motor control: This requires a wide range of output frequency. [11]–[13]. However. [27]. and fault protection. valid in general. 3) limited or constant switching frequency to guarantee safe operation of converter semiconductor power devices. and to speciﬁc requirements. for some applications with speciﬁc needs. the dc-link voltage is not critical. [9].g. poorly damped ac-side network. the peculiar advantages of different methods lose importance. [15]. This concept allows us to exploit the advan- . For example. with a choice of to Fig. 2(d)]. III. a phase interference occures. Table I presents the static criteria in two groups: 1) those valid also for open-loop voltage PWM (see e. On the other hand. operation in PWM/square-wave transient region. reduced harmonic content (output ﬁlter). a point is reached where the converter passes to a six-step square-wave operation and the CC is not capable of forcing the command current. [12]. [16]). Basic requirements of a CC are the following: 1) no phase and amplitude errors (ideal tracking) over a wide output frequency range. but also by those of other phases. rise time is mainly affected by the ac-side inductances of the converter. which require very fast response or high power inverters where the commutations must be minimized. The foregoing features result both from the PWM process and from the response of the control loop. [8]. 3(f)]. different vector paths produce different current ripples. In this paper. 5) DC-Link Voltage Limit: A voltage reserve is required to force an ac-side (load) current according to its command value. Therefore. mainly at high modulation index. In general. 4) Voltage Vector Sequence and Current Ripple: The converter output voltage can be represented as a space vector [Fig. 5) good dc-link voltage utilization. Thus. 2) to provide high dynamic response of the system. especially if the control is of the digital type. in an equal length for states 0 and 7 [4]. This is particularly suitable when considering the phase voltage effects on the load [4]. In contrast to the nonlinear controllers (see Section IV). the major contributions arise from signal processing (conversion and calculation times) and may be appreciable. TABLE I PERFORMANCE CRITERIA The evaluation of CC may be done according to performance criteria which include static and dynamic performance. 2) VS PWM AC/DC Converters and Active Filters: These require constant ac-side (line power) frequency 50/60 Hz. The speciﬁc requirements for the most important applications can be summarized as follows. 4) low harmonic content. 2) those speciﬁc for CC-PWM converters based on current error deﬁnition (denoted by The following parameters of the CC system dynamic response can be considered: dead time. This phenomenon has to be taken into account in designing CC.. For small amplitudes of ac-side voltage. Note that some of the requirements. typical of some applications. with the speed improvement of today’s switching components [e. the most suitable CC technique must be selected. linear and nonlinear controllers. as is increased. equal average current 3(d) and (f)]. [9].

VOL. 5. (b) Synchronous PI working in rotating coordinates with DC components. generates control signals Although this controller is directly derived from the original triangular suboscillation PWM [19]. NO. The maximum slope of the command voltage should never exceed the triangle slope. as well as open-loop testing of the inverter and load. [38] is also made. also called the ramp comparison current controller. Linear current controllers. Additional problems may arise from multiple crossing of triangular boundaries. 45. which uses two PI compensators of . comparison with the triangular carrier signal for the inverter switches. can be easily performed. Synchronous Vector Controller (PI) In many industrial applications. the following controllers are described: PI stationary and synchronous. because even small phase or amplitude errors cause incorrect system operation (e. an ideally impressed current is required. state feedback. the behavior is quite different. uses three PI error compensators to produce for a three-phase sinuthe voltage commands soidal PWM [Fig. The main disadvantage of this technique is an inherent tracking (amplitude and phase) error. the controller performance is satisfactory only if the signiﬁcant harmonics of current commands and the load EMF are limited at a frequency well below the carrier (less than 1/9 [4]). and dc-link utilization. B. OCTOBER 1998 (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. use of additional phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits [24] or feedforward correction [29]. As a consequence. A. Fig. (d) State feedback controller. tages of open-loop modulators (sinusoidal PWM. In such cases. because the output current ripple is fed back and inﬂuences the switching times. To achieve compensation. well-deﬁned harmonic spectrum. Also. vector-controlled ac motors). 4(b) illustrates the synchronous controller. the control schemes based on the space-vector approach are applied. Stationary Controller PI The stationary controller. 4. and optimal PWM) which are constant switching frequency.694 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. while proportional gain and zero placement are related to the amount of ripple. space-vector modulator. and predictive with constant switching frequency.. (c) synchronous PI working in stationary coordinates with AC components. 4(a)] [5]. optimum switch pattern. In the linear group. full independent design of the overall control structure. (a) Stationary PI.g. The integral part of the PI com- pensator minimizes errors at low frequency. In keeping with the principle of sinusoidal PWM.

lack of tracking errors. the error ﬁeld is rectangular. therefore. and PI compensators reduce the errors of the fundamental component to zero. the linear controllers make a well-deﬁned harmonic spectrum available. A. the transient error may be unacceptably large. Based on work in [34] (where it has been demonstrated that is possible to perform current vector control in an arbitrary coordinates). [97]. NONLINEAR CONTROLLERS The nonlinear CC group includes hysteresis. nonavailable state variables (e. Their determination can require the use of observers or other control blocks. if all three current errors are considered as space vectors [60]. A is derived by utilizing feedback gain matrix the pole assignment technique to guarantee sufﬁcient damping. and on-line optimized controllers. [48].. The controller of Fig. ﬂux and speed) can be included. protection of the converter is difﬁcult [56]. [14]. [35]. the current error signals are zero. 7). [32]. [27]. while the current ripple is variable. [31]. [102]. and the controller offers the opportunity of independent harmonic selection by choosing different hysteresis values for the and components [49]. which always for the PWM modulator. [62]. [107]–[109]. 1) The converter switching frequency depends largely on the load parameters and varies with the ac voltage. the performance of the state feedback controller is superior to conventional PI controllers [27]. [28].with ac components has been presented [33]. Thanks to the and are dc components. current controllers for the RDCL topology are presented separately. e. [12]. 1) Constant Switching Frequency Predictive Algorithm: In this case. the interaction effect can be compensated. this class of schemes. However. In general. the inverter switching frequency is ﬁxed The disadvantage of this algorithm is that it does not guarantee the inverter peak current limit. In the synchronous rotating – coordinates. The voltage vector to be generated by PWM during the next modulation period is thus determinated. [57]. Hard-Switched Converters 1) Hysteresis Current Controllers: Hysteresis control schemes are based on a nonlinear feedback loop with twolevel hysteresis comparators [Fig. so as to minimize the forecast error [60]. and disturbance feedforward signals for the reference inputs are added to the feedback control law. [63]. Also. 2) The operation is somewhat rough. Therefore. as in the case of ac drives [83]. [58]. [25]. This is due to the interaction in the system with three independent controllers. in the steady state. except for systems without neutral leaders where the instantaneous error can reach double the value of the hysteresis band [3]. [63]. 4(c) by the dashed line. [54] (Fig. This can be used . [100]. [94].g. 6(b)]. 6(c)].g. [48]. State Feedback Controller The conventional PI compensators in the current error compensation part can be replaced by a state feedback controller working in stationary [29] or synchronous rotating coordinates [13]. [28]. also known as freerunning hysteresis controllers [16]. outstanding robustness. the inner loop of the control system (consisting of two integrators and multipliers) is a variable-frequency generator. The comparator state change in one phase inﬂuences the voltage applied to the load in two other phases (coupling). [50]. neural networks (NN’s) and fuzzy logic controllers (FLC’s) belong to the class of nonlinear CC. [50]. DM. However. space vector [60]. the static error can be reduced to While with integral part zero. a considerable decrease in the inverter switching frequency can be achieved [37]. [86]. independence of load parameter changes. As shown in Fig. [58]. thanks to the use of PWM modulators. It is characteristic of the hysteresis CC that the instantaneous current is kept exact in a tolerance band. . Among the additional information given to the controller. the predictive controller is often called a deadbeat controller [85]. [97]. D. [108]. Note that. and many variants of controllers known as space-vector based can be created [41]. 5(a)]. if three-level comparators with a lookup table are used. has the following disadvantages. Predictive and Deadbeat Controllers This technique predicts at the beginning of each sampling (modulation) period the current error vector on the basis of the actual error and of the ac-side (load) parameters . which often may be shared with the control of the entire scheme.KAZMIERKOWSKI AND MALESANI: CC TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE VS-PWM CONVERTERS 695 current vector components deﬁned in rotating synchronous coordinates – [5]. [95]. and extremely good dynamics limited only by switching speed and load time constant. 4(d) works in synchronous rotating coordinates – and is synthesized on the basis of linear multivariable state feedback theory. coordinate transformations. Moreover. [102] or sinusoidal modulator [107]. the predictive algorithm calculates the voltage vector once every sample period This will force commands [Fig. This is possible thanks to appropriate selection of zero-voltage vectors [48] [Fig. Hybrid CC combining predictive and hysteresis techniques have also been proposed [99]. but their dynamic properties are inferior to those of bang-bang controllers. C. [68]. 2) Deadbeat Controllers: When the choice of the voltage vector is made in order to null the error at the end of the sample period. [30]. IV. a) Variable switching frequency controllers: Among the main advantages of hysteresis CC are simplicity. produces reference voltages even when. the current vector according to its command and EMF voltage of the The inverter voltage The load is assumed to be constant over the sample period is then implemented in the calculated voltage vector PWM modulator algorithm. [105]. . due to the inherent randomness caused by the limit cycle. Because the control algorithm guarantees the dynamically correct compensation for the EMF voltage.. To avoid confusion. 6(a)] [61]. a synchronous controller working in the stationary coordinates . The switching are produced directly when the error signals exceeds an assigned tolerance band [Fig.

5(b)]. 8). The tolerance band amplitude can be varied. 6(b)]. [57]. Although the constant switching frequency scheme is more complex and the main advantage of the basic hysteresis control—namely. Predictive current controllers. the strategy which minimizes the response time is applied. [96]. b) Constant switching frequency controllers: A number of proposals have been put forward to overcome variable switching frequency. The boundary delimiting the current error area in the case of independent controllers with equal tolerance band in each of three phases makes a regular symmetrical hexagon [Fig. regular operation is obtained. [47]. Once decoupled. which usually can be implemented only on microprocessors. 45. for torque-ripple minimization in vector-controlled ac motor drives (the hysteresis band for the torque current component is set narrower than that for the ﬂux current component) [49]. is that of decoupling error signals by subtracting an interference signal derived from the mean inverter voltage (Fig. Finally.696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. Suppose only one hysteresis controller is used—the one acting on the current error vector. Similar results are obtained in the case of “discontinuous switching” operation. (b) Example of error area. Recent methods enable limit cycle suppression by introducing a suitable offset signal to either current references or the hysteresis band [45]. constant frequency hysteresis controls are well suited for highperformance high-speed applications. The location of the error curve is determined by When the current vector the current command vector reaches a point on the error curve. the voltage vector which minimizes the mean inverter switching frequency is selected [Fig. [103]. according to the ac-side voltage [39]. a) Minimum switching frequency predictive algorithm: The concept of this algorithm [92] is based on space-vector analysis of hysteresis controllers. seven different trajectories of the current are predicted. Thus. and its consequences. 2) Controllers with On-Line Optimization: This class of controllers performs a real-time optimization algorithm and requires complex on-line calculations. where decoupling is more easily obtained without estimating load impedance [55]. one for each of seven possible (six active and zero) inverter output voltage vectors. based on the optimization procedure. Like the three-level hysteresis controller working in – ﬁeld-oriented coordinates [49]. 5. these solutions guarantee very fast response together with limited tracking error. [65]. 5. [67]. OCTOBER 1998 (a) (b) (c) Fig. [59]. and phase commutations may (but need not) be easily synchronized to a clock. b) Control with ﬁeld orientation: The minimum frequency predictive CC can be implemented in any rotating or stationary coordinates. the simplicity—is lost. (a) Linear constant switching frequency controller. For fast transient states. An approach which eliminates the interference. 5(c)]. a further switching frequency reduction can be achieved by . In such a case. (c) Minimum switching frequency controller. [53]–[55]. 8) [54]. [43]. VOL. or by means of a PLL control (Fig. the boundary of the error area (also called the switching or error curve) might have any form [Fig. NO. [69].

Hysteresis controller (h = 0:05). (c) Number of inverter switchings comparators. (a) Output currents. (a) Block scheme. . b: three-level comparators and lookup table working in the stationary. (d) Output vector current loci. (b) Phase current error. 6. N for a: three two-level hysteresis Fig.KAZMIERKOWSKI AND MALESANI: CC TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE VS-PWM CONVERTERS 697 (a) (b) (c) Fig. (b) Switching trajectory. Two-level hysteresis controller. 7. (c) Vector current area. and c: rotating coordinates.

As shown in [106]. 8. special techniques called DM or pulse density modulation (PDM) are used [70]–[82]. DM is very simple and insensitive to the load parameters. Decoupled. When applied to three-phase inverters with an insulated-neutral load. [76]. the DM current controller (DMCC) [74]. the selection of a rectangular error curve with higher length along rotor ﬂux direction [96]. constant average switching frequency hysteresis controller [54]. instead of performing independent DM in each phase control. a nonnegligible amount of subharmonics is generated [74]. the . robustness. 11(c)]. so that the inverter status is kept constant during each sampling interval. 6(a)]. no PWM is performed. this is equivalent to selecting the nearest available voltage vector commands So. an optimal algorithm selects the voltage vector which minimizes the rms current error for each resonant pulse [80]. If the sampling signal in the three-phase system is shifted 120 in each S&H block [Fig. respectively. 45. but is determined by the load parameters. OCTOBER 1998 Fig. Thus. the performance of the three-layer (architecture: 5-10-10-3) NNbased controllers differs only slightly from that of the optimal regulator [Fig. In fact. only one of the inverter legs will change its state during the sample This guarantees only adjacent and zero voltage period vector selection and. C. but also on the previous status. no further training of the NN is possible during controller operation. output vectors are chosen depending not only on the error vector. Therefore. the commutation process is restricted to the discrete time instants when the dc-link voltage pulses are zero [Fig. 9(b)]. which allows for the elimination of the on-line calculations needed to implement the optimal discrete CC of Fig. [79]. A simple example. Such a strategy achieves very good stationary and dynamic behavior even for low switching frequencies. 5(a)] only the voltage vector selector is required [Fig. 10(a). new emerging technologies such as NN’s and FL methods have been applied to PWM current control. B. Soft-Switched RDCL Converters In soft-switched RDCL three-phase converters with zerovoltage switching (ZVS). 2) Optimal Discrete Modulation Algorithm: For the RDCL converters. After training. However. [106]. Thus.698 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS. the time needed for the prediction and optimization procedures limits the achieved switching frequency. This mode of operation gives a discretization of the inverter output voltage. With this approach. 10(a). and generalization. The main advantages of DM-CC are extremely simple and tuning-free hardware implementation and good dynamics. In practice. but the operating principle is quite different. ac-side voltage. NN’s and FL-Based Controllers Recently. see Table I)] at this [Fig. 5. Therefore. only basic voltage vectors can be generated by the converter for a ﬁxed time. One effect of the discretization is that. Therefore. only the error sign is detected by the comparators. VOL. [81]. and sampling frequency. dc-link voltage. the mutual phase interference and the increased degree of freedom in the choice of voltage vector must be taken into account. c) Trajectory tracking control: This approach. same sampling frequency It is noted that the DM-CC can also be applied in the space-vector-based controllers working in either stationary or rotating coordinates [75]. so that the zero vector states become possible [73]. 11(a) and (b). They can be effectively used for CC [110]–[112]. instead of the PWM algorithm [Fig. a better quality of current waveform [lower rms. the NN-based controller can be used to regulate PWM converter output current without a need for the on-line calculation required for an optimal controller. Thus. The typical waveforms for discrete DM and optimal (minimum rms error) CC are shown in Fig. 2(b)]. [82]. to obtain comparable results. [115]–[117]. It looks quite similar to that of a hysteresis CC [Fig. the switching frequency is limited to the sampling frequency The amplitude of the current harmonics is not constant. proposed in [89] and [90]. errors and subharmonics typical of the discrete modulation are obtained. [77]. in more recently developed algorithms. is shown in Fig. when synthesizing periodic waveforms. 10(a)]. is shown in Fig. a reduced set of voltage vectors consisting of the two active vectors adjacent to the EMF vector and the zero voltage vector are considered for optimization without loss of quality [8]. NO. 1) NN’s Controllers: The main advantages of NN are parallel processing. Therefore. however. unlike the continuous variation of output voltages which is a particular feature of PWM. The three layers of the feedforward NN with sigmoidal nonlinearity—before using as a controller—were trained using a back propagation algorithm with randomly selected data from the output pattern of the optimal controller of Fig. 9(c)] [71]. 1) DM: The basic scheme. 10(b) [117]. combines an off-line optimized PWM pattern for steady-state operation with an on-line optimization to compensate for the dynamic tracking errors of converter currents. [93]. learning ability. the outputs of which are sampled at a ﬁxed rate. 9(a). consequently. However. Due to the sample-and-hold (S&H) block applied after the ideal comparator. J (for deﬁnitions. [120]. a DM should switch at a frequency about seven times higher than a PWM modulator [76].

(b) NN discrete modulation controller for RDCL converter. (a) (b) Fig. Current control in RDCL based on discrete modulation.KAZMIERKOWSKI AND MALESANI: CC TECHNIQUES FOR THREE-PHASE VS-PWM CONVERTERS 699 (a) (b) (c) Fig. (a) Optimal (mode) discrete modulation controller for RDCL converter. (b) Sampling techniques. From the top: I—line-to-line voltage u. (a) Basic scheme. (c) Quality factors. 11. 10. 9. Fig. DM current controller.

i. . II—current vector components i .

2 )1=2 . . IV—rms and J of current error (t): III—current error (2 + .

For systems where parameters variations have to be compensated. [112]. In [112]. performance of such an off-line trained NN controller depends upon the amount and quality of training data used and is also sensitive to parameter variations. an NN induction motor CC with parameter identiﬁcation . an on-line trained NN controller can be applied [111]. [116].

pp. However. This algorithm allows us to identify and control the motor currents within a few milliseconds. i. H. FL self-tuned PI controllers are used. Stanke. Khambadadkone. K. was proposed. i. the properties of the FL controller are very sensitive to any change of fuzzy . Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives. A. and A. 12(a). synchronous. NO. Amsterdam. Germany: Springer-Verlag. PCC’93.. Skudelny. “Analysis of different current control concepts for forced commutated rectiﬁer (FCR). the FLC is used as a substitute for the conventional PI compensator [114]. IEEE. V. VOL. Einf¨ uhrung in die Theorie geregelter Drehstrom-Antriebe. Applicat. Bose. vol. W. 5. especially for traction and high power units. pp. 562–570.” IEEE Trans. IEEE APEC’90. In particular. The advantages and limitations have been brieﬂy examined. pumps. the tracking error and transient overshoots of PWM current control can be considerably reduced [Fig. Ind. REFERENCES [1] B.. Holtz. PCI Conf. 1995. 2.and high-performance systems. S. even with some sacriﬁce in accuracy and dynamic performance. Rec. 1990. 12(b) and (c)]. 24. IA-21. 1985. 1194–1214. for low-performance applications with large diffusion (e. Germany: B. Englewood Cliffs. P. W. 142–150. Automatic Control of Converter-Fed Drives. (a) Block scheme of FL controller. To achieve very fast on-line training (8 s for one training cycle) a new algorithm called random weight change (RWC) is applied. (c) control surface of FL controller. Thus.” in Conf. and retroﬁt applications). Switzerland: Birkhauser. hysteresis. and D. Holtz. K. “Comparison of AC current regulators for IGBT inverter. “On continous control of PWM inverters in the overmodulation range including the six-step mode. is shown are in Fig. Use of linear predictive and on-line optimized CC is growing fast in medium. Power Electron. 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