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R. Bonert S. Rajakaruna

Indexing terms: Induction generator, Stand-alone generation, Load governing

Abstract: A capacitor-excited induction generator used with a hydraulic turbine in a stand-alone generating system can provide a high quality voltage and frequency control not matched by other small generating units. This is achieved without a turbine governor by using a controllable additional impedance on the load side. The control is achieved using a static converter. The analysis of the system and the design of the power and control system are presented. Measurements from an experimental unit are provided to verify the predicted performance.

R S

a

P

1

**rotor stator orthogonal component a orthogonal component P
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Introduction

The proposed generator system consists of a capacitorexcited induction generator driven by an unregulated hydraulic turbine without a speed governor as shown in Fig. 1. The generator supplies an isolated electric system indicated as an inductive resistive load in Fig. 1. The voltage and frequency control of the system is achieved by an impedance controller at the terminals of the generator. This principle is sometimes called electric load governing.

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List of symbols

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List of symbols and their definition, units are metric using the SI unit syslem. Variables C capacitance i current Im imaginary part of . i complex component J inertia k,m constant L inductance R resistance t time Tsh,To torque; shaft, constant V voltage a control angle of bridge 6 pulse width (of chopper Y flux linkage w frequency in radians Q mechanical $,peedin radians Indices ct controller

0IEE, 1998 IEE Proceedings online no. 19981680 Paper first received 10th October 1996 and in revised form 26th August

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impedance controller

1

phase controlled bridge chopper

I I I I

-I

Fig. 1

_ _ ----Turbine generator system and electric circuit

1997

R. Bonert is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 3G4, Canada S. Rajakaruna is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Katubedda Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

IEE Proc.-Gener. Tvansm. Dixtrib., Vol. 145,No. I . Junuury I998

As can be seen in Fig. 1 the impedance controller consists of a phase controlled bridge and a chopper switch connected to a resistor. This controller can consume real and reactive power. The amount of power is controlled by control of the bridge and the pulse width control of the chopper. The principle of operation is that the impedance controller picks up the real power and reactive power not used by the load, so that the load or the impedance seen by the generator at ils terminals is always constant. The voltage and frequency at the terminals of the generator will then be constant as well. Any change in load is immediately compen33

Using a flux linkage model with only one leakage inductance. The advantage of this system is that an expensive and slow turbine governor is not needed and the impedance controller is a three-terminal device connected to the generator providing a high quality voltage and frequency control. 2. J the inertia. as a result the inertia of the turbine can be added to the inertia of the induction machine. Distrib. The disadvantage is the restricted use of the principle of this control for hydraulic generation at rivers or dams with sufficient water. I . The turbine is then modelled by a torque-speed characteristic. The eighteen equations contain eighteen unknown variables.. current and flux linkage the stator and rotor equations and the mechanical equation can be written as: The last component to be modelled is the turbine. Fig. Transm. Tsh the torque and the indices R and S mark rotor and stator variables. January 1998 . where it does not matter whether water spills over the dam or some generated energy is dissipated in the resistor of the impedance controller. (4) 'ZR . 4. The negative slope m varies between 0. 2 Dynamic model of the turbine-generator system of the system including the capacitor for excitation of the induction generator and the load is shown in Fig.Ro) with Lm the magnetising inductance and L. Vol.sated by the impedance controller thus holding the impedance and therefore voltage and frequency at the generator terminals constant. A resistor representing the stator core losses may be added parallel to the magnetising inductance [2]. It is assumed that the coupling to the generator is stiff. Choosing to align the real axis of the reference system with the stator voltage and splitting the complex differential equations into real differential equations the complete system of equations results in eight real differential equations written in state space form and ten algebraic equations. No. differential equations Tsh = To . Section 11. Using complex variables for voltage. the leakage inductance.2 Dynamic equivalent circuit of generator system Using the space phasor description and selecting a reference system rotating synchronously with the stator voltage the induction machine can be described by the following differential equations [ 11.6 and 1. The equations are shown below. For the symbols used see the list in the Appendix. The differential equations describing the load and the capacitor referred to the synchronous frame of the induction machine's stator voltage are: (7) algebraic equations The complete equivalent circuit describing the dynamic 34 IEE Proc. 145.m(R . C2 the mechanical speed. The torquespeed relation of water turbines operated with a constant flow and head can be expressed by the linear relation [ 3 ] : n (3) with w the electrical frequency. The algebraic equations result directly from the equivalent circuit developed above.1 depending on the type of turbine. the flux linkage equations can be written as: - 9 s = imL. The above equations describe the turbine generator system with a typical load and the excitation capacitor completely.-Gener. The value of the magnetising inductance is modelled as depending on the magnitude of the stator flux linkage: (6) The load for the induction generator is modelled as a resistive inductive load with a resistor and inductor in Lm = f ( l Q ~ l ) series to represent the true dynamic behaviour of such loads.Gs = Z R L R ~ (5) (9) where To and Qo is any point on the straight line torque-speed characteristic corresponding to the given input hydro power.. To model the induction machine for operation as a selfexcited generator it is necessary to introduce saturation which can be assigned to the magnetising inductance in eqn.

. The remaining higher frequency harmonics are reduced by the capacitor on the ACside.O 0-. and as a result the remaining total harmonic distortion in the voltage is always less than 5%. io = 0. To solve these equations a new approach was developed which results In a very elegant way to find the steady state solution [4]. 0. The controller shown in Fig. The controller offers a wide range of fast impedance control and provides a proven reliable design. as shown in Figs. Fig. To keep the voltage harmonics injected by the impedance controller low.4 -0 0. an approach which analyses only the fundamental components of the con35 .aLp (26) for i o 5 i .i = io and the measured curve is adequately approximated. 145.11. Modelling the selected controller is difficult. i for 0 5 i . 4a and b and described in detail in [4].167 measured _ _ _ _ approximated 3 Steady state model and solution The 18 steady state equations describing the system behaviour are derived from eqns.i o ) ) b aca = --asa . frequency and stator current.a~~ a. Furthermore the derivative falls monotonously and the inverse function is readily available. The decisive step to this general solution results from rewriting the steady state equations such that the single phase equivalent circuit representing the equations contains only elements parallel to the magnetising inductance. (29) The constants k l .0 - Based on the steady state solution it is possible to calculate the operating conditions for any set of parameters. n & m 1. No. 10-27 using eqns.2 a ._ c 3 8 0.ap = -%ssp .In the general case of variable speed the system of equations leads always to only one nonlinear transcendental equation for the frequency which has to be solved numerically.. the value of the excitation capacitor and the value of the load impedance to achieve a specific desired operating point for voltage. This approach includes earlier solutions [ S .4- 1.8 .4 0. Vol. 3. the chopper is switched synchronised to the pulses of the phase controlled bridge at five times the pulse frequency of the bridge. IEE ProcGener. January 1998 Several solutions to build an impedance controller are possible. is derived.6 0. is approximated by Qs = kl . This holds true independently of the choice of the structure of the equation of the magnetising characteristic. io are determined such that the derivative &ldi is cclntinuous at .6 iii 4- 0. An example of the good approximation is shown in Fig. as different modes of continuous and discontinuous conductions have to be analysed.87. 6 . II ----LRS c__--------------- 1 ' I I I 1 (27) The magnetising (characteristic from which L. Tuansm. = 2.3 Approximation of the magnetising characteristic b = 3. 28 and 29. This approximation has the advantage that it matches most magnetising characteristics very accurately from the linear region well into the saturation region.4 - . The choice was made to describe the controller as a device providing real and imaginary current components at a given AC voltage as function of the control angle a of the bridge and the pulse width 6 of the chopper.8 magnetising current per unit 1.2 0. I 1. Since the harmonics are limited. On the other hand it is also possible to determine the required settings of the torque Tsh.4 Steady state equivalent circuit a Full b Reduced 1. The resulting system of equations is nonlinear. 1 was proposed in [7] and was chosen for this project.2 k. the speed Q. io kl +arctan(b(im . These calculations provide the base to determine the rating of the impedance controller. 61 but is more general and the mathematical formulae are much simpler. 4 Model of the impedance controller Y . 5 io (28) Qs = 1%1 . ~ Fig. Distrib. I .

. But even this approach results in very complex formulae. .. The dynamic model for the impedance controller can be obtained by assigning a first-order delay to each of the converters. .... Neglecting the slow turbine influence.. The constant numerical values in the equations have been chosen to achieve a close match between the exact and the approximate model. pu 1.......2 real component. They model the steady state behaviour of the proposed impedance controller.5 Control range o f the controller The results of the steady state analysis provide the calculation of the required controller currents which together with the load impedance result to the desired operating point of frequency and voltage of the generating system.0 Fig.. The system measures the instant space phasor of the load current and compares this current with the desired generator-capacitor current i*Gc to provide the command value of the controller current isct.6 c C 2 8 ? 2 . small changes in the head.8 ___structure o f plant Fig. Since the major disturbance is the change in load impedance.. that the phase is primarily determined by the control angle a of the phase controlled bridge. If the controller current is zero.. No I January 1998 .. 6 inside the dotted box... Fig. Based on this strategy a principle diagram of the control structure of the system can be drawn in terms of current components as shown inside the dashed box in Fig...... ... 5.troller current is justified.4 0.. 6 shows that for required constant voltage and frequency the generator current iGhas to be constant. As a result the real and imaginary component of the controller current iCt... and iCtp can be expressed as a function of the bridge control angle a and the chopper pulse width 6 as: are fast changes of the load.. ...2 0 0 0.. current iGC The required controller is a fast feedforward control system shown in Fig.B E ’- 0.. . I 0. such that the resulting is constant in magnitude and phase..6 2.. 6 is described by the equations discussed earlier...6 Control structure of the voltage andfiequency control . Since the capacitor current ic is constant the generator-capacitor current iGC has to be held constant to maintain voltage and frequency constant. and for a given control angle of the bridge the amplitude of the current is proportional to the chopper pulse width 6. . The load changes its real power as well as the power factor.. too complex to yield a reasonable controller model.. The delay for the chopper is modelled by half the pulsewidth which is 0.. 30 and 31 are used for the actual control.. Fortunately closer examination of the complex equations and simulations suggests an approximate model describing the controller current as a space-phasor specified in magnitude and phase. It is then shown in [8]. e... 6 are all space-phasors. The two equations eqns..g.3ms.. Further.4 0. . but small and slow-changing disturbances. as reported in [8]. As a result the control task is to compensate any change in load current iL immediately by a controller current i. Vol 145. ... The delay for the bridge is modelled as usual with a time constant of half the pulsewidth at 60Hz which is 1. and from parameter changes due to temperature. . To complete the idea of just compensating currents. ..... .. the IEE Proc -Gener Transm Distrrb . the proposed impedance controller could be used to rapidly compensate any impedance change in the load.... The main disturbances 36 A successful strategy for the controller system design was found by assuming that a perfect voltage and frequency control had been achieved. The difficulty in this approach is to determine the actual load impedance and to derive then the required controller signals. after which the task to control impedance becomes the task of controlling the current. 6.21 ms. can be expected from the water situation.The control algorithm uses the formulae eqns. structure o f feedforward control ” ’ I -3 C l 0.. where imax(a) is the maximum possible current for a given delay angle a(6 = 1). The smallest possible controller current is zero. one has to keep in mind that the controller can only consume real power and that it can only provide inductive reactive power. As a result of these considerations the control effort should first be directed at compensating the large and fast load changes to maintain constant voltage and frequency.. . 30 and 31 to determine the control angle a and the pulse width 6 which fed to the controller provide the desired controller current to keep the current iGC constant and therefore keep the voltage and frequency constant. The currents shown in Fig.8 1. 5 Concept of the closed-loop frequency and voltage control To develop the controller structure.. Based on the above model the control range of the controller in terms of real and imaginary current components can be calculated and is shown in per unit as fbnction of the control angle a and the pulse width P W in Fig.. The dynamic of the blocks shown in Fig. typical disturbances have to be considered..

This set-up permits adjustment of the DC machine characteristic to any desired slope. To determine the parameters of the feedback regulator a small-signal analysis was carried out. The impact of the different delays of the impedance controller and the approximation of the impedance controller had to be studied. The feedforward current compensation elimipensating for the fast-changing load current. Based on this knowledge and keeping in mind that the feedback loop has to handle only slow disturbances. The gating pulses for the chopper and the variable frequency phase controlled bridge are gen37 . These errors can mainly be traced to the approximations used to describe the impedance controller.ZL (32) The simulation confirmed the proposed concept and Fig. This required feedback control is shown in Fig. there will always be a small deviation from the desired steady state value. 9.b a d current is at its possible maximum current iLmax = ulators. 6 . the delays used in modelling the behaviour of the proposed impedance controller and the two PI-regIEE Proc -Gener Transm Du rib.9 Signal electronic and instrumentationfor the experimental generator system 7 Implementation of the proposed controls and verification by measurements The purpose of the simulation was to verify the concept of the fast feedforward control and the simplified and slow corrective control as proposed. Z C t = ZLmax . 7 shows the space-phasor diagram of the currents predicted excellent results for the frequency and voltage to visualise the proposed feedforward control of comcontrol. by the ice If the load current is smaller than the maximum. nates all fast transient disturbances resulting from the change in load current. 8. Using only the feedforward strategy to compensate the change in load current small steady state errors occur as expected. torque To and speed Qo to resemble the desired turbine characteristic. chopper pulse \ Fig. January 1998 To test the controller a power system with a 3kVA induction machine consisting of the required components was set up as shown in Fig. The static decoupler was based on the gains of the system and the PI regulator time constants were selected slower than the time constant of the dominant pair of poles. Vol 145. The simulation was carried out using and therefore the voll age and the frequency constant is the interactive simulation system ISIPC at the University of Toronto [9]. This control has to correct the command of the maxisuch that deviations in fremum load current iLmax quency and voltag? become zero. The choice of slow regulators separates the fast transients of the feedforward control very clearly from the feedback control and avoids that these two systems are fighting each other. As parameters may change or are not known accurately and since the feedforward algorithm as proposed is only approximate. To solve this problem a closed-loop feedback control for voltage and frequency is required. The gain of the regulators was selected to be considerably smaller than one. Fig. The hydraulic turbine was implemented using a DC machine with adjustable armature voltage. approximation of the impedance controller and by the the controller currenl required to keep the current iGC static decoupler. adjustable field and a larger adjustable armature circuit resistor. 6 Simulation of the power system and the proposed controls Fig. The complele system consists of 12 nonlinear differential equations resulting from the proposed model. The result showed a dominant pair of poles. The circuits for the proposed controllers and the electronic circuits to control the bridge and the chopper were built using the microcontroller MC68332 as shown in Fig. No 1. it was decided to use only two simple and slow PI-type regulators and provide a static decoupler only.7 Feedforward comptnsation o f loud current - As with all feedforward controls a precise knowledge of the system and its parameters is required to compensate completely for the disturbance. Included in the simulation are the algebraic i*GC which is equal i o the generator-capacitor current equations as defined by the system model.8 3 kVA experimental generator system I .

The values shown are the magnitude and frequency of the space-phasor of the stator voltage as measured and calculated by the microcontroller. +23% 1. The control is implemented as a dual rate sampled data system.4 : 0 1. it is possible to reduce the impact of nonsymmetrical loads on the symmetry of IEE Proc -Gener Transm Distrib . This is one of the harshest conditions. If I Fig. Voltage and frequency are shown in per unit (pu) of the rated values. The results are very good and confirm the predictions of the simulation. : time of change "bc 100 V 0 In the first test a load operating at 90% of rated current at power factor 0.0 2.04 : I .94 :f 0 0./. The dashed line indicates 38 -100 Fiy. 12 shows the stator line-to-line voltage Vb.5 1. :J. To demonstrate the system performance several tests with different load changes have been carried out.0 b 0.0 3.98 m 1 . time of change 1. with a sample rate of 3kHz in general and a slow sample rate of 60Hz for the frequency measurement and the slow closed loop frequency regulator and voltage regulator.0 1.5 4.94 .96 - I I ' time of change I 0. three of them will be discussed. Vol 145. and a load transient of 50% from full load to half load at about constant power factor. 8 Nonsymmetrical loads and automatic start up Using the experimental set-up and the established simulation further studies were carried out [IO]. . The complete software for the gating control. but smaller changes are so well controlled.+84% 1.0 time. No I .5 4 2.s a 2. The result of this study is that due to the fast switching chopper. Looking at the actual line-toline voltage of the stator the small change in spacephasor amplitude and frequency can hardly be seen.6 0. as pure resistive loads cause the fastest load current changes possible.04 3 Q 1. Fig.5 4. The first study concentrated on the feasibility of handling nonsymmetrical loads and compensating by the impedance controller.04 I I steadv - +30y0 1. 10a and b show the change in voltage and frequency in response to this large change in load.5 3.___ ' time o f change 0.8 is changed by sudden switching to a load at 45% of rated current at about the same power factor of 0. the disturbance for the unregulated generator. l l a and b show the change of voltage and frequency in response to the second test transient.00 0. This is a very large change in load and rather untypical for such a system. that not much can be observed.J I I I time$ b 0. the analog I/O and the keyboard I/O is written in the C-language.The uncontrolled transient is indicated in these graphs with a dashed line. The second test shows a resistive load running at about 80% of rated current being switched to about 8% of rated current. .94 c j.06 - I I I 0.76.98 0.5 I I I I I I 1. feedforward control only __ controlled response _ _ _ _ uncontrolled response 2 0. A 16 bit fixed point number system is used for the arithmetic. January 1998 .02 1. This kind of test indicates the behaviour of the system at transients such as load shedding or reclosure after the trip of a switch.0 3.5 2.0 1. .erated in the microcontroller.5 3.2 r------- . Figs. the control and regulator algorithms.0 .96 0.06 I 2 1. 12 Measurements: variation of the generator line-to-line voltage at 50A load change Both examples demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed control. Figs.I 1 Measurements test 2 Variation of a generator voltage and b frequency 70% load change. The offset which can be seen is due to the fact that the displayed traces are the response with only the feedforward control active.

1993.K.. S. A. 1991). and ARNDT. ZEEE Trans. 1. 1993 BONERT. Power S y ~ t ..: ‘Electric machines and drives’ (Addison-Wesley.S.: ‘Analysis of self-excited induction generators’. pp. pp 4.E.E. pp. ZEEE Trans. 10 References Conclusions The self-excited induction generator in a stand-alone generating system WIth a hydraulic turbine using the principle of electric load governing by an impedance controller can provide excellent voltage and frequency control. 1995 IEE ProcGener. The principle of the proposed impedance controller is general and can be used for other impedance control SLEMON. Energy Convers..H. S. pp. . University of Toronto. This is a very good result. 4.. J. Diplomarbeit. The proposed system is also applicable to synchronous generators including generators with permanent magnet excitation.the stator voltages considerably. 5. and TANDON. IEE. 1990. January 1998 39 . and HOOPS. 1986. 9 tasks. G. J. 1978. 134139 GULLIVER. pp. Energy Convers. and BONERT. C.. and HAQUE. ZEEE Trans. 1992) MALIK.. O. The nonsymmetry is defined as the amplitude of the negative sequence current to the positive sequence current. IEEE Trans. R. MALIK.1989. it is possible to achieve a voltage and frequency regulation not offered by other small generating systems. 28-31 RAJAKARUNA.: ‘Control of a stand-alone self-excited induction generator driven by an unregulated turbine’. With state of the art electronics and the appropriate control concept. ZEE Proc. (3). Proc.B. University of Toronto and University of Karlsruhe. Germany. 129. 757-161 ARILLAGA. EC-I. Transm. G. The control strategy developed holds the voltage and frequency variations of the stator voltage within 2% at 25% nonsymmetry.. Distrib. pp~ 743-746 MURTHY.A. 1982. PhD thesis. N. 8. (l). pp.. The automatic system senses the sudden increase in stator voltage of the generator as soon as the self-excitation process takes place and stabilises the voltage and frequency to the desired values upon which the load can be connected by the main switch to the generator system. (6).: ‘A technique for the steady state analysis of a self-excited induction generator with variable speed’.: ‘Static power conversion from self-excited induction generators’. 125.: ‘Stand alone induction generator with terminal impedance controller and no turbine controls’.404. 260-265 BONERT. (8). R.: ‘Interactive simulation of dynamic systems on a personal computer to support teaching’.. A second study developed a control strategy for automatic start up of the generator turbine set assuming no external pow1:r is available and the system is started by opening the gate of the penstock which causes the turbine to start up.: ‘Automatic start-up and unbalanced load behaviour of an electronically controlled induction generator system’. R. E. D.P. 145. and WATSON. 380-383 10 RUYTER. No..R.43 RAJAKARUNA. S. Department of Electrical Engineering. Vol.: ‘Steady state analysis and performance of an isolated self-excited induction generator’.. (4).: ‘Hydropower engineering handbook’ (McGraw-Hill.S. S. (I). R.

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