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• What is Pore Pressure? • Abnormal Pressure Origins • Pore Pressure Evaluation
• ROP & Drilling Exponents • MWD and Wireline Logs • Shale Density and Factor • Formation Gases • Temperature • Borehole Condition
• Pore Pressure Estimation
4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 1
WHAT IS PORE PRESSURE?
Formation Pressure Evaluation School
What is Pore Pressure?
• Pore pressure is the pressure exerted by pore fluids.
• Normal pore pressure = Normal hydrostatic pressure • Subnormal pore pressure < Normal hydrostatic pressure • Abnormal pore pressure > Normal hydrostatic pressure
Water Type Salinity Clmg/l 0 to 1500 Salinity NaCl mg/l 0 to 2500 Water Density gm/cc 1.00
• Normal pore pressure reflects the water density in the basin of deposition. • Fluid density is a function of the concentration of dissolved salts. Varying salinity causes varying fluid density.
Sea Water (Example) Formation Waters (Example) Salt Water saturated in NaCl
10000 36000 48000 60000 192667
16500 60000 80000 100000 317900
1.01 1.04 1.05 1.07 1.20
Formation Pressure Evaluation School
Formation Pressure Evaluation School 4 . 4/21/2013 Pore Pr. Pr. • Fluids will escape during compaction and the rock grains accept all of the overburden stress.Formation Pressure What is Normal Pore Pressure? • Pore pressure will remain normal if there is good hydraulic communication between the sediments and the depositional basin. = Hyd. • Pore fluids will maintain a normal hydrostatic pressure.
Formation Pressure Evaluation School 5 .Formation Pressure What is Abnormal Pore Pressure? • Abnormal formation pressures develop when some process limits the hydraulic communication. the trapped pore fluids accept a greater share of the overburden stress. 4/21/2013 Pore Pr. > Hyd. Pr. • This has the effect of raising the pore pressure above normal hydrostatic pressure. • In this case.
. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 7 .show gross changes in pore water salinity.regional curves or formation water density tables generally only give an approximation for the area.. Rw Tables – Rw is the total resistivity of the water and assumes the presence of NaCl.Formation Pressure How to Measure Pore Pressure? • • • • • • Production Samples such as DST’s. Mud Chlorides . • When all else fails .used to calculate Rw. a bucket and a mud balance. RFT Samples . Resistivity Logs . It does not differentiate between other salts and dissolved gases with different densities. • Offset Data . TesTrak LWD data.restricted to potential reservoir areas.
• • • • • • Surface communication Concentration of dissolved salts Percentage of effective porosity Degree of overburden Geothermal gradient Percentage of gas • Most important of these is Surface Communication • Once communication has been halted the other factors will take effect.. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 8 ..Formation Pressure Magnitude of Pore Pressure • The magnitude of pore pressure will depend on one or any of .
Temp. Gradient Gas. Elogs. Flows.Formation Pressure The Plan • Offset Well Data • Rw Catalogues • Resistivity Logs • Bucket on a Rope PORE WATER DENSITY “S” (from 1) rf (2) Pore Pressure Normal Hydrostatic Pr. atm Normal Pore Pr. etc. Estimated Pore Pressure and FB Gradient (Fluid Properties) Formation Balance Gradient (“P” / TVD from flowline) (“P” / TVD from water level) MINIMUM STATIC MUD DENSITY 9 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School . Normal Pore Pressure “P” in psi. Kicks. bars. Dxc.
Formation Pressure ORIGINS OF ABNORMAL PRESSURE 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 10 .
– Young sediments 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 11 .Formation Pressure Abnormal Pressure Environments • There are several geologic conditions favorable to the development of abnormal pressure.
Formation Pressure Abnormal Pressure Environments • There are several geologic conditions favorable to the development of abnormal pressure. – Young sediments – Large total thickness – Presence of clay rocks 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 12 .
Formation Pressure Abnormal Pressure Environments • There are several geologic conditions favorable to the development of abnormal pressure. – – – – Young sediments Large total thickness Presence of clay rocks Interbedded sandstones of limited extent 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 13 .
Formation Pressure Abnormal Pressure Environments • There are several geologic conditions favorable to the development of abnormal pressure. – – – – Young sediments Large total thickness Presence of clay rocks Interbedded sandstones of limited extent – Rapid loading and burial 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 14 .
• There are three main mechanisms • Ineffective pore space (volume) reduction • Volume expansion • Fluid movement Mechanisms within Mechanisms • • • • • • • • • 4/21/2013 Compaction Disequilibrium Aquathermal Pressuring Clay Diagenesis Sulphate Diagenesis Salt Diapirism Tectonic Activity Hydrocarbon Maturation & Placement Piezometric Changes Osmosis 15 Formation Pressure Evaluation School .Formation Pressure Abnormal Pressure Mechanisms • Abnormal pressure develops when de-watering is restricted.
• De-watering decreases the porosity and increases the density of the sediment. • Normal clay compaction will depend on an overall balance between : • Clay permeability • Sedimentation and burial rate • Drainage efficiency 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 16 . • Overburden acts as the main cause for fluid expulsion.Formation Pressure Normal Sediment Compaction • Under normal conditions sediments will de-water with burial.
) 20 Solid (% initial vol.6 1000m 73 3000m 75.000m interval. at a depth of 3.3 20 7 20 Interstitial Water 4.) Porosity can vary from 80% to less than 10% over a 5.9 Expelled Water (% initial vol.000m the total volume of water expelled is more than 75% of the original volume of the argillaceous sediment.Formation Pressure Normal Sediment Compaction Surface 300m 66. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 17 . Using data for the Gulf Coast of Mexico.1 (% initial vol.) 80 20 13.
• De-watering is stopped or slowed down. • This has the effect of increasing the formation pore pressure 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 18 .Formation Pressure Compaction Disequilibrium • Some sort of seal must be in place. • Overburden pressures are transferred to the pore fluids rather than normal grain to grain contact.
Formation Pressure Differential Compaction • Can occur in interbedded sand/shale formations. • Eventually further dewatering from within the shale body stops. • Shales next to the sands de-water more readily. • Water escapes along the path of least resistance. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 19 . • Pore pressure increases. become compacted and less permeable.
Formation Pressure Volume Expansion Due to Hydrocarbon Generation • With temperature and pressure. Volume Increase > Dry Gas > Wet Gas. • This conversion is associated with a volume expansion. kerogens are converted to oil and gas. • This will give rise to an increase in the pore pressure. Condensate > Oil Type II Kerogen } 20 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School .
• The amount of pressure rise will depend upon – density of the fluid – amount of temperature increase – effectiveness of the seal The resultant pressure increase for a fluid of 1.0 SG (8.Formation Pressure Volume Expansion Due to Aquathermal Pressuring • If temperature is applied to pore water it will increase in volume. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 21 .34 PPG) with a rise in temperature from 50C to 75C is 5. There is the question whether the seal can actually withstand the aquathermal pressure.600psi. It is more likely that this is an extra drive to break seals and keep systems dynamic.
• This water may be able to escape or it may be trapped by the now low porosity/low permeability Illite. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 22 . space is created which is filled by the released water.Formation Pressure Clay Diagenesis • Smectite rich clays dehydrate losing their interstitial water as compaction occurs. • Abnormal pressure may be caused by the presence of trapped water and the formation of impermeable seals by Illite. • As the clays compact.
• Rehydration is accompanied by an increase in volume which may also generate abnormal pressures. Gypsum dehydrates to form anhydrite and free water. In the presence of halite this may be around 25 C. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 23 . • CaSO4.Formation Pressure Sulphate Diagenesis • • • • Gypsum is the precipitated form of CaSO4 Gypsum will transform to anhydrite above 40 C.2H2O • Gypsum << >> CaSO4 + 2H2O << >> Anhydrite + Water • Up to 38% of the original water volume is released so abnormal pressure can develop if this fluid cannot escape.
the formation of abnormal pressures. • Extension causes fractures to open and therefore fluid dissipation or movement to other zones • Compression has two main effects: • The easy expulsion of fluids. • The difficult expulsion of fluids. • Abnormal pressures can progress to induce hydraulic fracturing. leading to compaction and therefore the formation of normal fluid pressures.Formation Pressure Tectonic Activity • Tectonic activity will cause stress regimes which will extensional or compressional. which causes undercompaction. leading to the expulsion of pore fluids and ultimately the formation of normal pore pressure. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 24 .
Formation Pressure Tectonic Activity Extension Extension Compression Compression Amount of Shortening Possible Geopressured Zones 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 25 .
4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 26 . Note that besides pressure in the isolated rafts. you may also have dangerous gases such as hydrogen sulphide trapped. most of which are noted in the cross-section above.Formation Pressure Salt Diapirism uplifted paleopressure osmosis trapped pressure under salt sheets osmosis trapped pressure and confinement isolated rafts with paleopressure Banff Diapir & Salt Field • • Salt diapirism can cause the formation of abnormal pressure in a variety of ways.
A water table above the height of the rig will have abnormal pressure on penetrating the aquifer. will show a pressure that is subnormal for drilling purposes.Formation Pressure Piezometric Changes • A low water table. or an aquifer with an outcrop below the water table. • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 27 . which will cause the fluid to rise to the piezometric level to equalise the pressure imbalance. This is not as dramatic as abnormal pressure but the resulting lost circulation will cause a loss of control of the hydrostatic pressure in the well which could result in well control problems. When the seal is punctured fluids in the aquifer will rise to this level to equalise the pressure.
Movement will continue until the salinity’s are equal or pressure prevents further movement. That pressure may be up to 4000psi where shales act as semi-permeable membranes. Clays SALTS 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 28 .Formation Pressure Osmosis MWD Resistivity • • • Osmosis is the spontaneous movement of ions in water down a concentration gradient from fresh to saline.
Formation Pressure PORE PRESSURE EVALUATION 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 29 .
operator experience is very important 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 30 . The techniques only provide expectations. • • Developed for argillaceous rocks. Of course.Formation Pressure Pore Pressure Evaluation • All methods are a function of mechanism. – Compaction – Tectonic – Thermodynamic • • Compaction techniques are best developed. Use direct or indirect porosity determination.
pit volume.Formation Pressure Pressure Evaluation Tools • Prior to drilling – – – – Surface geophysical Regional geology Seismic Offset data • After drilling – Wireline logs – Pressure tests – Data analysis • While drilling – – – – Drilling parameters . resistivity. pump pressure etc.gamma ray. volume. salinity etc. MWD / LWD / PWD .drill rate. density etc.gas. shape. sonic. shale factor etc Formation Pressure Evaluation School 31 4/21/2013 . torque. dxc. Drilling fluid . temperature. size. Geology .shale density.
Formation Pressure Pressure Evaluation Tools 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 32 .
– Provide estimations based on expected normal compaction.Formation Pressure Pressure Evaluation Techniques Normal Trend • Of the many techniques used to detect and quantify abnormal pore pressure. all generally have the same features in common – Use clay/shale lithologies. – Give indirect measurements of porosity. Resistivity Porosity should decrease with depth Resistivity should increase with decrease of porosity Trend reversal may indicate pore pressure increase x x Overpressure 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 33 .
• ROP can be used in abnormal pressure detection providing the following factors are taken into account: • • • • • lithology compaction differential pressure weight on bit rotary speed • • • • torque hydraulics bit type and wear personnel and equipment 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 34 .Formation Pressure ROP’s and Drilling Exponents • All factors being equal. the penetration rate will gradually decrease with increasing depth due to the decreasing formation porosity.
• Historically the Dxc (Corrected Drilling Exponent) we use came from: – Bingham (1964) – Jorden & Shirley (1966) – Rehm & McClenden (1971) 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School Observed Normal trend Normal 35 . • They aimed to eliminate the effects of drilling parameter variations and try to give a measure of formation “drillability”.Formation Pressure ROP’s and Drilling Exponents • Drilling Exponents are used to “normalise” the ROP.
Formation Pressure ROP’s and Drilling Exponents • Rehm & McClenden (1971) suggested correcting the “d” exponent to take into account the effects of differential pressure between the formation pressure and the regional hydrostatic pressure: d = log10 R/ 60N log10 12W / 106 D x NFBG ECD R = ft/hr N = RPM W = pounds D = inches R = m/hr N = RPM W = tonnes D = inches ECD = ppg NFBG = ppg d = 1.58 .26 .log10 W / D x NFBG ECD ECD = SG NFBG = SG • This had the effect of removing the “masking effect” when mud weights were increased and also emphasised the shift in Dxc values when entering an abnormal pressure zone. Formation Pressure Evaluation School 36 4/21/2013 .log10 R / N 1.
Mud hydraulics Bit type and wear Post 1970’s technology • highly deviated long reach wells. • PDC bits. • improved mud systems. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School Normal trend Normal Observed 37 . better hole cleaning control.Formation Pressure ROP’s and Drilling Exponents • Drilling Exponents do not take into account – – – – Lithology. • improved cutting efficiency of insert bits. unconformities etc. • rotary closed loop systems.
Normal Pressure • In soft clays the bit jets away the formation and gives a low & scattered dxc curve. The trend line has been established in the normally pressured claystones. Geopressure can be seen below the calcitic claystone. Care must be taken to confirm that the trend shift is due to pressure and not just the lithology.
Soft Clay Silty Clyst Calc Clyst
Formation Pressure Evaluation School
• Drilling through an alternating sequence of shales and sands a trend line can be established for the shales only in a normally pressured zone. When entering the abnormally pressured zone then shales will show deviations from its trend line. Sands may or may not show a similar change in trend. Do Not try to draw trends through sandstones.
Formation Pressure Evaluation School
• When drilling with different types of bit, trends can be established for each bit run. These trends can be smoothed into a continuous plot. Care must be taken when doing this for if a geopressured zone is entered at the start of a new bit run then the data could be misinterpreted as being normal.
Formation Pressure Evaluation School
8 1/ 2” Smoothed Data 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 41 .Formation Pressure 12 1/4” Drilling Exponents Interpretation • When a new hole section is drilled there will be a shift in the Dxc values to the right. Again the data can be smoothed using trend lines.
Formation Pressure Drilling Exponents Interpretation • Towards the end of a bit run. this is because the bit is not drilling as efficiently as previously. bit wear can be seen as an increase in the Dxc values. NB #3 Bit wear NB #4 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 42 .
Normally Pressured Over Pressured Fresh Bit 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School Dull Bit 43 .Formation Pressure Drilling Exponents Interpretation • If an abnormally pressured zone is drilled with a dull bit then the magnitude of the shift to the left is reduced when compared to drilling with a fresh bit.
Formation Pressure Drilling Exponents Beware the Failings of Dxc • You have to be judge and jury on the quality of Dxc data before you present you material to the drilling team. and against your prediction of pressure. • As we will see later. • Do not be afraid to say that you cannot make an estimation at this time on the evidence so far presented . • You have to look at every argument and set of evidence. trendline placement will be a key concern in the evaluation! 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 44 . both in favour of.You can say that the evidence is inconclusive but only as long as you have looked at all of the evidence available on the well.
• Gamma will be used to pick the shale points.Formation Pressure Wireline and MWD Logs • All of the following e-logs have and can be used to aid in pressure evaluation. – – – – Resistivity Logs Sonic/Acoustic Logs Gamma Ray Logs Density Logs • We will concentrate on resistivity and sonic logs for pressure evaluation. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 45 .
• This will be reflected by a decrease in resistivity. • In a homogeneous argillaceous formation an increase in porosity may indicate an increase in pore pressure. Normal Trend x x Overpressure 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 46 .Formation Pressure Resistivity Logs • With compaction pore water will be released and the formation resistivity should increase.
Shale gas may give values that are too high. hand picked data points. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 47 x x . Shales near salts may give values that are too low. Age boundaries and unconformities will probably cause a shift in trends. Plot consistent resistivity values from the curve. Again. Don’t use values within 10 feet of the top of a sand. trendline placement may be a key concern. Values above 3500 ft may be influenced by possible freshening of formation pore water and low temperatures. Note : It’s better to have a few. than hundreds of data points from a wireline file.Formation Pressure Resistivity Logs Picking Shale Points from Resistivity Logs • • • • • • • • • Use the gamma ray (or SP) curve to identify shale beds. The latter STILL need evaluation for shale points. Shales should be clean and at least 30 feet thick. good.
• • • • • Sonic logs register the Transit Time (Delta T) of a formation. The delta t for a rock is a measure of its porosity Lower transit times = faster acoustic velocity = lower porosity = higher density On encountering a zone of abnormal pressure. the Delta T will increase due to increased porosity. only shale points should be used for pressure evaluation. x x 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 48 . Delta T is measured in usecs/ft.Formation Pressure Sonic / Acoustic Logs • Sonic logs can be used both for bulk density calculations as we have seen. As with Dxc and resistivity. and pore pressure evaluation.
Formation Pressure The Other Logs • Gamma Ray : it has been proposed that greater porosity reduces the strength of the gamma ray & this may be used to calculate pore pressure. • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 49 . so GR is used mostly to identify lithology. The method was not successfully proven. Density Logs : can be used for OBG and pore pressure evaluation. Limitations include their infrequent use during the well and their shallow depth of investigation and need for caliper correction.
the flowline temperature should increase with depth.Formation Pressure Temperature Analysis • • • • • With uninterrupted drilling. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 50 . The rate of temperature increase with depth is the Geothermal Gradient. An overpressured zone will have high fluid content and will distort the temperature gradient. Fluid in pore spaces cause abnormalities in the heat transfer. The earth’s core radiates heat outwards.
Any changes seen in the mud temperature after correction must indicate changes in the borehole.Formation Pressure Temperature Analysis • Evaluations based on geothermal gradient reflects changes in the return mud flow. Temperature data from MWD tools may also be used when available. • • • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 51 . Therefore the temperature probe in the possum belly must be kept clear of cuttings and other debris.
Formation Pressure Temperature Analysis • Temperature may be affected by • • • Lithology Penetration rate Mud additions • • • • • • • • • Flow rate & pump speed Hole size Depth Mud type Length of riser Type of bit Hole and string geometry Surface temperature Breaks in rotation 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 52 .
Formation Pressure Temperature Analysis SEALED GEOPRESSURED ZONE Good Heat Absorption Good Insulator but Poor Heat Conductor ISOTHERMS 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 53 .
Formation Pressure Temperature Analysis Average = 3 degrees C / 100m When plotted. followed by a sharp rise in the pressured zone itself. Geothermal Gradient Transition Zone GEOPRESSURE Mud Temperature Out 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 54 . you may see a decrease in the gradient in the transition zone.
Be aware of . trip & swab gas Mobile Drillstring against Gas • background gas & swab gas ECD against Gas • background gas • • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 55 ..Formation Pressure Gas Analysis • For the mudlogger this is probably the most important evidence for pressure evaluation available.. Note that any evaluation is dependant on lagtime. • • • • Drilling Rate against Gas • background gas Static Mud against Gas • connection.
swelling ordiffusion if differential pressure is negative. Recycled Gas . Produced Gas .gas released from the drilled formation.gas from petroleum products in the mud or from thermal breakdown of additives.gas issuing from the borehole walls. Gas in Water Shale Gas Caving Swelling Gas • • Eruptive Oil Cuttings Diffusion Invasion 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 56 . May be due to caving. Contamination Gas . for example.Formation Pressure Gas Analysis • • Cuttings Gas .gas that is returned down the hole from surface if. degassers are not working. Breakdown of organic matter such as shales or thermal effects of the bit can also give rise to hydrocarbons.
Is this pressure related or simply a function faster drilling producing more cuttings which produce more gas? What other data would help you decide if necessary? 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 57 .Formation Pressure Gas Analysis Depth 400 ROP ft/hr 0 Lithology 0 %GAS 10 3250 Here you see the background gas rising gradually as the rates of penetration increase.
Depth Background Gas This is indicative of swabbing. lithology variations or gas from cavings.Formation Pressure Gas Analysis Background Gas stable with sporadic Connection Gas. Connection Gas 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 58 . This is not characteristic of formation pressure variation.
4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 59 . Characteristic of entering a transition zone.Formation Pressure Gas Analysis Background Gas stable with increasing Connection Gas. Depth The stable background indicates that there is still a positive differential pressure with ECD but the fact that the connection gas is increasing indicates this is in decline.
Formation Pressure Gas Analysis Background and connection gas are indicating that drilling is proceeding into a negative differential pressure condition at the bit through entry into an overpressured zone. Depth 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 60 .
Formation Pressure Gas Analysis Cxn Gas with Kelly System Cxn Gas with Top Drive Depth 400 ROP ft/hr 0 Lithology 0 %GAS 10 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 DANGER Less Frequent & Less Visible 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 61 .
Broad face Cross section 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 65 . 1 cm.Formation Pressure Cuttings Character Side view Typical cavings from drilling underbalanced Note the delicate. Growth dependant on amount of underbalance and lithology. spikey shape. Size: Starting small .
Failure due to rock mechanics and borehole angle.Formation Pressure Cuttings Character Side view Stress relief or borehole failure cavings.Typical blocky shape showing fine cracks. Size based on internal stresses and rock competence. Broad face Cross section 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 66 .
Are you seeing torque build up from cuttings beds? The beds generally form in hole angles from 45 and 55 degrees.Formation Pressure Cuttings & Borehole Condition • • • Review how cuttings and cavings are behaving and tie this in to what is happening in the borehole in terms of hole stability. If the crew do something that has a positive benefit then tell them. • 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 67 . is this so? Do you have caved material in block form illustrating that the well direction is in one of the major stress directions ? Log the performance of each trip in and out. Whatever they were doing right was cost effective in a problem hole. It is more critical to drilling the well than being able to tell them that their performance got worse.
Formation Pressure Cuttings & Borehole Condition TRIP CONDITION LOG Hookload Deviation -100 0 +100 Reamed Stuck Break Circulation Trip In 13 3/8”Csg DEPTH metres 0 0 ANGLE 90 AZIMUTH 359 NB #4 2000 2500 - NB #5 NB #6 Trip Out RRB #6 NB #7 NB #8 9 5/8” Csg 3000 3500 - 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 68 .
Formation Pressure CALCULATING PORE PRESSURE 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 69 .
Ratio Method • The ratio method works on the principle that the difference between the observed values for the compaction parameter and the normal parameter extrapolated to the depth is proportional to the increase in pressure. This means that the method works on the basic ratio method.Formation Pressure Using Dxc . Normal trend • The ratio method is : PPo = Dxcn x PPn / Dxco Where : Normal PPo = Observed pore pressure Dxcn = Normal Dxc PPn = Normal pore pressure Dxco = Observed Dxc Observed Log Dxc 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 70 .
Equivalent Depth Method • This method assumes that rock properties (porosity) at the depth of interest will be essentially the same as those at a higher depth with the same Dxc values.Formation Pressure Using Dxc . The difference will be higher pressure due to overburden. Normal trend • The equivalent depth method is : PpA = [(OBGA x DA) .PpnB)] / DA Where : B DB OBG DA A Log Dxc PpA = Observed pore pressure PpnB = Normal pore pressure OBGA . DB = Depth 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 71 .DB (OBGB . OBGB = Overburden pressure DA .
Pn) * (Dxco / Dxcn)^1.2] Where : Po = Observed pore pressure Pn = Normal pore pressure S = Overburden pressure Dxco = Observed Dxc Dxcn = Normal Dxc Formation Pressure Evaluation School 72 Normal Observed 4/21/2013 .Eaton’s Method • • • • Showed the importance of using overburden gradient Showed the importance of using a variable overburden Depends heavily on a trendline placement Developed equations for a number of parameters Normal trend OBG • Eaton’s method is : Po = S .Formation Pressure Using Dxc .[(S .
833 OBG Where : Po = Observed pore pressure Pn = Normal pore pressure S = Overburden pressure Dxco = Observed Dxc Dxcn = Normal Dxc Formation Pressure Evaluation School 73 Normal Observed 4/21/2013 .Formation Pressure Using Dxc .Po) * (S .Pn)]^-0.Eaton’s Method • Trendline placement is the biggest source of error • This is true for any trendline method! • Normal trend If a pressure point is known the true position of the trend can be calculated Dxcn = Dxco* [(S .
2] Po = S .Formation Pressure Using E-Logs .Eaton’s Method • Eaton developed equations for three MWD or Wireline Logs • • • Resistivity Conductivity Sonic Normal trend OBG • Eaton’s equations : Po = S .Pn) * (Cn / Co)^1.Pn) * (Ro / Rn)^1.[(S . Rn = Observed & Normal Resistivity Co.[(S . Cn = Observed & Normal Conductivity Dto.Pn) * (Dtn / Dto)^3 ] Where : Ro.[(S . Dtn = Observed & Normal Sonic Dt Formation Pressure Evaluation School 74 Normal Observed 4/21/2013 .2] Po = S .
Bryant’s Method • • This is a petrophysical-mechanical method It is based on derived formation properties • • • • • porosity from Archie’s equation matrix stresses from Terzaghi assumes power law compaction uses formation fluid resistivity uses formation resistivity from logs OBG • It does not need a trendline! Shale Resistivity 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 75 .Formation Pressure Resistivity .
ln Ro) / 2)]^7.03 ohmms 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 76 .ESact Note : Rw will be in a range of 0.Pn • OBG Calculate the actual effective stress .(P) If ESact > ESnorm … P = Pn If ESact < ESnorm … P = S .Bryant’s Method At the depth of interest .(Pn) • Calculate normal effective stress ..015 to 0.(ESnorm) ESnorm = S .47 • Shale Resistivity Calculate the pore pressure .(ESact) ESact = 11225 * [1-exp((ln Rw . • • Calculate the overburden pressure .(S) Find the normal pore pressure .Formation Pressure Resistivity ..
the end result will depend on the knowledge and experience of the pressure engineer evaluating the data. Dxc or other formation evaluation data. pencil and ruler. • The engineer should bring together as much information as possible to present to the client. MWD.Conclusion • Pore pressure will only ever be an “educated best guess” if using wireline.Formation Pressure Pore Pressure . spreadsheets or computer programs. • Whether using paper. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 77 .
0 1100.0 900.0 950.5 2296.6 7.45 1.77 0.0 2500.4 1804.0 1400.7 5.0 2000.0 2200.7 2952.72 0.88 0.94 0.77 0.1 7.15 1.02 0.75 0.94 0.0 4101.5 7.84 0.79 0.6 8.15 1.00 0.98 1.82 1.0 1300.0 850.4 feet 8.85 0.3 1148.69 0.91 0.98 0.0 2400.10 1.32 1.9 3772.0 1050.0 1000.6 2460.91 0.0 4265.0 750.25 0.80 0.20 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School depth m 78 .85 0.0 1100.81 1.0 800.0 m etres 222.0 2300.0 6.0 1200.9 7.9 3937.0 500.6 2624.73 1.7 6.71 0.0 400.90 0.0 1400.90 0.87 0.9 7.10 1.81 0.20 1.88 0.4 6.03 1.31/7 : Grossenschmuck : Celtic Petroleum Pore Pressure TVD (ft) TVD (m ) OBG (sg) Dxc Trend (ppg) (sg) 300.0 1700.97 0.5 2132.95 0.10 1.0 1.05 1.1 4429.89 0.90 0.16 1.0 600.98 1.82 0.09 1.0 1.74 0.67 1.0 800.7 9.78 0.81 0.9 8.0 1150.93 0.77 1.3 1312.7 ppg Eaton Dxc Pore Pressure Calculations 29.0 m etres 1.22 1.0 2100.69 1.8 3280.Formation Pressure Formation Pressure Worksheet Air Gap Water Depth Norm al PP 95.7 2788.0 700.03 1.1 4593.74 0.7 3116.97 0.4 1640.0 400.69 0.6 8.55 1.0 700.7 6.1 8.00 dxc/pp 10.80 0.39 1.76 1.91 0.84 0.0 1900.4 7.90 0.64 1.0 450.0 1350.04 sg Eaton Slope & Trend Param eters Displacem ent Slope Exponent 0.3 1476.0 1200.9 3608.Bideford .2 6.94 0.5 10.0 1300.14 1.85 0.84 1.0 500.0 1600.95 0.00 984.1 feet 728.0 1800.0 1500.6 9.6 7.00 0.79 1.58 1.0 900.51 1.5 7.73 1.0 0.0 550.0 1000.59 0.62 1.1 4757.2 300.0 600.05 1.78 0.0 650.2 Well .95 0.87 0.00 1.71 1.01 8.0 1450.28 1.0 350.98 0.0 1250.83 1.94 1.8 3444.5 1968.83 0.85 1.68 0.9 6.80 1.88 0.000089 1.2 7.85 0.75 1.
3 1312.04 1.04 depth m 1.0 500.Formation Pressure Formation Pressure Worksheet Air Gap Water Depth Norm al PP 95.015 to 0.0 2100.92 1.7 8.7 8.04 1.97 1.0 1700.1 4757.90 1.90 0.10 1.7 8.00 1.0 1000.80 0.04 1.31/7 : Grossenschmuck : Celtic Petroleum Bryant PPr.04 1.0 550.04 1.0 350.7 8.0 700.7 8.0 1300.7 8.1 4429.4 feet 8.04 1.0 2200.4 1804.94 1.7 2788.04 1.0 900.04 1.96 1.9 3937.0 450.7 8.0 650.7 8.04 sg Form ation Water Resistivity Resistivity 0. TVD (ft) TVD (m ) OBG (sg) Res ES Norm ES Act (ppg) (sg) 300.23 18 82 149 218 289 362 437 513 592 672 754 838 923 1010 1099 1188 1280 1372 1466 1561 1657 1755 1853 1953 2389 2337 2815 2815 2587 2514 2587 2634 2726 2858 2815 2963 3064 3161 3064 3254 3161 3396 3344 2858 2858 2858 2858 3308 8.0 1.15 1.0 900.7 8.98 1.7 8.4 1640.7 8.04 1.Bideford .7 8.71 1.85 0.9 3772.81 1.20 1.0 1100.0 700.94 1.99 0.7 8.28 1.38 1.0 2400.08 1.04 1.2 300.04 1.0 1150.0 1000. Well .0 950.1 feet 728.0 1100.0 1400.8 3444.7 1.8 3280.45 1.0 400.0 850.1 4593.9 3608.50 1.0 1350.10 1.25 1.7 8.0 1450.7 ppg Bryant Pore Pressure Calculations 29.5 2132.00 0.0 1400.86 1.6 2624.0 m etres 222.3 1476.0 1600.0 1800.0 750.0 2300.04 1.88 0.6 2460.00 res/pp 10.55 1.00 1.7 8.0 1900.04 1.0 1500.5 1968.028 Water resistivity used in this method can be from 0.7 8.10 984.00 1.60 1.0 1200.0 2000.21 1.0 800.0 m etres 1.7 8.0 0.04 1.7 3116.7 8.0 2500.88 0.79 1.74 1.15 1.04 1.98 0.78 0.04 1.76 1.7 8.04 1.0 600.30 1.0 1050.0 4101.05 1.64 1.04 1.00 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 79 .88 1.5 2296.04 1.0 1250.67 1.7 8.04 1.04 ohmms.0 600.0 500.0 1200.7 8.00 1.3 1148.04 1.04 1.7 2952.04 1.0 4265.98 0.84 1.7 8.7 8.0 400.0 800.0 1300.
20 1.0 2500.0 100.Formation Pressure pore pressure s.0 1100.50 0.0 1900.0 Dxc Res Sonic Bryant PPr.30 0.0 900.0 2100.80 0.00 1.0 300.0 600.0 1200.0 800.90 2.0 400.70 1.60 0.0 2300.0 1500.0 700.40 1. 4/21/2013 Formation Pressure Evaluation School 80 . depth m.0 1000.30 0.00 2.10 2.0 1600.0 2600.70 0.0 1800.0 1400.90 1.40 0.30 1.0 2200.0 2000.60 1.0 500.0 200.g.0 2400.10 1.80 1.20 2.0 1700.0 1300.50 1. 0.
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