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FUNDAMENTALS OF
PHYSTGS (gth),
CONDENSED
A study guide to accompany
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSIGS
Eighth Edition
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FUNDAMENTALS OF
PHYSTCS (gth),
CONDENSED
Thomas E. Barrett
Ohio State University
A study guide to accompany
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS
Eighth Edition
David Halliday
Univers ity of P itts burgh
Robert Resnick
Renss elaer
Polytechnic Institute
Jearl Walker
Cleveland State University
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Introduction Physics books are big. the "tutor. like it is marked with 2+25 ? Remember that you should not take equations out of examples. Styling used in this book: Key points are in bold. because these equations apply to the particular problem.sk. When the student or tutor makes a mistake in an equation. examples. almost insulting to a." Then look for patterns in the questions. try to ask yourself similar questions a. o Describe how they translate into problemsolving o Show how these techniques work through the use of a few detailed The examples here are organized a^s a^s a series of questions and resporrses. Important terms are underlined. The successful students learn to ask themselves the questions. the goal of this book is to get the plot. and learn to ask yourself the questions. First learn to answer the questions. Sometimes they can be intimidating. a question mark at the right side of the equation. posed by After a while you'll find that the questions themselves are easy to answer. I walk through each chapter with the following approach: o Identify the most important concepts in the chapter. . Like any condensed work. techniques. As you tackle other probleffis. To do this. Instead use the examples to understand the equatiorxi and techniques. Many students of physics struggle because they try to learn physics by learning how to answer the questions. while sacrificing the depth and artistry of the original.s you work toward an answer.
and the First Law of Thermodynamics Gases 18 Temperature. 19 The L43 150 Kinetic Theory of 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 2L Electric Charge 22 Electric Fields 23 Gausst Law r57 r62 169 L77 . Torque. and Angular Momentum 12 7t 82 92 100 LO7 Equilibrium and Elasticity Lg Gravitation 14 Fluids 113 120 128 136 15 Oscillations 16 Waves L7 Waves  I II f{eat.Contents 1 3 5 6 Measurement 1 2 Motion Along a Straight Line Vectors o > 13 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions Force and Motion Force and Motion 22 32 44 56 65  I II 7 Kinetic Energy and Work 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy I Center of Mass and Linear Momentum 10 Rotation 11 Rolling.
vii 24 B. Magnetism of Matter 33 Electromagnetic Waves 34 Images 35 Interference 36 Diffraction 37 Relativity 38 Photons and Matter'Waves 39 More About Matter Waves 40 241 246 249 255 263 27L 279 287 292 All About Atoms zgs 302 4L Conduction of Electricity in Solids 42 Nuclear Physics 43 Energf from the Nucleus 44 Quarks.lectric Potential 25 Capacitance 26 Current and Resistance 185 196 203 208 27 Circuits 28 Magnetic Fields 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents 3O 2L7 224 233 Induction and Inductance 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 32 Maxwellts Equations. LeptonSr and the Big Bang 306 314 318 .
but mastery of the technique.Five Things to Remember When Doing Physics o The goal is not possession of the answer. o Minus signs and units are importarrt. not the formula. You can make up a rmriables for things you want o Use the drawing. for the direction. or need and dontt have. vlll aaa . Expect problems to take multiple steps. o Be able to say what your variable means in words. . Don't skip the steps.
but that's a good way to . with. This means that we can The key is choosing the correct "one. Then find something that's equal to put in the other half of the fraction. we get the same thing we started multiply anything by one.Chapter 1 Measurement The important skills to get from this chapter are dealing with prefixes and units. Check your work: If you end with a bigger unit then you should have a smaller number. one. To determine the correct "one. and vice versa. EXAMPTE How many inches are there in 5 km? . make mistakes. if I have three dozen eggs and I want to know how many eggs I have. Put that in the numerator or denominator so that it cancels. We deal with both of these the same w&y.126 seconds x 1000 milliseconds 1 second  126 milliseconds : 126 ms Three things to watch out for: o If a unit is squared or to some power other than o Don't skip steps. Handle prefixes the same way. there are 1000 milli in one. I choose 12 and 1 dozen as my two things that are equal to each other.milli 1  126 milliseconds: 126 ms or 0." Anything divided by the same thing is one (unless the two things are zero). When we multiply something by one." see what you have that you want to get rid of. 0.126 seconds ro matter what they are. then you'll need to convert all of them (there are three feet in a yard but nine square feet in a square yard). by multiplying by one. So to turn x 1000. all we want. experienced people may do the conversions in their heads. For example.126 seconds into milliseconds: 0. For example.
sure the same thing? foot is an area. and a mile is 5280 feet.i. a kilometer is much longer than an inch. 1 W a( rr€ffi . so yes..b cm x + 100 c  Tbtor: What is 5 km divided by an inch? 5000.1 square mile. 640 Tutor: A square mile is 1 mile x 1 mile.560feet  . but does it make sense that the answer Student: No.2.o2b m ..5 centimeters.acre. Thtor: What units should you get when you divide a length by a length? Student: The ratio of two lengths should be a number. 5 kmxTT5000m T\rtor: Student: How many meters is one inch? One inch is 2.nr( o.t* 1 in. MEASUREMENT Student: I'm going to divide 5 km by one inch.ry 640 x miles  Student: I need to cancel both miles.ozSqr 2 x 105 There are 200.^. or some other length like meters. Thtor: Correct.000 inches in 5 kilometers. Student: How big is an acre? T\rtor: There are 640 acres in a square mile. Ttrtor: Student: I'll How many meters is 5 km equal to? Student: One kilo is one thousand. Should I use kilometers or inches? You could use either. b60 feet2 43. (5280 teet)' \ R) 43. o. Student: A square Student: So an acre is . T[rtor: Student: EXAMPLE How many square feet J are there in an acre? (ft') T\rtor: Do square feet and acres mea. and an acre is an area. 103 x 2.2b mile feet . 1 in. and there are 100 centi in one. 5280 feet u : ^ . without any units. T\rtor: Then we should be able to convert between them.2 T\rtor: How are you going to attack this problem? is 5? CHAPTER 7. so what you've done is 1 acre 5280feet g. What are the units of your answer? Student: The meters cancelled the meters and it doesn't have any. use meters. T\rtor: Thtor: Student: We need to have the two lengths in the same units.5.
and means that each second you go so many meters. so meters has to go on the bottom. Would that be equal to one? Student: No. spaced 1200 per millimeter lines. Student: What is m/s2. or 9. so mi/h2 must be a smaller unit than mls2. Now we need it in nanometers. To end with a length in the numerator I need to start with the length in the numerator. 9. . Student: So (1 mil1610 m) and (1610 m/l mi) are equal to one. measured in nanometers (nm)? (**). T\rtor: There are 1610 meters in a mile. What is this in mi/h2? T\rtor: What do you have to do? Student: First I need to turn meters into miles.8 m/s2 means that each second your speed changes by 9. T\rtor: It is. So. e8m/s2x(#) Student: top.8 m/s2. s'8nt*zx(+rr) T\rtor: That seems like a big number. Student: It's bigger than 9. that is. Student: I need to take How about 1 )_ u: 12oG.EXAMPTE Gravity is 9. And I need to change seconds into hours. I need to get rid of meters in the top. Meters per second (^1"') ir an acceleration. Student: How many nanometers in a millimeter? lmm 12oo then the distance between them is 1 mm divided by 1200. Seconds is on the bottom so seconds has to go on the T\rtor: Student: How many seconds are there in an hour? There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. e.8 m/s2 x x f 60' 60 Tilutes) f#) \1610m/ \lminute th / ? TUtor: But there are two factors of seconds.8 meters per second each second.8 m/s. yes. two distances in the numerator and none in the denominator. What is the distance between T\rtor: What do you need to do? mm in the denominator and make it nm in the numerator.8. &trVway? EXAMPLE A machine draws narrow parallel lines. x(#ry) ': T'ex1o4 miIhz T[tor: Meters per second (*/r) is a speed. Tbtor: To do that you would need to multiply by two lengths. T\rtor: If there are 1200 in each millimeter. Student: So I need to convert both of them. and means that each second your speed changes by that many meters per second.
4 T\rtor: Student: CHAPTER 1. d. and m into nm. and 10e nano in one. So I'll turn mm into m. MEASUREMENT There are 103 milh in one. Skipping steps is a good way to make mistakes.W*( 12oo rx( \ \1or*/ x "\:83Bnm \ t^t I /toe .
't). t)g.r. the final velocity n. In one dimension. t acceleration a Ar : aot * f. How do we solve constant acceleration problems? three of the five variables. Begin by writing down the five variables.n : L @o * u)t Ar. the direction means positive versus negative. then pick the equation that has the three you know and the one you want but not the one you dontt care about. They must all use the same axis. a time t a .iot' Lr.r . a.aB :2a Ar Ar. Okay. The first four are vectors.ut . t final velocity u An . how fast will it be going when it hits the ground below? T\rtor: Tbtor: Student: What is happening here? The penny is undergoing constant acceleration. a.uo: at uot u.n initial velocity us _ final acceleration a : time t  velocity a . so they have direction. and have a fourth that we want to find. and the time t. t initial velocity ao a2 .fiot the initial velocity ao. a. the acceleration o. us.at2 Ar. but don't care about the fifth. We start with five quantities: the displacement A. so any two that are in the same direction will have the same sign. we use the equations includes omits t displacement Ar L. we can solve for the other two. n. To solve constant acceleration probleffis. If we know any three of the ftve quantities. T\rtor: Student: If we know Student: displacement A.Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line The most important thing to learn from this chapter is how to solve constant acceleration problems. EXAMPLE If you drop a penny from the top of the Empire State Building (381 m tall). I)s. u.
T\rtor: To use our equations we need a constant acceleration. So the final velocity is the velocity it has as it hits the ground. MOTIO. After it hits the ground it isn't moving.CHAPTER 2. Student: The displacement is downward. Tutor: Last.8 m/s2. do we know the time? Student: No. Student: How is the acceleration upward? T\rtor: Just before it hits the ground. T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Do we know the initial velocity? The penny is dropped. we want to find the time.0. : uot (+sat m) : (o)t + 2(+3s1 m) (+9.8 ^lt' or 9. Is it positive or negative? Student: It doesn't matter. We need three of the five. As the penny falls it accelerates downward. so I choose down as the positive direction. We haven't chosen either direction as positive yet. it positive or negative 381 m? Student: Does it matter? T\rtor: Displacement is a vector. and A. so it's +9.r . Do we know the acceleration? Student: The acceleration is g downward. Do we know this velocity? Student: No.I m above the floor so that it above the floor.IV ALONG A STRAIGHT TI]VE Thtor: T\rtor: Do we know the displacement? Yes. Student: Is it's 381 m.r that doesn't contain u. because *0 . so it is important. so I'll L. and we already have two. it was going downward. so it's g.82 s EXAMPLE A volleyball player hits a volleyball 2. but when it hits the ground the acceleration is upward. . Does this mean that the acceleration isn't constant? Tutor: It is constant until the instant that the penny hits the ground. Student: So the change in the velocity is upward. Do we know the final velocity? ends on the ground.8 m/s2 ? t Tutor: How do we find the time? use the equation Student: I don't care about the final velocity u.8 m/s2)  8. so the final velocity is zero. so the initial velocity is zero. T\rtor: Is it +9.8 mf s27 Student: I chose downward as positive and the acceleration is downward. How long is the volleyball in the air? reaches a maximum height of 4.8 ^1"2.0 rn T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? The volleyball is undergoing constant acceleration. Does this mean that we can't use the constant acceleration equations? T\rtor: Not necessarily. Student: It displacement Ar initial velocity us final +381 m 0 velocity time a acceleration a 9.+381 m.
1 m 9. Tbtor: Tbtor: so Do we know the initial velocity? No. Student: I'll do the way up. Student: Student: Do we know the final velocity? T\rtor: Last.8 m/s2). we want to find the time.0 acceleration a time t Alternatively. then do the down problem to find the time down and add them. but that doesn't happen at either the start or finish. Student: It ends 2. T\rtor: Is there anything else we know? Student: We know how high it goes. Student: displacement Ar initial velocity ug _ *1. we can solve for the other two. T\rtor: Begin by writing down the five variables.1 m below where it started. The displacement is the difference between the final position and the initial position.8m/s2 T\rtor: Can we find the time? We only know two of the five. then it is the same initial velocity as for the whole trip. T\rtor: Student: If I find the initial velocity. T\rtor: Is it positive or negative 2.2.9 m finalvelocity a . so that is the displacement. I\rtor: So we need a new start or finish.How do we solve constant acceleration problems? of the five variables.1 m.9 *). and the displacement is downward. I could find the time up.1 m? Student: I choose up as the positive direction. We know three of the five so we can solve.r.0 m. and the acceleration (9. No. I know the displacement (+1. do we know the time? Student: No. displacement Ar nitial velocity us final velocity u acceleration a timet? 2. so we can't solve for anything. but how does this help us to find the total time? . the final velocity (0). Student: Ok"y.9 m and then it goes down 4. Tutor: Student: If we know three displacement Ar initial velocity us final velocity a acceleration a time t : T\rtor: Tutor: Do we know the displacement? Student: First it goes up 1. A.
Solve first for the final velocity u t then we'll know four of the five.28 s or 1. Really? How? We know three of the five so we can solve for the other two.r: 2.u!  o3 :6.1 m aot + 1 )atz * tn.10 m/t)2 n : *)  1f za.8 (+9.8 6.t mf s2)t2 (+4.85 m/s ^ls2) (+9.9 mls2)t2 + (6. which could be positive Student: Student: +6.85 m/s ^lt2) ^/s2) t .8b m/s T\rtor: It should.z7 m2 /r'  +8. Student: That number looks familiar. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT TINB a2 .CHAPTER 2.math.53 s T\rtor: T\rtor: There is a way to avoid the quadratic formula.10 m/s + 8.8 mls2)(2.10 m/s 9.10 m/s)t + (2.10 m/s or 6. . Student: u2 u2  u2o :2a Ar 2(9. but in two ea.10 mls + 8. so us : +6.1  (+6.1 m time t: A.r : Ug: a: a: initial velocity final velocity acceleration +6.sy steps instead of one hard step.0. We're really doing the same .8 m/s2 ? 2.10 m/s) + 2(+4. which is my positive directior. The initial velocity is up. displacement A. Student: And I can choose a different equation to solve.10 m/s ^1"2)(+t.uB :2a 2(9.10 m/s? Does it matter? or negative.10 m/s for the whole trip.n (o)' .8 A.10 m/s)r 0 tu+t@ 2a tL (6.9 6.1 *) (+6.9 *) T\rtor: Is it Thtor: You just took a square root.
53 m/s s. Student: the displacements are equal.I Student: so And I have to pick the sign for the square root. It's going down.uso : Student: Aren't the times the same for the speeder and the policeman? Thtor: Yes. displacement Ars initial velocity uso Speeder _ final velocity us : acceleration og : time ts : it come from? as opposed Policeman Arp upo up ap tp : : : Thtor: It's the displacement of the speeder. Student: displacement initial velocity final velocity acceleration ?rso : Ug: og: + It Ar: Speeder Policeman upo : ap: ap: 1 A.85 m/s)  (+6. and we osf. like os . AUO:At (8. The policeman.28 EXAMPTE F A speeder at 80 mph (in a 35 mph zone) passes a policeman. Do we know the speeder's displacement? Student: No. . How long will it take the policeman to catch the speeder? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? The policeman is undergoing constant acceleration. Where do we start? Student: We write down the five symbols for each person. which is constant.s. T\rtor: If you had chosen the positive square root. whatever they are. it's negative. We don't know the policeman's displacement either. T\rtor: So we can use all of the same techniques for him too.10 m/s) t  (9. which is the negative direction. to the displacement of the policeman. initially at rest. Student: Is a constant velocity also constant acceleration? Student: He has zero acceleration. then your time would have been 0. Ttrtor: What event "starts" our constant acceleration? The speeder passes the policeman. invented Student: What's Ars and where did it. T\rtor: Since they start at the same place. What about the speeder? He has a constant velocity. accelerates at 10 mi/h/r. We can use all of the constant acceleration formulas on it. so we can use t for both.8 mlsz)t 1.r : t time . . Ttrtor: What event "ends" our constant acceleration? Student: The policeman catches the speeder. and they end at the same place.
What kind of a unit is mi/h l"? T\rtor: Each second his velocity increases by 10 miles per hour. but it would also have two variables."et? a.10 Tlrtor: Student: It's CHAPTER 2.(o)r' (80 mph)r T\rtor: Since we want the time and don't care about the displacement. (. and we don't get a quadratic after all. If the acceleration is zero and we know both velocities. Ttrtor: Unfortunately. MOTION ALONG A S"RAIGHT LINE Do we know the speeder's initial velocity? 80 mph. We could write an equation for the speeder.{) ':('o +) t16s . Do we know the speeder's final velocity? Student: His velocity isn't changing. Now we know three of the five and we can solve for the time. let's eliminate that. Ar and t.nT\rtor: Student: (o)r . so 10 miles per hour per second. His acceleration is zero. We can keep the units with the numbers and convert them when we need to. Do I need to convert this into meters per second? Tutor: Not necessarily. ]f to milhls)tl (80 mph)l Student: ('#) ':('o#) The miles and hours cancel. his acceleration is 10 mi/h/r. so it's also 80 mph.r  (80 mph)r *. and we don't know his final velocity. that is not enough. lrrn \^" 2 milhls)r2  Student: The time cancels. Speeder displacement initial velocity Ar uso final velocity us acceleration 0g  timet:(+>t <+> L. So we'd have two equations and two unknowns. We need either the time or the displacement. Arpupotp*f. Arsusots*I1"st's A. this is the exception to the rule. Student: And we don't have either.r 80 mph up 0 ap  Policeman 10 mi/h/t Tutor: We could write an equation for the policeman. including his displacement and time as variables. We could solve them.(10 milhls)r2 Student: But it has two variables and we can't solve it. T\rtor: What about the policeman? Student: His initial velocity is zero..
so take the square .o . This applies to any car with constant acceleration.a2. Student: And it doesn't matter how fast the car was going.. and the distance Ar2 is half of Ar1. Lrr) Student: Well. T\rtor: The acceleration for the car is the same. Student: So I substitute those. Tlue. u. .2at Lrt :2az Arz u1. no matter what the initial speed.)L'o times the initial speed the first time? Student: The initial speed the second time has to be T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes.. but a1 . you do. T\rtor: Then take the L out. and that is a piece of useful information. Given that we don't care about the time. except for the L. what is the equation to use? Student: That would be u2 Student: How can I solve a problem without any numbers?  . What equation would work here? Student: I need to identify three of the five.2ar Lrr > u?. slower to stop in half the distance.oufoT\rtor: Student: But I can't a?. but look at what you have.o:IQ". so it must be the acceleration or the time.o.r T\rtor: Good. u2.o : tl ltzui. I don't know any of the others.0 ')22. T\rtor: Student: I still can't solve it.3 :2a A.o T\rtor: Your goal is to find uz.o) : lr?. the minus sign cancels. TUtor: Which one don't you care about? Student: Initial velocity and displacement are mentioned. so the change is 30% of the original speed.2ar Lrr solve either equation. Whatever it is.o . a3. yQ " about 0. The final velocity is zero j so I know that.2at No.o f. Does it look like anything else you have? Student: It looks similar to the first equation. So let's come up with a set of variables a1 and Arr and so on for one car. and substitute.o tf IT tl z.o .11 EXAMPLE How must the initial speed of a car change so that the car is able to stop in only half the distance? T\rtor: Use variables. or even what the acceleration was? Tutor: As long as the acceleration is the same each time. it is the same for both..o . that's exactly what the equation says.oot and see what you have.tr?. and then another set a2 and Arz and so on for a second car. Student: So I don't want that one? Tutor: No..70. In science we call problems like these "scaling" Student: . r3. so the car has to be going 30% Where did you get 30%? The speed has to be 70% of the original speed.
. You want to know how one thing changes when another chang€s.L2 CHAPTER 2. then substitute anything that you know. MOTIONATO]VG A STRAIGHT LINE problems. One way to solve these problems is to write down the equation both before and after. without any values. either because it stays the same or you know how it compares to before.
Instead. We need to be able to add and subtract vectors. The side of the triangle that is adjacent to the angle is cosine. The y components of each vector are likewise parallel to each other. we easy divide each vector into components. then the component is negative. r and y components are perpendicular to each other and can be added using the Pythagorean There is more than one way to find the components. I review the two most popular here.Chapter 3 Vectors Many things in physics have direction and are expressed as vectors. 13 . Then the r component is cosine and the y component is sine. and force. Draw the right triangle with the vector as the hypotenuse and the other two sides parallel to the axes. Always draw the angle from the r ucis toward the axis. and are likewise easy to add. and the side of the triangle that is opposite to the angle is sine. Adding two parallel vectors is ea. and are to add. These include displacement. Then the theorem. If the component is in the opposite direction as the axis. but this becomes unwieldy with more than two vectors. acceleration.(3+ +1izi Adding two vectors that are perpendicular can be done with the Pythagorean theorem. It can be done using the law of cosines. The fr components of each vector are parallel. si+ 4i. Adding two vectors that are neither parallel nor perpendicular is more difficult. velocity.sy. gl Let's see how each method works.
component is the side opposite to the so the tr component is r . VECTORS We draw the right triangle as shown.6 sin(32"). arcis is up. This new angle is 270o + 32o : 302o. so the The angle given is not mea"sured from the r a)cis.6sin(302").6 cos(302') and the y component is y . We draw a new angle mea.$cos(32o). I shall use the lefthand method. component is the side adjacent to the The r angle. Then the n component is r . The y but it is down and the y y component is y . EXAMPTE What is the sum of the four vectors? B= . angle.L4 CHAPTEN 3.srued from the r ocis initially toward the y axis.
5 sin 30o : 3.75 T\rtor: What is the o component of vect or B? Student: First I draw the triangle. What is the g component of vector A? The y component is the opposite side of the triangle. Student: The . B . so it's cosine. Student: I'm going to use the a)ces provided. A* : A sin 30o : 7 . but there won't always be. Tbtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: Are the vectors all perpendicular? No. A. T\rtor: Yes. component is the adjacent side of the triangle. so it's sine.15 T\rtor: Are the vectors all parallel? No. Good. What is the r component of vector A? Student: First I draw the triangle. So how do we add them? Student: We break each one into components and add the components.lcos 30o : 6. Thtor: What are you going to use for your ruces? Thtor: Student: Uh. there's already a>(es in the problem.50 T\rtor: Student: Good. : A cos 30o : 7.
Tutor: But the r component goes to the left. so it's sine. so it's negative.II the fr component always cosine? No. C. if you always mea"sure the angle from the r axis. Student: The u component is cosine. it's more convenient to draw the triangle and add minus Okay. so it's sine. but sometimes it's the other way around.76 T\rtor: In many of the things we'll use vectors for. so it's cosine. : B cos 160o  Acos 160o : 3. the component adjacent to the angle is always cosine. The y component is opposite the angle. More often than not these will be the r and A components. signs when determining components.r component of vect or C? the triangle. so B* : B cos 20"  Acos 20"  3. C. and opposite is sine. B. The r component of D is zero.5 cos 25"  4. Cu : C cos 25" . so it's cosine. because it doesn't go to the left or right at all.37 Tlrtor: Student: First I draw What is the . you don't need to draw the triangle. Student: By : B sin 20" . B* : Bcos 20"  4cos 20" :3.5sin25" . Student: And the A component is 3. VECTORS r component is the adjacent side of the triangle. away from the T\rtor: Student: Isn't gl a>ris. Student: .76 Student: Doesn't the math take care of that automatically? T\rtor: Yes. Student: And the A component of C is adjacent. and the r anis goes to the right. .53 Tlrtor: What is the tr component of vect or D? How do I draw the triangle for vector D? T\rtor: Because D is already parallel to one of the axes.Csin25" .Asin 20o  I. : C cos 25"  5 cos 25" : 4.53 ? TUtor: The r component is opposite the angle this time.2. respectively.76 ? it's negative.16 Student: The CHAPTER 3. The y component is down.
53 03 4.2..37 + (4. but let's find the magnitude and direction for practice.2r? than one of the components.75+L. @: That can't be right. because it's less m:rffi.85)a Student: gl T\rtor: A unit vector direction.3.50 3." (4.4! T\rtor: Student: Do we need to find the magnitude and direction or are the components enough? Often the components are enough.4.L7 T\rtor: Good. What's a unit vector? is a vector of length 1 with no units.42 Some people find it easier to make a table: A B C D 6.50+ (3. but this time starting with the components.:4.2.41) j A Tutor: We can also express this vector using "unit vectors.85 2. now we can add them. I points in the r direction and i points in the T\rtor: Student: How do I find the angle? Draw the triangle. Student: The fr cemponents add (A+ B +C + D).:6.76 L.75 3. Remember to square the negative 1l txl' + (Y)' : Tutor: m:tffi:5. Student: The magnitude or absolute value is T\rtor: sign too.4r + (.85 (A+ B +C + D)y: Av* Bo*Cn* Do .76) + 2. .37 2.LI 4.* Student: And the y components add B**C** D.II+ (0) .A.53) + (3).
Student: The tangent of the angle is opposite over adjacent. T\rtor: Student: . . below the r arcis. like this: Both vectors A and B point to the right. but it's best to show the angle that you mean with a drawing. Does that mean the angle is negative? Some people are happy with that. but with practice it will go faster." meaning that we move one vector so that it starts where the previous one left off. so the angle is Student: o  arctan oqrPosite : &rct : aoJacent ^n?'4t a*B &rctan o'497  26'4" Student: .E Find the vectors A + B and A . and your sum points to the lefib. but the sum points down. . When adding vectors.B graphically. Tutor: Then A and B point up. Can that be right? No. VECTORS T\rtor: So the angle is below the r a:ris. TUtor: How do we add vectors? Student: We connect the ends. Is adding vectors always T\rtor: Usually.18 CHAPTER 3. we use "tip to tail. so it must be the other way. so repetitive? EXAMPI.
ABA+(B) Tntor: Student: .19 Tlrtor: Student: Don't vectors have to start at the origin? No. Student: So I add the vectors like this: T\rtor: Tlrtor: Student: Butisit Yes.4 plus negative B equals my first vector. so Drawing it the other way would give B  it was A  B. Student. A. and it doesn't matter where it starts. . The vector you drew first is the difference of the two vectors. So B plus my vector equals A. and my vector is B+mineA I\rtor: mineAB An easier way to subtract vectors is to add the negative vector. ABor BA? Look for the "tip to tail" combination. or a change. A vector seen this way is a displacement.
2)7 Maybe. . so. T\rtor: What are the components of that vector? Student: I don't know how long it is. . so how can I find the components? T\rtor: What is the y component of a horizontal vector? Student: Zero. so I'll need their components. Could your second vector be (3. the A component of the second vector is 2. Thtor: What are the components of the second vector. when added to the vector shown.46. Where can we start? adding vectors. T\rtor: The y component of the first vector is *2. rFeD2s. the one we're trying to find? Student: Don't I need an angle to find those? Tutor: You need something. and draw a circle of length 4. What is the fr component? Student: I can use the Pythagorean theorem.20 CHAPTER 3. The second vector has to end on . VECTORS EXAMPLE Find a vector of length 4 that. T\rtor: Student: I'm 4@ T\rtor: A square root could be positive Ttrtor: Student: this circle. . what would that look like? Start at the end of the first vector. Do you know anything about the vector you'll get when you add them? Student: It's horizontal. T\rtor: Now you have a vector with a length of.46 or negative. Student: . . T\rtor: What are the components of the first vector? Student: The r component is *3 and the y components is +2. sums to a horizontal vector (parallel to the r axis). It doesn't go up or down. and the g component of the sum is zero. 4 and a y component of 2.
What if the first vector had (3. so the second vector would have to be at least 5 long. Student: I see.2t axe two points on the r axis where the vector could end. there . T\rtor: And there wouldn't be any vector of length 4 that you could add to the first and get a horizontal vector. been 5)? Then there wouldn't be any point where the circle intersects with the r a>cis. The y component would have to be 5.
but there is often one set that works best. T\rtor: For a twodimensional problem. How far above the ground does the ball hits the wall. so yes. no. it is not done so much in practice. we need two axes. Here we connect constant acceleration (and constant velocity) with vectors in two dimensions. Student: Gravity is vertical. While it is mathematically correct to use the ? and j notation of the pre ious chapter. we can treat the motion along each axis separately. so I choose r horizontal toward the wall and y vertically up. If we can't find a plane in which everything happens. To demonstrate and practice vectors. With a twodimensional problem. with nothing going into the page or coming out of the page. The one Iimitation is that the axes need to be perpendicular to each other. When everything lines up along a single line (utty line). To deal with a onedimensional problem. 5 m away? Is this a onedimensional problem? The ball starts going up and over. Once we have a set of perpendicular axes.4 m above the ground. with a speed of 15 m/s at 42" above horizontal. it is easier to describe motion as being in the r or y direction. T\rtor: Is this a twodimensional problem? Student: Everything can be drawn in the plane of the page. T\rtor: Those will work well. Anythittg in the opposite direction is negative.Chapter 4 Motron in Two and Three Dimensions In this chapter we learn how to use vectors. They work because the wall is Tutor: Student: vertical. but not because the acceleration is vertical. By "works best" I mean that it gives us much easier equations to solve. The ball leaves his hand 1 . then we have a onedimensional problem. and we use vectors to describe the directions. we choose one direction as the positive direction. 22 . we need to choose two axes. When everything lines up along a single plane. we look at two basic techniques: projectile motion and relative motion. and it is much easier if this happens in one dimension. EXAMPLE A boy throws a ball toward a wall. T\rtor: Student: How does the wall come into it? We will want to know when the ball hits the wall. Many things in physics have directior. but the acceleration of gravity is downward. Instead. Since not everything is along a single line. Ary set of axes will do. then we have a twodimensional problem. then we have a threedimensional problem.
T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the gr direction? Student: g downward. UtO : an: a0: I It Ar ugo : Ayuu: t: aa: T\rtor: r direction? m Student: *5 T\rtor: What is the displacement in the y direction? Student: We don't knowl that's what we're trying to find. T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the r direction? Student: The acceleration is parallel to the y axis. No. one each for the r and y a)ces. T\rtor: Are both of them positive? Student: The r component is toward the wall. So the time is the same for the Do we know it? T\rtor: Student: Student: r and gr problems. Ttrtor: How do we solve constant acceleration problems? Student: We write down the five symbols and identify what we know. so both are positive. Tutor: What is the initial velocity in the y direction? Student: The r component is opposite to the 42" angle. Thtor: What is happening along the y uris? Student: Constant acceleration. so it has no horizontal component. so it should be the same a"s the initial velocity in the n direction. which is our *g direction.8 Tutor: What is the time in the ^/s2. A. Zero. knowing two velocities (which are the same) only counts a^s one.r : *5m 'ual . so it is sine: 15 m/ssin42o. T\rtor: Is it really what we're trying to find? Student: We want to find how high it is when the r displacement is +5 m. r direction? Student: Time has direction? What is the displacement in the T\rtor: No.23 T\rtor: Student: So I want to line up one axis with the "finish line" ? Yes. T\rtor: But now we need two lists. T\rtor: What is the final velocity in the r direction? Student: There is no horizontal acceleration. so 9.4 m to it. I\rtor: What is the initial velocity in the r direction? Student: The z component is adjacent to the 42" angle. What is the final velocity in the gr direction? Student: We don't know. which is our *r direction.+ (15 m/s) cos 42o Ur:Uy: an:Oag:g t:+)t: Ly uuo  + (15 m/s) sin 42o . The gt component is upward. T\rtor: Yes. so it is cosine: 15 m/s cos 42o . but unfortunately this is the exception to the threeoffive rule: when the acceleration is zero and it becomes a constant velocity problem. Now what is happening along the r a>ris? Student: Constant acceleration. so we need to find the A displacement and add +I.
Tlrtor: If the g displacement had been less than I. iont2 m/s2)(0.# ((15 */s) cos 42o) r+ f. They are in the same plane. T\rtor: How does that help us with the y problem? Student: The time in the r problem is the same as the time in the y problem.448 s : uot + rrat2  Aa : uyot . what would that mean? Student: That the ball hit the ground before reaching the wall. so we could solve for the final velocity or the time in the fr direction.4 m + 3. T\rtor: Student: Ar:urot. we know three of the five. so two is enough. .8 . But that wasn't the question. so that the height above the ground was negative.fo!' t L. r. Student: I choose r horizontal.52 m above where he threw it.4 m. we only know two of the five.448 . or 1. What does the g displacement mean? Student: The ball hits 3. MOTIONIN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS Can we solve the y problem to find the y displacement? No. and g perpendicular to T\rtor: Now what is happening along the r axis? Student: Constant acceleration.92 m above the ground.)' Ay 3.52 m . T\rtor: Can we solve the r problem? Student: Yes. parallel to the ground. How far from the base of the cliffdoes the cannonball land? T\rtor: How many dimensions are there in this problem? Student: The initial velocity and the acceleration are not along the same line. T\rtor: What is happening along the y axis? Student: Constant acceleration. The cannonball leaves the cannon at 100 mls at 53o above horizontal. T\rtor: Student: EXAMPTE J A cannon fires a cannonball from the top of a cliff to the level ground 180 m below.++8  ((lb m/s) sin 42o) (0.4.52 m.(e. T\rtor: For a twodimensional problem. so more than one. Then we'll be able to solve the y problem. we need two axes.) *.52 m The y displacement is 3. Thtor: How do we solve constant acceleration problems? Student: We write down the five symbols and identify what we know. what would that have meant? Student: That the ball hit the wall below the ground? T\rtor: Yes.ia*t2 (b *)  .24 CHAPTER 4.r Ay  0.
Tutor: What is the acceleration in the r direction? Student: The acceleration is parallel to the y ocis. so it should be the same a^s the initial velocity in the n directior. so it is sine: *100 m/ssin53o.9 mls2)t' + (80 mls)t + (180 m) : * i(e. we know three of the five. T\rtor: What is the time? Student: We don't know. but it doesn't help us. that's what we're trying to find. we only know two of the five. T\rtor: Student: Lr : ? uro . but it is the same for the r and y problems. t _b+rm 2a .n : UtO : ao: at: + L Ayuvo : ag: ay: 1 b What is the displacement in the r direction? We don't know. T\rtor: What is the initial velocity in the y direction? Student: The s component is opposite to the 53o angle. . . Tbtor: What is the initial velocity in the r direction? Student: The r component is adjacent to the 53" angle.+ (100 m/s) cos53o A&:Ag: ++ at:ar: Ly : uyo  180m + (100 m/s) sin53o an:Oay:g Ttrtor: Can we solve the r problem to find the r displacement? No.25 A. Thtor: Can we solve the y problem? Student: Yes. Thtor: What is the final velocity in the y direction? Student: We don't know.oot2 : (+SO mls)t (4. Student: Ar= = uot + (180 m) l2AuAy : .8 ^/"2. so we could solve for the time in the y problem. so it has no horizontal component. then put that into the r problem.at2  1 uyot + 1 . so it is cosine: +100 m/scos53o. T\rtor: What is the displacement in the y direction? Student: 180 m. T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the y direction? Student: g downwardr so 9. Zero.8 mf s2)t2 0 Student: So we have to solve a quadratic equation? TUtor: We could solve the quadratic. T\rtor: What is the final velocity in the r direction? Student: There is no horizontal acceleration.
8 ^1"2) ^l: t18.3s Student: Now we can do the r problem. AUO:At+AUUyO:Agt +_AyUAO v t (ee. Tutor: Student: u2  a2o :2a Ar @)' (uu)2 .26 CHAPTER 4.?o  2o. How does that help us? We need the time. Which is it? Student: What difference does it make? Tutor: If the final velocity is positive then the cannonball is going upward Student: No.9 ^1"2) t  2. Ay : : o?o * 2an AY ag: ua +99.o (80 m/s) (9.) + */r) + (ee. the beanbags fly in a parabolic arc after they leave the airgun. ..(80 */.8 s) + tol(18.8 s)2 n1100m As an object flies through the air. . . Tutor: If we knew the final velocity we would have four of the five and would have our choice of equations.. We could solve for the time without a quadratic.3 s or we could solve the gl problem for the final velocity.8 mls2) 2(4. its path forms a parabola.0 s or 18. n:uilt+lrat2 n  (60 m/s)(18. so that t is proportional to \tr. The horizontal motion is constant. The vertical motion is like Ly : aot . as it lands.6 m/s TUtor: The square root could be positive or negative.6 m/s) (9.6 m/s.Lgt'. In the photo. MOTIONIN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS (80 t. uu : 99.
For displacement. the tree appears to be conring at you at 60 mph. w€ can think of each person carryirrg their axes with them. it's important to not approach things that way. but it doesn't get any further from you. If you look out the window at the tree beside the road. We often intuitively measure everything compared to the grortnd. Likewise. You think of the car just ahead of you as going 60 mph. If you have any two objects A and B. the velocity.) The rnath behind relative motion is straightforward. but they have to point in the same direction. It is important that everyone agree on the axes." but we don't have to approach things that way. arrd think of the ground as "stationary. These equations fail if I think north is positive and you think south is positive. ." Also. so dee and  dnc * tice 6ns : den The same is true for acceleration. you see me doing the same thing in the other direction. We carr take the derivative of this. If you look only at yourself.27 Imagine that you are driving down the road at 60 mph. or the acceleration of anything cornpared to any other thing. ilns is read as "the velocity of A as measured by B. frle_ Ttris says that whatever rgR I see you doing. a car going the other way appears to be coming at you at 120 mph. then rtnefAC*ilce where C is any third person or object. We can measure the position. you don't appear to be moving. This is the idea behind relative motion. (When we get to relativity.
Pick either north or south as positive and stick with your choice. T\rtor: What is the velocity 6ps of the passenger as measured by the bus? Student: 2 mph. The wind is blowing northwest at 30 mph. So when I add or subtract I'll need to do components.c of the bus as measured by the guy? 60 mph. so long as you do it consistently.IVD THREE DIMENSIONS EXAMPLE As a bus drives north at 60 mph. MOTIOAI IN TWO A. Good. 2 dpc . Student: Because I want the velocity of the passenger as measured by the guy. and that's a good way to make a mistake. It involves measurements made in two different frames of reference. I'll use A as the passenger and B as the guy. so it's mph. as determined by someone standing on the side of the road? How are you going to approach this problem? Because we're talking about relative motion. I'm going to use the relative motion equations. You're tryirg to skip steps. so it's *60 mph. by two different people. Student: Is T\rtor: it positive or negative? Student: It doesn't say. and C? What are the three people. B. Think about how r and gr relate to the . Student: So I'll start with the equation. tTpc :6ps * dec T\rtor: Tutor: What is the velocity 6p. the passenger. How fast is the passenger moving." T\rtor: Yes. compared to the bus. Student: I'll You need to choose an axis. T\rtor: Student: dlie t7RC ldcr Ttrtor: Student: What are A. Harder but not impossible. Darn. What is the speed of the plane compared to the ground? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It says "compared to. of course. T\rtor: Not all problems are labelled with the technique needed to solve them. or frames of reference mentioned in the problem? Student: The bus. South and northwest aren't parallel to each other. objects. take north as positive. or southward compared to the bus. EXAMPLE J An airplane is pointed southward with an airspeed of 200 mph.e2 mph) + (+60 mph) sees  +b8 mph Student: The guy by the side of the road the passenger moving northward at 58 mph." so I'm going to use relative motion. Student: All I need to do is figure out whether I add or subtract Student: the 200 and the 30. What are you going to use for your axes? Student: r and A. He's walking toward the rear of the bus. T\rtor: The directions in the problem are south and northwest.28 CHAPTER 4. a passenger on the bus walks toward the rear at 2 mph. and the guy by the side of the road. T\rtor: It doesn't matter which one you make which letter. How might you identify that relative motion is involved in this problem? Student: It talks about a measurement "compared to" and "as determined by.
and the third T\rtor: What are the components of upn. so the south component is negative (trying to skip steps again).s : (200 mph) UPG : .C is B.q. ?rpc. Student: It's headed south at 200 mph. west.w . so I draw my triangle.upA. so I'll use south a^s one of my axes. uac. the Ground thing C is the Air.29 directions in the problem.s upA. Student: I need to use the Pythagorean theorem again. so the Plane is A. the velocity of the plane compared to the air? mph south and 0 west. or you could just use some combination of north.w  (30 mph) cos 45o  21 mPh ? T\rtor: The wind is going northwest. south. I can use either angle. Ttrtor: What are the components of dnc. so I'll use west as the other. so *200 Student: Because it's 45o. Now you can do the vector addition. east. + (2I mph) . so you can't just add them. so there must be a third thing moving. Ttrtor: or air. w * uuc. That's two. or even northwest. The wind is more west than east. + (21 mph)2  180 mph .. T\rtor: Student: Now figure out how to add the vectors.s * o?c.?c. and C? Student: I want the plane compared to the ground.s : * uac. the velocity of the air compared to the ground? Student: That's the wind. That way the axes are perpendicular and my results will probably be positive. Student: First I'll add the south components. the wind I\rtor: Which is A. Using relative motion: une  6nc * uce .(0 mph) + (21 mph) : 2t mph T\rtor: The south and west components are perpendicular.w : \@ry. Student: The plane is going south. B.. dpC:UpA*u. Student: What are the three things in the problem? The airplane and the ground. .. and the components are the same.h).179 mph upc.s : uAG.w . oh.
and I'll use southwest for the other axis. T\rtor: Yes. Student: I guess not. The math will be easier if you pick the goal (southeast) a^s one of your axes. Student: Really? Ok y.SW  UAG .S E  (30 mph) cos 45o : +21 mph T\rtor: What components do you have now? SE upr. The airplane needs to fly directly southeast compared to the ground. Did you pick the strange directions just so I could practice using unusual axes? T\rtor: Yes. the groundspeed lrpc I and the airspeed lrpc I were different. so I'm going to try relative motion. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS EXAMPLE An airplane has an airspeed of 200 mph. Tutor: Is it clear that the plane is moving 200 mph compared to the ground? In the last problem. upc equals +200 mph. UAG + dpc?o +2r ?? SW +2r . Tutor: Student: UAG . The wind is blowing south at 30 mph. What are you going to use for your axes? Student: How about south and west again? T\rtor: Any set of perpendicular axes will work. What are the components of the wind d11c? Student: It's a 45" angle again.30 CHAPTER 4. so I'll need axes to add the vectors. Drawing the triangle isn't as ea"sy because the il(es seem strange. you can rotate the paper. and southward means the southwest and southea^st components are both positive. so that the plane goes southeast compared to the ground. but the goal is to get the plane flying southea^st. dpc 6pn*unc The directions are not all parallel. If it seems strange. But the southwest component of the groundspeed is zero. so that it flies parallel to the runway. of course. In what direction should the pilot point the airplane? Student: It says compared to.
st. Student: Of course.sp : a?n. so is arctan . the angle. You have one of the components of up4.ro. u?e..1.(21 mph)2 it positive or negative? T\rtor: If it's negative then the plane is going northward. so you can find the other component.sn * e21 mph)2 199 mph . and you know the magnitude upe.sw (200 mph)2 u". Then the angle is Student: It's a square root. J .\/(200 mph)2 . opposite adjacent 2I 199 Student: That's 6o mea"sured eastward from southea. I can find dpn.sw : 2I.31 Ttrtor: Student: I see.s1*o?n. But I still don't know Student: Using the Pythagorean theorem backwards.
Forces are things that push or pull on an object.8 m/s2 on the surface of the Earth. and is just hard enough to keep the objects apart and no harder. o Use the diagram to write Newton's o Solve for the unknown. so we only need to deal with gravity and things in contact with our object.Chapter 5 Force and help. One common mistake is to a. There is a word in mathematics that means "perpendicular to the surface. We won't have any electromagnetic forces for a while. If you don't get this. This force is to keep the objects from occupying the same place at the same time. get Every problem involving forces starts with the same basic steps: o Draw a freebody diagram. Every object has a ma"ss m. where g is the same acceleration of gravity as in the earlier chapters. o gravity o normal forces o tension forces Gravity is easy. o Choose axes. g 9. You dontt know the magnitude of the normal force. and does not contain direction information. but you don't know it. and g is neaer negative. Anything that touches an object can apply a force to it. second law equations along each ancis." and that word is normal. there is no friction until the next chapter. Also. Motion I In this chapter we cover the single most important technique to learn in physics. Any time two objects are in contact. So the normal force is the perpendicular to the surface force. The only time that you know the normal force is when 32 . we need to worry about three forces. This force is always perpendicular to the surfaces.ssume that you know the normal force. there could be a force where they meet. there are two types of forces that can occur without touching: gravity and electromagnetic forces. For the moment. Also. and a weight (force) of ffig. g is the magnitude of the gravity force.
Thtor: Are there any forces on the box? has ma. The purpose of the scale is to measure the normal force. T\rtor: FN and n are also common choices. EXAMPLE A 3 kg box sits on the floor. Tutor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: There is a rope pulling on it. Usually in physics problems we use massless ropes (purchased at the theoretical physics store). then the normal force is 200 pounds. but a normal force is only as big as it needs to be to keep the objects from moving into each other. So pick a variable name or symbol to represent the magnitude of the normal force. so if it says 200 pounds. Newton's third law says that if A puts a force on B. T\rtor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: The box is in contact with the floor. you don't know the normal force. Note that because one of these forces is on A and the other on B. so it has weight mg downward. The box is pulled to the right by u rope that is 35o above horizontal. T\rtor: Thtor: Student: Student: So how big is the normal force? Do you know? No. so there is a tension force. Are there any other forces acting on the box? Tutor: Student: Student: Fliction. these forces never occur on the same object. Student: So the normal force isn't the same as the weight? T\rtor: Sometimes it is. If you don't have a scale. T\rtor: What is the direction of the normal force? Student: Perpendicularly out of the floor. get the direction right. You dontt know the magnitude of the tension force. Ttrtor: Not necessarily. Student: It so T\rtor: Student: I choose ?. and that the two forces are equal in magnitude and have opposite direction. The last important point about forces is dealittg with paired forces. Draw a freebody diagram for the box. so there is a normal force. Then that's all of the forces. The only time that you know the tension force is when the tension force is applied by a spring scale. but you don't know it. the box will lift off of the floor. Student: I choose . What is the direction of the tension force? 35" from horizontal right toward upward. then B puts a force on A. and attach a name or label to each force. How do you know? T\rtor: .33 someone is standing on a scale. T\rtor: Do we know how big the tension force is? Student: Uh. so if the normal force is the same as the weight. The purpose of the freebody diagram is to get a complete list of the forces. Tension forces are away from the object in the direction of the rope. Later we're going to want to put the magnitude of the tension force into an equation. Student: Good. We pull on an object with a string or rope.ss.A/. no? Tutor: Correct. we need a symbol to represent the magnitude of the tension force. We're going to save friction until the next chapter. One common mistake is to assume that you know the tension force. so upward. T\rtor: What is the size of the normal force? Student: The normal force is the same as the weight. The tension will pull upward on the box.
because those are the only forces on the book. T\rtor: How big is the normal force? Student: It is the same as the weight. Tutor: Are there any other forces acting on the book? Student: It is in contact with the table. Thtor: Yes. T\rtor: Are there any forces on the book? has mass.34 CHAPTER 5. T\rtor: Student: I don't know. T\rtor: The weight of the book doesn't act on the table.I Student: Because we did the weight and we did everything in contact with the box. Draw a freebody diagram for the book and one for the table. . FORCE AND MOTION . and Newton's third law says that the gravity force of the book pulling up on the Earth is equal and opposite. ) 350 . T\rtor: What if the table is in an elevator that is accelerating upward? Student: Who would put a book on a table in an elevator? T\rtor: The point is that just having two forces on an object doesn't make them equal.J EXAMPLE A 2 kg book sits on a 7 kS table. so I'll give it a symbol ^Af. so there is a normal force upward. T\rtor: What forces are there on the table? Student: There is the weight of the table and the weight of the book and a normal force up from the floor. Student: So there is a normal force perpendicularly out of the book acting on the table. Student: Surely the book affects the table. and the only thing touching the book is the table. pushing the table downward. so it has weight mg downward. Student: Then how does the book affect the table? T\rtor: They are in contact with each other. How big is the normal force that the table puts on the book? Student: It Are there any other forces acting on the book? Student: I did the weight. The table doesn't come into the gravity force on the book. but the gravity force of the book is the Earth pulling it down. so those are the only forces on the book.
T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It has ma^ss. We're done. and likewise for the 12 N box. Student: So the mass is 6 N/9.35 Yes. There is a also tension force upward. T\rtor: How big is the normal force that the floor puts on the table? Student: It's a normal force. Student: It also has ma. . How big is the force that the table puts on the book? Student: It was . How big is this normal force? Equal to the weight of the book? T\rtor: Not necessarily. Drawafreebodydiagram for each box. There is a tension force ? upward. so I choose l{floor. Ttrtor: Are the two weights the same? Student: No. Newton's third law says that the force that the table puts on the book is equal to and in the opposite direction as the force that the book puts on the table. What forces are there on the 12 N box? downward. Thtor: Are there any more forces acting on the table? Student: We did the weight of the table. so it has weight What forces are there on the 6 N box? mg downward.l/. so the normal force of the book pushing down on the table is also l/.8 mf s2? T\rtor: Yes. so it has weight Are the two masses the same? Student: No. masslesspulley. not mass. T\rtor: Newtons is a unit of force. so I'll use rng for the weight of the book and M g for the weight of the table. so I need to use a different symbol for the floortable force. so 6 N is mg for the lighter box. so I'll use mog for the 6 N box and mng for the 12 N box. T\rtor: Student: J /b EXAMPLE A 6 N boxand a 12 N boxhangfromaropeoverafrictionless.ss. and it is in contact with two things so there are two normal forces. so N. Ttrtor: Is the normal force that the floor puts on the table the same size as the normal force that the book puts on the table? Student: Not necessarily.
Student: And then the rope would have to become longer. would remain. There is also a tension force upward. they would add to zero and only the weight Tutor: Student: It also has mass.36 CHAPTER 5. so it has weight downward. 0 T\rtor: What forces are there on the 3 kg box? rng downward. rz9 EXAMPLE A 3 kg box hangs from the ceiling by u rope. Student: So I use the same symbol the lighter box? T in each freebody diagram. if the boxes were falling with acceleration g. so the box would fall. so it is ?2. T\rtor: Student: What if it had mass? We would need to draw an additional freebody diagram for the rope.I Tutor: Student: Are the tensions the same or different? As long as it is the same massless rope. so ?1 up and ?z down. so I'll use msg for the 3 kS box and mzg for the 4 kg box. and a 4 kg box hangs from the 3 kg box from another rope. Draw a freebody diagram for each box. T\rtor: They could be the same. What forces are there on the 4 kg box? Tutor: Are the tension forces the same? Student: If they were. FORCE AND MOTION . Are the two masses the same? Student: No. There is a tension force upward and a tension force Student: It has mass. and the pulley is massless and frictionless. then the light box has zero net force on it and doesn't accelerate. Isn't the tension equal to the weight of Tntor: If it is. So I don't know the size of the tension force. so it has weight downward. but the net force on the heavy box is downward and it does accelerate. then we . They must be different. then the tensions are the same. If it is massless. T\rtor: As long as the rope is massless. T\rtor: Is the tension pulling up on the 4 kS box equal to Tr or Tz? Student: It is the same rope as the one that pulls down on the 3 kg.
so we'll need additional equations in order to get a solution. We already did that for this problem. so we need to divide them into components to add them. We've got to be missing one variable. Do each axis. Once you have your axes. and the tension force ? up and to the right.37 have the tension at top and bottom and they add to the mass. The box is pulled to the right by r rope that is 35o above horizontal and has a force of 26 N. and ofrben the forces are not colinear (along a single line). Add all of the components and set that total equal to the mass times the acceleration along that axis. the normal force l/ upward. then think about solving the equations. Find the acceleration of the box. Aty set of axes will work. It is common to be missing two or more.ss times the acceleration of that object. If the acceleration is zero. Find the normal force that the floor exerts on the box. Tutor: How do we begin? We draw a freebody diagram for the box. Take one axis. If you choose one of the axes to be parallel to the acceleration. T Newton says that if we add all of the forces on an object we get the ma. sometimes three). with the weight rng downward. then the math will be much easier to do. To do this we need axes (usually two. Find the component of that force along the axis. EXAMPLE A 3 kg box sits on the floor. Student: . then choose any a)ces you like. you can add the force vectors. Student: Which is zero no matter what the acceleration is. or we would have nothing to solve for. zero. so long as they are perpendicular to each other. so the tension is the same everywhere on the rope. Don't worry if you don't know values for all of the symbols in the equation. and go through the forces one at a time. times the acceleration of the rope. The forces are vectors.
Tutor: What is the r component of the normal force? Student: The normal force is also perpendicular to the r axis.38 CHAPTER 5. We chose the axes so that all of the acceleration . and the normal force is also parallel to the A axis. T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: What is the r component of the tension? Student: The .a T\rtor: Student: Can we solve these? The tension ? is 26 N. so the A component is +lf. so it's positive. mg + lf +T sin35o : rno. then we can apply Newton's second law for each axis. so the .r component is zero.r component is adjacent to the 35o angle.  rrlao Student: ? cos 35o  TTLar Let's do the A components. the weight would be positive. Student: I don't know the normal force so I can't find ^l12 ar.I 'J What is the direction of the acceleration? The box will slide along the floor. ar Ttrtor :7. the result will be equal to the mass of the box times its acceleration. Had you chosen the y axis downward.IVD MOTIO]V . ? aa is the acceleration in the g direction. Tutor: Choose one axis parallel to the acceleration and the second axis perpendicular to the first. Tutor: Student: EF" : TTLar and EFo T\rtor: What is the r component of the weight? The weight is perpendicular to the r axis. Student: To add the forces. T\rtor: Newton says that if we add the force vectors together. so horizontal and to the right.s the y T\rtor: Student: axis. so it's cosine. T\rtor: What is the y component of the tension? Student: The r component is opposite to the 35o angle. What is the A component of the weight? The weight is parallel to the y axis. FORCB A. Student: Yes. so it's negative. It's in the same direction a. so I can solve the first equation (26 N) cos 35o and find ar.I  (3 kg)o. so the r component is zero. or vertical. so all of it. we need to divide the vectors into components. T\rtor: But the weight is negative because it is opposite to the y axis. It's down. so it's sine. Student: I choose / to the right and y upward. so the weight is negative.
l/ on each side. Student: So to see if the normal force is up or dowtr. which indicates that it's a variable. Student: Right. ^l/ be negative? No. It can be confusing. with . like Flv. (3 Student: Now ks)(e. the normal force is perpendicular to the surface. There is a normal force N upward. and we did those and gravity. the man is pushing on the box. T\rtor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: The only things touching it are the man and the ramp surface. What is the acceleration of the box? How do we begin? We draw a freebody diagram for the box. this would be negative.Af on the left is in italics. but we still don't know how big it is.4f . so some people try to choose other symbols for the normal force. n) or q.  0. The box has a mass of 24 kg and the ramp is 28" compared to the horizontal.e N) 0 .8 ^l12) + lr + Q6 N) sin35o : (3 kg)(0) I can solve for the normal force l/.Ar  14. and because l[ is positive. T\rtor: N is the magnitude of the normal force. and the symbol is equal to the magnitude. He pushes with a force of 100 N at 10o above horizontal.4 N) + ^^r + (14. so it must be positive no matter what direction the normal T\rtor: Student: That force is. so there is a force that I'll call P. 1lrtor: Student: If I had chosen down as the g axis. We use the drawing to get the direction right.5 N looks strange.39 would be in the r direction. I have to look back at the drawing. What is the direction of the normal force? Student: It's positive so it's upward. then shouldn't EXAMPLE A man pushes on a box that is on a ramp. T\rtor: Is the normal force really upward? The surface isn't horizontal. Ttrtor: Student: . then the A component of the normal force would have been . so it is a unit. (2e. so we have them all. Also. 10o above horizontal. The . The N on the right is in plaintype. Student: So a. The weight is mg downward.
62" . The angle at the top is 900 . so it's cosine. and Student: Why is that? Why can't I use r right y vp? You could. so to add the vectors we need to have two axes. so it's negative.I NI . It goes in the opposite direction as the r axis. so the gr component is +lf. If aa :0.to T\rtor: T\rtor: much easier rn9 The vectors are not all colinear. so it's 90o . so it's negative.tan 28". Student: So the r component of the weight is opposite to the 28" angle. up and to the left. T\rtor: What is the r component of the weight? Student: Part of the weight is parallel to the r axis.40 CHAPTER 5. Student: Ok y. We have to do it in both the r and y direction. so the r component is zero. T\rtor: Student: . but then you'd have a" and as. Tutor: What is the r component of the push force? Student: Ttre push is 18o from the r axis. The math will be if one axis is parallel to the acceleration. r is up the ramp and g is perpendicular to it. EF" : Trlar and EFo  TTLao What is the tr component of the normal force? Student: The normal force is perpendicular to the r axis.28o. . Because the box slides along the ramp. Tutor: Student: Now we can write Newton's second law. so it's sine. then you have two only equations and often you can solve each one by itself. FORCE A]VD MOTION. much easier.29" right angle. It goes in the opposite direction as the y axis. and you wouldn't know either. but how do we find the angle? Tutor: Consider the triangle formed by the ramp and the weight force. and you'd have to solve simultaneous equations. T\rtor: What is the A component of the weight? Student: The y component of the weight is adjacent to the 28" angle. T\rtor: mg sin28o + P cos 18o : rrlar What is the y component of the normal force? The normal force is parallel to the y axis. you'd have a third equation aalo.
It's opposite to the y a. He isn't pushing hard enough to move the box up the ramp. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Which way is the box moving? The acceleration is down the ramp.Af  mgcos 28o  Psin 18o : *gdj r equation. What does a negative a.s pushing harder earlier.8 ^1"') sin 28" + (100 N) cos 18" (110 N) + (e5 N) : (24 ks)o. mean? Student: A negative a. The box could be moving up the ramp but slowing. so the box is moving down the ramp.. means that the acceleration is down the ramp. as: 15 N o'64mfs2 (24 ks)o. ffi: Student: Doesn't o. so it could be negative. so we Trrtor: can solve.cis. so it's sine. How can we tell? T\rtor: We can't. because he wa. have to be positive? T\rtor2 ar is a component. J .4L o a o 6 t I T\rtor: Student: What is the y component of the push force? The y component is opposite to the 18". so it's negative. Perhaps the box was moving up the ramp. Student: Now that we've applied Newton's second law. Does the accel eration tell us which way something is moving? Student: The acceleration tells us how the velocity is changing. not a magnitude. . can we solve for the acceleration? We want the acceleration up the ramp at) and we know everything else in the (24 kg)(9. not from the information we have.
Student: We can do that? T\rtor: Yes. Student: You mean doesn't accelerate. Student: So the tension is between mag and mng. FORCE A]VD MOTIOJV . Student: Of course. massless Find the acceleration of the boxes. One will move up when the other moves down. Tutor: For the lighter box to accelerate up. so I only need one axis. But you still need to be consistent in using the correct axes for each object.Ttt L2a ? T\rtor: If the tension is equal to the weight of the lighter box. T\rtor: Yes. How big is the tension force? mOg rnng  . That would be a problem. We already did this one. then the total force on the lighter box is zero and it doesn't move but the heavier one does. pulley. except one will be positive and the other will be negative. For the heavier box to accelerate down. To do this. I think that the heavier box will move down. but they are all up and down. T\rtor: forces? Newton says that if we add the forces. upward? I choose g upward.42 CHAPTER 5. T\rtor: It would be handy if they were the same. Student: We start by drawing the freebody diagram. a 6 N box and a 12 N box hang from a rope over a frictionless. the tension must be less than its weight. I'lladdtheforcesonthe 12Nbox. . each object can have its own set of axes. like if one of the boxes was on a ramp. T\rtor: You mean that the heavier box will accelerate down. since we could apply an additional force so that the lighter one moves down. This will come in handy when the accelerations aren't parallel. we get the mass times the acceleration. Student: Okay. the tension must be more than its weight. we use separate axes for the two objects.I EXAMPLE In an Atwood's machine. so down is positive for the 12 N box and up is positive for the 6 N box. Thetensionisequaltotheweightof thelighterbox. How do we add Tutor: Will both boxes accelerate Tutor: Student: Student: They're vectors. How will their accelerations compare? Student: They will be the same.
8 (I2 ^ls2)  N + 6 N)a (!: Tutor: Student: That the boxes a. So apply Newtonts second law to each box.rrr6a Ttrtor: But they have the sarne two variables. so you have two equations and two variables. so I can't solve either of them. rnngTffttza T .re moving (oXt(g='g=in/s'z) (1820 : B. The result is positive. Student: Each equation has two variables. and you can solve them together. so I'll add the two equatiorrs.B ^ls2 in the directions I chose as positive.43 T\rtor: Student: We don't know. Student: I want the acceleration and not the tension.mag . mngmog:rrtrL2a*rraoa (*rr*u)g(*rr*m6)a (L2 N  6 N)(e. What does that mean?  ro. that's why we made it a variable. accelerating .
where friction pushes your shoe forward. If there was no friction. Imagine that you are driving a car that is currently at rest. He doesn't exert a force on the bottle. Student: It just moves because the tablecloth is moving. As he does so. static and kinetic. T\rtor: Newton says that the bottle can't accelerate to the left without a force to the left. the tires would rotate but the car wouldn't move. Thtor: Student: 44 . but the tablecloth would move to the left. To prevent this slipping. of course. This first is friction forces. If you push on the accelerator. and static friction is when they aren't sliding yet. the engine turns the tires. or right. What force could be to the left? Student: Gravity is down and the normal force is up. Eriction will even cause motion in order to prevent sliding. and a bottle sitting on the tablecloth. and static friction tries to prevent sliding EXAMPLE Consider a tablecloth on a table. Fbiction tries to prevent sliding. but friction opposes sliding of surfaces. the bottle slides with the tablecloth. what would happen to the bottle? Student: There would be no horizontal forces. causing motion. A physics teacher slowly pulls the tablecloth to the left. Ttrtor: The bottle accelerates to the left. and how can that be to the left? T\rtor: If there was no friction. The only force remaining is friction.Chapter 6 Force and Motion II second In this chapter we add two things to what we did last chapter. and a normal force l/r perpendicular to the surface. T\rtor: The teacher is pulling on the tablecloth. Kinetic friction is when the surfaces are already sliding against each other. so it can't be those. You may think that friction opposes motion. or up. and many physics books say so. What force causes it to move to the left? Student: The teacher is pulling on it. What are the forces acting on the bottle? There is gravity mg down. Kinetic friction tries to stop the sliding. There is also a friction force /1 against the motion. T\rtor: Correct. Fbiction comes in two types. so the tires would slip on the ground. friction pushes the car forward. Of all of the things that you think you intuitively know. The same thing works when walking. so I guess it wouldn't move. so the bottle and tablecloth would be slidittg against each other. and the is things moving in a circle. the one you are most likely to get backwards is friction. Draw freebody diagrams for the bottle and the tablecloth. but he isn't touching the bottle.
The bottle isn't sliding on the tablecloth. even though there isn't any sliding between the bottle and the tablecloth? Thtor: One way to prevent sliding is to push the bottle to the left. . it would cause the book to move. Student: So the bottle pustres the tablecloth to the right with an equal and opposite force ft. and a normal force Ir{z from the table upward. so the bottle exerts one on the tablecloth. What are the Student: It has gravity tablecloth right. If there was a friction force. there could be a friction force f2 from the table. There are no horizontal forces on the book. but I'll think again. but the other way is to push the Correct. so it sits motionless on the table. so it's kinetic friction and it pushes the tablecloth right. Imagine a book sittirg on a table. Student: The tablecloth pushes the bottle up.45 T\rtor: Yes. so the bottle exerts a normal force l/r down. T\rtor: The tablecloth also exerts a friction force on the bottle. T\rtor: Which way does the friction force from the table act? Student: The tablecloth is sliding to the left. so it's static friction. Just because two surfaces are in contact does not mean that there is a friction force. There are also forces from the bottle. T\rtor: Good. Since there doesn't need to be any friction to prevent sliding. Because there is a normal force. there is no friction force. friction moves the bottle to keep it from sliding on the tablecloth. Student: So friction pushes the bottle to the left so that it doesn't slide? I T\rtor: fcrrces acting on the tablecloth? fuIg downward. What type of friction is it? Student: I was going to say "kinetic" because the bottle is movirg.
Student: Can't we skip the freebody Student: P force. Gravity mg goes down. how do I check? Student: it didn't move? Frl/. FYiction point to the left to oppose the sliding. you don't know which way the static friction will be.il When drawing your freebody diagram. is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force between the surfaces. there could be a friction force Okay. Someone is pushing to the right with a force . because the box is sliding.rrax : . up to a maximum of F". and a normal force lf pushes up.45 N. then ask. Tutor: Have you ever pushed something and then Student: Okay. The magnitude of the kinetic friction force is ^F'k . The magnitude of the static friction force is anything it needs to be to prevent sliding.4. rurg T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. I still make mistakes if I skip the diagram with only two forces. EXAMPLE A box sits on a table. max : pkN. FORCE A]VD MOTIOIV . T\rtor: What would happen if there were no friction force? Student: The box would accelerate to the right. Is it static or kinetic friction? Student: Kinetic. What is the friction force on the box? Tutor: Where do we start? diagram? T\rtor: If you have more than one force. sliding across the floor. The box has a mass of 8 kg and the coefficients of friction between the box and the table are Fs :0. Because there is a normal f . This is because the static friction can be in any direction needed to keep sliding from happening.l[. always put the static friction forces in last. A horizontal force of 45 N pushes the box to the right.7 and pu : 0. Do all other forces first. Until you know in which direction something would slide if there was no friction. I need to know the normal force. where p. but we'll do that last. "in which direction would it slide if there was no friction?" Add the static friction in to prevent this sliding. How do you know that the box is sliding? Because someone pushes it. then you need a freebody diagram. where Fu is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force between the surfaces.pr. T\rtor: Student: How big could the static friction force be? Static friction could be as big as f.46 CHAPTER 6.
The coefficients of friction between the box and the floor are Fs :0. but it doesn't have to be 55 N. There . What is the acceleration of the box? Student: First we draw is a tension T  50 N up and to the right. add the vertical forces: .8 ^ls2)  55 N The static friction force can be as big as 55 N. so the friction force will only be 45 N. and the normal force F to the lefb. He pulls with a force of 50 N and the mass of the box is 8 kg. Student: It's if Fu: /r"l/ : F.7)(8 kg)(9.4)(8 kS)(9. Thtor: What if the box were already moving? Student: Then it would be sliding.0. and there is a friction force the freebody diagram.A/ mg*ilO rng . T\rtor: Yes.8 mls2) : 3t N EXAMPLE A boy pulls on a box with a rope that is 23" above horizontal to the right. What happens the friction force is 55 N? Student: The total force is to the left. : p"l/ : T\rtor: Tutor: How big is the friction force? 55 N. Does that make sense? Student: No.56 and ltrk . he pushes to the right and the box accelerates to the left.47 T\rtor: To get the normal force.47 . F"mg  (0. and the box doesn't move.Af Student: Static friction could be as big as F^. Gravity mg is down.ffis  (0. l[ is up. and the friction would be kinetic friction.
4 N) : 0 N58.47) (58.s the y ucis. Good.3 N) : (8 kg)o" ar:(1:lP (8 ks) EXAMPTE :2.II T\rtor: Ttrtor: Tutor: Is it static friction or kinetic friction? Student: That depends on whether the box is sliding across the floor. FORCE AND MOTION. then the box slides and there is kinetic friction. (50 N) cos 23"  (0. it will do so to the right.(8 ks)(9."* : prN   33. (50 N) sin 23" + (19.rnar and f  EFn : TTLay Student: If the box accelerates. If it isn't enough. rngrngl(" Student: au is zero because all of the acceleration is in the r direction. T\rtor: You only need to go back to the r equation.Jmls2 A 6 kg box is sliding up a 34o ramp at L4 mf s. then the acceleration is zero.0 N)  (33. becaus€ frr. To do that. Student: So the normal force is still 58. because the box is sliding.5 : N . EF* .0 N) : (8 kg)a"  (33. we need to write down the Newton's second law equations. T\rtor: Can you do anything with these equations? T\rtor: Student: I can solve the second one to find N.9 N) 0 fr. is the friction still static.36. Student: Does that help you? Yes. Nothing about the y equation has changed. The total r force is positive.9N (0. or to the right.48 CHAPTER 6.0 N) : (8 kg)o.8 ^1"2) N) + N .9 N. so the box does move.(78.9 N) : (8 kg)a" (18. If it is. Now I can find the accelera T\rtor: Since the box moves.ax ?sin23o +N 0 : prN. How do we check? Student: We see if the static friction would be enough to keep it from sliding.0 N T\rtor: Student: I'll put it in the r What are you going to do with the maximum static friction force? equation and see if the box moves. I'll ?cos 23" v7lar.. What is the acceleration of the box? . The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the ramp it /ru : 0. Student: tion. That means I have to start over with kinetic friction. Student: The friction is really kinetic. (50 N) cos 23" (46.56)(58. use that as the r uris and up a.
mgcos 34o . mg sin 34o f : TTLar + lf . if there was a force in the past. so f . and the normal force N is perpendicular to the surface.8 ^ls2) cos 34"  48. Student: With the freebody Student: Of course. then use that to solve the r equation for the acceleration. Just to be different.*ilO T\rtor: Can you solve these equations to find the acceleration? Student: To find o. There is no pushing force. T\rtor: The friction force has to be parallel to the ramp surface. Tutor: How will you get the normal force? Student: I can solve the gt equation to find the normal force l[. but that something is done pushing now. Gravity mg is down. T\rtor: Something did push the box to get it going up the ramp. Because there is a normal force. Student: I choose r up the ramp.^r  nxgcos 34"  (6 kg)(9. of course.7 N .FuN . And since it's already sliding. Which way should I pick as the axis? Tutor: It really doesn't matter whether up or down the ramp is positive. the friction force will be down the ramp. Where did that come from? Student: Something had to push the box or it wouldn't go up the ramp.49 T\rtor: Where do we begin? diagram. there could be a friction force F. Also there is a force P pushing the box up the ramp. but if you choose r horizontal the math will get messy. It's kinetic friction. I see. I'll take y down into the ramp. but friction and gravity are both pushing it down the ramp. so if the box is sliding up the ramp. Remember to pick one axis parallel to the acceleration. in the direction of the initial velocity. T\rtor: The problem doesn't mention a force pushing the box up the ramp. Can something be moving up without an upward force on it? Student: Yes. it will be kinetic friction. I need to know F. Will it point up or down the ramp? Student: Won't friction always be down the ramp? T\rtor: Fliction opposes sliding. . Student: The box is going up the ramp. Thtor: Now you can choose axes and apply Newton's second law.
the velocity is changing because the direction is changing. T\rtor: There is no centripetal force.r  (6 ks)(e. in the negative direction. EXAMPLE t A roller coaster goes over a hill of radius 30 m.prl/ :  ma. Student: As we expected. Is the normal force When somethirg goes in a circle. You might think that you feel a force pushing you to the right. Imagine that you are in a car when the car turns to the left. Student: Then how can the coaster accelerate downward? T\rtor: The forces that do exist must add up to go downward. and apply Newton's second law. the acceleration is down the ramp. so the acceleration is downward.50 CHAPTER 6. so that's all of them. toward the middle of the circle. The centripetal force F" is going down. What speed is needed to achieve weightlessness? Student: As the coaster goes over the hill.36)(48. Where do we begin? Student: With the freebody diagram. There will be forces that you already know that add up to equal the centripetal force muz f r. toward the middle of the circle.4 ^lsz always lf . and the acceleration will be u2 f r. Student: Are there any other forces besides weight and normal force? We did the weight. goes in the freebody diagram. Draw the freebody diagram. toward the right of the car. The perceived force to the right is similar to a perceived force backwards when the car accelerates forward if the seat didn't push you forward you would stay there while the car moved out from under you. Even if it travels at a constant speed. Gravity mg is going down and the normal force l/ is going up. The real force on you is friction with the seat pushing you to the left. as always. and the only thing in contact with the coaster is the track.mg cos 0? T\rtor: Not always. A stationary observer sees that you are continuing straight while the car turns underneath you. it is going in a circle. FORCE AAID MOTIO]V  U  mg sin 34o sin 34o . its velocity is always changing. The acceleration of something going in a circle is toward the middle and is ac u2 where u is the speed and r is the radius of the circle. You need to go through the steps. The name "centripetal force" refers to the total force when the object is going in a circle.7 N)  (6 kg)o" ar: 8. treat the problem like you would any other.8 ^l12) (0. It is important to realize that centripetal force is not a real force and never  If something is going in a circle. Is the normal force equal to the weight? T\rtor: Student: Not necessarily. T\rtor: Good. choose axes. . and it never goes in the freebody diagram. The only difference is that the total force will be toward the middle of the circular path.
but you don't "feel" a force.". Student: I choose Apply Newton's second law. If up is positive. T\rtor: Yes. so the normal force must get smaller. then the acceleration will be down to be positive so that the acceleration will be positive. call the total force mu2 f r the "centripetal force. Student: But how can there be no normal force? Won't the coaster fall? T\rtor: Yes. I choose EF ma mg 'Af . But to go over the hill. up to be positive. it does fall. When the coaster goes too fast you feel yourself being jerked downward. and restraints for the riders. the right side gets larger. and the weight provides the force to accelerate it downward. What happens if the coaster goes even faster? Student: Then the curvature of the track is greater than the path of the coaster. The weight hasn't changed. so that the normal force can pull downward too. What happens as the coaster goes faster? Student: As u increases. Remember that the acceleration is downward. T\rtor: Modern coasters have wheels under the track. Perhaps we should call it normalforcelessness. That would be dangerous. then the total force will be down. and the coaster comes off of the track.51 tN P ng T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Is it possible for the forces to add to a total that points downward? Student: If the weight is greater than the normal force. Choose an axis and add the forces. so the left side gets larger too." Which of the forces in the problem is the centripetal force? Student: Neither. T\rtor: Does the weight increase as the coaster goes faster? Student: No. Student: And all of this happens when T\rtor: U _ lrFg : m)(e. in an arc. The rider feels the normal force from the seat momentarily disappear. negative.8 T\rtor: Right. it needs to accelerate downward. T\rtor: We call it "weightlessness" when l/ : 0. like on the Magnum at Cedar Point in Ohio. Student: Ol*y. Student: So would I put in a negative value for lf? I thought . The coaster "falls" at exactly the same curvature that the track has. we someti.*t When something is going in a circle. the total force is equal to the centripetal force.Af was a magnitude and couldn't be ^1"') 17mfs . it's the sum of the two.
it has to be parallel to the surface. Or you could draw a new diagram with the normal force down. But when the coin has gone halfway around. There isn't any force in that direction. Student: Now I apply Newton's second law. F TTLar . we want the maximum static friction T\rtor: force. r is in toward the center and parallel to the acceleration. Because there is a normal force. Ttrtor: A negative that the force goes in the opposite direction a"s drawn in the diagram. No. How big can friction be? Student: N upward. FYiction must be toward the middle of the turntable. there could be a friction force .II negative. so that r is always pointing from the coin into the center of the circle. that the coin can go. r will be away from the center. How fast can the coin go before it slips? If it slips. We don't know T\rtor: force. T\rtor: Correct on all counts.0. then we want the maximum friction Student: Okay. Which way is the coin accelerating? Student: It's going in a circle.F. Student: Student: Since the problem asks for the fastest Up to Frl/. there is no such thing. like when does the coin start to slip.62 and Fk . and it doesn't need to be opposite to the motion.Af indicates 6. EXAMPLE A small coin is placed on a turntable (like an old record player). T\rtor: We can move the axes with the coin.48. 14 cm from the center. T\rtor: In which direction is the friction force? Student: Well. Do we always want the maximum friction force? When we want a limit. I pick axes. and y is up. The coefficients of friction between the coin and the turntable are F" .0. and a normal force how big l[ is. wait. FORCE AND MOTION . T\rtor: What force is pushing it that way? Student: Centripetal force. so in toward the middle.52 CHAPTER value for . The coin has weight rng downward. in what direction will it go? We start with the freebody diagram. Tutor: Correct. so it's static friction. The coin isn't sliding yet.
What is the maximum speed of the car around the curve? T\rtor: We start by drawing the freebody diagram. Student: I need to know then find f. the friction will be kinetic.48. so the coin will move in a straight line. There is a speed at which the horizontal component of the normal force is just enough force so that the car goes around the curve.62)fr(s. so it needs even more force in toward the middle.@r)(e. There is a normal force ..53 +lr msgdj Student: I can solve the second equation for l/. EXAMPTE A 1500 kg car goes around a curve of radius 200 m. Student: So friction points in toward the middle? Doesn't it have to be parallel to the road surface? . The curve is banked at 11" and the coefficient of static friction between the car and the road is 0. there will be no friction.8 m/s2)(0. Nothing else is in contact with the car.8 m/s2) a :rtffi o . What are the forces after it slips? Student: Once it slips. which is smaller. away from the center.la m)  . Once the coin is off of the turntable. . Which way would the car slide without friction? T\rtor: Very good. Because there is a normal force there could also be a friction force /. maybe it'll cancel. T\rtor: Keep going. and then find ar. Tutor: Does it go directly away from the center? It was moving around the center.e2 mls T\rtor: What if the coin goes faster than this? Student: It flies off of the turntable. so there are no other forces.Arr  mg the mass m. T\rtor: What is the direction of the friction force? Student: It isn't necessarily opposite to the motion. Our car is going even faster. prl{  *tTt (0. Student: There is a gravity force mg pulling it down.nf perpendicular to the surface of the road. without which all hope is lost.
Is the circle that the car is traveling completely horizontal or parallel to the ramp? Student: It is horizontal.*ilO Good. .I want to find u. so up. rather than slipping. now I need axes.fsin 11o . f . we couldn't do this.Alr. so the static friction force is as big as it can be. or doesn't student: Now I can apply Newton's second law. but of the choices up and down the ramp. The acceleration is also down the ramp. Can you do anything with these equations? Student: I have three unknowns. and u.54 T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: zHAPTER 6.rngl O in the second equation except l/. The r axis needs to be horizontal. so the acceleration is horizontal. I can find l/ Ncos 11o ^A/ + lf sin 11o + lt and use it in the top equation (cos 11o  psin 11") : rng . f p. . and the y axis needs to be perpendicular to that.N. FzRCE AlvD MoTIoN Yes. Imagine trying to go around a turn on an icy day. which is in toward the middle of the turn? Down the ramp.*!' + lf cos 11o .rng . l[ sin 11o + fcos 11o : TTLer . toward the middle of the circle. Student: Is / : FN. I need another piece of information.nf. or f < p.  rr Yes. So friction points down the ramp. T\rtor: Student: I know everything to find u. Student: Why is it static friction? Isn't the car moving compared to the road? Thtor: The tires are rolling. goes straight. Student: Ohy. There isn't enough friction and the car turn enough. You need the relation between the friction force / and the normal force . If the speed was some arbitrary value.*t + lf cos 11o . T\rtor: The acceleration is toward the middle of the circle. Fbiction pushes the car in toward the turn.1tl{sin 11o . it's static friction. T\rtor: Yes. Since there is no slipping.N this time? T\rtor: We want the fastest speed.
\ r'r I rrro \e*r 11o : rr *t * '"vl'rr' ttcos 11') . .2 mls: 85 mph What if we were going slower than the magrc speed where no friction is needed? Then the horizontal component of the normal force would be too much.psin f ft)/ .: ffi9 . . *9 t): (cos 11o . .38.ttsin 11o) = . Tlrtor: Student: . and friction would have to point the other way.55 /[: ( \(cos 11" ."o r ' unn l): n .
The equation for energy is Ki+W=Kj or. and the speed decreases. For example.J = Fd cos 1> If the force F is in the same direction as the motion J. add the number made and subtract the number shipped. Sound is moving air molecules. By this we mean that chairs do not suddenly appear or disappear. chairs in a chair factory are conserved. and is the important technique of this chapter. the work is negative. but are made and shipped. If we know all of the terms in the equation except one. We could count how many chairs were still in the factory. It is a principle of physics that energy is conserved. If we take the number of chairs at the beginning of the day. Conservation of energy is one of those laws. If the force is in the opposite direction as the motion. Objects have kinetic energy when they are moving. What it does mean is that we can account for the change. the work is positive. the initial kinetic energy plus the work is the final kinetic energy. but it includes a lot of stuff. the energy increases. If the force is perpendicular to the motion. Lots of things use energy. and the speed stays the same but the direction of motion may change. we can solve for the one we don't know. then someone made some more. and the speed increases.Chapter 7 Kinetic Energy and Work Energy is the power to make something move. then the work is zero. then some must have been loaded onto a truck and sent to the customer. Doing work is how we change the energy. If there are more chairs now than there were an hour ago. That might not sound terribly interesting. If there are fewer chairs. The kinetic energy of a moving object is Note that the kinetic energy is positive even if the velocity is in the negative direction. How do we use conservation? What if the truck left the factory and no one counted how many chairs were on board. but only turned from one form of energy into another. and use the equation from the last paragraph to determine how many chairs had been loaded. we get the number of chairs in the factory now. the energy decreases. the energy doesn't change. Conservation laws are a very powerful technique for solving problems. Just because something is "conserved" does not mean it doesn't change. The work done on an object is W = F . 56 . so energy is the power to make tunes. This means that energy is neither created nor destroyed.
the friction on the box will be Student: Do we still start with a freebody diagram. Wr  Fdcos O (26 N)(6  ) cos35o  128 J T\rtor: Good.8 mf s2)) (6 m) cos90o :0 J T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Does that make sense? Gravity really does no work? Does gravity cause the box to speed up as it moves. normal force . The box is sliding. even though we're using energy? rr3 Tutor: Student: What is the work that the tension does on the box? The tension is 26 N and at a 35o angle. because there is a normal force there could be a friction force /. T\rtor: Is it kinetic or static friction? Student: to the left. The box is pulled to the right by a rope that is 35o above horizontal and has a force of 26 N. T\rtor: Yes. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is 0. As the box slides to the right.  they need to be so that we can add them. the nrotion does zero work.Af is up. so it's kinetic. A newton times 1Nx1m1J EXAMPLE A 3 kg box is pulled 6 m across the floor.15. Ary force that is perpendicular to . So if gravity doesn't change the kinetic energy. and find the speed of the box after it has been pulled 6 m. Student: Gravity mg is down.((S x)(9.J( The units of work and energy are the same meter is a joule. To find the work done by each force we need to know what they are. it does no work. and tension ? is up and to the right. Find the work that each force does on the box. Wc  Fdcos O . How much work is done by gravity? Student: Gravity is up. gaining kinetic energy? Student: Not on a level floor. and the box moves sideways.
The work done by friction is Wy  Fdcos 0  [(0.Kf Kr:0.8 m/s I a 2(115 J) 3ks At this point we introduce springs. Conservation of energy works well when the acceleration is not constant. Student: Negative work? Then I need the friction force p. k is the "spring constart. Because the force from a spring will change if it is compressed. the acceleration will not be constant. Wedo I28 J+0+0+(13J) 115Jof + (115 J) work.I{. T\rtor: Student: And I didn't even need to figure out what +lf +Tsin35o mg *6 0 (26 N) sin35o .s : !rf"' When first compressing a spring. so I need the normal force after all. KI]VETIC EJVERGY AND WORK The normal force is also perpendicular to the motionr so Student: That's a good thing to remember. You could do that. But the more you compress it the greater the force you need. is that work and energy is the easiest way to deal with springs.!*r' 2 8.lf(6 m) cos90o :0 J the normal force is. Wx  Fdcos 0 . T\rtor: Fliction could cause the box to slow down. It is there to remind us that the force of the spring is opposite to fr) where r is how much the spring is stretched or compressed. . What if 7 was so big that the normal force was negative? Could the floor be pulling the box down? What would happen if you pulled really hard? Student: No.kr The minus sign generally does not go into an equation. so os wouldn't be zero. The units of k are newtons of force for each meter that the spring is compressed (newtons/meter). The work needed to compress or stretch a spring a distance r from its normal length is lv"pri.^r .(3 kg)(9. even if a newer technique works better.so o Kt*W .5 N)] (6 m) cos180".5 N thought of something.8 ^lsz) T\rtor: Student: I just I4. The force from a spring is 4rprirrg . or doing negative work. Many physics students try to use the first thing they learned for everything. The box would lift off of the floor. which would be taking energy out. Tty using conservation of energy. Tutor: Student: Student: Theboxisn'tmovingtostart.mg T sin35o . when talking about work and energy. so it does no work.58 CHAPTER 7. The work is equal to the average force *tr" times the distan ce r. How much work does friction do? Student: Fliction doesn't cause the box to speed up.so . The reason to introduce springs here.13 J Now I can apply Newton's second law in the r direction and find the acceleration. and each cm takes more work than the previous one.15)(14." a constant for any particular spring (though a different spring will have a different k). the force is zero so no work is needed.
.59 EXAMPLE A wall is tilted in by 15". since you want to solve for k eventually. and.49. The coefficients of friction between the block and the wall are ltrs :0. Holding the block in place requires that the spring be compressed by 12 cm. Student: It's static friction because it isn't sliding.s : kr? Student: No. Student: I' I I I ft3' t a I I t Tutor: Student: So the spring force is equal to the normal force. and parallel to friction as y.. there could be a friction force.g and only two equations. The friction force pushes up the wall.. What is the direction of the spring force? Student: It doesn't s&y. and a 2 kg block is placed against the wall.kr.i. T\rtor: But then you introduce the unknown k.g. I choose axes.0 +Finformation. I want {rpri. The weight mg is down. F*nring is the magnitude of the spring force.61 and Fk . exactly. Not all of the weight is parallel to the friction force. Do you really want {"pri. The block is held in place with a spring. Pushing in toward the wall. and you have the direction in your equation already. This is fine. {sp. Let's assume that this is the case. T\rtor: So you can use any pair of perpendicular axes.  . Three unknowns T\rtort I can use Frpri. . but there is no acceleration. to keep the block from sliding down the wall. yes. but you still have three unknowns.. and friction is equal to the weight. and f. What is the spring constant of the spring? We start with the freebody diagram. The normal force N is perpendicularly out of the surface.0. TUtor: Doing well.Af * 4prins  mgsin 15o : mg4. Student: I choose parallel to the spring force as r.g .. mgcos15o *ilO I need one more piece of T\rtor: How many unknowns do you have? Student: I have l/. There is also a spring force. Student: Ah. Because there is a normal force. Can we say that the static friction force is equal to . opposite the normal force? Tutor: Probably.
so the acceleration changes. whenever a spring . then we are at the limit and we can say that. First we draw the freebody diagram. and the spring is released. r ^" * ' \"^^^ 1bo 15'\ lt" /  (2 ks)(9'8 m/s2) m /rir \"'^ lbo . More precisely. #) : 801 N/m EXAMPLE 1600 N/* is placed on the ground and pressed down 6 cm. but we call it a spring Student: Okuy. as the spring force changes. but we didn't use energy. What forces act on the block? force. use energy? There was a spring in the last problem. T\rtor: Is the acceleration constant? Student: No. it's almost always easier to use a conservation law. ilr nxg cos 15o kr  mgsin 1bo cos + mg cosLl" F" 0.12  rng (rir. since it is a force between surfaces. T\rtor: It really is a normal force. as the spring uncompresses.0 Student: I can solve the bottom equation for lf. 15o \ + to:]5" p \ ) t It rns (rir. the spring force will decrease. and a normal force l[ is upward. the total force changes. then put it in the top equation .60 CHAPTER 7.mg cos 15o . lf*krrngsinl5o:0 * lt"'Af . How far above its initial position does the block go? A spring with spring constant k  T\rtor: Student: Gravity mg points down. T\rtor: When the acceleration is not constant.r\ and solve for k. A 2 kg block is placed on the spring. a spring force F"p points upward. Tutor: Is the spring force constant? No. like conservation of energy. KINETIC BNERGY AND WORK the maximum static friction force? T\rtor: If L2 cm is the smallest compression of the spring that will hold the block. Student: T\rtor: Student: So whenever a spring is involved.
We need to do both the initial and final compression.o6 2. but Then we would have had it as 6 cm? r d 2(2 kg)(9. Of course. the spring compression changes by 6 cm.o I . but that's what we're trying to find..8 T\rtor: It's still a unit of length. Does the spring do positive or negative work? Student: The spring pushes up. Student: What if we hadn't converted the 6 cm to meters. How much work does gravity do on the block? Student: The force rng times the distance d times the cosine of 180o. that's a tipoff to try energy first. How much is the spring initially compressed? Student: By 6 cm. since it moves up and gravity points down.61 is changing its length. *Wgr) : Kt m) o+ (*sar'#r + msd. irro. so K y is also zero. Ttrtor: Good.7 cm. and since the directions are the same it's positive work. we assumed that the spring fully uncompressed. we don't know d.s ^lr2)d: d iO600  0. . Is that consistent with The spring needed to uncompress by 6 cm.7 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The block moves up I4. so this is how our equation. and the block moves up.06 (2 ks)(e. and the block moved more than that. so we're okay. As part of our solution. but not one that we're really familiar ^lr2)  2(2 ke)(e. TUtor: How fast is the block moving when it reaches its maximum height? Student: It's at rest then too. How much work does the spring do on the block? Student: The work of a spring is +kd'. K. we can't just use the change in compression. That means we need another it gets into variable. * (W*. T\rtor: Don't panic.147 rrl  I4.ffi*t) . T\rtor: How much is it compressed after the block flies up? Student: Zero.o6 ]11o.8 ^lsz)  with.r')2  *)' N/)(0. T\rtor: Is the initial compression of the spring equal to the distance that the block moves up? Tutor: Student: I guess not.Kf Student: The block starts at rest . T\rtor: Because the equation for the work of a spring is nonlinear. Kt*W . Then the work is zero and everything is zero and we can't solve for anything. had left our answer? T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. so Ki is zero. Ah.
y. The jog you time can is much longer. what would happen without friction? Student: The tires would slip on the road. so one watt is one joule per second. Student: I drove from New York to Boston yesterd. To do 5000 joules of work quickly requires a large power. Consider the following conversation: I\rtor: How fast did you go? Student: 2I7 miles. and because there is a normal force there could be a friction force /. Tutor: Which way is the friction force acting? a normal force Student: . that the correct response would be somethittg like "65 miles per hour. To do 5000 joules of work slowly requires a small power. Tutor: Student: I carried Student: a heavy box up the stairs yesterday. so we start where we always do. Nothing else is in contact with the car. EXAMPTE A 1600 kg car drives 1 mile up a 5To grade at a constant 60 mph. How much power does this take? Student: The only way for the car to go up the hill is if friction pushes it up the hill. so static friction pushes the car forward and up the hill to prevent slipping. we divide the work by the time." Now consider another conversation. you can jog furthe doing more work than you can sprint.62 CHAPTER 7. Such a power would be quite a feat for a human (1 horsepower fast. T\rtor: As the engine turns the tires. To do 5000 joules of work in 10 seconds requires 500 joules per second or 500 watts or 500 W. so 5000 joules is the amount of work done. Since you can jog much longer (time) than you can sprint. Sprinting. How much power did you exert? 5000 joules. will tire a person much quicker than jogging. then it's static friction. about energy but exactly the same as the previous conversation. Power measures how fast you do work. Most of us would immediately recognize that the response answered a different question. If the tires are rolling without slippirg. KII{ETIC EI{ERGY AI{D WORK is An important distinction in science is the difference between the total amount and the rate at which it done. even though you sprint faster. not the amount done. there is l/ perpendicular to the surface. D_EorW rt Power is rleasured in watts. We need to know the forces. so that's all of the forces. Gravity mg points down. In each case the amount of work done is still 5000 joules. for example. Joules measure energy or work. To determine how fast the work was done. Humans tire quickly if they try to exert more than about 70% of their maximum power.
T\rtor: Excellent. Student: But thc road surface doesn't move.n find the work done by gravity instead of the work done by friction. Or the floor in an elevator does work because the floor surface moves. Does it make sense that gravity does negative work? Student: Gravity is down. then the total work is zero. friction does positive work. except negative. and the motion is up the hill. so gravity must do the same amount of work as friction. Which is easier? Student: I already know the force of gravity. gravity by itself would tend to slow the car down. rnotiorr. and the motion of the car is up and over.63 T\rtor: work? We want to find the power of the friction force.14o : I. TYue.05 0  2. The normal force doesn't do any work. Student: If the final speed of the car is the same as the initial speed. Okay. but try applying conservation of energy anyway. so l[1/mE  (mg)dcos O (1600 kS)(9. How much work does the normal force do? Student: The normal force is always perpendicular to the motion. so there is not much error in pretending that they are the same. Does the normal force ever do any work? T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: That would work. That's when the rise over the run ts 5To. Student: That's tricky. your hand moves so the normal force of your hand does work. or when tan 0 . so it doesn't do any work. So I ca. so I'll find the work done by gravity. if the surface moves.05. Since the force is in the same direction as the motion. so the normal force doesn't do any work. Also. T\rtor: How much work does gravity do? Student: We don't need to know that to do the problem.26 x 106 J ? . If you push on an object and the object moves.S  ^l12)(1610 m) cos87. T\rtor: Tlue. For a 5% grade the difference is about oneeighth of IYo. so it is doing negative work. the angle of the roadway rs tan 0  0. Since gravity is opposite to the guess it has to do negative work. Does the friction force do positive or negative Student: Friction points up the hill.960 Student: One rnile is 1610 meters. then the road would be longer than a mile. T\rtor: I Wrns  F dcos 0 .(*g)d cos Q Tntor: Tntor: Student: What is a 5To grade? Student: But if the "run" is a mile. but not by much. Student: That makes sense. reducing the kinetic energy. so long as you keep track of the signs. Yes.0.
they still do the same amount of work but with less power. KINETIC ENERGY AND WOHK T\rtor: Remember that the work of gravity is negative. and Tbtor: is L. so to go up the hill at 60 mph would take over 1100 hp. Student: Why do trucks go uphill so slowly? T\rtor: A truck can have 40 times the mass of the car. so it's not quite that simple. now what is the power? Student: I divide the work by the time. . (zrxlosw) x (##) 28hp Student: Any car should be able to do that easily. But the work by friction is the same but positive.86o instead. TUtor: Yep. Student: Ok y. L horsepower Student: Is that a lot?  746 W. TUtor: Of course we left out air resistance and friction in the engine.26 x 106 J. Yes.64 CHAPTER 7. it tl:#ffixffix#:6os P :Y t r'26 x 106 60s I 2r x los Jlror w T\rtor: T[y converting it into horsepower. Student: Oh yeah. Student: And by doing it slower. I should have used 92.
What makes potential energy useful is that the potential energy only depends on where something is. the rock has potential that could be turned into work again. then the work I do goes into heating the floor and the box (through friction).rnsh  nxs(0) : rnsh This says that the difference in potential energy between "zero" and Kh)) is mgh. This makes potential energy easier to calculate than work. a distance h high.i. Therefore. Consider gravity. we can choose any spot to be zero height. The potential energy from gravity is Ugravity : fngh What is the height? We can choose anywhere to be zero height. but once we choose we must stick with that spot for the whole problem (like a coordinate uis). the potential energy before and the potential energy after both show up. Therefore we treat gravity with potential energy. PEU:lTwedid : lF*' applied While this may appear intimidating. springs. Then the work of a spring from the last chapter becomes the potential energy stored in the spring. 65 .l*g*li3 . Zero potential energy occurs when the spring is neither stretched nor compressed. in practice it is easy. and forces from electric fields (to be covered later). This means that it takes mgh amount of work to move a ma^ss n'L from wherever is "zero" to the spot (hn. and it is very difficult to turn this energy into some other useful form of energy. and by dropping the rock I can turn the potential energy into kinetic energy. If I push a box across a floor. The potential energy from a spring is [ p.s : *f*' 2 Here r is not the length of the spring. from which all heights are measured. Every time we use conservation of energy in an equation. If I have lifted energy. so Ir^ @g) dn . pushing to keep the box moving despite friction. Potential energ:f is work done in the past a rock above my head. The force of gravity is a constant mg. There are three forces that we comrnonly treat with potential energy: gravity. and not how it got there. but we don't treat friction this way. but the change in length from the unstretched. so that only the change in potential energy matters.Chapter 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Some types of work can be expressed as potential energy. uncompressed length.
Tutor: Student: On the other hand.nt. But we can also do the whole thing in one step. POTEI{TIAL EAIERGY AATD COI\ISERVATIOAI OF EATERGY If we use potential energy to express the work done by a force. How far does the block slide across the floor? Thtor: How would you like to attack the problem? Student: I want to draw a freebody diagram. find the acceleration. The poterrtial energy of the spring is Lrtt*'. What other forces are there? There is a normal force upward. The potential energy of the spring is zero. T\rtor: What is the kinetic energy of the block just as it stops? Student: Wait. so the speed is zero and the kinetic energy is zero.54+ !rc*' +w . To do gravity you have to pick a spot as height equals zero. because the spring is uncompressed.61 and Fk . T\rtor: Tutor: tions. I'll try energy. Ttrtor: It's not unusual for two or three of the terms in the energy equation to be zero. Does that mean that I can't use Newton's laws? Newton's laws are still true. then we dontt include the work by this force when we calculate the work. Of course. and a friction force against the sliding. We use an expanded conservation of energy equation K&+ PEi+W . Student: I'll pick the starting spot as height equals zero. The coefficients of friction between the block and the floor are Fs:0.KEr t PEt Tutor: What is the kinetic energy of the block just as the spring is released? Student: It isn't moving yet. What is the potential energy when the block is released? Student: Do you want the potential energy of gravity or the spring? T\rtor: Both. Student: As the spring decompresses. T\rtor: How much work does the friction force do? z W is the work done by all forces other than gravity Student: . there is a different acceleration when the spring is pushing on the block.46. and then use constant acceleration to see how far the block slides. Student: Ok y. Shouldn't I do the kinetic energy just as the block leaves the spring? Tutor: We could use that instant as the final time. When the spring is released the block slides across the floor. we won't need any differential equations. and I'll use potential energy for gravity and the spring. but to use the acceleration would mean setting up differential equaYuck.o 2 T\rtor PEr and the spring. so the acceleration changes. EXAMPLE A spring (k :900 N/) is compressed by 31 cm and a 6 kg block is placed in front of it. technique to find how far it and use the constant acceleration goes. so it doesn't do any work. the force of the spring changes. It is possible to include Eth and E. T\rtor: How much work does the normal force do? Student: The normal force is perpendicular to the motion.66 CHAPTER 8. + PEi +W . The kinetic energy when the block stops is zero. Fq+ PEi+w . because the block is at the same height.0. KEr. Then the potential energy of gravity is zero.KEy * PEt where W is the work done by forces not already treated with conservation of energy. Student: Sounds good. Tutor: What is the potential energy when the block stops / Student: Then the potential energy of gravity is still zero. if we use energy techniques. but these are dealt with by W (heat generated by friction is the same as work done by friction).
I'll use y. ^l  1. so the normal force is equal to the weight.3 m below its starting point. After leaving the track. The distance the block slid is way past where the spring uncompresses. T\rtor: Is the displacement of the block the same as the initial compression of the spring? Student: Not necessarily. I'll use energy. It leaves the track at a 35o angle above horizontal at a point 1.g. We've seen before that the normal force is not always mg.60 m EXAMPLE A 2 kg block slides without friction down a track. you assumed that the spring would fully uncompress. T\rtor: Good.31 )2 2(0. forces. then the spring wouldn't get the block moving.nr.+W  KEy * PEr . The angle is 180'. but instead on a test or somewhere else. so I add vertical Student: Isn't it just pmg? t=r*'*r*d@)(1) 2 :o s2) aT\rtor: T\rtor: Student: How do we check? krz 2pmg (9oo N/)(0. so we're safe. Tutor: Don't skip steps now. T\rtor: This is the special case where there are exactly two forces and they need to add to zero. and we don't care about the time. and the friction force is p. The displacement is what I'm looking for. How do you find it? Student: I need the norrnal force. The normal force is up and gravity is down. in a book. Student: Ok^y. If friction were really strong. and the vertical acceleration is zero. I guess I need a different variable for the displacement. why would Student: Because the acceleration isn't constant. so it's a variable r. because the friction force is in the opposite direction as the sliding. We should have checked first that the spring force was greater than the maximum static friction force. K&+ PE. What is the friction force.46)(6 kg) (e. and cosine of the angle is 1. so I can look for the special case of two forces and zero acceleration.8 By setting the final spring energy to zero. how far up does the block fly? \ \ \ T\rtor: How will you attack this problem? so T\rtor: If you weren't reading the problem you use energy? Student: It's the energy chapter.67 Student: The work is the force times the displacement times the cosine of the angle.
so it doesn't do any work. Therefore KEt + 0. Can potential Tutor: Student: It energy be negative? T\rtor: Potential energy is how much work you need to do to move the object from "zero" to that spot. POTEI. the block starts at h . then use projectile motion and constant acceleration to see how high it goes. Where's the bottonr of the ramp? T\rtor: You don't need to use the lowest point as height equals zero. so KEy . T\rtor: But we can use energy. we can use energy to see how high it goes.13 m/s horizontally and it's not moving vertically.8 m) (1.rtg(1. Ttrtor: And because we donit care about the time.05 mls) cos35o (5 . The potential energy there is mg(1.90 m/s KEt. At maximum aa  (5.3 rn) . T\rtor: And where is your "final" position? Student: Where the block leaves the ramp. Student: Right.0. Tutor: What is the potential energy when the block starts? Student: I need to pick somewhere as height equals zero. The normal force is perpendicular the motion.KEy *ms(1. It's possible to extract that energy later. Student: But the acceleration is constant. to Wt + P4 + W :'r*r' i ms(1.3 m). and it will still have that horizontal velocity when it reaches maximum height. The block will slide down the ramp on its own. If the acceleration isn't constant.05 m/s T\rtor: Student: When the block leaves the track it is moving at 5.rr' (2)(e. You need to rethink what your "final" position is. it isn't movirg. The other forces are the normal force and friction.68 CHAPTER 8. so zero. How much of that is in the horizontal direction? Student: The horizontal is adjacent to the angle. then we may need to use energy.05 mls) sin 35o  4. What is the kinetic energy when the block starts? doesn't appear to be moving yet. and how you are going to get to the answer. A negative potential energy means that the object will go there on its own. so we don't need to use energy.{TIAL EAIERGY AAID COI{SERUATIOAT OF EATERGY Good. Student: So what I need to do is find the speed of the block as it leaves the ramp. even if we have a constant acceleration.05 m/s.13 m/s 2. so ?)r height it is going 4. Student: Ok y. so mgh . T\rtor: We have two issues here. We don't know u. And there's no fricticln on the track.8 . that you could even get work out of the process. The block leaves the ramp at an angle. T[y using the top. with some horizontal velocity. T\rtor: What is the potential energy at the "final" position? Student: At the maximum height.3 ^ls2)  5. but we hope to solve for it.0. Trrtor: What is the work done by all forces other than gravity? T\rtor: Student: Why not gravity? f4+I4+w . Student: Okay.3 m) Because we already took care of gravity by using potential energy. Taking the start when it leaves the track.+ PEi+W : KEy * PEt .0. gaining speed. T\rtor: What is the final kinetic energy? Student: L*r?. calling that the new height equals zero) and the finish when it reaches maximum height T\rtor: How fast is the block going when it reaches maximum height? Student: You rnentioned that it would still be moving horizontally.
69
fotA.o5
m/r)'+ rtg(o) + (o) o.05
m/s)2+
 r^.rr mls)2 + sh
(4.n m/s)2) 0.48m
h
#(rr.05m/r)'
EXAMPLE
A 65 kg man bungeejumps off of a platform. The bungee cord is 20 m long and has a spring constant of 60 N/m. What is the greatest distance below the platform that he reaches after leaping from the platform?
Student: The bungee cord acts like a spring, so the acceleration won't be constant and we'll use conservation of energy. T\rtor: Good. First you need to pick "initial" and "final" positions. Student: The start should be at the top, when he first jumps. The end is where he reaches his lowest point. Thtor: If we want to know where his lowest point is, then it helps if that is one of the points. What are
you going to use as height equals zero? Student: I'm going to use the top, where he jumps from. That means that his potential energy at the end will be negative, but that's okay. T\rtor: You mean the potential energy from gravity; there's also the spring involved. What is the kinetic energy at the start? Student: He isn't moving yet, so it's zero. T\rtor: What is his kinetic energy at the end? Student: The lowest point is when he isn't moving, so that's also zero.
W+PE.+W Y4+PEf
T\rtor:
Correct.
he would be past
If he were still going down, he wouldn't be at the lowest point yet. If he were going up, it. What is the potential energy at the top?
Student:
The spring hasn't been stretched yet, and he is at height equals zero, so both types of potential
energy are zero.
P4+w T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student:
PEr
What is the work done by forces other than gravity and the bungee cord? There aren't any other forces, because he's not in contact with anything, right? Right, so the work is zero.
VPEr
There are two types of potential energy, and at the end they must add up to zero. What is the potential energy at the end? Student: We don't know how far he's fallen, so let's call it r. The height at the end is negative, so the gravity potential energy is mg("). The spring potential energy is Lrtt*'. Thtor: Does the bungee cord stretch the same distance that he falls? Does it begin stretching immediately? Student: No, he falls 20 m before it starts stretching. The bungee cord stretches r  (20 m).
Tntor:
Student: That
means
that PEt is zero. How can that be?
o t*g(")l + l;r(" eo''))']
70
CHAPTER
8. POTENTIAL
ENERGY AND CONSERUAflON OF ENERGY
(20
mg(r):rr(.
*))
'#:
12
n2 2(2om)r+ (20 m)2 eom)
+
l,
 '#ln*(20 *)'
o
12+l,Qom),4
]"*
(400
Qom)zo
0
_brrm
2"
12
+ (61.2 *) u *
*2)

fi
2(1)
:
7.4
ot 53.8 m
How can there be two answers? Which one do you want? Student: The bungee cord is 20 m long, so it has to be 53.8 m. Tlrtor: The other answer would occur if the bungee cord could be compressed. Student: So if he bounced back up, and the bungee cord compressed instead of going slack, then he would reach a spot 7.4 meters high.
Tbtor:
Student:
Chapter 9
Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
This chapter is about a second conservation law, conservation of momentum. In order to explain momentum, we begin by explaining center of mass.
So far, all objects have been "point" particles. They act as if all of their ma^ss is at a single point. Most real mass is spread out. For many purposes it is possible to treat objects a^s point objects are not like this  their particl as if all of their ma^ss is at a single point. When this happens, that point is the center of mass.
To calculate the location of the center of mass, we do a "weighted average." Divide the object into pieces, and for each piece, multiple the mass of that piece by its coordinate. Sum the product for all of the pieces, and divide by the total ma"ss. ffcM :
E6rimi Etmt
Some things to keep in mind:
o You get to decide how to divide the
pieces.
.
For each piece, you use the coordinate of the center of mass of that piece.
o You get to choose the coordinate axes, but as always you have to keep the same axes for the whole
calculation.
.
Wise use of symmetry can simplify the calculation considerably.
How do you use symmetry? Consider a uniform square. "Uniform" means that the ma^ss of the square is spread evenly across the square, the same everywhere. Pick a point, not the center, and let's use symmetry to check to see if that point is the center of mass. Draw an imaginary line vertically down the center of the square, and rotate the square 180o around this line. The square looks the same, so the center of mass must be in the same place as it wa"s before. If the center of mass had moved, then we would have two centers of mass for the same object. If the point you picked was on the vertical line, then it is in the same place as it wa,s and it could be the center of mass. If the point you picked was not on the vertical line, then it is not in the same place as it wa^s, and it could not be the center of mass. By using symmetry, w€ have determined that the r coordinate of the center of mass is in the middle, without doing a calculation.
7I
72
CHAPTER
9.
I
CENTE,R OF MASS AND LINEAR MOMENTUM
EXAMPTE
Find the center of mass of the four objects.
y (cm)
x (cm)
Student:
So I take each object and add
it up?
1+3
+4+2: L0 ?
that. In the numerator you multiply each mass,by its coordinate. Where are the arces? Tbtor: You get to pick them. What would you like? Student: I'll pick the biggest mass to be the origin, with s to the right and y up. T\rtor: Because you have two axes, you have to do them separately. First do the r anis and then do the
Flor the denominator, you do
T\rtor:
Student:
gr
a>rig.
T\rtor:
Student:
Yes.
So I multiply the mass of 3 by the o coordinate of 0, and I get zero? If that was the only mass, then the numerator would be zero, so the center of mass would be
.
at zeto.
73
Student:
Which is where the object is. But
I
have to do
that for all of them.
scM:
Tutor: Tutor: If the object were at (0,+1),
Student:
Yes, so
:
I use *1 or 1
m?
ff:O.gcm
Student:
Now do the y coordinate. For the 1 kg object, do
would the location of the center of mass be different?
I
need the negative.
ucM


nll
u*
10 kg
: o.g cm
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student:
Which object is located at the center of mass? None of them. The center of mass doesn't have to correspond to one of the objects.
EXAMPLE
Find the center of mass of the uniform triangle.
Tbtor: Can you use symmetry to find the center of mass? Student: If I flip it toptobottom, it looks the same, so the center of mass has to be on the horizontal
a)cis.
Student: It's just one piece! How do I do the equation
for each piece when there's only one piece?
thtor:
a>ris.
Student: It doesn't
What if you flip it leftteright? look the same. That means that the center of mass isn't halfway along the horizontal
Tntor: It means that the center of mass doesn't haae to be there. It could be there but there's no rea.son to think that it is. Student: So the gt component of the center of mass is at y  0, but we don't know where the r component is, and it's only one piece. TUtor: You need to divide it into pieces yourself, where you carr determine the ma.ss and location of each
piece.
74
CHAPTER
9.
CEI,{TER OF MASS AAID LII]EAR MOMENTUM
*
T\rtor:
Divide it into a lot of pieces, and then each piece is small enough that we can call Then we add up all of the pieces. Student: That sounds like an integral! Tutor: Yep. What is the width of each piece'/
it
a rectangle.
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student: Student:
Each piece is dr wide. Yes. What is the height of each piece?
They aren't all the same height. That's right, they aren't. Given that a piece is located at r, how high is it? Student: Well, the bigger r is, the greater the height of the piece. T\rtor: Yes, also it's linear, so that the height is proportional to r. At r _ 0, the height is zero) and at r  B' the height is 2. Student: If it'slinear, then hCr, whereCisaconstant. If theheightis2 atr 8,thenthatconstant needs to be i, so the height of each piece is Ir. Ttrtor: Good. To find the mass of a piece, we multiply the area times the density. That is, we multiply the square meters by the kilograms per square meters, and get kilograms. Student: What is this density? It isn't given. T\rtor: True. Hopefully it will cancel, or we won't be able to do the problem. Make up a variable for it. Physicists tend to use d or p for densities. Student: Okay, the density is d. Then the mass of a piece is the area times the densityr or (i* * d*)(d).
rCM
Ln* * d*)(d) ,ff f
ff T\rtor:
Student:
f
d,r ff *2 a* i* * d,r)(d) i6 t: r d,r [f r d,r
.
,
i d ,ff
12
l+rr]t,
Does the result make sense? How should I know? T\rtor: Well, could the answer be more than 8? Student: No, all of the mass is to the left of 8. Tutor: Could the answer be less than 4? Student: No, more of the mass is on the right side, and further to the right. Ttrtor: Is the answer between 4 and 8? Student: Yes, it's about 5. So it works. T\rtor: At least it passes the sanity test.
Just as energy is conserved, so is momentum. When a large truck collides headon with a small car, we expect to see the car bounce backwards while the truck continues on. This is not because the force of the the forces are the same. Instead, this is truck on the car is larger than the force of the car on the truck because the tnrck has more mornentum than the car.
) The result of this logic is that conservation of momentum works particularly well for collisions. T\rtor: So if we only consider the horizontal component of the momentum. and those forces are equal. (The center of mass of the system keeps moving with the same velocity. It hits and couples to a second (stationary) train car of 3500 kg. the impulse of A on B plus the impulse of B on A add to zero. these forces will cancel if we do them together." or change in momentum. which is a tipoff to try conservation of momentum. then the forces are equal and opposite. T\rtor: Correct. so it has direction. In the car truck headon collision. T\rtor: Student: Fe+JFf Also. Fmd Impulse is the name given to the change in the momentum. So any forces between the two bodies of our system don't change the momentum of the system. Instead. The basic equation is a"s momentum Fn+jFr jFt where i ir the "impulse. These might be equal. often called a "system. Student: Cool. When we find the momentum. Pu. then we don't have to worry about them at all. Tutor: We could try to figure out if they're equal. Whatever that impulse is. All we need is the forces they create on each other. of course. If they create a force on each other. The truck has more momentum. What is the speed of the train cars afterward. so they add to zero. we can either calculate it for one object or for a group of objects. After the collision. one of the vehicles has a positive momentum and the other has a negative." Consider a system of two objects. and what was the impulse that the second car gave to the first one? How are you going to solve this problem? There's a collision. Are you going to use the momentum of one of the train cars or of the two together? Student: What's the advantage of doing the two together? T\rtor: If the train cars exert forces on each other. which thus has the same units ( kg m/s or N t). So the impulses that they exert on each other are equal and opposite. The equations have the same general form and the techniques are the same.  One difference between momentum and energy is that momentum is a vector. Do they exert forces on each other? Student: They certainly do. what are the directions of gravity and the normal force? Student: They are both vertical. there is gravity and a normal force on each. the total momentum is also in the direction that the truck was going. so the total momentum is in the direction that the truck is going. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity.75 Conservation of momentum looks very similar to conservation of energy. Tntor: What forces act on the train cars? Student: They push on each other.* Pzt* @Affif E ffiA  Ptf a PzI Prr*PztPtfaPzf . EXAMPTE A 2500 kg train car moves down the track at 5 m/s. T\rtor: Good. So I want to do them together.
Do your numbers say the same thing? Keep in mind that you used an axis but you didn't explicitly say what you were using. CENTER OF MASS AI{D LII{EAR MOMENTUM Tutor: What is the momentum of the first car before the collision? The momentum is mu. So when I said the velocity of the first car beforehand was positive. if the first car is originally moving to the right. so its momentum is zero. How do I find the impulse? T\rtor: Repeat the conservation of momentum equation." Why do I want to use momentum for this? Do you know the force that the boy applies to the bowling ball? . so that the final momentum of the second car is positive. Tutor: What is the momentum of the first car after the collision? Student: Momentum is ma.(2500 kg) ut * Pzf Tutor: What is the momentum of the second car after the collision? We don't know its velocity either. I'll use u1 for the velocity of the train car Student: afterward.08 m/s T\rtor: Can you tell from your result which way the train cars go? Well. .(2500 kg)rr + (3500 kg)u1 (12500 ks /s) : (6000 kg)rt (12500 kq m/s) (6000 kg) u1  2.76 CHAPTER 9. and there is no impulse from outside forces. Student: So using the first car Student: Pu. What is the boy's velocity after he throws the ball? Tutor: Student: This doesn't sound like a "collision. Tutor: What is the momentum of the second car before the collision? Student: It wasn't moving. . (2500 ks)(5 m/s) . using the word "momentum?" Student: If the initial momentum is to the right. Tutor: The two train cars couple together. then the final momentum is to the right. I picked that as the positive direction? I\rtor: Yep. And Jt on z is positive. so (2500 kS)(5 m/s). so it should be negative. Student: Then the train cars rnove in that same direction. so I'll us€ u2 for that. And when the final velocity was positive. but for just one car. shouldn't they move off to the right? T\rtor: Yes. Student: So u2  u1. (2500 kg)(5 m/s) + 0 . Student: Oops.08 m/s) (2500 ks)(5 m/s) + J2 on 1  Jz on 1 : 7292 kg m/s T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Why is it negative? Which way is the force that the second car exerts on the first? Against the initial velocity. Can you express that same thought. Tutor: Very good. and I only have one variable. Student: EXAMPLE A 72 Ib boy on a skateboard throws a 16 lb bowling ball to the right at a speed of 8 mls compared to him. but we don't know the velocity. Does that mean anything? Student: They have to have the same velocity afterward? Student: T\rtor: Yes. * J2 on 1  Prf (2500 kg)(2.
Ttrtor: Does that make sense? Remember that the initial momentum was zero.gr . so I need to find the velocity compared to the ground.ball * uball. Student: And the impulse was zero) so the final momentum needs to be zero. 0 :l l]l.g. We don't know his velocity. The bowling ball isn't moving either. Student: So I want to use the combined momentum of the two objects. or a^s mea^sured by the boy. You won't need to find the force. Student: Pu*Pzr:PrfaPzf T\rtor: What is the momentum of the boy beforehand? He isn't movirg. Student: 0 +0 mboyuboy * ?Tuballubau 0+0TUtor: Student: (72 lb)uboy+(16 lb)u6"11 Do I need to convert pounds into kilograms? You can keep them as they are for now.u6oy. so he goes to the left.ball .rtor: Student: Now we have an equati: So we can solve it.t. so it's *8 m/s. I'll use to the right as the positive direction.tt uboy.boy * Ub. u^q. and the bowling ball pushes back.(16 lb)(S m/s) (8slb) What does the negative result mean? means that the boy goes in the negative direction. .Ugall. so it's zero. There is gravity and a normal force on the boy. and see how they work out. then the boy needs to go to the left. so we do only horizontal momentum and they disappear. do I need to know it? By using conservation of momentum.77 No. you can eliminate forces that two objects put on each other.g:UAC*uCg .boy uboy. Tutor: Student: It . so I'll use a variable. boy and bowling ball. These are vertical. These forces are opposite and equal. It's true that momentum works well for collisions. What is the velocity of the bowling ball after he throws it? Student: 8 m/s to the right.o". If the bowling ball goes to the right. so they cancel. but that's because using momentum gets the forces between colliding objects to cancel. Student: Ah.gt uball. What are the forces acting on them? The boy pushes on the bowling ball. T\rtor: The 8 m/s is with respect to the boy. Ttrtor: Student: Fn+jFr T\rtor: Correct.ll.(8 m/s) + ubau uboy + (8 r. T\rtor: What is the momentum of the boy afberward? Student: Momentum is mu.i:::iub'v (72 lb)uboy "'/'))  + (16 lb)uboy * (16 lb)(8 m/s) (88 lb)?rboy uboy .
An inelastic collision is one where some of the kinetic energy is turned into other forms of energy. An elastic collision is one where the kinetic energy is conserved.r"k (0.3 kg rubber ball at the truck with a speed of 10 m/s.r'ls. EXAMPLE A 4000 kg truck is coming straight at Joe at 14 r. some of the kinetic energy goes into other forms of energy.work result and reuse it the next time."r. If object 1 collides elastically with object 2. then the collision is not elastic. All of the other forces are vertical. Because elastic collisions are somewhat common.78 CHAPTER 9.rt * TTltru. He throws a 0. if object 2 is stationary before the collision. how fast is the ball going? The ball and the truck put forces on each other... such as heat or denting the cars. they go away. . physicists do something they don't often do out the . the kinetic energy is conserved. and because of the unpleasantness of solving simultaneous equations (especially with squares in them). are the ball and the truck going the same direction? No. o If the two objects stick together. but if I use the momentum of them together those forces cancel out. Pu*Pzt:PtfaPzf Trlbattuball I TTltruckutruck  Trlballufu. ul mt*mz and uL : 2mL ar mt*mz To use these equations.ku{r. o If one object passes through the other.1 * (4000 ks)u. then the collision is elastic (really). z mt*mz . When two billiard balls strike. then their velocities afterward will be I mt . and it bounces off of the truck elastically.T\*mz or. If you can solve the problem using only conservation of momentum. CEIr{TER OF MASS AATD LII\IEAR MOMEI{TUM In some collisions.. use your experience with the objects in question: are they likely to bounce off of each other (elastic) or is some of the energy likely to be turned into heat (not elastic)? o After that. the positive direction for each object must be the same. . How do you tell if a collision is elastic or not? says o If the problem that the collision is elastic.3 kg)uf. and by looking at the horizontal component. the total kinetic energy before the collision is the same as after the collision. then there is no need to worry whether the collision is elastic. so I'm going to use momentum. After the ball bounces off of the truck. When two cars strike. then the collision is not elastic. Tutor: How are you going to attack this problem? Student: There's a collision.3 kg)(10 */s) + (4000 kg)(14 m/s)  (0.. they have a headon collision.TTLz I l 2mZ u4 u:tryaoz*W. So one of them has to have a negative initial velocity. ? o T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Before the collision.
If he's coming at you at 14 mls and he thinks the ball is coming at you at 24 m/s. T\rtor: Yes. * aLu. (1 \ rzrl : (4ooo^3 ulu. and get it means. then the. but not very much.3 kg)(10 m/s) the direction that the ball is thrown a^s positive.. Tutor: If the truck puts a force on the ball. uf. What does the truck driver see? Student: He sees a ball coming at him at.3 ks)uf. Look at the problem from the truck's point of view.'. TrLt .n ffi + ffi (1 a mls) What does the minus sign mean? means that the ball bounces in the direction that the truck was originally going. that is what equations. Student: That means that I can write down the kinetic energy before and afber. 24 mls..ltl.3kg) .TTLzt'l tl. set them equal..r. T\rtor: Student: It . The truck's frame is almost the center of mass frame here. that would be easier..u' (10 rrr/s) + erum/s) : (sggg'z Eq) kg) (10 m/s) t' (10 m/s) amls) + (4ooo. Why is the speed so much faster than before? Tutor: Ah. The ball accelerates more because it has less mass. T\rtor: Yes. To avoid all of that work.u : uf. + (4000 ks) ?14 /s)  (0. . it's dangerous to throw a rubber ball at an oncoming truck. T\rtor: Correct. So he sees the ball bounce off at about 24 mls. . oh. The idea here is the same one used to "slingshot" space probes around planets to gain speed. you could just use the elastic collision Student: Yes. equal but opposite. .79 Student: I forgot to choose an axis! I'll take (0. and how much does the ball change the truck's momentum? Student: None at all. then what do you see? Student: I see the ball coming at me at 38 m/s.ITL6all * ?7)truck Tflball * ?T}truck utruck uf. The truck's momentum must change.. Tutor: Can you solve the equation? and two variables. I have one equation another equation.: '*' . + (4000 kg)u. Student: . . T\rtor: Mathematically what we do is switch everything to the "center of mass" frame of reference.(tooo... mt*mz * mttmZ 2*y'Iu+ ?T}ball ?truck uba. ball puts a force on the truck. . piece of information. I need another Tutor: The piece you are missing is that the collision is elastic. Student: I guess not.
Student: That looks hard. What is the velocity of the putty before the collision? Student: It isn't moving.all+putry T\rtor: What is the velocity of the ball before the collision? Student: The problem doesn't say. but we can still use it. all other forces are vertical.K Eutter * P Earte. CEI. Just because it's the momentum chapter doesn't mearr that we can only use momentum. the work from the tension is zero because the tension is perpendicular to the motion. Student: Okay. T\rtor: What do you know about the ball? Student: It starts 35 cm high and falls in an arc until it hits the putty.) (0)' I ma^1gh : t*o^r(r)' * rftaulg(0) i^r^t K Euurc." * W . so we need conservation of momentum. We're allowed to use all of the techniques we've learned. both in magnitude and direction. T\rtor: How can we find the speed of the ball after it falls? Student: Conservation of momentum. That means I have one equation but two unknowns. What is the speed of the putty after it is hit by the ball? There's a collision.85 kg ball on the end of a 35cmlong string falls and hits a 0. How much work does the tension do? Student: Work? I thought work was in the last chapter." . The putty and ball stick together. Other than the forces that the ball and the putty put on each other. * mpttty'upaff . T\rtor: It was.80 CHAPTER 9.{TER OF MASS AATD LII{EAR MOMEI]TUM EXAMPLE A 0. so it's not an elastic collision.u. so I'm going to use horizontal momentum. Student: Pu*PzrPry*Pzf Tttbatluball * ITlputtyuputty : (u.ll+putty T\rtor: All well and good.tt * ?'rlp.(u"tt * ?7zp.0. Tutor: The tension force changes as the ball falls. Tutor: It is hard. so uputty .rttv) 'uf.56 kg block of putty.. 1 1 . The block sticks to the ball.rttv) uf. and we need to know the time it takes to fall. I assume? T\rtor: What are the forces on the ball? Student: Gravity and tension. . Tftbuttubalt * P Ea"to.
41 kg)u' u.mJ/s) (1.56 kg)) uf"u+putty /s) : (I. Student: I'll choose the direction of the ball as positive.  : (urtt * ??zputtv) uf.all+putty (0. and solve for the final velocity.35 m) .41 kg) _ 1.8 ^ls2)(0.62 /s) (2. stick this in the momentum equatior. : (2.62 mls T\rtor: Now you have the speed of the ball just before the collision.2.85 ks) + (0.85 ks) Q.?g\e.23 ks ((0.81 sR: {ro^r)' tlz(g. ubau ITlbanuball : \m.b8 m/s .
fr+ a+ a rTL 0 (Greek "theta" u (Greek a (Greek ttomegatt ) ) F> P> I r "alpha" ) (Greek ttau" ) L angular angular angular angular angular angular displacement velocity acceleration mass force torque momentum  rrrorrrent of inertia Every equation we've had will also have an angular equivalent. so angular force equals angular ma"ss times angular acceleration (. All of the equations we just replace the variable with used for constant acceleration work for constant angular acceleration as well the angular equivalent. and is about to rotate the other way. We could solve problems where the acceleration wasn't constant. if we know any three of the five rotational variables. and at the instant that it is at its peak height the velocity is zero but changing. For example.s constant then we could solve a number of problems with a few short equations. but that was harder.ss times acceleration (F: rna). which is the change position or angular displacement. An object can have a velocity. but with different variables.u3 :2a Ar 82 Aruot*Lrat2  At + ) UUO:At A0 . . We've done all this before.l. or how fast it is spinning. It can have an acceleration even if the velocity is zero: throw something (other than this book) straight up. Everything we've done so far also applies for rotation. in its angular If the acceleration wa. U 'UO A. Roll a basketball or other round object up a ramp. but sometimes things rotate (and talented objects can do both at the same time). force equals ma. so that there is an acceleration. There is an angular acceleration.Chapter 10 Rotation Sometimes things move. which is the change in its position.*(ro*w)t .uot + iolt2 A0 .(uo*u)t + + a2r3:2crA0 u2 . Just like constant acceleration.Io). using the same equations. is not rotating now. which is how fast the angular velocity is changing is the rotation speeding up or slowing down? It can have an angular acceleration even if the angular velocity is zero. and at the instant that it is at its peak the angular velocity is zero but changing: it was rotating one w&y. which is how fast the velocity is changing. then we can solve for the other two. It can have an angular acceleration. It's all true for rotation as well. It can have an acceleration. An object can have an angular velocity.r.
it has the same sign as A0. it becomes necessary to use radians (more on this later). or miles. What is the initial angular velocity? Student: It starts at rest. lhtor: What is the final angular velocity? Student: 48 cycles per minute. with the most common being degrees.83 We could mea"sure lengths in many different units. We know three. so the question here is whether the final angular velocity is in the same direction as the angular displacement.r ) . in radians/s ec2? T\rtor: Trrtor: T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? Constant angular acceleration. Do I need to convert that to radians? T\rtor: Not necessarily. Once around is one cycle. EXAMPLE A turntable starting from rest rotates 5 times while accelerating to 48 rpm (rotations per minute). inches. Student: If we know three L. radians. What is the angular acceleration of the turntable. How do we solve constant acceleration problems? of the five variables. Sometimes. and has the same sign. though. We can also mea^sure angles in many different units. it didn't matter what unit we used. or cycles. of course Do we know the time? Student: No. Let's keep it and see what happens. 360 degrees. We don't care about the time. With angles. we can solve for the other two. T\rtor: More precisely. We have to do that even in rotation? Tutor: Yes. so long as we keep track of the units. Student: It has to be in the same direction. it doesn't matter which unit we use. but that's okay. or 2r radians. Start by writing down the five variables. so long a. Sometimes it became necessary to use meters. because a newton is a kilogram meter per second2. so we can solve.r ) A0 ug ug a+uaa: t+t: What is the angular displacement A0? 5 rotations. u2 r3:2a A.2 r3:2a A0 .r is positive.s we kept track of the units. With lengths. so we choose the equation that doesn't include the time. so c. The problem doesn't s&y. T\rtor: Is it positive 48 or negative 48? Student: Uhoh. or cycles. w€ didn't choose an axis. such as meters. so zero. Typically we use clockwise or counterclockwise as positive. I\rtor: Student: Ar L0 : ug+ug a + u a+a:? t)t 5rotations 48rotfmin T\rtor: We want to find the angular acceleration.
even though the velocity is changing? Student: That can't be right.re.. EXAMPLE A 2cmdiameter wheel is rotating with an angular speed of 120 rpm. in a minute. so it should have the same sign.40 radf s2 T\rtor: Student: It Should the angular acceleration be positive? should be in the same direction as the angular displacement. then the above formulas would need to include an extra constant. min\2  0. T\rtor: But above we saw that o. that we put a small drop of paint on the wheel before it rotates. because its direction is changing.*/ o Student: We wanted the angular acceleration in radians/sec2.84 CHAPTER 10. the further it must move in each rotation.re. When something moves in a circle. the speed is u  2r R x (rotations per second) By choosing the unit for angles to be 2r radians per rotation. The further out from the pivot point (or axle) the paint is. What's going on? Tutor: As the wheel turns. simple formulas. by using radians we get beautiful. Then the acceleration is zero. and 60 seconds / rot \ /2r rad\ /I a. and the faster we expect it to move. the point accelerates. This means that we must use radians whenever we use one of the formulas above. a is zero._r3 2L0 rctf min)'.(0)' 2(5 rot) 230 rotf minz a  T\rtor: So now we have to convert. Student: Yes. What is the (linear) acceleration of a point on the edge of the wheel? What is happening in this problem? Student: The point is moving in a circle. there is an acceleration uz lr. so the general rule is that we use radians whenever there is a length in the proble any length. This acceleration is in the direction T\rtor: .(230ffi)(t*/(. It is slowing with an angular deceleration of 52 radf s2. this becomes: Lr:RL0 uRw a. right? Tutor: But if something moves in a circle at a constant speed. Sometimes we use one of them without knowing it. Sometimes we need to connect the angular motion with the linear motion. ROTATIOI{ a (48 . Since the distance covered is 2rR for each rotation. . Imagine. We might then ask the question "how fast is the drop of paint moving?" Note that the velocity of the paint is constantly changing. for example. If the wheel turns faster. There are 2r radians in a rotation. then point on the edge has to move faster. Student: Okay.. so u2 l. that must mean that the two are equal. As the rotation accelerates. but if the angular velocity is constant then the speed of the paint drop is also constant.Ra If we had chosen some other unit for measuring angles. . a point on the edge moves.
Student: And to find the total acceleration we have to add them. always. because we have u. and is traditionally called 0 or sometimes 0. so it's negative.ih)) aR (ttoo rotlmin) : 33 ^ls2 aT: Ra Now we can do the "tangential" acceleration. 0R: ?')':ru)2 Student: That's easier.If the rotation rate is changing. so that the wheel spins faster or slower.II ^ls2 .85 of the motion of the point. We call this the "radial" directior. The acceleration a . we rotate the axes so that one of them points along the radius. T\rtor: Remember to add them as vectors. Student: I see you've draw the coordinate axes. or tangent to the circle.r1 Student: cm) (.21 m) (52 radls2) ar . and it is traditional to point it outward. Student: Ok y. in the radial direction. ar : (0.ra makes the point go in a circle faster. Why not r and y. the point on the edge has u2 lr. how can they cancel out? They don't. Whenever the wheel is turnirg. VT are perpendicular to each other. The "radial" acceleration is inward. Student: So the two are perpendicular to each other? T\rtor: Yes. 0R:_(. The other axis is tangent to the circle. The acceleration a : u2 f r was toward the center and made the point go in a circle. then the point on the edge has rCI a"s well. Tntor: Student: If they oR: T\rtor: We can substitute u u2 r  ru. and why can't the one be in so that the acceleration is positive? T\rtor: Because the point is movirg.
Torques can be positive or negative. ROTATION We can express the acceleration vector using unit vectors. Thin rod about Hoop about central axis axis through center perpendicular to length 1= ]2ML2 7= f. Once we choose the positive direction we need to stick with that direction for the whole problem. T[y opening a door by pushing near the hinge rather than at the handle. ldl . w€ get to pick the positive direction and a negative torque is one in the other direction. There are variations on this method.ani*atd d  (33 Student: vector ^ls2)i+ (11 ^1"\6 I The radial and tangential parts are perpendicular to each other.{ e3B m/"')2 + (rr ml"')2 ldl : 35 ^ls2 t The angular equivalent of force is angular force. Physicists usually choose counterclockwise as the positive direction. or perhaps even at all.86 CHAPTER 70. If the force is parallel or antiparallel to the moment arm. called torque. and we'll explore them in the example below. The further a\May from the pivot point the force is applied the greater the torque.MRz Slab about perpendicular axis *rrotrgh Solid sphere about any diameter center Solid cylinder (or disk) about central axis I =+rM(az + b2'1 i I I t =lMRz . The torque a force creates is equal to the force times the moment arm times the sine of the angle between them: r FBsin@ The "moment arm" is the line from the pivot point to the spot where the force is applied. T\rtor: d. but it's not necessary to do that. it does not cause the object to spin and the torque is zero. Like velocities and accelerations. To find the magnitude of the use the Pythagorean theorem. You will find that the door does not open as easily or quickly.
 rso FRsin@  (7 N)(3 ) sin35o  12 N.m How can a force create no torque? T\rtor: If the 4 N force was the only force on the object. so the 45 N. I go clockwise. and there is a right angle between them. and add them like we would forces. Student: Student: The angle is 0o. Do you trace in the clockwise or counterclockwise direction? Student: Counterclockwise.m is positive. T\rtor: What is the torque created bythe4Nforce? the pivot point.:TIHfi . T\rtor: And is it a positive or a negative torque? Student: I need to choose a positive direction. Tutor: Good.t. What is the torque that the I N force creates around the pivot point? Student: th.87 EXAMPLE F Find the total torque applied to the shape around the pivot point. Student: How do we do torques? TUtor: We find each torque. What is the torque created by the 7 N force? Student: There is a 35o angle between the 3 m "moment arm" and the force.ll . I'll pick counterclockwise a..: :.m Student: If I start in the direction of the 7 N force arrow and go around it's a negative 12 N torque. so  FRsin@  (4 N)(2 ) sin0o  0 N.11].: How do I tell? T\rtor: Start at the force arrow and trace a circle that goes around the pivot point. so Student: . is a force of g N. Tlrtor: In advanced r\rtor: rs that torque in the . but for most problems we just have clockwise and counterclockwise.s positive. it is applied 5 m from the pivot point. Student: Does that mean we need to find the components of each torque? problems that is needed. would it rotate around the pivot point? .
Fortunately.m  40 N.. then for each piece multiply its mass times the square of how far from the pivot point it is.tmr? We divide the object into tiny little pieces. Or. The angular mass is called moment a combination of moment arm and inertia. . or do we have student: And it goes . So a disk rotated about a point on its edge would have a moment of inertia of I . What is the torque from the force that is 4 m away from the pivot? Student: We need the part of the force that is perpendicular to the moment arm. It's like pulling a door outward from the hinges force? CHAPTER 70.it doesn't rotate.:". but there is no angle. so r 45 N.m  12 N. then add all of those together.. Student: So the 5 m line is the part of the 6 m line that T\rtor: Yes./cvr + Mdz: LrUn'+ MR2 . See the table for common shapes. the line from the pivot point Student: So the torque is is perpendicular to the 8 N force? that is perpendicular to the line of the force.ma) so the same equation holds with the angular equivalents: T angular force equals angular mass times angular acceleration. Look T\rtor: atthe5mline.m I Just as Newton's second law says F . What about the 8 N The moment arm is 6 m.li. and it's much easier to look them up than to figure them out every time. We need to use lots of tiny pieces so that each piece is all the same distance from the pivot point.o. so (5 N)(a fflilf ..88 T\rtor: Right. the torque is the force times the part of the moment arm that is perpendicular to the force.].MR'. The moment of inertia is equal to Ia or I. Sometimes you might want to rotate one of these objects about a point other than the center. Student: .m _ 27 N. but what if it rotates about a point on its edge rather than its center? The parallel axis theorem tells us that Ilcu+Md2 or the moment of inertia about any point on an object is equal to the moment of inertia about its center of rnass plus its mass times the distance the pivot point is from the center of mass.m for Newtonmeters? Tutor: The problem with mN is that it could mean a force of a millinewton.ro"r. The moment of inertia of a circle (or disk) about its center is I .H:. meternewtons. to use N.J:L1r:J:l: T\rtor: What is the total torque about the pivot point? Student: We ) 20 N m just add the torques. many common shapes have simple moments of inertia.m  20 N.iU n'. The torque is the moment arm times the part of the force that is perpendicular to the moment arm.m * 0 N.:ff student: And it goes crockw. ROTATIOII Student: I guess it wouldn't.
:l"?rce Student: From above the door looks like a rod. so the moment arm is zero. and it is applied at a right angle at the edge. *rtor: other.m r . I /crrn + Md2 I /doo. find the acceleration.#ut'+ M (Ll2)' :lut' rr.468 ks *' ? T\rtor: That would be the moment of inertia if the door was being rotated about the center of the door. how would you approach it? Student: If I can find the acceleration.46 kg  9. Student: of inertia). Do I need a positive direction? T\rtor: Since everything is happening in the same direction.. The boy pushes perpendicular to the surface of the door. Gravity doesn't cause the door to open or close.j:. : iM L2  $fT.. so the moment of inertia is /doo. so from the pivot occurs at rhere are the pivot point.28  1.59 rad/s2 .)2 iut' in.78 m wide and has mass of 7.T]'l. like friction at the pivot.". If there was another torque.Tl1.46 kg m2 Student: Now I can find the angular acceleration. .1l.89 EXAMPLE A boy leaving a store pushes on the door handle with a force of 18 N.. we can call that positive and not worry about it any more. then we would have to be careful about direction. I can do a constant acceleration problem to find the velocity.li. but with rotation. 14 N. but it is being rotated about the edge.2 kgx0. Student: So the other forces don't create any torque.Tl. I need the angular force (torque) and the angular mass (moment Student: What is the torque? There is only one force.2 kS.0. Good.78 m) 2 . To T\rtor: T\rtor: I need the force and the mass.: . How long does a it take for the door to open (rotate to 90')? T\rtor: If this were linear motion instead of rotation. . The door is 0. Student: So I need the parallel axis thingee. To find the angular acceleration.rkg)(0.Ia m' 1.
find the moment of inertia. T\rtor: You could do that. because radians are assumed so that u . Energy techniques work well when the acceleration is not constant and when we don't care about the time. and we have the angular acceleration.r > L0 ug+ug a)u a)a t>t r12 0 9. Now I have the angular acceleration and I can do the constant angular velocity problem. What is its speed as it hits the ground? is How are you going to attack this? Find the torque. so it's r radians... The radius of the pulley 0. That's why we use the word even though it isn't a unit. and we'd need to write a Newton's second law equation for each mass.57s EXAMPTE In an Atwood's machine. two masses of. Af. The 7 kS mass starts 2 m above the ground. The pulley equation rzlr1R. and had two equations. is something like We could do it. Student: Angular displacement is 90o. We can insert them and remove them at will. T\rtor: The angular acceleration is in radians.f s2)t' radf s2 t0. so you'll want the angular displacement in radians. T\rtor: Write down the five variables and identify the ones you know. but now the tensions aren't the same and we need a third equation for the T\rtor: Student: rotation of the pulley. 4 kg and 7 kg hang over a 6 kg pulley. It's really just a word used to remind us but not really a unit. Thtor: Student: That sounds like a lot of work. ROTATIOIV Student: I see that the kg and the m2 cancelled the same units in the numerator. We could do the same thing. and that the seconds squared came from the newtons.59 radf ? s2 Lfi : uot . Student: 90o is onefourth of a revolution. find the angular acceleration. but where did radians come from? T\rtor: Radians aren't really a unit.(t) Student: It sounds like you think there's an easier way. Remember that we did this before.. we did forces.4 m.90 CHAPTER 10.a* . Student: Okay. not like other units.ua)  (o). The difficulty is that we don't know the tensions.ru works.'s is zero.(o. and solve the constant velocity problem. initial angular velocity c. We ..) . .ro rad. we did energy.(i*^. We can't do this with degrees or revolutions. A.
)) It takes energy to rotate What is the kinetic energy? Both of the masses are moving. so zero. Student: Student: So i*r' becomes itr'. T\rtor: The two masses might not start at the same height. Thtor: And since the forces are the same.Rti? T\rtor: If the rope is not slipping same as the speed of the rope.+ PEi+W: KEy * PEr Tutor: What is the initial kinetic energy? Nothing is moving. T\rtor: The pulley is also rotating. Student: There's also a force at the pivot. so I need L*r' for each of them. somethirg. where Student: I can handle that.(t*^. are the two masses going the same speed? Student: Yes. but the moment arm for these forces is zero. How fast is the pulley rotating? Student: Can I use u . holding the pulley up. so you have a different h . when I find the final potential energy. w . and gravity on the pulley.*r) '2 (*+  ) + (*n  IrLT)sQ ^) Tutor: There are the tensions in the rope.0 spot for the two Student: InASSES. TUtor: Good. the radius cancels. If they weren't.8 rn) ^) :^ 2(3 o) kg (++T+*^lr')(z *)  2.. doing negative work.91 don't care about the time here. so you need the kinetic energy of rotation. .(i^^rz +!r*rr' .1 (n . so no potential energy.(*^imz 1/ 1 +  TrLT)g(2 ^) t(n*mz+ m 2 2(^n rrlT)g(z *z)g(2 kg)(e. then the speed of a point on the edge of the pulley is the W . and the distances are the same. It holds back on the mass. Student: Now we need to find the work done by forces other than gravity.(i*. doing positive work.. just like it takes energy to move it. I measure compared to it started. and pulls on the pulley. Ttrtor: Fq: ?df w .(l*^r2 +!r*rr'*I*or') t / * mz + 1 \ w_' .K E r * (^as(+2m) + mz sezrr. the rope length would change.9 m/s . For each mass. the total work is zero. The 4 kg ma"ss moves up 2 m.u' . Student: Consider the tension in the rope attached to the 7 kg mass.2 +I*. )f2.TrLT)g(2 ) T\rtor: When the 7 kg mass hits the ground.rrlT)g(2 ^) rrlT)g(2 Student: Look. KEt. T\rtor: What is the initial potential energy? Student: I'll take the starting point as height equals zero.R') w (:^) ') i (*n. over the pulley. and the 7 kg mass moves down 2 m. so let's try energy.rr') * (^n .
Iw2 92 . But first an example of rolling motion.timsh+w . EXAMPLE A 7. Energy looks especially promisittg because we want the speed at the end of the ramp. choose the bottom as Ttrtor: y. The ramp is 1 . we had this in the last chapter. so the final potential energy is zero. T\rtor: Student: K4+ PEi+W : KEy * PEt Student: The ball isn't moving at the top. and speed connects directly to kinetic enerry.4 m high and 9. The initial potential energy is mgh.0 kg bowling ball rolls without slippittg down a ramp. How fast is the bowling ball moving when it reaches the bottom of the ramp? * We don't care about the time.0.6 m long. I'll h . rngh*W 'r*r'*.Chapter 11 Rollingr Torqu€r and Angular Momentum This chapter is about angular momentum.KEy *I4o What is the final kinetic energy? has Student: Ah. so the initial kinetic energy is zero. It **r' but it also has LIr'. so I'll try energy.
R cancel from the equation? It doesn't matter what the size or of the ball is. .Ia). and we'd need to use u .8 T\rtor: ma^ss m/s')(1. T\rtor: What other forces are there? Student: The bowling ball is in contact with the ramp. Student: If the work is zero. so it must be static friction. But if we used a hollow sphere or a tube instead of a solid sphere. We would need to find all of the forces.Ru? The point on the edge is moving around the center of the bowling ball at the same speed that the bowling ball is moving down the ramp? Ttrtor: As long as the bowling ball rolls without slippirg. I'm not sure about the friction force.. this is true. Student: So a bowling ball and a PingPong ball have different speeds at the bottom. so no mechanical energy is being turned into thermal energy by friction. does the bowling ball heat up a. so there is a normal force from the surface. but we've conveniently ignored it.) Sfrr' sh: fr* . Thtor: It may seem strange.(n. but because it is hollow? T\rtor: Correct.s it rolls. and the bowling ball wouldn't roll. T\rtor: If there was no friction force. there could be a friction force. Is it static or kinetic friction? Student: The ball isn't sliding. ro. not because the PingPong ball is smaller or lighter.4 m/s Did you notice how both rn and . Ttrtor: What is the angular velocity w? Student: Is this where we use u . Or. so we look in the table and I . If there's a normal force. Student: rnsh*w *o'. so we don't know how large the friction force is. it will have the same speed when it gets to the bottom. only if it slides.?*R'. fdshrfrr'+ 1". Could we do this problem using forces? I\rtor: Yes. Of course. air resistance would also play a part. Does the friction force do any work? Student: The normal force doesn't do any work because it is perpendicular to the motion. Then we would need the Newton's second law equation for rotation (r .1. there is no displacement at the friction force.4 tn) :4. there would be no torque. How large is the friction force? Student: Is it the limiting case where F . but because there is no sliding. Student: Again.Ru to connect the two. then we can solve the equation. Then we would have to write the Newton's second law equation. so the friction force doesn't do any work. rngh*W Student: 'r*r' * l mu2 Now we need to find the work done by forces other than gravity. T\rtor: Yes. the 215 would have been something else.pN? T\rtor: No. and we would have gotten a different result.93 Thtor: What is the moment of inertia /? The bowling ball is a solid sphere.
/. where the bowling ball contacts the ramp. w€ use Iw. PTrra LIwPRsinl AP : Ft + AL . AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM nI So we'd need to find the normal force and the friction force. Then we could find o and find a. Student: It sounds like energy is easier. T\rtor: Student: Everything we did with momentum works with angular quantities. Alternatively.L1 Flor a rotating object. what must she do to her moment of inertia? . they wouldn't create any torque. EXAMPTE An ice skater doing an urel pulls her arrrur in to spin faster. it usually is ea. ROLLING. which thus has the same units as angular momentum (kS *2/r). Angular impulse is the name given to the change in the angular momentum. but for a point object moving around a point we use Pnsin. T\rtor: If you can use energy.sier.Pf + Lr.94 CHAPTER 77. we could find the torque about the bottom. In order to triple her rotational speed.* AL .* AP . Since the normal force and friction force go through that point.rt Pe. TORQUE. Angular momentum is traditionally designated L.
K+aurcre : irr' and KE^rter : )t'(r')'. All of those forces are on that line." Student: Well.95 Shouldn't that be an "axle. What is the angular momentum beforehand? Student: Angular momentum . . Thtor: Correct. the normal force from the ice. Energy is i. we just heard about angular momentum." a^s in the thing a wheel turns around? it was invented by someone named "Axel. Ttrtor: Tbue.kf : I' (3r) IJl: Student: c. Unless we know just how much work she does. Student: So why couldn't we use energy for this? She does T\rtor: Student: Student: She must reduce her moment of inertia by u factor of three. .L equals moment of inertia / times angular velocity w. We need to find all of the torques. but because they are so much further out than the rest of her. I' :]l this by pulling her arms in. We don't know any of them. we can't use energy to solve the problem. Just pulling her arms in does this? Her arms are a small part of her mass. her arms are most of her rotational inertia. We still don't know any of them. Tutor: What forces are acting on her? Student: Gravity. and maybe friction from the ice. so we must need to use that.(it) (3u)2 rr' Tutor: Student: They aren't the same! She does work when she pulls her arms in. so afterward the angular momentum . Student: Iw *. Lr. Tutor: The axis of rotation is vertically through her center.l cancels! I'(3J/) Tutor: This is a "scaling" problem. What about the angular impulse A^L? Student: That's equal to the torque times the time. T[rtor: So we leave them as variables. so it's not surprising that somethitrg cancels. I 31.L/ equals moment of inertia It times angular velocity wt I\rtor: Student: No. but we'll see why later. Student: So the moment arms are zero and the torques are all zero. but maybe energy would work. Thtor: Are there any other indications? Student: We don't know the angular acceleration. What is the angular momentum afterward? Student: Angular momentum ^L equals moment of inertia / times angular velocity w. Thtor: It wouldn't. and distance is squared in the formula for moment of inertia.*ALLy Iw*ALf'u)' I\rtor: What do we know about the angular velocities? We know that u)' :3 x cr'. T\rtor: Are they all the same as they were before? Student: No.Ir'. Tutor: Student: Find her energy before and after.
'+ T\rtor: Student: PEr What is the final potential energy? The rod goes down. sliding. but that force is at the pivot. Student: Now we need the work done by forces other than gravity. If you use the moment of inertia about the center of the rod. so Lrtr'. so it's negative.96 CHAPTER 11. What is the final kinetic energy? Student: The rod is rotating. then you need the motion of the center of the rod. TORQUE. and I'll use the initial positionas h:0. go? w t(!*t').KEr+PEr Tutor: All very good. then you don't need the Lr*r'. so it goes down by Ll2. Tutor: Student: I don't even know Mir4:w .85 kg. and rolling. forces. Student: I'll use the moment of inertia about the end. so it should work here. The initial kinetic energy is zero. . If you use the moment of inertia about the end of the rod.'* Mgrlt. We found earlier that it's *m n' . What you mean by that is that you can't see the end from where you are now. w:t(!*"). 35cmlong uniform rod falls from vertical to horizontal. ROLLTNG. A]VD AIVGULAR MOMENTUM EXAMPLE A 0. T\rtor: You need to use the center of mass of the rod. then strikes a 0. The block sticks to the end of the rod. which is larger by m(Ll2)2. so it doesn't exert any torque. so do I need **o'too? Tutor: Very insightful. and rotation. What is the speed of the putty after it is hit by the rod? where to begin. Instead focus on what you can do. But the center of mass of the rod is also moving.56 kg block of putty. What can you do? Student: I can probably use energy to find the speed of the rod after it falls. We did this for objects falling. We've learned about constant acceleration. momentum. The pivot exerts a force. pivoting about its end. energy. How far down does that Student: The center of mass is at the middle.
(l* Student: And the angular oaL2 * ?rlpu *vL2) . And the work is r L0.Sb kg) + (o. Lt*af2 t.35 m) ] (o.(l*od * Tnputtv)*. We need to keep that force out of the equation. f Right.ar ks) (*to. That sounds like a collision. T\rtor: During the collision. just like with momentum. so no angular impulse.. but that's not the right way. and when I multiply it by the small collision time. momentum of the putty beforehand has to be zero. T\rtor: There's no hurry. because it isn't moving.bo t g)) (r)f ^l12) :3. Now it's just algebra. . but the table doesn't have an entry for putty. 3g L * trputty : Ifwf T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What is the moment of inertia of the combined rod and putty? The rod is tMroaL' ..8 (0. what can you do? Student: The rod hits the putty.08 /s ./rod * Lpfity: Ifuf after Student: The angular speed of the rod before the collision is the same as the angular speed of the rod it falls.97 T\rtor: Correct. /rodt'. Can't I just pretend that it's small. and use mr2 . What about angular momentum? Student: If the force occurs at the pivot point. tut" I 3g L Student: Now we can plug in numbers and find the rotation rate. so no torque means no work. uf: ufLrM'oo (tMr"a * mputtv) lw \z 3(9. the pivot at the top of the rod will exert a force to keep the top of the rod in place. Just treat it as a single point. Once you know how fast the rod is rotating. the impulse will be really small? T\rtor: The shorter the collision time. And the forces that the rod and putty put on each other will cancel. (l* T\rtor: "or') E: (i*od *o'.) Lr.. so I need to use momentum. the larger the force from the pivot will be. Tbtor: Correct.. then it doesn't exert any torque. Do you know how big that force will be? Student: No.
0 cm. Not so fast! What is the direction of the force that the tracks put on the roller coaster? Student: It's not toward the middle of the circle? T\rtor: No. I need the force and direction. and that's . Tntor: Because it is a single point. it's a normal force so it's perpendicular to the track.0 cm)  2. If the coaster enters the spiral at a speed of 7 .(0. If angular momentum won't work. Initially the object moves at 0. Thtor: Student: . u . or momentum.  Rln . So the speed of the roller coaster doesn't change. energy.74 m/s) (17 cm) (5. what is its speed at the end of the spiral? l*l /\ f\ .08 lr)  1. T\rtor: T[y a different way. When the string remainitrg is only 5. Student: So it's perpendicular to the motion of the roller coaster. the force disappears.3o  \ Student: Part a sounds a lot like the previous example. Student: And I want the speed of the point on the end. We don't know the force of the string.4 m/s. how fast is the object moving? (b) A roller coaster enters a spiral in which the radius of the track decreases from 17 m to 5.98 cHAprER 11. try forces. Lr*tf! r.5 m/s Now I can do the same thing to part b. P' R' sin S' 90o Student: The angle d is the angle between the momentum and the moment arm. Student: Well. AAID AI\IGULAR MOMENTUM T\rtor: Student: Shouldn't it be in meters per second? We found the rotation rate of the rod and putty.0 m while staying horizontal. The string is then pulled through a hole in the center of the table. the work is zero. It's not toward the center.. If the force is perpendicular to the motion. but by using angular moment.mntRl (0.35 m)(3.7arrrls at the end of a 17 cm string. energy is supposed to be easiest. TORQUE.08 m/s EXAMPLE F (u) A small object moves in a circle on the end of a string on a horizontal frictionless table. ROLLTVG. we can use L P Rsin / : muR PRsin@ for the angular momentum. so the torque doesn't cancel.
or "pivot point. . Zerc equatiorur. part b. It does create an impulse. Student: Why couldn't I use momentum? The force is perpendicular to the motion so it doesn't create an impulse." so the a. go the momentum is changing.99 I\rtor: The difference between part a and part D is the direction of the force. In part D it was not tonrard the center. Ilrtor: Ttrtor: Student: So I have to use energy for Yes. but it was easy.ngular momentum could change. Student: Tlue. Momentum is a vector and the direction of the roller coaster is changing.
the torque needs to be zero.6. one at the left end and the other 1.Omlong. What else has to be zero besides the force? Student: Ah. T\rtor: Indeed you do. T\rtor: Time to choose axes. so I'll call them l/r and N2.0 kg board is supported by two scales. That means that the total force is zero. choose axes. I choose +lfl T\rtor: Student: +Af2 mg*ilO Can you solve this equation? No. so that there is no acceleration. It also means that the total torque is zero. EXAMPLE /^z. since all of the forces are colinear. T\rtor: There are no r forces. but you can't get it from forces. I need to do the r forces. up as positive. I add the torques about the center of mass and set them equal 100 . What are the forces on the board? There is a normal force from the first scale and a normal force from the second scale. Student: I only need one. so that doesn't help. and that there is no angular acceleration.Chapter L2 Equilibrium and Elasticity The equilibrium point is where something can sit without moving. and write Newton's second law equations.2 m from the left end. There's also gravity acting at the center of mass. Tutor: It is good that you remember. there are two unknowns and only one equation. I draw the freebody diagram. Student: But I need another equation. What is the reading on each scale? Student: Student: Back to forces. The forces might not be equal. add the forces.
(6.90 m apart. I can solve that.0 ks)(e. you might not be able to eliminate more than one. but if they are in two dimensions. What is the force from each support on the diving board? Tutor: It's a massless Student: Student: There are two normal forces and gravity. Try using the left end.2) o Student: Now I have two equations and two unknowns.8 mlsz) : 0 Nl :10N You can always eliminate at least one torque by your choice of pivot point." To make the math easier. If the forces are all colinear. . rather than the torque from a known force like rtg. it helps to eliminate the torque from an unknown force. ^)1$ sin 90o : o Nl(1. Student: But Student: it still work? Yes. The torque has to be zero around anA point. like does You can always eliminate at least one torque by your choice of pivot point. The gravity force of the diver. board. then you can eliminate two or more by choosing a pivot point where forces "intersect.0) l$.7 m long and has two supports 0. I can solve this one immediately. The nearly massless board is 3.0) 0 ^ls2) Student: H"y. or the board would start to rotate about that Then I do another torque equation where Nz is applied so that I can solve for Nr? You could. with one at the far end from the diver. To make the math Nr.2 m) (1) (*s)(1. T\rtor: point.x" +N2(1.g0 Nr + (49 N) .0.2): +j(6. Nr+Nzrzl. EXAMPTE A 75 kg diver (165 lb) stands at the end of a diving board.0 m)(1) : o . T\rtor: Yes you can. but you could also go back to your y forces equation to find Nl. You could have used some other point as the pivot point. T F:P'isin/6  Ia  o Nl(0) sin(?) + N2(1.101 to zero.0 m)(1) + *.8 . Nz: (^g)(1. DrIdo t Fratsin/6 2 o +(ms)(O)sin(?) Nl(1.2) (*g)(1. T\rtor: Student: That's easier.0)+N2(0.4e N T\rtor: easier. it helps to eliminate the torque from an unknown force rather than the torque from a known force.0 ks)(9.
using up as positive. EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY T\rtor: The gravity force on the diver acts on the diver. so they must have the same magnitude but be in opposite directions. and having figured out that they're the same. we might just call it his weight sometimes. it's our "special case" where there are only two forces and no acceleration. so they are equal. T\rtor: Student: Then why did we go through all that? Because sometimes they aren't the same. Is this force the same as his weight? Add up the forces on the diver. The forces on the diver are his weight and the normal force from the board.t02 CHAPTER 72.90) * o.no *. so I'll use the left end.7 mX1)  Nzlo. I sin : o 90o . What are you going to use as the pivot point? Student: It wouldn't help to use the center of mass of the board. so I need a torque equation.Nz(0. They add to zero. so we really do need to check. Newton's third law says that the equal and opposite force is the diver pulling up on the Earth.8020 N I can use the g forces equation to find ltrl.go (mg)(3. lfr+Nzrng0 . not the board. he pushes down on the diving board with a normal force.8 Nz: @!^)!?^:z) t' " (o. T\rtor: Student: N N1 + 1 1 1 2T\rtor: 3. The normal force that he puts on the board is the same as the force the board puts on him. Student: Ok y.go) Student: Now ^lsz) . Having said that it's really a normal force acting on the board and not his weight.?r.Ido +@g)(3.  D Yes. I add the vertical forces. D Fu: *gdo Flfl+N2 rng 0 T\rtor: Student: I can't solve the equation.7) : 0 : yosks)(e. t N1(0) sin(?) Ft&sin/a . Student: Ok y.
103 l/r * (3020 N)  (75 kg)(9. but it's the same as the weight of the sign. We just use the components. There is the weight of the beam and the weight of the sign. What is the tension in the wire? Student: First we draw the freebody diagram. The beam is attached to the wall. T\rtor: All true. The end of the beam is supported by a wire that with the beam. How do we handle that? T\rtor: Whatever the force is. Tty adding the torques around the center of the board what do you find? Student: All of the torques are clockwise. There is also a tension up and a normal force out from the wall.8 mf s2) : 0 lr1 A normal force has to be out from the surface. It's really a tension. T\rtor: Student: I thought that a normal force couldn't be negative?  EXAMPTE makes a 39o angle A 25 kg sign is hanging from a 3. So the wall could be pulling the beam in? Yes. 14 kg beam. Tutor: Yes the board would have to rotate.0mlong. Student: But a normal force can't do that! Tutor: Correct. Tutor: Student: . it can be divided into components. and it could also be pushing the end of the beam up or down. The negative means that the force is in the opposite direction that you drew it. like the diving board was attached to the left side support. The left end of the board needs to be attached to the support. so that the left support must pull the left end of the board down. so that the support pulls it down. Student: So we don't even know the direction of the force from the wall.
104 Student: Now CHAPTER 12.(l*rea e a Msie e) / sin 3eo rTutor: for.M"ieng + Tsin 39o  r . there can be a normal force. Wo Tcos 39o : Trlbeuor6  Mv"am  Mrisn + Tsin 39o : Trtbeurnil] We don't know W*. I use . Frna * W.4 even though it's not in the object? T\rtor: You could use Paris as your pivot point and it would work. F . I'll use Trrtor: You could Can also use A or C. The normal force keeps the object from going into the surface. so we can't solve either of these yet. We need to add up the torques. but the choice of Paris doesn't make the equations easier to solve. F A Su or S. When an object is in contact with a surface. the Young's modulus E lets us determine how much the material will stretch AL The stretching is expressed as a fraction of the total length LLIL. The strength is a measure of when the material fails completely and breaks. Materials stretch and compress like springs whenever they experience a force.498 N because the unknown force remaining was the one you wanted 6 is a good choice to solve The other topic here is elasticity. * Tlrtor: Student: Student: B as the pivot point. .14 kg) + (25ks)) (e.2)/sinBeo T . EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY I choose axes and add up the r and y forces. For rigid materials like steel. the total length. By choosing the pivot point wisely. or wood.o . The elasticity is a measure of how much a material deforms under force. This idea applies for all solid materials. I can eliminate two of the torques from the equation. glass. and the surface bends or deforms as it applies a force.(0) sin(?) Frarsin@6 . L% of. t W. Student: I'll still use B as the pivot point.s ^1. or ?.t AL Ar' L u' Given that a force F applies to a material with an area A. once the stretching has reached about 0.Ia .Mb. Using (1.M"iens(L)(l) 0 + Wa(0) sin (?)  Mueamsfir>(1) + r@)sin39o  0 .Wo. Using "4 eliminates the torques from Wy and T. this bending is so small that we don't see it. Either it will snap or it will deform so much that it won't return to its "normal" length.urng . The normal force is really a spring force. the material will fail. For many common surfaces.
07 aL# 10e (498 NX3. .86 m) x 108 *2)(200 x : N/*')  Q. T\rtor: What is the area? Student: The outside area of the wire is the circumference times the length. really. and how close will the wire be to its ultimate strength? To find the amount of stretching.rr2: T\rtor: zr(0. Look at the right triangle formed by the wire. or Thtor: Student: in half and A.105 EXAMPLE The sign in the previous example is to be supported by a steel wire (E : 200 x 10e N/*'.7. much less than that. 498 N.0 x loe N/*' Tooo x 1oo N/*' Wow! That's more than 10 times the stress needed to break the wire. How does the stress F lA compare to the ultimate strength Su? i T\rtor: Student: F (ffi (4e8 N) . if you were walking underneath the sign? Student: How about a million? No. : zr(1. so you need to do some trigonometry. Engineers use a "safety factor. The wire has an area much." which is how much you could increase the force and it still wouldn't break. What safety factor would you be comfortable with. so : hvp "dj.5 x 104 *)2 7. and L. I\rtor: No. so you can find the stretching AL. How big would the wire have to be to avoid breaking? Student: So I need to find the area so that the stress is less than the ultimate strength.136 \r'rrr\J m The wire stretches 13. (2rr)L. Imagine cutting the wire looking at the circle that you exposed. S. Wouldn't it break? Tlrtor: You can check. If a 0. A.15 mm)' area.cos 39o 3. T\rtor: Perhaps you would like to be a little safer than that. . The force is the tension in the wire. What is the length of the wire? Student: We could use the Pythagorean theorem. E.400 x 106 N/*'). So I want the area of the wire so that the stress is onetenth of the ultimate strength. IE+ Ar : T\rtor: Student: (7. what is the force F? Student: We did that in the last example.+ L 3a L.g6m cos Bgo T\rtor: The Young's modulus ^B is given. Is that a lot? Student: It seems like a lot for a steel wire to stretch.3mmdiameter wire is used. and the area of the circle is less than one square meter. but we don't know how high above the beam the wire is attached.07 x 10E m2 Student: That seems like a very small Stretch out your arms to make a big circle. Thtor: The area we need is the "crosssection" area of the wire. What is the area of that circle? Student: That area is zr times the radius of the wire squared. w€ need to know F. Good. how much will the wire stretch under load. the wire is the hypotenuse and the beam is the adjacent side.6 cm.. Student: Ok"y.
J .g8 mm zr(400 x 106 N/*') Student: I'd be okay walking under the sign if they used a 4mmdiameter steel wire. EQUILIBRIUM A.3. .IVD ELASTICITY d2r 2 rry z v TfDu to(nnt=T] .106 CHAPTER 12.oo3g8 rrr .o. .. .
r07 . so just gravity. or 0. and the book pulls back on you with the same force.3 m)2 ks)(l ks) _ 4 x10_8 N You pull on the book with a force this big.35 x 1022 kg. What are the forces on the Moon? Student: Gravity from the Earth attracts the Moon. F *aT GM6^netTrtr \. The mass of the Earth is 5. u GMtMz 12 where G is the universal gravitational constant (G : 6.. IUS\ and the ma^sses. but the goal is to understand gravity. the force is not mg. How long does it take for the Moon to orbit the Earth? T\rtor: Student: Couldn't we just look this up in the appendix? We could.98 x I02a kg and the ma.. Are there any other forces on the Moon? Student: It is not in contact with anything.ss of the Moon is 7.370 weaker than on the surface of the Earth. we don't bother to include it in our freebody diagrams. a:T 1 GMptanet At the height at which airplanes fly. EXAMPLE The Moon goes around the Earth in a circular path of radius 3. not to know one number.Chapter 13 Gravitation Newton said that any two ma^sses pull on each other with a force of .67 x 10u ry.0001% weaker.67 x 1011 N. Tutor: Good. Because the force depends on the distance. When we move up 3 m (about 10 ft) the gravity force becomes weaker by about one millionth. We usually ignore this effect because it is small. The acceleration of gravity is the force of gravity divided by the mass of the object. Because this force is so much smaller than the other forces acting on you or the book. There is a gravitational force between you and this book ^' of about r is the distance between F_ GM\Mz: 12 (6. Because the Moon is not at the surface of the Earth.85 x 108 m.r92/kg2)(60 (0. gravity is about 0. does the acceleration of gravity change as we move up and down? Yes.
GRAVITATION a a I a I I I I I t T\rtor: Newton says that when you add up all of the forces. Anything orbiting the Earth at the height of the Moon has the same orbit. We don't have an equation for the period of an orbit. Student: The circumference of an orbit equals the speed times the period. On the right side. so the acceleration is u2 f r inward. T\rtor: Not everything needs a new equation. What does the variable the height of the Moon above the Earth. it's equal to the the acceleration.ut. so they're the same. GMgu1tr6M14sen 12 ma^ss times  Mrvroont r Ttrtor: Tutor: Student: r represent? Student: It's The ma^ss of the Moon cancels. Use d . On the left side of the equation. Student: The Moon is going in a circle. from center to center. Student: . it's the radius of the Moon's orbit. it's the distance between the Earth and the Moon. all one of them. Student: But the Earth is at the center of the orbit. Tutor: Now you can use the speed to find the time.108 CHAPTER 73.
uStudent: Now nnr' tGM u_rrl * I can repeat the d  ut process like before. the potential energy is no longer . it's the distance between the two stars. from center to center. T\rtor: On the left side of the equation. Then the distance between stars is 2r. How is it that we use r for both when they aren't always equal? Ttrtor: That's why it's important to know what each variable means. On the right side. The m. Now that we know that the force of gravity is not constant.. it's the radius of each star's orbit.7 x 1030 kg and the distance between them is 9 x the stars to make an orbit? ma^ss i L 1010 between them. Student: But those aren't equal. How long does it take for \ .u IGM 4n " GM _ atr. Student: Ok y. T\rtor: Student: It's GM M wtvt7 GM. This came from using a constant force of gravity rng. 4.V[ t u=t.109 EXAMPTE A "binary star" consists of two stars of equal mass rotating about the point midway of each star is I. I'll let r be the radius of the orbit. tott *)t Earlier./ at/ \ t   cor) ' Student: This is just like the last example! GMM 12 _Mt r ? What does the variable r represent? the distance between the two stars. t d a 2rr 13 vT (n. we said that the potential energy of gravity was rngh.
T\rtor: Almost. T\rtor: Yes. and r is the distance that to use conservation of energy. we must find out how much work we need to do. Very astute. What is the initial potential energy? Student: The satellite is probably high enough that we can't use mgh. the work we must do to raise somethitrg is less than mgh would say. Student: So r is just Rn.KEy * PEt and that the potential energy appears on both sides of the equation.m(. GRAVITATION rngh. What is the final potential energy? No. We'll have to use the new formula for the potential energy. the potential energy of gravity is UPE where G is the same universal gravitational constant .(24 ht). EXAMPLE How much energy does it take to lift an 875 kg communications satellite from Cape Canaveral (latitude 28. Leaving the proof to more detailed texts.6o)lT. so that afber it has rotated 360o. so we'll obviously be doing conservation of energy.I d.y . but where do we get Rn and Mn? We look them up in a reference. . between them. KEt+PEi+W:KEy*PEr The initial kinetic energy is zero. The Earth rotates a little more than 360o in a solar dry of 24 hours . we choose zero potential energy to be when two masses are an infinite distance from each other. not the center of the circle in which it rotates. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: Isn't that zero? 1 ( 2rLncos 28. we use K4+ PEi+W . T\rtor: Student: . The initial distance is equal to R6coslatitude. where T . Student: So the initial velocity is (2rR1cos28. +t+t'\'KEv*PEr / rn is the mass of the satellite. and the rocket moves with the Earth. but we can do that later. Cape Canaveral sits on a circle of radius R6 cos latitude. For simplicity.110 CHAPTER 13.25. We can fudge this. If the gravity force between the initial and final points is close to constant. The Earth is rotating. then we can still use mgh as an approximation. Since the force of gravity weakens as we move further away from the planet. T\rtor: The distance r is the distance from the rocket to the center of the Earth. In many textbooks they are in the inside front or back cover of the book. finding this work involves an integral. Remember GMM MtlO mare the two masses. This is because the Earth also rotates around the Sun. Student: That's why they gave us the latitude. Not this time. What matters is the change in the potential energy. We must add energy to lift something to energy equals zero) so the potential energy of gravity is always negative. the same point on Earth is not facing the Sun.360o + 360'1365. To move somethitrg from the surface of a planet to an infinite distance takes work. To determine the potential energy.6" \ 2 r GM nm . Since the force is not constant.6o) into geosynchronous orbit? T\rtor: Student: We want the energy. we don't have to move the satellite an infinite distance away. The Earth rotates 360o in a "sidereal" day of 23 hours and 56 minutes. r.
Remember that everything  else . Can we reuse the result? Tbtor: Taking an equation out of an example is a good way to screw up. I'll substitute u into the last equation. We have a planet and something is orbiting the planet. Good.u lt  a2 r.' T\rtor: Student: What is geosynchronous 111 orbit? That's when the satellite orbits the Earth in exactly 24 hours. T\rtor: Student: Now I can solve for r. The final potential energy is PEv  GMnm  GMnm 2nRB cos 28. but I have t : T. The only force is gravity. Let's hold off on that.' t_ f Vr d IM 2trr . Student: Cool. and that's why we want to put a corirmunications satellite there.ry+w KErGMnm Tutor: lhtor: What is the final kinetic energy? Student: Can we get the velocity from the equation above? Sure. It only works over the equator. Thtor: Yes. Earth also rotates once in24 hours. Student: All of that still works. Go through the first example and see how close it is. I don't have r or u. Student: Okay. r: Tbtor: Student: Whew! Now I can put the numbers in. How far away from Earth is it? Student: This sounds like the first example in the chapter. It's in synchro with the geo. Student: Ok"y. That must be where the TV satellites go.6 :) T w.mGMn GMnm 2rRn cos 29.6" :. . KE:I*r' t*W 2nRn cos 29. Look what happened in the second example in this chapter.ryiGMnm Tbtor: I'm happy Student: r Do we really have to put in all those numbers? to skip it if you are we've already done the physics. Symbols are easier to write than numbers.6o )'. The result is that the satellite is always above the same point on the Earth. so GMnm Ttr .
Student: Ah. so the time ? needs to be in seconds.TI2 is in newtons and seconds. CHAPTER 13. GRAVITATIOI{ I . T is 24 hours times 60 minutes times 60 seconds. yes .
Au: corlstant What the constant is we can't say now. and airplanes need to be pressurized so the occupants can breathe. We want to know where and how much. PA 15 pounds per square inch. This is because the lower fluid has to hold the upper fluid up. but a. The fluid beneath it has a greater pressure and exerts a greater force. Y A . F A fluid exerts its pressure in every direction. 113 . At high altitude. or ma^ss of the fluid that would be where the object is if the object wasn't there. This is equivalent to saying that fluid can't build up anywhere. Air at ground level has a pressure of The pressure in a fluid increases so the change in pressure is with depth. because the calculations would be difficult and we can get most of the important information without it. The difference in the forces is the buoyancy force or buoyant force FB .s a fluid moves the volume flow rate will stay the same. Fluids exert forces and have energy. is exerted on each side of you. so that the air doesn't push you over (wind pushing you over is different pressures on your two sides). just a"s we ignored air resistance. Fluids exert a pressure. and force. We usually ignore this complication. and by being in air. The air exerts a buoyant force on you that is equal to your volume times the density of air times g. often its density does as well. appsay where p is the density of the fluid.Chapter L4 Fluids Fluids are liquids and gases.SS volume When something is in the fluid. We treat fluids as being incompressible. this pressure is exerted on every square inch of you. the density of air is less. Rv .ses. When the pressure of air increa. One result of this is that the volume flow rate Rv is a constant as the fluid moves. then the fluid above it pushes down and the fluid beneath it pushes up.V TTI MA. The same pressure. so that we can use fluids. so that their densities do not change.mfg where rn1 is the mass of fluid displaced.
n'Lg : *tg planet with a different gravity. Student: So it's the mass of water that would fit in the volume of the submarine. Yes. Something is wrong. then the submarine would accelerate up. Not Tutor: really. How much water (ir *3) must the submarine take on as ballast so that it keeps a constant depth while submerged? This looks complicated.9 x t06 kg Student: That's the mass of the fluid displaced. To keep a constant depth. What's my? The mass of the fluid that isn't there because the submarine is there. its pressure changes because of its motion. So the buoyant force is equal to the weight. we can't say what the constant is. What is the total force on the submarine? Student: It doesn't s&y. the constant is the same. It mI: pV : prr2L  (998 isn't. What is the weight of the submarine? Student: The weight is mg. and it has to be equal to the ma. P+ ior'* 1 PgY  a constant Again. Student: g cancels. T\rtor: Student: kg/t)"(5 *)2(88 m) :6. the force must be zero. like conservation of energy. T\rtor: An interesting conclusion. This is Bernoulli's equatior. what is the buoya "''"):5'e x 107 N Student: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Good. Student: And if it was downward then it would accelerate down. FLUIDS As a fluid moves. Find the volume of the submarine and multiply by the density of water to find the mass of the fluid.0 x 106 kg. but it's not what I meant.2L kg/*t density of air density of water 998 kg/*t 9I7 kg/*t density of ice pressure at sea level 1. but for two points in the same fluid. would T\rtor: It means that the same submarine. If the total force wa"s upward. with a ma^ss of 6. Come at the buoyant force from the other direction. T\rtor: Yes.oouJu*J. The buoyant force T\rtor: That's true. or Student: rrrtor: ^.[.^yr"" : mf g. is Fe "fil.II4 CHAPTER 14. What does that mean? Interesting. and it's also equal to Fg :'trlf g. so that we can calculate one missing piece.0 x 105 N/*' all at 20"C and 1 atm EXAMPTE A submarine is approximately a cylinder 10 m in diameter and 88 m long. . so it must be zero. Some Useful Numbers I.ss of the submarine. in an ocean on a different have to take on the same amount of water.
pT vm: p 9x105kg 998 kg/t  900 m3 EXAMPLE A 6 cm cube of wood with density 650 ke/*t is placed into a pail of oil and water. But we reuse techrriques. How much of the wood cube sticks out above the oil? The buoyancy force is equal to the weight. That's the difference in the two masses. That's why it is dangerous to take any equation out of an example. No. Student: The wood cube is not accelerating. How do you know? Student: It was last time. because it applies to the example and not necessarily to any other situation. so the total force on it is zero. The forces are the buclyancy force and the weight. so the submarine would normally float to the surface. we have to do that separately for the oil and water. Student: So I need to find out how much they increase the mass by taking on water.0 x 106 kg  9 x 105 kg T\rtor: Student: That's a lot of water.9 x 106 kg  6. Student: The buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.115 T\rtor: The buoyancy force on the submarine is greater than its weight. Tutor: Student: Fsmfg T\rtor: cube? Student: But the densities of oil and water are different. they must be equal. the submarine takes on water in ballast tanks. We can't just multiply the volume by the density. so they have to cancel. Could the oil by itself hold up the wood . To stay submerged under water. The lcmthick layer of oil has a density of 850 kg/*t. Ibtor: AII problems are different. The connection between volume and mass is density. Student: The question was to find the volume of the water.mf  ?7}sub  6. Tutor: Much better. rflwater . increasing the mass of the submarine.
116 CHAPTER 14.0306 rI . The wood cube extends down into the water. T\rtor: I'll let you decide.oo m)(0.ou rn)(0. Student: How do you know that the oil is on top? T\rtor: Because it has a lower density. Student: Now that I have the mass of the water. So the difference must be the mass of the water displaced. So if we can find the pressure. Student: I'll let r be the amount of the cube in the water. the wood would 3#. . because gauges can record only the difference. What is the force that the liquid has to exert on the wood cube? T\rtor: And if we divide that force by the area of the bottom of the wood Student: . FLUIDS The most oil that could be displaced would be 6 cm by 6 cm by rrloit 1 Student: cm.8 s  (ooa r<g/*') (to. You are confusing absolute pressure and gauge pressure.8 g Is there a reason for keeping more significant figures than usual? When we subtract two numbers.2 N/m2 is the increase in pressure due to the liquid.6 s  pv  (sro kg/t) (to.pV 10e.94 cm.01 *)) m)) Student: The mass of the block is rest on the bottom.06 crr There's another way to do the problem. If there was 1 cm of oil and nothing else. F 1. which just balances the weight of the wood cube. The air is above the oil because the density of air is less than the density of oil.1 cm . Tutor: Correct. The weight is 1376 N student: Divide by the area.6 g)  109.::T:l$::lT]. Gauge pressure is the difference between the pressure and atmospheric pressure.3. Student: Okry. it easier? Student: A force equal to the weight of the cube. we get the pressure at the bottom of the wood cube. I can find the volume. The mass of that much oil is 30.140 4 g rrlwater: Trlwood  Trloir  (140.i:f:::1i:j::::::::"0 06 .. using pressure. The air would push it down. Your 382.4 g)  (30. The water pushes up that much harder than the air pushes down.3. . then we keep more digits. T\rtor: Student: Tflwater . Student: Where does the oil come into this? T\rtor: It causes a pressure difference between the top and bottom of the oil.0 x 105 N/'. but the gauge pressure is zero. If we think we might subtract later.06 )(0.0.he T\rtor: Correct. s. The absolute pressure of the air at the surface is 1.*.06 m)(")) r .. then we can determine the depth at which that pressure occurs. Student: Okay. Is  I. is less than the pressure of the air.: N. The pressure change due to .06 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The height of wood sticking out is 6 cm .uden. we often lose significant figures.376 N Pi: ffi :382'2N/m2 T\rtor: A newton Ttrtor: Student: But this pressure per meter squared (N/') ir sometimes called a pascal. T\rtor: And that volume depends on how much of the wood cube is submerged.
goo%) . let's check. The rest of the increase must be due to the water. Student: But the top of the wood cube is above the surface of the oil. Can Tntor: An absolute pressure cannot be negative.. from the 382.01 *) : 83. pressure be negative? Student: It's the same thing. Student: So I need a pressure change from water of ap.oilTo .o.06 cm Thtor: As it should be. Okay.0I94 N/*' pressure of Toercor:ryx 0oo%)Hx true Student: I can live with that. using gauge pressure.(998 t g/*t)(9.TL7 the oil is Ap  ps Ay  (850 t g/t)(9. Since you're using gauge pressure. But the density of air is so much lower than the density of water or oil that we typically ignore it.3 N/m2? ^ls2)(0.8 ^ls2X") fi :0.3. then the pressure at the bottom of the oil is 83.3 N/m2 Tutor: Yes.23 N/*' T\rtor: We should have subtracted that.2 N/m2. which means a lower pressure than atmospheric pressure.83. The pressure at the top of the wood is m) : 0. T\rtor: Student: As you would say.2 water.0306 rI .pg Ay.2 N/*' .ps av 382.3 N/*' . so the error we made by ignoring it wa^s p .8 ^ls2)(0.(I.8 Student: So if I take the pressure at the surface to be zero. T\rtor: Student: But I need a pressure of 382. so it's at a lower pressure. A gauge pressure can be negative. or something close to that. the pressure at the top of the wood is negative.21 kg/m3)(9.
1r) Pt + . so p doesn't change.21 kgl^t)(9. Calculate the downforce. What is the force on the top of the car? Student: The force is Ft : PtA What's the pressure in area 1 of the bottom? The bottom is lower than the top. whatever that was. except the air is moving faster? . 1. So we're using Bernoulli's equation. T\rtor: Also.118 CHAPTER 74. so the pressure is greater. ^1"2X0. Assume that the car is traveling at 90 m/s and is 0. What about the p's? We treat the air as an incompressible fluid. Tutor: Student: h* T\rtor: 1r) . h*PqUt:Pt*Pga. but in the last example we saw that the change in air is fairly small. pt:pt* pg Ay:pt + (1.pu? * psyt The speeds are the same. Student: How can the pressure be less below the car than above it? Pressure increases as you go down. FLUIDS EXAMPLE One way to create ttdownforce" on a race car is with a narrowing channel on the underside. The net force from pressure is downward.PUf * PgAt  a constant Student: What is the constant? The same as it was on top.6 *) :pt+7 N/*' Now do area 2. Pressure also changes as the speed of the fluid changes. Student: And speed changes the pressure. T\rtor: tue.8 T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Yes. the air in area 1 is going the same speed as the air on the top. Pretend that the car is stationary and the air is moving across it at 90 mls.4 m T\rtor: Downforce is created when the pressure under the car is less than the pressure above it. h * irr? * psw : T\rtor: Student: 1. So area 2 is the same as area 1.6 m high.
pu'z. so it's the same ffi inches lower.Mwzuz (I.1.X3.. What's the pressure ps? Thtor: There is air there.4 mX2 m)) . and it's also moving at 90 m/s. so the pressure is maybe 1 kg/m3 higher.@. the race car could drive in a straight line upside down. .4 m)(2 m) F . Tutor: It's about 9000 pounds.4 m)(90 m/s) wtut u2:.)(3..(prx0. Now you can find p2.(0.o @? .4 m)(3 m) . Really it's a couple of F . it's about half of atmospheric pressure.4 m2) + (55124 N/*r)(0. The area in that equation is the crosssectional area. . which is the width times the height.(pr)(4. but the acceleration wa.ff315m/s T\rtor: Student: The air in the channel is moving at 315 m/s. Yes. * etsst pz 1.(pr)(1. more than the weight Student: Student: Is that a lot? .s what was needed to go in a circle. but only as long a^s they were driving fast. Ttrtor: Assume it's the same along the whole length of the car. The height of the crosssectional area is into the page. that the rate of flow is the same.8 ttt2) F .r : (p.119 How much faster? Use the volumerate equatioD.8 *2) F .(7 N/*.4 *2) .2 2) . Student: pr.@. T\rtor: Careful about what you mean by area. Student: So now I'm ready to find the downforce. h * i*? t pssr: Pz + . T\rtor: Student: Student: So Mrtr.)(0. Here.4.(pt) ((1. the coaster accelerated down. This isn't the same as a roller coaster doing a loop.4 m)(3 m) . So a race car could drive upside down? TUtor: Some of them.3) kg pz: pt pz *7 N/m2 +iO. but would have to get going fast before turning upside down. There. +z N/m') + f. Student: So we can't see it.21 : pt l^t) ((90 ^lr)' pt (315 m/s)2) *7 N/m'2 55131 N/m 2  551 24 N lm2 I\rtor: Student: That's a big change.4 x 104 N/*' of the race car. Student: So the area of area 1 times the speed is the same as the area of volume 2 times the speed there. +7 N/*'.55124 N/*'.
i TTL &k To find out how the box behaves we need to solve this differential equation. trrn and Q can be anything. trTLw2 cos (rt + O). We want something that oscillates back and forth like a sine wave.. u . When the box is to the left of the equilibrium point the force is toward the right. and they add to zero since there is no vertical acceleration.l must be equal to k m' Since the biggest that cosine gets is 1. and we call this the equilibrium point. velocity).so we find that the acceleration r20 . This process continues until the cows come home. which is the change in the displacement from equilibrium. Once we know the displacement as a function of time. stops it. so let's try a sine or cosine function. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity. Once the box reaches the right then pulls it back to the left. but the angular frequency c. The velocity is the derivative of the displacement. Earlier we said that &s it had to be. and $ are constants. Anything that behaves in this fashion. u. we can find the velocity and acceleration as well. where the acceleration is minus a constant times the displacement.Chapter 15 Oscillations Imagine a box attached to a spring and sliding on a frictionless horizontal surface. The vertical forces are the weight and the normal force. or a(t) is o(t)  (k l*)r(t). but that doesn't mean that the box stops . The only horizontal force is the spring. Fkr:TrLa When the spring is neither stretched nor compressed the force is zero. When we do this we find that the solution is r(t) : nrrrcos (wt + 0) where A. The acceleration is the change in the velocity.side the spring slows it. It coasts through equilibrium. or a(t) . We could also use sine instead of cosine. It gains speed until it reaches equilibrium. and vice versa. We do this using the standard method for solving all differential equations: guess. At the acceleration is zero (not the equilibrium the force is zero. If the box starts on the left then it accelerates to the right. is called a simple harmonic oscillator.TrL#" dt2* . the biggest that rt gets is nrnt and it is called the amplitude.E. kr .nmc^r sin (rt + il.
because the motion repeats after 40. The frequency is 40. The displacement is not always biggest at t: O.0 is 4? Tlrtor2 n. a"s the oscillator coasts through equilibrium. But what are the values for ror. that's what they mean. Student: So r.n is the biggest that the displacement ever gets. So the period T . Student: The displacement is zero at t .. Should the period be 20 ms? T\rtor: The displacement is the same but the velocity is not in the same direction. it is momentarily stationary. the frequency . When the oscillator is at equilibrium. Write an equation for the displacement of the mass as a function of time. Is r* equal to 4 because the displacement at t . and S? Student: Oh. It says so above.imu2 EXAMPTE A 56 g mass attached to a spring oscillates a"s shown.$ cm. and the period (r).T2T The motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is char acterized by its frequency. so that isn't " repeating Tntor: . where the greatest that sine can be is 1. amplitude. The maximum speed does not occur at the same time as the maximum displacement. and phase constant 0. T\rtor: The period is the time before the motion repeats. Instead. ELrr"r. " 2"l U* : u1 I r frrn Also. the potential energy is zero and all of its energy is kinetic energy. while the maximum displacement of an oscillator is t the macimum speed is frrrrU This comes from the equation for the velocity.cos (rt + il. It is often useful to convert between the angular frequency cd (rad/s). so the velocity can only be as large as frrnu). Or is it 5 cm. 4A Student: 50 t(ms) The equation is n(t) : nnt. and again at t: 35 ms.40 ms. When the oscillator is at manimum displacement.15 ms. so the displacement goes from as high as *rrn to as low ffi frm. u. Student: Then frrn :5 cm.f (cycles l"). or 10 cm? Tlrtor: Cosine goes from *1 to 1. and all of its energy is potential energy. the maximum speed occurs when the displacement is zero.
When the oscillator is at equilibrium.. so the displacement goes from as high as *r* to as low as nrn. Or is it 5 cm.:rimum speed does not occur at the same time as the maximum displacement. " zitr Uvn u1 + T frrr. the frequency f (cycles l"). and Q? Student: Oh. because the motion repeats after 40. u. Instead.40 ms. It is often useful to convert between the angular frequency c{. But what are the values for ro. so the velocity can only be a"s large ffi fi7nu). Student: So rrr. Should the period be 20 ms? T\rtor: The displacement is the same but the velocity is not in the same direction. it is momentarily stationary. Write an equation for the displacement of the mass as a function of time. I\rtor: The period is the time before the motion repeats. and again at t: 35 ms. or 10 cm? T\rtor: Cosine goes from *1 to 1.5 cm.U Also.LzL The motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is char acterlzed by its frequency. (rad/s).mu2 EXAMPTE A 56 g ma^ss attached to a spring oscillates a"s shown. It says so above. The ma. The frequency is 40. equal to 4 because the displacement at t . the potential energy is zero and all of its energy is kinetic energy. Student: The displacement is zero at t . and all of its energy is potential energy. The displacement is not always biggest at t:0. E _ Lrr". the maximum speed occurs when the displacement is zero) as the oscillator coasts through equilibrium. so that isn't " repeating Tutor: Student: . *. So the period T . amplitude. 4/J50 f (ms) The equation is r(t) .0 is 4? Tlrtors frm is the biggest that the displacement ever gets.15 ms. where the greatest that sine can be is 1. that's what they mean. and the period (r). . When the oscillator is at mucimum displacement. while the maximum displacement of an oscillator is firnt the mucimum speed is : This comes from the equation for the velocity. Is rn. Student: Then frrn :5 cm.nmcos (rt + il. and phase constant 0.
do r determine r? z t is an independent variable. So when the phase. Student: Flom the period I can find the angular frequency u. If your equation did not have t in it.64 rad ? Tlrtor: You could. Student: So the phase is zero at t .78 T\rtor: It's hard to read a graph exactly... or everything inside the parentheses.llfl.10 ms is the same as at t ./)  arccos0. I can come along and pick any time t. The phase is wt + 0. then it would be a constant displacement. Student: So I don't need a value for f..o tt) . What does Q do? T\rtor: The phase constant O determines the starting point. The displacement is a function of the time.0 is equal to the phase constant.005 s) : 0. u^L 2nrT 21 2r T\rtor + student: so the equation is r(t): (.0.14 out of 2tr.andrAcil. (tttt /sec)(5 ms) * d) 0 o  (157 lsec)(0." The displacement at t . OSCLLATIOIVS the motion.8.10 ms? Student: The displacement is the same.0. The phase at t . That is.8 O : : cos (. but the velocity is in opposite directions.::.r22 CHAPTER 15. Tntor: You need to not have a value for t. Student: So I have to find both values for @ and put them in the velocity equation to see which gives a positive result? I\rtor: That is one way to do it. or 8o out of 360". is zero) the displacement is a positive maximum. or 2To of a cycle. Here's another: what is the cosine of.0. Student: And the final equation is r(t)  (b cm) cos (ttsz lsec)t . Something must be wrong. Student: But I do need a value for /.5 ms? Y'es. zero? T\rtor: T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: One. Icansett0inmyequation.':' . The difference is about 0.andsolvefor@. Student: Theoscillatoris at4whent0.: o. When you are done with your equation. where the oscillator is at t . or the whole thing that we take the sine or cosine of. T\rtor: That's the difference between the two angles. and you can use your equation to tell me what the displacement is.(5*m) cos (tttt : /sec)(o) + d) 0. not changing with time. 4effi. but the problem is that there are two angles for which cos 0 . You need to be sure to get the correct one. Student: What's the difference? T\rtor: What's the difference between t . but the period is not 10 ms either. Ary equation for a function includes at least one independent variable. Student: We didn't get the same value for Q.8 37" 0. What's the difference between phase and phase constant? The phase constant is d.0 and t .
mn2 : Irro N/)(0.4. I have the energy. When is that? Student: When it coasts through equilibrium. T\rtor: Yes.19 m and the velocity is u(0) .?) Is the work I.0 . (!rr"a. and radians per second is one over seconds. the displacement of the mass is r(0) :0. Student: So I can use energy to find the maximum speed. the total of the weight and spring force is kr.24kg mass is attached to a spring with spring constant 50 N/.*. I need to pick the other time to be when the mass has the T\rtor: Student: maximum speed. when it works.s2 J Okay.7 equal to zero? Are there any other forces acting? Student: The weight? Ttrtor: If the motion is horizontal. and we can do all of the same stuff as long as we mea^sure r from the equilibrium point. so it's the same as before.J l .1. Find the frequetrcy.rls) 2 .(r"2. f and cl aren't interchangeable.4 ls 2n  2. even if the weight is moving vertically.2.z .'") ) (0 ) 2 * )2+ ( 0. T\rtor: Student: (r. Now I'll E use energy as you suggest.1 m/s.2a kg)(r.*.)' .^d) *w .:fr. .: : Tot *.1e ) ' +1.. But there are easier ways.. even though neither radians nor cycles is a proper unitr so that both are really one over seconds. T\rtor: Yes. . Student: So I don't need the potential energy of gravity. and find the first and second derivatives.Ey. We're not really interested in what the energy is. + (0. so we often use Hz as a reminder that we're using / rather than kr. Why didn't it work in the last example? T\rtor: Since the energy typically doesn't depend on the time. Energy is usually an easier way.3 Hz Student: If hertz is really just one over seconds. T\rtor: You could do that. Student: It must work here or you wouldn't suggest it.. Student: So if I want t e maximum speed. mucimum speed. then the weight doesn't do any work.*W . Student: So I need to come up with an equation for the displacement as a function of time. Student: Ok y. Ttrtor: Good. As the mass moves from there. 50 N/m  1a.le "z .*d) + w : (r (50 N/*)(0. we can't use energy to find the time.2akg)( . 'ur"' *.. Student: I'll start with the frequency. At t : 0.123 EXAMPTE A 0. If the motion is vertical. what do I do with it? Using the energy meant using Et. and acceleration one period later. but in comparing the energy at two times or places. then why can't we write the angular frequency in Hz? T\rtor: Radians per second and cycles per second are not the same.a ls eu r2n t I4. then the spring stretches until it balances the weight at the equilibrium point.
Correct. h is the distance between the center of mass and the pivot point.I . Can a speed be negative? No.. the greater the force and the greater the acceleration. For a pendulum. so the acceleration should be negative. We have three more topics is this chapter: the pendulum. and resonance. could you find the acceleration? Student: I have the mass. If you knew the acceleration at t . Where does maximum acceleration occur? Student: At maximum displacement.. T\rtor: True. T\rtor: Not necessarily. rnghsin0 .6 ^lsz Student: Is the negative important? When we did springs before. damping. What is the acceleration after one period? Student: Now I have to find an equation for the oscillator. dtr?. This is not quite the same equation that we had before. it is possible to show that & . Ah.. then 0(in radians) = sind = tan? when 0 is small This approximation is the same as using the first term of the Taylor series (don't panic yet for . wouldn't it? After T\rtor: Student: No. where d is the angular displacement. could you find the acceleration one period Student: Student: Is it positive or negative? T\rtor: later? one period.9 m/s Tutor: It's a speed. So if we restrict the pendulum to small angles (about 15" or less). w F kr mm (50 N/*)(0. and / is the moment of inertia of the pendulum.0. If the angle 0 is small.wait the appropriate time to panic). then the displacement as a function of time is If we r(t) : frrn"bt/2rn cos (r't + O) .le m) (0. so But if you knew the force.. What would you have to know to find the acceleration? Student: The maximum acceleration is rrnwz. include this effect. It is important. so yes.24 kg)  39. then it is approximately the same equation with the same solutions. because it's a magnitude. OSCLLATIOIVS  4. decreasing the amplitude over time. the minus sign was a reminder that the force was in the opposite direction as the displacement r. The angular frequency is mgh I for a simple pendulum (a point mass on the end of a massless string) of length . If we care about the direction of the acceleration. the force of the spring is ler. the oscillator repeats its motion. T\rtor: Is the displacement a maximum at t: 0? Tutor: Student: It would be the same. FYiction or air resistance in an oscillator will do negative work.. what should it be? Student: The displacement is positive. T\rtor: TYue. The farther the spring is stretched.124 unL CHAPTER 15.
still cancel? Tutor: Because the question is what fraction of the original amplitude remains.ss and spring constant so that the period will be one second. Trrtor: The original amplitude cancels. so fivesixths is left. because less of the initial amplitude. the later amplitude is 5/6 of the initial amplitude. it cancels. regard Student: The amplitude rm cancels. 5 6 rm . but you can solve for the combination bl*. not to a sixth. so b will be positive. Does r.1za hr. The cosine part is the oscillation. It is not clear that the oscillation is at mrucimum displacement at t : 73 min. because the log of a number less than one is negative. AIso. but we need to fix some things.firnah(rs minl lzrn L T\rtor: Much better. : e#ffi12a hrl T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: to get your units straight. How do we find b? We may not need to. and the other stuff is the amplitude. rather than what is the amplitude remaining. anyway. Is that enough? b(73 min) Tutor: It's enough to answer the first part of the question.Z* I\rtor: Student: b t"(8) (73 min) You can use this to find the amplitude afber 24 hours. . the amplitude decreased by a sixth. q 6  ob(rs min) /zrn T\rtor: Student: I still can't Student: solve for b. fractior e*.. He chooses the ma. Do the units always have to cancel? We can take the exponent or log only of a number. What does the information about 73 minutes tell you? That 1 n. How much of the original amplitude will remain after 24 hours? How much does the damping change the rate of the clock? T\rtor: Student: Student: We need to determine the damping constant b. Student: Okay. /q\ ln'\6/ Tbtor: 2* Are you bothered by the minus sign? Will b be negative? Student: No. Remember . No.: n*ab(zs min)/2'ncos (w'(zlmin) + O) ? 6em T\rtor: A good start. so we have to get rid of units.r25 where the frequency is b2 4m2 EXAMPLE An experimenter tries to build a clock from a ma"ss on a spring. he notices that damping reduces the amplitude by onesixth in 73 minutes. When he uses the clock.o.
L26
Student:
Okay. 24 hours is (24 hr)(60 min/hr)
CHAPTER 15. OSCLLATIONS
:
L440 min.
fractiot}:"(,.8)t#:g(o.182)(19.7):0.0274or2.74To
there an ea,sier way? Well, we could say that 1440173  I9.7 73 minute periods pffis, and during each one the amplitude is decreased by factor of (516), so that afrber 24 hours the amplitude is
Tlrtor:
Student: Isn't
"
/=\
19.7
(;)
T\rtor:
Student:
But the way we did it is more general. Now we can find the real frequency.
(r)' :
:0
0274
TTL
kb2_:
4m2
Student:
The period is 1 second,
so
2r u):;_2r
ls
T\rtor:
And we know the combination
bf 2m.
Student:
So
Tutor:
Excellent.
Student: And we don't even need to know b or k or rn. Cool. Tutor: And what is it equal to? Student: 6.28f s.
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Well, we knew that. The change in the period is really small, but it's that difference that we care about. Take your number and subtract 2r to find the difference.
Student:
Zero.
But you know it's not zero. The equation is clearly not equal to 2r. Student: But it's really close. T\rtor: Yes it is. To find the difference, we need to use a Taylor series. Student: What! We did those in calculus class. I hated them. Thtor: As do many calculus students, because in calculus class they make you derive them. In physics, we look them up in a reference book.
\ffiT\rtor:
Student: And I just look this up?
Yes.
1
.in !"' * *"3 +...
outside the square root.
for
r <<
Student: But I don't have I + r. T\rtor: Make it 1 + r by taking the 2r
r27
T\rtor:
The righthand part is much smaller than one, so it becomes r.
,.,,
x
(2tr t
s)
(t 
; ( rffir)')
You included only the first two terms. Yes. That's the other reason that physicists and engineers like Taylor series. We only include the first nontrivial term.
Tbtor:
Student: Student:
Tutor:
The 1 is "trivial?" The 1 says that the real frequency
c.,r'
is very nearly the same as
u.
The second term is the difference
between them.
u' 
rt)
= Ir(rftflor)':22x1011
And that is why your calculator had trouble telling the difference between 2r and 2r minus that. The difference shows up in the twelfth significant digit. Student: So why do we care? T\rtor: The difference tells us how much the damping has changed the frequency. There are about r x 107 seconds in a year, and if we multiply by the error, we find that the damping causes the clock to lose 0.7
milliseconds per year.
T\rtor:
Student: That
looks small.
T\rtor:
Student: That's not much.
No, but then the damping is very weak.
The la;st topic in this chapter is resonance. The calculations for resonance are typically saved for a differential equations or more advanced physics class. The behavior of resonance is worth knowing now.
It
is possible to apply an oscillating force to an oscillator. That is, as it oscillates, we apply another force * Qa), called a driving force. We can do this without matching our frequenc! u4 to the natural frequency of the oscillator c.r m. Fa cos (rot
When this happens, the oscillator can oscillate at two frequencies, the natural frequency c.r and the driving frequency u)6. Damping will cause the natural frequency to disappear (sometimes quicker than others), but the driving force will cause the oscillator to continue to oscillate at the driving frequency. The result is that
any driven oscillator will oscillate at the driving frequency rather than the natural frequency. The closer these two frequencies are to each other, the greater the amplitude of the oscillation. When the
two frequencies are equal, the oscillation amplitude is the greatest and we call this resonance. For example, when you hear sound, your ear vibrates at the frequency at which the sound pushes on it, rather than the natural frequency of your ear. If this was not true, then any sound would cause your ear to vibrate at the same frequency, and you could only hear one frequency you could tell whether there was sound or not, but that is all.
Chapter
16
Waves I
Imagine a group of oscillators, connected one after the other. We take the one on the near end and shake it. It puts a force on the next one, which drives the next one, and so on. Remember that driven oscillators oscillate at the driving frequency. So the oscillation that we start will be passed down the line at the same
frequency.
The individual oscillators move up and down, but do not travel along the line of oscillators. Each oscillator stays in its place and vibrates. Similarly, when fans in a stadium do the "wave," each fan moves up and down as the wave passes, but the fans don't move to the next seat. What does not happen is that one section of fans stands up and then all of the fans scootch around the stadium. The waae that moves is the point at which the displacement is a maximum. That is, an oscillator along the wave moves up and down, and we find one that is up; an instant later it is no longer up but moving down. The next one is now up. An instant point that is at maximum displacement after that, the next one is up. This is the motion of the wave  the moves, and we call this the movement of the wave.
An important question then is how fast does the wave move. This is different from asking how fast do the individual oscillators move (still nrn  wrrn). An important principle of waves is that all waves travel through a medium at the same speed regardless of the frequency or amplitude of the wave. (A "medium" is whatever waves travel through.) Shaking our end of the train of oscillators will not cause the wave to move down the line any faster.
For any medium,
it is possible to derive a "wave
equation" of the form
ffiu(r,t):
: :
&
1&
ftWY@,t) t.
The solution to
where u is a constant, and g is the displacement of the medium at a spot r and at time this equation is a wave that travels with speed u. Solutions come in two forms:
U(r,t)
y*sin(k*
Iwt
+ do)
A@,t)
y,rsin(k")
cos(c^rt)
The first form is a traveling wave and the second form be cosines and the cosines could be sines.)
is a standing wave.
(Like oscillators, the sines could
In a traveling wave, the
phase 0 is the entire contents inside the parentheses (Qo is the phase constant). When the phase is n f 2, 5r f 2, or 91 12, then the sine is 1 and the displacement is a maximum. The distance along r between successive maxima (from 0  T12to Q 5112) is a wavelength,\. 128
r2g
As time increases, the phase increases or decreases, depending on the sign of the *wt term. To follow a maximur: we need to keep the phase the same, so r must decrease or increase. The ratio of k and u determines how much r must change as t increases, and thus the speed of the wave.
u_Ur_f\_+
The second form u  /,\ is the most commonly used, and can be understood as: the speed of the wave is the rate at which oscillations occur / times the distance moved per oscillation ). The wavenumber k performs the same task for distance that the angular velocity u does for time. If the time increases by one period T, then there is one oscillation and the phase changes by 2n. u is then the radians per second by which the phase changes. If the position tr increases by one wavelength ,\, then there is one oscillation and the phase changes by 2n. k is then the radians per meter by which the phase changes.
TK_T
i:il fl#r"f
#"T""1?#:[?
2n
2r
The signs in the phase determine the direction of the wave. If the signs of kr and wt are the same, then as time increases, r must decrease to keep the phase constant, and the wave moves in the r direction. If the then as time increa"ses, r must increase to keep the phase constant, and the
Remember that the speed of the wave depends on the medium. If we increase the frequency at which we shake the end of the medium, even though u  f the speed of the wave does not increase. Instead the ^ mea"sure or calculate the speed of waves. One common wavelensh decreases. For any given medium we could medium is a tightly stretched string, for which the speed is
Ustring :
\p
lL
T
for the period of the
Here r is the tension in the string, and we use r instead of ? because we are using oscillation. p is the mass density, or mass per length of the string (*u  mlL).
EXAMPLE
The figure shows a "picture" of a wave traveling along a steel wire at time t  2 s. The wave travels at 52 m/s to the right and the tension in the wire is 60 newtons. Find the wavelength and frequency of the wave, the mass density of the wire, and write an equation for the wave.
.A, t1 F{ L.
qt 1
Xo
_9
h
U
4
6
10 20 30
40
50
60
70
80
r (cm)
130
CHAPTER 16. WAVES
 I
T\rtor: We could. r(A,t) rrrsin(ky  c't) is a wave moving in the *A directior, with the oscillations happening in the r direction. Student: Ok y. The amplitude yn, is 5 cil, because that's the greatest that the displacement gets from
zeto.
This picture looks a lot like the one from the last chapter. Yes, but the axes have changed. r is no longer the displacement, but the position along the wire, and y is the displacement. Student: Why couldn't we use r for the displacement?
Tutor:
Student:
There are peaks at r  5 cm and r  45 cm so the wavelength ,\ is 40 cm. What is the velocity of the wave? Student: That's the u  /,\ one, rather than the nrn, : ufrrn, right? T\rtor: Correct . 'urn : uArn is the maximum speed of each piece of the medium. Imagine tying a ribbon to part of the wire. Then ?)nt. : uUrn is the fastest that the ribbon moves up and down. Student: And it's yn rather than rrn because the motion of the ribbon is in the y direction.
T\rtor:
Correct. Can you identify the wavelength?
T\rtor:
Student:
T\rtor:
Yes.
Student: But I want the wave speed u  f
^.
Lvvr f^ > rf ?Y,^hloocm130/s .tr 40cm 1m
Tutor:
Good.
Student:
Now
I can use ustrins: ,ft to find
the mass density p.
60 N
r usrrio ins:
T u) ) a tl A
^
lL
u,
Student: Now I need to write the equation for the wave. It should look like a@,t): Arnsin(kr tut+do). IknowtheamplitudeUrn:5cm.ThewaVenumberk+:ffi15.7lm.RadianSareavirtualunit, not a real unit, and I can write k  I5.7 rad/m. T\rtor: I don't think I've heard the phrase "virtual unit" before, but it fits. Student: Icangettheangularvelocityc..'fromthefrequency f,a2rf 2r(130 lr)8LT ls. y(r,t) :
(5 cm) sin [(r5.7
l^)r I
(817 l")t + do]
Student: The r and t are the independent variables, and don't have specific values. T\rtor: All very good. All that's left is to choose between * and r and to determine @s. Student: If the signs of kr and wt are opposite, then the wave moves in the *r direction, so they must be opposite. Does that mean I could write (k*  ut) or (k* * wt)? T\rtor: That's what it means. You might get different values of Qo depending on which you choose. Student: I choose (kr  ,.,t).
a@,t)

(5 cm) sin [(15.7
l^),  (8r7 ls)t + Qol
Now I look at the peak at r  5 cr, and that corresponds to zero phase, like in the last chapter. Not so fast. You have the right idea, but we're using sine instead of cosine. Student: Why did we change? T\rtor: We use sine here for the same reason that we used cosine with oscillators it improves the chances  is zero. Because we're that the phase constant is zero. But that doesn't mean that the phase constant here using sine, a maximum occurs when the phase is r f 2 rather than at zero. Student: Soat r Scmand t 2sthephase isrl2? T\rtor: Yes, or 5112, or 9112, or so on. It doesn't matter which you use. Student: Then I'll use r 12.
Tutor:
Student:
[(1b.T lrr4(0.05 m)
 (812 liQ s) + dol  ;
131
T\rtor:
There's a quicker way to an answer.
a@,t)
:
(b cm)
ri"
[(
rs.T
l^)@ 
0.0b m)
 (812 lil]p  2 *t/ + 1l 2J
T\rtor: It's clear that if r T\rtor:
As we move away from r  5 cm, the phase changes by L5.7 rad/m, the wavenumber. And as time changes, the phase changes by 817 rad/s, the angular velocity. Student: Yes, those must both be true, and the signs for r and t are opposite, so the direction is correct.
Student: It seems simple, I guess. How do you know that it works? 5 cm and f  2 s the phase isrf2, yes? Student: Sure, because the first two terms of the phase are zero.
waves
If you take two solutions to the wave equation and add them, you get another solution. This is how we get that are not shaped like sine or cosine, by adding many sine or cosine waves together. All of the waves
travel the same speed because they are traveling in the same medium.
There are three important cases of adding waves that appear many times, and are worth learning about:
o two (or more) waves traveling the same direction, identical except perhaps for a phase difference,
o two waves traveling the same direction, identical except for
a slight difference in frequency, and
o two waves, identical except that they travel in opposite directions.
When two identical waves travel the same direction, they add together to form a wave that is twice as big, having twice the amplitude. When the waves are exactly "out of phas€," or one is half a wavelength behind the other, they are exact opposites and they add to zero. We call these constructive interference and destructive interference, respectively. If they are somewhere in between, then using a trig identity
st' (4\ ino*sin p 2sin (Zn 2 \ )cos\.
sr sin (k*
so they add
'
/
sin

ut +
il * a,nsin(kr 
ut)

2cos
(;t)
yn
(r"  wt . Lf)
to form a new wave, identical to the first two, but with an amplitude of 2 cos (+0) times the original amplitudes. Sure enough, for 4,  0 this is 2 and for Q  n this is 0.
When two waves have slightly different frequencies,
sin
a * sin p
2
sin
ff)
.o,
(+)
t) sin
y*sin(k*  u1r) +y,'sin (k* wzt):2A,ncos ((r, u1)
(f" "
t",)
The result is a wave with the average frequency, with an amplitude that oscillates at the difference in the two frequencies. We call this phenomena beats, and the difference frequency is the beat frequency.
EXAMPLE
What phase difference must there be between two otherwise identical waves so that their sum has half the amplitude of each of them?
T\rtor:
Student:
This seems pretty straightforward.
Okay. How are you going to do it?
Now imagine that we have another wave. 2 cos (.t) urn Yes. But what if the waves don't have the same amplitude? we have a formula for that? Tutor: We have a technique that we call phasors. To add the waves together.r) :i /1\ . 1 O 2 arcco' (i) : 151o : 2.0 . but the right side doesn't have units. Imagine a vector that initially points in the *r direction. and then the o component is the displacement. Something must be wrong. in this problem we are comparing to the original amplitude.a/ T\rtor: Student: Does it matter whether I use radians or degrees? No. similar to the first but 7r 12 behind and with half the amplitude.64rad Do Student: There. I did both for good measure. yes. it's a way be? to add waves by adding vectors. Like any unit. WAVES the formula above.arccos (. . these rotate at the same rate. I need the amplitude that the waves start with. In physics.sses a point.I Student: With 2cos(. . Because the waves have the same frequency. we add the vectors together. because centimeters. in the gr direction and half as long. you need to write the units and use them consistently. instead of to meters or cos(. What would the o component As long a^s we measure 0 from the r ucis. T\rtor: Student: But the original amplitude cancels. let the vector rotate at angular velocity w. Student: Isn't that some kind of stun gun? I\rtor: Only in science fiction.r32 CHAPTER 76. but then rotates counterclockwise. Oh. Tntor: Student: It would be cos 0. As the wave pa.4 T\rtor: Student: urn:t ? : Ir* The units on the left are length. We can draw another vector.
Student: The last important case is two waves traveling in opposite directions. then the length of the medium must be an integer times half a wavelength. and the spots where the amplitude is a maximum antinodes. g. so that none of the wave is transmitted. so If both ends of a string are bound then the wavelength is constrained. (+) wt) * Arnsin(kr .2y. the vectors rotate at slightly different frequencies. How can you get two identical waves but going in opposite directions? You tie down one end of your string. This is the basis of musical instruments. which is how the difference in the vectors changes. some of the wave is reflected and some is transmitted. 3L 2 . we call them standing waves. This means that there are many acceptable wavelengths. It is a general principle of waves that when a wave encounters a change of medium.\ L.sin (k* * Some places have an amplitude of 2Arn and others have an amplitude of zero. then the entire wave is reflected and we have an identical wave going the opposite direction. and when they point in opposite directions.133 T\rtor: T\rtor: So the sum is a wave with amplitude tre)'+ (0. Tutor: No. producing a node at the endpoint. . the amplitude is large. but oscillate in place. or an integer times that. they add to zero and the amplitude is small. Student: That's kind of cool. If the medium off of which the wave reflects is one in which it would go slower. they all move in sync. but instead of moving one after the other. so that the incoming and reflected waves add to zero. So how can you explain beats with phasors? Tutor: Because the two waves have slightly different frequencies.only those wavelengths will work. then the wave is flipped upon reflection. the wavelength must be twice the length of the string.I2? Yes. and the angle of the resultant vector tells us the phase of the resulting wave.o.ut) . In a example.ncos (rt) sin (kr) Each piece of the medium is an oscillator. in a * sin 0 2 sin ff) . in which the wave would go a different speed. but they rotate much faster than the difference frequetrcy. but they are a discrete set guitar. if both ends must be nodes. for . Because these waves don't move left or right. r.n. or 2L where n is any positive integer. Student: But they don't rotate together. We call the spots where the amplitude is zero nodes.5)' : I. ^. When they point in the same direction. If the boundary is especially hard. And we can add more than one vector this way? Student: As many as you want. Nodes are half a wavelength apart.
or equal to the fundamental. so the medium has changed. The integer n is the same integer for how many halfwavelengths fit in the medium.466H2 T\rtor: Student: Yes. T\rtor: Student: rf."  (1398 Hr))u. It is always better to learn to use a few equations well than to memorize more equations. or the second harmonic. One of the most common mistakes made with standing waves is to pull out a formula for the frequencies and use it improperly. so the wavelength will be shorter and the frequency higher. Initially the fundamental is 440 Hz. then the fundamental is fs_ Does that mean that the first harmonic is equal to the fundamental? Indeed it does. picture the waveforil. so much as first one and then the other.ry . called harmonics.fi. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Very good. What is the wavelength of the 466 Hz fundamental? Student: How can the fundamental be both 440 Hz and 466 Hz? T\rtor: It isn't both. and the other allowed frequencies are integers times the fundamental. so the speed of the wave is the same. there may be allowed frequencies that are not integer multiples of the fundamental./) to determine the frequency. they hold the string down on a "fret" along the guitar's neck. That shortens the string.+. Student: Because the medium hasn't changed and the velocity is the same. The first harmonic is one times the fundamental. EXAMPLE A 74 cm strittg clamped at both ends with a mass density of 0. and the word overtones covers these. Do I even need to find the wave speed? Nope. if a medium is more than one dimensional. or where it doesn't apply. f ^nft The important point is that there is a fundamental frequency . and find the frequencies. How far from the end would you have to hold the string down so that the third harmonic is the note F (1398 Hz)? Student: I don't see how to get from here to there. When someone plays a guitar. and is the number of antinodes present. Instead. use a . Sometimes these higher frequencies are called overtones. ft+. Student: So it's really two different strings. T\rtor: How does the fundamental afterward come into it.ulbufor" : ubefore : uafter : f^ft"r)"ft".ft". and especially here.\ . but then we hold the string down partway along its length.I We can then use u . T\rtor: So Student: If the third harmonic start with what you would need. Tutor: The tension is the same and the mass density is the same. is 1398 Hz. but with the same speed. You could use it. WAVES . But since you've opted for the third harmonic.440 Hz (the note A). Student: I know Student: the frequency before and after holding down the string./. The first overtone is the first frequency above the fundamental. apply L : nt or . (440 Ht))b"fo.\. So I can write "fb. The difference is that. I strongly recommend aga'insf memorizing an equation for the frequencies of a standing wave.fo. we can .134 CHAPTER 16..310 glm has a fundamental frequency of. I'll show you in a minute. right? But we've changed the string.
consider a piano. Student: Now I can solve. It didn't matter which you used.6 cm T\rtor: Student: That's right. The fundamental wavelength (can we say that?) is twice the length of the string. )after : (440 Hr)(148 cm) (1398 Hr)  46. Remember that changing the speed will change the frequency because the wavelength is fixed by the length of the string.  (1398 Hr)lurt". it's the third Good. T: T\rtor: Or 74 Student: 2L )"ft"r : 46'6 cm L . so long as you matched wavelength and frequency. A wave keeps the same frequency as it crosses from one medium into another. causing them to vibrate at the same frequency /. because the strings are different lengths? Tutor: Yes. with nodes at fixed points. If you had used the fundamental frequency afterward instead of the third harmonic.135 use that. For the second. Student: Can you explain standing waves using phasors? Tutor: If you like. not the fundamental. or you could change the tension or mass density and thus change the speed. So the wavelength is 2Lf 3. so thicker strings are used for the lowest notes.9 : 4. We've seen examples of the first and last. How can you use the wavelength of the third harmonic? harmonic. 69.. then they will always add to a vertical vector with no r component. but then the wavelength would have been 2L instead of 2L13. (440 Hr)(148 cm) Student: It's the length of the string. The strings vibrate at a frequency f . Any two waves in the same medium have the same speed.69. You could change the length. If the start both vertical. . Is that one wavelength? Student: No. have certain allowed wavelengths. Guitar strings are of different thicknesses so that they can have the same length and tension but play different notes. and we get an antinode. The fundamental (pardon the pun) equation for all waves is O: f \ Here's how to keep straight which of the three variables is determined. or 148 cm. Student: Is that why grand pianos are curved. What is the wavelength of the fundamental before? T\rtor: Think about what the waveform looks like.) The high notes are short strings and they get longer for lower notes. and we get a node displacement ever. If (+"). (You tune a guitar or piano by changing the tension.9 cm The guitar player has to hold the string down 69. and we can't really put more tension in the strings. The two vectors now rotate in opposite directions. Eventually the strings would become too long.9 cm from one end. and strike the air molecules. as he probably thinks about it. o Standing waves.I cm from the other end. it's only half a wavelength. then you would have gotten a wavelength of about 140 cffi. right horizontal they start both to the then they will add to a vector that varies from *2 to 2.
changing by a small amount of maybe #dd of atmospheric pressure. room temperature) the speed of sound is 343 m/s. but the two ends of a closed pipe have to be different. you wouldn't hear the explosion at all. Liquids and solids.2L/4 = I/2 n=5 L 136 . Confusing? Remember that the two ends of an open pipe have to be the same. Air contains about 101e molecules per cubic meter. But for a closed pipe (closed at one end. Instead the pressure of the air oscillates. Having described string instruments in the last chapter. in and out of the pipe) antinode.f./2= I n=  n= 3 L= 4L )n3 n= 4 h  21. so the pressure there remains atmospheric pressure. so that it changes with temperaturc.Chapter fT Waves II Air may seem empty.f./3 )v . But the open end is literally out in the open. the molecules in air move around. the air can't move very far. but that is merely relative. we examine wind instruments here. Because of the lower density. for example.. It can be helpful to think of sound as the molecules in the air vibrating. the air molecules are free to move. and so on.4r/5 L. f. while the pressure in the closed end can change. because it would leave a vacuuln in the end. but this is not strictly true. The speed of sound depends on the molecules in the air and the conditions. f. At the open end. Really. contain about 102e molecules per cubic meter.4I/ 3 . travelling a short distance (centimeterlike) before colliding with another air molecule. This is much slower than light. Imagine a pipe with one open end and one closed end. nothing would happen if both ends were closed) the length must be . so that when a spaceship in a science fiction movie blows up. and this region of slightly higher pressure is the wave that moves. A closed end is a displacement node but a pressure antinode. because there are so few molecules in outer space. So the allowed wavelengths of an open pipe (open at both ends) are sirnilar to those of a string. for comparison. n=2 LzI. you would see the explosion before hearing it like lightning on Earth. So an open end is a pressure node but a displacement (of the air molecules. At standard conditions (atmospheric pressure.f. At the closed end.
For the third harmonic Tutor: Student: L9. How much longer must the open pipe be so that the two frequencies match? This looks complex! Where can I start? Can you find the frequency of the closed pipe? Student: Which.1 . and subtract. Student: I was hoping for an easier way. T\rtor: You have the right idea. Student: So what's the second harmonic? Ttrtor: There is no second harmonic for a closed pipe.?) T\rtor: Student: ln?=T/' 0."'.g fewer equations and putting them together is easier than having an equation for every need. w€ need to make the open pipe longer.21 71 cm .1 43r+ ^!^r*ft.+ 2 k . one is a node and the other is an antinode.f. but we could determine the length. nodes and antinodes are a quarter of a wavelength apart. but incorrect terminology.l. You do have the important thing. Student: So the frequency of the open pipe must be 790 Hz.\ and the third is when it is i. You can't tell from the beat frequency which of the two is the higher frequency. because the frequency is five times the fundamental frequency. L1.I. Does it matter which is which? T\rtor: Usually not. then / gets smaller. T\rtor: Or 790 Hz. the wavelength is + what it was.r 2h . Does the frequency increase or decrease as the pipe gets longer? Student: If the pipe gets longer. because it's open at one end and closed at the other. The length of the open pipe is half the fundamental wavelength. But when L . so we call it the third harmonic. The second harmonic is when the length is fi.l. the length of the pipe is a quarter wavelength (L : ifl.!11? t1') . we're going to make f smaller. The first overtone is indeed when the length is i. When the two pipes are played at the same time. When an open pipe is played at the same time. You mean a single step? Yes.436 m 43. Do we have an equation for the change in frequency? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: No.2(790 Hr) . Student: So if L . It would depend on whether you're looking at air pressure or at air molecule displacement. only odd ones. Student: Well.:f\ L_ !: 2f 3L. and the frequency is three times higher. Student: In a standing wave. Student: Ok y. So the frequency from the open pipe is 784 Hz.6cm  T8T Hz Okay. So for the fundamental. which is that they are opposites. we hear a beat frequency of 3 Hz. and then the needed length. but let's start with the fundamental. Student: Okay.\ and the second overtone is when it is i. Student: Havi. If gets bigger. Of course we'll need the third harmonic eventually. the beat note between the fundamental of the open pipe and the third harmonic of the closed pipe is 3 Hz. T\rtor: Student: Very good. Student: So I'm stuck? The open pipe frequency is 784 or 790 Hz and I can't tell which? Tutor: The problem does say that to make the two pipes match.137 EXAMPLE A closed pipe in standard conditions has a length of 32.f. A medium with a node and an antinode at the two ends doesn't have even harmonics.7cm) f . We'd have nearly infinite equations. ^ T\rtor: So to rnake them match. the fundamental or the third harmonic? Tutor: Either.l it's the fifth harmonic? T\rtor: Yes. then the wavelength gets longer too.7 cm.
Usually the two sources are coherent.79 cm . If a peak from one wave arrives at the same time as a dip (marimum negative displacement) from the other. . What is A^L? Student: The difference between the two distances. Because a wave travels one wavelength in one period. then a peak from that wave arrives just as the next peak from the closer source arrives. l3m T\rtor: Student: I want destructive interference.(m + *lf . then we have constructive interference where the waves meet. L2 is 3 meters. T\rtor: Student: That's not very much.2(787 21. There are many examples of interference. We now consider adding two waves coming from arbitrary directions.138 CHAPTER 17. Find the three lowest frequencies at which destructive interference occurs. . Therefore. It doesntt matter that the waves came from different directions.7I clr  0.08 cm. but with the same frequency. or "inphase. when two or more waves add we call it interference. you take two of the pieces and pull them just a little apart. In general. two and a half.Lr  2I. If the wave from one has to travel for an extra period. WAVES r. J such as standing waves when you add two waves traveling in opposite directions.8 mm To tune a wind instrument. The same is true if the further wave travels for an extra two. threer or any integer number of periods. like a clarinet. If the wave from one has to travel for an extra half period.2I.. or is that LJ I\rtor: It doesn't matter. and we don't care whether the difference is positive or negative. then a peak from that wave arrives just as the next dip from the closer sources arrives. then we get destructive interference. so I need Good.e '' .7e cm !1*?I1') ." meaning that they produce peaks at the same time. or any halfinteger (integer plus a half) number of periods. Hr) 0. If peaks arrive at the same time. Pulling them 1 mm apart can change the frequency by a couple of hertz.II Lz :. constructive interference occurs when one source is an integer number of wavelengths further away than the other.2f. destructive interference occurs when one source is a halfinteger number of wavelengths further away than the other. A^L:lLzLtl * lf constructive interference destructive interference EXAMPTE A person stands near two inphase speakers as shown. The same is true if the further wave travels for an extra one and a half. AL .
T\rtor: Student: Student: Fair enough. Is this something that we'll need many times? Student: It seems like it could come up more than once. because then A. But the frequency hasn't shown up in any of the Ttrtor: You can still use u the wavelength.. AL is half a wavelength. We often describe not the intensity of sound waves in W/m2 but the sound level in decibels B  (10 dB) r. This is true for any type of wave emanating from a point source.  0. then I can find Student: Ah yes. The intensity is the power divided by the area of a sphere over I .nl. If an equation is used over and over. The brightness or intensity of any wave is proportional to the amplitude squared. is difficult to do mathematically. I put in 1. point source that radiates uniformly in all directions.L is X. and so on. If I can find ^. In many cases we use a are many sources that come close to which the power is spread. I Waves carry energy. as the light spreads out over a larger area. Student: And m car' be any integer.!J)AL (^ ! j)' . T\rtor: But experience teaching this topic has taught me that it is prone to misuse.000 Hz. it wasn't. Light from the Sun brings or brought us most of the energy we use (brought for fossil fuels). then it makes sense.(* ++)r". as before. and not prone to misuse. Student: Then the difference is 3.. the lower the intensity. . Student: Couldn't we just combine what we've done and get a formula for the destructive frequencies? Thtor: We could do that for any problem. This was true for elastic collisions. where we had two equations and one of them had u2 in it.00 : 0. one and a half wavelengths. T\rtor: It could..(m + i)672 Hr) so + ilr .3. The question is whether we should.L. The flashlight bulb emits a certain amount of power in the form of light.60 .60m? T\rtor: Yes.6o m Tutor: T\rtor: Very good. The further away from the flashlight. or (m f . We describe this energy by its power and intensity.o. The power is the energ. Is it hard to do the math? Student: No. The lowest frequency occurs when m Student: Oh yes. Imagine turning on a flashlight. but the human ear doesn't hear well above about 20.60 m. As the light leaves the flashlight it spreads out. The math is easier.s * .L .. The intensity is the power per area. . and there this. Student:SoIcanjustSaythatonedistanceis3mandtheotheri"'ffi3. 2. but the power is the same.y per time. Two out of three says to stick to two simple equations and not try to memorize something else.139 equations. m0 + f (r)(bz2Hz)286H2 mr > f (BXsz2Hz)8b8Hz m2 + f (t)(b72Hz)r43oHz How far can we go? You could keep going.  f the frequency.
then . so 23 dB is two times greater than 20 dB. so I7 dB is down a factor of 50. then down another factor of ten (10 dB). No. and the change is 6 dB. then double r and find the new intensity. What is the same between the two? Student: Well. . and 20 dB is 10 times greater than 10 dB. You could also say that 4 is two factors of two. n before is the same as 7r afterward T\rtor: Tbue but not enough. use decibels because the ear is logarithmic. but the radius has changed. You need to remember that you add dB to multiply the intensity. because dB is "factors of ten. Normal conversation l^'is approximately the threshold of human hearing. I write the equation before and after. Student: Ok y. if he moves 20 times further away? If we moves twice as far away. you're at 17 dB. WAVES . rPb"for"r. rather p Student: Now rafter :2rb"forer so vv {orl"' /b"fo.II so where Io :1012 W 10 dB is 10 times greater than 0 dB (0 dB is not zero sound).(3) + (3) + (3) dB is three factors of 2 or 8 times less." 3 dB is approximately a factor of 2. Student: And if he stands three times further a\May. (W. The ear perceives a factor of 10 in intensity to be "one notch" in sound." is about 60 dB. Student: Ah. the problem didn't ask for the relative sound level. T\rtor: 10 dB is 10 timbs less." 4' than compared to /s. or 23 dB (200 times ^[s.6 . or 200 times greater than 0 dB.02 dB T\rtor: True. Tutor: It isn't. It's 95 . Tutor: Good. it asked for the sound level. Think of 20 dB as "2 factors of ten above 0 dB. . it doesn't say how far away from the jackhammer he starts. the power is the same before and after.89 dB. Student: We're using dB in a relative sense. so it's between 9 and 10 dB.140 CHAPTER 17. Decibels can be used in a relative or absolute sense.  (10 dB) roe *q /b. or threshold). and 9 . you add dB. so 3 dB for the first factor of two. then up a factor of 2 (+3 dB).for. then 3 dB more for the second factor of two. or about a million times more intense than the threshold of hearing (six factors of ten). the intensity is 9 times less. . Student: And you don't multiply? T\rtor: You never multiply dB." Student: Can you always do this tricky stuff? What's I7 dB? T\rtor: If you go down a factor of ten (10 dB). what will the sound Student: So I have to use the decibel equation to find the power of the jackhammer. How can I find the power? Tutor: You can't. lbefore: lafter: ano W W T\rtor: Yes.16 dB.) EXAMPLE A man hears level be? What a jackhammer at a sound level of g5 dB.  (10 dB) 1". or 100 times greater than 0 dB. By the w&y. so one signal can be +23 dB relative to another (200 times as large). Decibels are "factors of ten. so the result is 95/6 .P"rt". \ I 6. wait a minute. But see where it says "twice as far away" ? Student: It's a scaling problem. he starts at 95 dB. so he hasn't really reduced the sound much. What if he stands 20 times further away? Tutor: Student: Seems simple. That doesn't seem like much of a change.
?)d. then one period later. 69E} is three factors of 2 or 8 times louder than normal conversation. what frequency do they hear for the return wave? The speed of sound in water is 1500 m/s. sending out a sound wave and detecting the reflected sound. use the top sign for motion toward the other and the bottom sign for motion away from the other. where EXAMPTE A ship is chasing a submarine. then it takes less time than a period (* mea^sured by the source) for the next peak to get to us. The source moves toward the detector. then use the * sign in the numerator. use the bottom sign or * sign in the denominator. the ship uses sonar. The ship is both source and detector. If we move. The ship is the source Student: . so we receive the peaks at intervals of a period. 400 is 10x 10 x2x2. and because it's away we use the bottom sign or . 26 dB below 95 dB is 69 dB. spots of slightly higher air pressure. or the source of the sound moves. and use the sign to produce the desired result. We perceive a shorter period than the source does. If the source moves away from the detector. so there's no change. Written the way I have it here. If the source moves toward us. and u" are the velocities of the detector and source. and because it's toward we use the top Tutor: It's not quite that simple. frequency of the sound changes. so (10)+(10)+(3)+(3) dB. Student: The detector moves away from the source at 8 m/s. Student: Even though he's moved 20 times further away?! I\rtor: That's why you should wear ear protection when operating a jackhammer. and u is the speed of sound. If the detector moves toward the source. the previous one is not a full wavelength away it is a wavelength minus the distance the source moved in a period. ff we move toward the source of the sound. Our last sound phenomenon is the Doppler effect. Waves travel one wavelength in one period. and it's hard to have a Student: conversation near one.T4T Then the intensity is 202 400 times lower. 26 Tntor: Excellent.  The frequency that a "detector" hears is st r . are a wavelength apart as they move toward us. and a higher frequency. and the sub is the detector. If the ship sends out a 700 Hz sound wave.r r (u*ua\ \'+'") / is the frequency of the source . To detect the submarine.in the numerator. The submarine is moving at 8 m/s and the ship chases it at 20 rnf s. respectively. Which of * and do you use? One way is to remember that motion of the source or detector toward the other increases the frequency. as it emits the next peak. then the Peaks of the sound. The sub hears a different frequency than the ship sends.
.r". Tutor: The ship is moving toward the sub faster than the sub is moving away from it. Most of the sound reflects off of the air inside the submarine. And the equation would say that the received frequency was infinite. But we have the frequency that the submarine ship hears. reflecting that all of the peaks would arrive at the same time.II sign or in the denominator. Is that because the steel of the submarine is a different medium than the water? T\rtor: Very good. Here. Student: But the ship would be moving faster than sound. some of the wave is reflected. Shouldn't they hear a lower frequency? Student: Ok y. then each peak is on top of the previous one. and that reflected wave starts with a frequency of 705 . so the submarine isn't visible. We want the frequency that the T[ue. Student: That's how you get a sonic boom. . WAVES . The waves reflect off of the submarine. Student: Can't they just look? T\rtor: Light does not travel far through seawater.) (ffi) zobTHz and the ship moving 12 mls? Ttrtor: We can't because the sound travels through the water. Whenever a wave encounters a change in medium. If the source moves at the speed of soutrd. Student: So the ship is the detector and hears T\rtor: Student: (1500 m/s) 1500 /s) + + (8 /s) T\rtor: and the Yes. Can that happen? Tutor: It is possible to move faster than sound. If the sub moves at the speed of sound.u r(H)(7oo H. They mea"sure the time that it takes for the reflected wave to arrive to determine how far away the sub is.) ( (1500 */s)  (1500 m/s) (s m/s) (20 */s) )(7ooH. Student: Okay. sign in the denominator because the sub was moving away from the detector. we would get a very small error in our answer.L42 CHAPTER 17.. Tutor: More or less. because the source is at the same place as the previous peak as it releases the next one. Sound travels quite well ffi) (TobTHz) (ffiH) :TtrsHz * through seawater. then the peaks never reach the sub. Couldn't we have used the relative velocity. The error is small because the speeds of the vessels are so much slower than the speed of sound. Student: And the ship can use this to determine where the sub is? T\rtor: They can use the shift in frequency to determine the speed of the sub. Now the submarine is the source of the reflected wave. hears. Supersonic airplanes are ones that move faster than sound in air. saying that the sub was stationary Student: The sub is movit g away from the ship. if we used relative velocity as you suggest. even though the ship is moving faster than the sub. and you used the + sign in the numerator because the ship wa^s moving toward the source.7 Hz. rather than the steel of the submarine.
Two objects at the same temperature do not necessarily have the same amount of internal energy. Throughout these chapters. Celsius and kelvin are the t43 ." The small bucket could have the same internal energy as the large one. We can increase the internal energy by transferring heat into or by doing work on the object. when using a temperature difference. other than by doing work on it. and where does the energy go? There is a second way to move energy into an object." not "373 degrees kelvin. heat would flow from the hotter.. the Celsius scale is often used. When placed in contact.Chapter 18 Temperatur€r Fleat) and the First Law of Thermodynamics What happens when we cook food? If there is no force exerted over a distance. so a positive LW decreases the internal energy." Because the difference between Celsius and kelvin is only adding 273. Ti Kelvin.LQ + Lwdone on . the most familiar is Fahrenheit (65"F is a pleasant spring day). because heat is the transfer of energy. We say "100 degrees Celsius" but "373 kelvin.LQ  LWaone by where LQ is the heat transferred into the object.Eir. no heat flows between the two because they have the same "energy density. Heat is the energy we move into an object other thar by work. we often use K oC + So the boiling point of water is 373 273. In chemistry. No object has heat. The first law of thermodynamics is conservation of energy. There are many scales for measuring temperature. A. in energy per atom rather than per volume. &r increase of one degree Celsius is the same as an increase of one kelvin. then how can we move energy into the food. so . Then when placed in contact. Every object has internal energy Eint Temperature is a measure of the density of the internal energy. lower temperature bucket.15o K. higher temperature bucket of water to the colder. but would need to have a higher energy density or temperature. In physics. Therefore. LW is the work done by the object. A large bucket of water has more internal energy than a small bucket of water even though they have the same temperature. In the United States. o 5 ('C) + gz' where 100'C is the boiling point of water and OoC is the freezing point of water.
Student: It's a constant. Tutor: Very good. Student: I'm all for that. When the volume decreases. as most changes in this chapter do. What about from C to A? Student: There is no change in the volume. T\rtor: Look at the path from B to C and tell me about the pressure. so shouldn't we use our pressure? Thtor: If the change happens slowly.pAV. T\rtor: But the change in volume from B to C is negative. then the motion is in the opposite direction as the force and the work done by the object is negative. HEAT. Just like work. or pressure times area. but with the same pressure during the compression. A]VD THE FIRST LAIA OF THERMODYNAMICS same. Student: So the work is negative? Tutor: Yes. then our pressure is the same a^s the gas's. That means that the integralw . . E t6  o 5 U' o l o) L 0 Volume (mg) T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: So Don't you like doing integrals? NO! I have to do an integral W . TEMPERATT]RE. Student: If we're looking for the work. But zero kelvin corresponds to zero internal energy.J[pav where p is the pressure the object (often a fluid) exerts. I get it.r44 CHAPTER 18. T\rtor: Correct. EXAMPLE Find the work done by the gas undergoing the process shown. times dfr? T\rtor: But dr times the area is the change in volume. Student: The pressure times the change in volume. We're pushing in on the gas harder than it pushes out.I pdv. and there is no area under the curve. so no work. . The work that the gas does is the pressure it exerts times the change in volume. Therefore use Celsius only when finding a temperature difference. Student: Shouldn't that be the force. all temperatures must be in kelvin. don't we push harder on the B&s. The curve AB is pV . of course. which is an important point in thermodynamics. Now we need to determine how to find the heat and the work and what they object is do.corrstant. The work is the area under the curve. We push a little harder to get it compressing. Student: . so it is compressed.I pdv . and then a little less hard at the end. . T\rtor: It is the same as work. an increase in volume means that the motion was in the same direction as the force and the work done is positive. Because the pressure of a gas or liquid is exerted outward. The work done by an w. Temperature differences can also be in kelvin. . . Then we should look for ways to avoid doing any more than we have to.
m  1 .33. Any one of them should convert to any other of them. The work from B to C is 2 atm.t d. Student: But from A to B we have to do an integral.30 ffif*3) x (1'0rt.013 So x 105 N/'. then we did something wrong.\rTutor: steps. and a material has speciftc heat.3)[tn1s. let's finish the problem in the units we have. I can convert. (1.36 W.m3. An object has a heat capacity. really). An example of this is ice turning into water.)l. .ber a complete cycle. Student: Ok^y. Now I can see whether the work is really joules. Student: Then we can set up the integral.1< 105 N/*'.32x105 N. so the temperature increases. there must have been heat AQ into the gas somewhere during the process. or 4180 J/kg. so we can write pV : wrs: I pd.m3.) (l^"ffi)  1 . or water turning into steam. it increases the internal energy. . The heat needed to transform an object is QLm where ^L is the heat of transformation.v: 3 ut"''*t /. the greater the heat capacity.m3 . Student: Student: Shouldn't the answer be in joules? 1 atmosphere (atm) of pressure is 1. We use temperature to measure this internal energy (energy density.3 atm. The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature is QCATcmLT where C is the heat capacity and c is the specific heat. The more of the material.. T\rtor: Before you do that.3)_h(1')](3atm. (3 atm)(1 rn3) . The specific heat of water is 1. and the heat of vaporization of water is 2256 kJ/kg. to another state of matter.)l.00 callgK.v :(3 atm.K. Student: So the internal energy of the gas decreases by that amount? No. When heat or work is added to an object. and from C to A is zero) so the total work done is Tutor: T\rtor: Yes...m3. T\rtor: There are many units we could use for work or energy. so I.r45 Tntor: Yes. and the heat of vaporization is the heat needed to go from a liquid to a solid. Student: How did you come up with that? Tlrtor: The power is the energy over the time.30 atm.ffi(3atm. Student: All of the energy and work and power stuff still applies? T\rtor: Would you rather you had to learn new energy and work and power stuff? T\rtor: Student: Student: No. The heat of fusion of water is 333 kJ/kg. If we can't turn atm m3 into joules. Along the curve the pressure times the volume is a constant. It is also possible for the fluid to change form. Add the work from the three Student: 1. the internal energy is determined by p and V. . Because the internal energy is the same af.30atm.m3) [hyrl il: (3atm.32 x 105 J/3600 s .m.m.32x105 J Is that a lot? About enough to run an LCD computer monitor for an hour. The heat of fusion is the heat needed to go from a solid to a liquid..
solid hydrogen. Student: Or turn 15 kg of ice into steam. then it takes 10 times the energy to vaporize the water as it does to heat it. Student: Does the heat of fusion work the same each way? Tutor: Yes. T\rtor: Yes. right? Trtor: Yes.146 CHAPTER 18.84 MJ Student: The total heat (0. That makes using ice in a cooler effective.K)(15ks)(100"C .77 MJ Tntor: That's about 13 kilowatthours (kwh). The heat you need to remove from a banana to freeze it is sufficient to boil only a small amount of liquid nitrogen. turning the hot water into steam.30 + 33. Then you cool the liquid down to the melting point and remove the heat of fusion and. There are three ways to transfer heat. T\rtor: It requires appropriate equipment. so that would power a house for 68 hours. The energy to melt ice is the same to cool ten times more water by 8"C. It takes 0. to freeze something you remove the same amount of heat that you added to melt it. and using the temperature difference is good.Lm  (333 kJlkg)(l5 kg) :5000 kJ :5.00 + 6. You can have frozen hydrogen? Yes. presto.90MJ ? Partly correct. convection.63 MJ to heat the ice up to 0oC. AAID THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS EXAMPLE How much energy does it take to turn 15 kg of ice at 10"C into steam? T\rtor: Student: Student: What's the temperature of steam? Water has to be at least 100oC to become steam. The energy needed to melt the ice is Tutor: it's true that Q . Then we need to melt it into water. Then we add 6. So Q cmLT  (41s0 Jlkg.84)  45. so with more liquid nitrogen than that. But you've forgotten the heat of transformation.fference that we need. or 13 kilowatts for an hour. you can freeze a banana. but it's not difficult. Steam can get hotter than that. It takes a lot of energy. Student: Ok y. Heat transfers by conduction. Student: Ok y. You cool hydrogen down to 20 K.63 + 5. TEMPERATIJRE. then remove the heat of vaporization to turn it into liquid hydrogen.(10'C)) 6. That's why it takes only a few minutes to boil water on a stove.840 kJ:33. Student: And the large heat of fusion is why coolers work.Lm part? Tutor: Yes. Student: The Q . s&y from the hotwater tap. Student: You make it sound easy.30 MJ of energy to raise the temperature to 100oC. of course. If you start with hot water. . HEAT. but a long time to boil it all away. and radiation. T\rtor: Where did most of it go? Student: Into the last step. A typical house uses L2 kilowatts.e0x 106 J6.Lm is (2256 kJ/ks)(lr kg) :33. Student: Like the one where they freeze a banana and use it as a hammer? T\rtor: Yes. Your use of specific heat is good.00 MJ The table in the book has a heat of fusion of hydrogen. and degrees Celsius and kelvin are the same because it's a temperature di. and add the heat of Ttrtor: Student: vaporization. Liquid nitrogen sells for a couple dollars per liter and is commonly used in physics experiments and demonstrations. Q .
The area of the Earth is 4nR2.K. They go only a short distance before colliding with another molecule and bouncing off in a random direction. with the same internal energy. All objects give off thermal radiation. As a fire in a fireplace warms the air. A layer of air can be used to insulate an object. The air resistance was expected to heat the plane considerably. or energy per time. for example. rather than moving randomly either into the room or the chimney. If you stand back from a globe and look at it.026 W/m. This nonrandom motion is called convection. Radiation is heat transferred by electromagnetic waves. . What must the emissivity of the Earth be? of the Sun? That would help us find the energythat the Sun gives to the Earth. If the Earth is to stay at the same temperature. such as light or infrared radiation. Convection is the nonrandom motion of molecules in a gas or liquid. that are in contact. and the designers painted it black so that it would radiate heat more quickly. but not what I had in mind. so it's P . and as the density decreases they tend to rise. Now what's the power out from the Earth? Student: That's radiation.r47 Conduction is when heat moves between two objects measured by the power. L is the length or thickness through which it transfers. This is why thicker insulation keeps houses warmer. . the oxygen and nitrogen molecules race around at speeds close to the speed of sound. The speed of the heat transfer is P9:kAY tL where k depends on the material through which the heat transfers.Ka).6704 x 108 W/m2. but we already have that. T\rtor: Except that the Sun is not above every spot on the Earth. In air. A is the area of the object. and 7 is the temperature. Student: . T\rtor: Yes. EXAMPLE The intensity of sunlight at the Earth's surface is about 1000 W l^'. A is the crosssectional area through which it transfers. less than fiberglass insulation. and is one for a completely black object and zero for a perfectly reflective object (neither of which can actually be made). The average temperature of the Earth is about 58"F. because the thermal conductivity k of air is small at 0. Emissivity is a measure of how much radiation an object both absorbs and emits (same number for both). times the intensity is the power into the Earth. The SR71 "blackbird" airplane was designed to fly 3 times the speed of sound. Tutor: But even that half you don't all see at normal incidence.oe AT4. the power out has to equal the power in. is the emissivity of the material. Calculating the heat transfer from convection is very difficult. . then. What is the area you perceive? Student: Ah. It looks like a circle of area rR2. this warm air moves up the smokestack because of its lower density." Tutor: Student: Don't we need to know the temperature . Student: Okry. how much of the Earth do you see? Student: Half of it. what we call "steadystate. right? Tutor: Yes. because I is larger so the heat transfer is slower. (nR')I : oe(4nB')Tn . But when air gases get warm they expand. and we will not try it here. . T\rtor: True. and LT is the temperature difference. The power or heat transfer rate from radiation is P  oeATa where o is the StefanBoltzmann constant (o 5.
Because 2D objects expand objects in three. That's one of the things that makes climate modelling difficult.m: 4(. TEMPERATURE. w€ need to calculate the power emitted from each area and average the powers. rather than averaging the emissivity.Laar or AJ L  . the object expands. land.fference? No.6T04x Tutor: Tutor: even clouds. 58oF:3("c) K +32o + 273. So it's an absolute temperature. Clouds change the emissivity? So the emissivity of the Earth isn't constant.64 = The emissivity of the Earth varies with the surface. LA: A(2o)LT AV  V(3") AT .6 K (1ooowl::].LT in two dimensions and 3D where a is the coefficient of thermal expansion.4oc I 7:e. Student: When the temperature of a solid or liquid increa. AND THE FIRS" LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Do Student: Is I need to use kelvin here? it Student: a temperature di.ses.K4)(2876Ion :0.  L4.. Student: Can't we take an average value? Tutor: Because the temperature goes to the fourth power.297.150 r4. and I need to use kelvin. pavement.148 T\rtor: CHAPTER 78.4"C . with different values for water. HEAT. 108 Wl^r. The expansion is AL .
ry+ Volume adiabatic isothermal isobaric isochoric isolated constant T constant p constant V Q .W .QnCrLT W . L.: 6 o cl J o ing AW T (! =. PV'Y .0.W. Q: AEi't : nCvAT 0 so AEi"t AS AS  0 Qlf r49 .t .nRT ln(V1 lU) WpLV..0 so Q .0 o L n cn o L q J lsobaric Work done in one cycle lsothermal l.const AEi.
Finding the work requires an integral. Conservation of energy still holds. it typically travels only a short distance (micrometers at 25"C and 1 atm) before colliding with another molecule. 2 Ein n (i*) n(. neither does the internal energy. k .022 x 1023 atoms.Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases Gases consist of many molecules.nCpLT. so nNlNe. The average kinetic energy of an atom or molecule in a gas is: E^u" The total energy of a large number of atoms is: 2r. or even at the same speed. There are many specific processes that appear often. Because the temperature doesn't change. K is the gas constant. so the heat i. and that can aid us in our calculations. one for atoms (or molecules) and one for moles of atoms. The chart on page I49 shows these important processes. Our goal is to calculate the change in energy AE.1. is the molar specific heat at constant pressure.8. with mass number L4. has a mass of 14 grams. and the work done I4l."') The difference between the two forms is that the first form uses the number of atoms (N) and the second uses the number of moles of atoms n. The work I pdV : pAV is easy to calculate. An isobaric process is one that occurs at a constant pressure. pV nRT:NkT Again it comes in two forms. Because T is a temperature and not a temperature difference. and RNok A mole is significant because one mole of atoms has a mass so one mole of nitrogen. Whatever a single molecule does. the heat flow Q. The heat in Q . Na : 6. We can evaluate the sum of all atoms or molecules in a gas using the ideal gas law.3807x 102t JIK is the Boltzmann constant. very well. and R . A mole is Avogadro's number. it must be in kelvin.nRT In(Vy lW.3145 J/mol . An isothermal process is one that occurs at a constant temperature. where C. and the result is W . statistics works very.r Q must equal the work done by the gas W . often 1020 or more. after which it has a new velocity. How can we deal with so many objects? When the numbers are that large. 150 . Not all of these are travelling in the same direction. in grams equal to the ma"ss number of the atom.
Student: This looks complicated. Better yet. Monotomic atom I Diatomic molecule EXAMPTE Find the heat Q.nCv LT. \  q) rL 1 Volume (me) 2 Tutor: Well. What's the pressure at C? T\rtor: Yep. the quantity pV1 is a constant. the change in internal energy is the opposite of the work done by AEi"t . the number of moles n doesn't chatrg€. has two additional degrees of freedom: spinning around each of the two axes perpendicular to the line joining the atoms. Because Q . The process goes clockwise around the enclosed area. A diatomic molecule. but the volume has increased to 2 m3 and we don't know the temperature.151 An isochoric process is one that occurs at a constant volume. and the temperature is 300 K.! v E rabat c o L Q U. E^ue : nf and Cv : Orn. An adiabatic process is one that occurs with no heat transfer Q. where Cv is the molar specific heat at constant volume. ea. so pV lT is constant anywhere on the graph. and the change in energy AE for each step of the process of the diatomic gas.CrlCv. In an adiabatic process. Does that apply both at A and at B? Tntor: Yes. the work W . An atom has three: updown. L. What about B? Student: The pressure is still 2 atm. right? The volume is 1 ffi3. two atoms together like Oz.sy to calculate. Cv. T\rtor: Student: . the pressure is 2 atm. 2 A F . it applies anywhere on the graph. We don't even have all of the data. or temperature at A? Student: We know all three. Do you know the volume. So for an atom.tnf and Cv .W. leftright. So for a diatomic molecule. and 7? It depends on the number of "degrees of freedom" of the atoms or molecules.0.7 is the ratio "y . which is 5/3 for an atom and 7 15 for a diatomic molecule. What are Cr. room temperature but twice the pressure. pressure. start with what you do know. But we might be able to calculate the temperature using the ideal gas law. E^u" .n. The work I pdV :0 is again The heat in Q . inout.
so these will work fine. T\rtor: Student: pp(3 ttt3) 190 K : nR: 1 atm mB lK 150 :0. but they're not the same. T.8 m3 Po .) (t.i: I. Student: So we don't know the temperature at B or C.pcvA4 + pc: pB (7. I know p. At C we know that the volume is 3 m3. Tntor: We don't really need to know n.4.r" PrVt^ (2 atry)(2 m3) Te : nR _ (2 atm](=l_m3) (300 K) ('!rrrrr atm rl lK .0. We know the volume at D and the pressure at E.4 atm and Vs. Back to the ideal gas law. T\rtor: Yes. Student: Ts : nR: + 150 atm ^. but not the other way around. Student: The path from D to E is an isothermal. our volumes in ffi3. THB KIATETIC THEORY OF GASES Okay. . The temperature isn't the sarne as either B or D.m3 ? ? ? ? ? 2 3 3 ? 1 ? ? ? ? D E ? C'D 180 180 D+E 1.5 2 A 300 EA loopl _? E?  E:? ?  E:? ? so Student: Now I can use the ideal gas law to find the temperature at B. Tntor: True. because they are always pV together. so the temperature is also 180 K at E.1s atm T\rtor: Very good. We can convert the energies to joules at the end. Is the temperature at C the same as the temperature at B? Student: They don't have to be. I can find po and I/B the same way. and any adiabatic change will change the temperature. (1. Student: Like we did in the last chapter. and of course R. do they? T\rtor: No. and our temperatures in K. What we need is the combination frR. Below 100"F. At D the temperature is 180 K. From B to C is an adiabatic path.r52 CHAPTER 19.13 at:r)(3 m3) (2atm) e4)'n ' \3 m') _> : 1. lK Tc :b10 K . ^l . V . and I don't think I can read the pressure off of the graph. Student: This is where it matters that our gas is diatomic. I can find the number of moles n.* 150 ^s Ts :600 K Can we keep using units of atm m3 lKt Shouldn't we convert to something? Our pressures are all in atm. But BC is an adiabatic. Tutor: Student: p (atm) A B C 2 2 ? v (t) 1 T (K) 300 ? ? a I n lot A+B BC ? ? ? ? ? ? all in atm. so pV1 is a constant along the curve.nRT > nP  PnVn r" . p"vA4 " . very cold.5 atm)VB 180 K t Student: But I can't do point C that way.
Now we can start on the right side of the chart.m3 ? ? 2 3 3 B*C C'D D+E E+A 1. t_t R^It _ lnRrt :r(* 2.0. An isobaric process is one that travels along an isobar on the chart.m' W : pAV .5 2 ? ? ? D E 0.'0"(+) " d.13 0.Q .(800 K)) 2atm.10 atm. Cp : Cv I R.Ee .V atm .f.  0. e lrnuar Student: The work is easy. . Oh. Es Tutor: Tutor: Student: There's an easier way.lrd.. Tutor: Student: Tutor: Student: So an isothermal process is one that travels along an isotherm? Yes. right? Yes. Student: Stop being sarcastic.153 p (atm) A B C 2 2 v (t) 1 T (K) 300 600 510 180 180 al*lo" A+B ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? all in atm.Q .v:pvelt #) ff) "] .m3 T atm. 5 atm 'lt )(300 K) :5 atm'm3 integral. and the gas is diatomic Q An adiabat.8 1 A 300 loopr E? ?  _? E?  E? ? Well done.!r(* .m3 . conservation of energy. Student: The * is because it's diatomic.nilrz:Z(* AE . Isobaric is an adjective.Et.5 atm.nCpAT ..J[ rd.m3 : 5 atm.n (!rRf).4 1. Student: What's the difference between isobar and isobaric? Tutor: Isobar is a noun. so Cv .  nCpLT !r"nm ) ((600 K) Tlrtor: There's the combination nR again..LE. Let's do the integral first. Tutor: Student: What do you call the line for an adiabatic process? Student: Ok y. Q Yes. . and refers to the line on the chart. The energ"y is ^E . Cp : $n.E .m3 Student: That's the same as A.Wl Tutor: It's nice to know that energy is still being conserved.'/n . br! you can also calculate it directly.(2atm)(1 rn3)  Tntor: Tutor: Student: I can use AE .v: l.n. yes? Yes. so if I find A^E then W . so Q . and refers to the process. How do I find the heat transferred to the gas during A+B? T\rtor: The path from A+B is an isobar (constant pressure). atm *'/^) (600 K) : 10 atm'm3 .W to find the change in energy. so Q . Fhom BC is adiabatic. Finding the work is going to take an r. w.
nurs:Z(* _ atm *t/^) (180 K) :3 atm.constant is an isotherm. pV .Es:8.m3 rnnr:r(* atm *'/^) ((180 K) . the pressure decreased.Eo . AE . T\rtor: But you could find the work I.3 atm.sy way.m3.b atm.aE Student: Flom CD is an isochoric.m3 .b atm) + (z atm) ) (o. It looks like we need to do an integral to find the work. and there's no rea^son to do it every time. Student: Ok"y. and that's equal to the heat.(rr+ ra) Lv .s negative because we were going left on the graph. THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES :Wl t+)". so Last one.59atm. Student: From E+A is not any of our special curves. Each molecule had less energ"y.m3 : 2 atm.En .3b atm. Can you find the heat directly? Student: You mean using Q .t( rt.I54 CHAPTER 79. I is also 1. With the volume held constant.Ec .:+lboatmm' Student: Now I'll do it the ea.nRTln(VylU).m3 .(b10 K)) : b. T\rtor: We didn't call it that then because we didn't have the ideal gas law yet. so the energy doesn't change.z *') : 0.5 atm.m' AE . The temperature doesn't change. Student: Doing another integral? Tutor: It's the area under the curve.59 atm._tL) I can find the change in energy o 5 . we'll add all of the works.2.m3 + w .m3 Student: What does it mean that Q is negative? 8.(+) "] '. To find the total work done in a cycle.5 atm. so no work.Eg .3 atm. and the D+E work wa.m3 Es: Eo :3 atm'm3 Student: And we can find the energy like we did before. so less speed.m3 .. We did the integral in the last chapter.ncvLr AE . Student: That's right.m3 Tutor: Student: LE is zero. .5 atm'm3 AE /w atm'm3: 1.m3 +1.m' Tbtor: We lowered the temperature by removing heat from the system.b atm.7. it's just a trapezoid. T\rtor: It's not cheating.5 atm.5 atm. Student: Do you mean below the E+A line but above the D+E isothermal curve? T\rtor: The work from EA is the area under the EA line and above the ancis.b atm.nCv AT? e . with no volume change. Ec:lrnuTs 2r(* 0 atm *tl^) 10 (b10 K) :8. I'll cheat by using W . W_nRTIn(V7lu)(*atm*'/K)(180K)ln(#):1.m3 Student: Flom D+E is an isotherm.5.Et . and exerted less impulse on the walls as they bounced off. w .
Ah. It goes through an adiabatic process and then an isothermal process and finishes with a pressure of 1. What about the work. of. they add up to +2.155 p (atm) A B C 2 2 v ('''t) 1 T (K) 300 600 510 180 180 a I n lo" A*B B'C CD +7 0 all in atm. :2.4 1. Find the volume of the gas after the adiabatic process but before the isothermal process.f.35 300 Ioopl E? ?  E? ?  E:? ? Tntor: If we add all of the AE's.13 0. What is held constant during an isothermal process? Student: The temperature.5 0 +5 2 3 3 1.5 x 105 Pa and a volume of 3 m3.  .m3 aho.b 5.8 1  1.5 D E b.26 atm.5 0 2 D+E EA 0. ?r Tz: 390 K. or +229 kJ. and if we're back to the same temperature. Tutor: Student: +2. we get zero.5 x lob Pu)(6oo ^I 3'25 m3 T\rtor: Student: But I can't find Vr because I don't know the pressure or temperature. it's the same as the net amount of heat that we put in. Student: What is "net heat?" T\rtor: In some of the steps we put heat in.mr +2 +1. Net heat is the difference. th Vz pzTo (1. though? If we add all of the works. then it should be the same energy.5 2  1. Tutor: Student: That's a lot to keep track Make a table. and in some we got heat out. and this limits our efficiency.5 x 105 Pa and a temperature of 390 K. EXAMPLE An ideal monatomic gas at 600 K has a pressure of 2. Does that make sense? Student: The energy depends on the temperature.26 atm.m3. For a complete cycle We get work out. then we get Tutor: Tfy adding the Q's.5 x 105 Pa Pr ? p2 :1.59 A 2. How do we get work out if the energy is the same? Oh. we find that we don't recover the heat out.59  1. In the next chapter.5 x 105 Pa po :3 m3 Vr ? Vz 7 Vo :600 K Tt ? Tz :390 K To Student: I can use the ideal gas law to find V2: PoVo n PzVz : Tr'r1' . The second step is an isothermal process.35 0. and this has to be true.
The gas is monatomic. Student: Why would anyone if want to do such a thing? is easy to calculate for adiabatic and we can get from point A to point B using an adiabat and an isotherm. p4f Student: I know /3 : poVi/t and PtVt Tt : nR:'+ ?o and ?r. What has to be true along an adiabat? The pressure and volume have to match pvl  constant. and write down the ideal Student: Okay. but the temperature can be anything ga^s Good. law.513.5 x 105 Pa ? Ts .156 CHAPTER 19. w€ can o L I J m 0 o o L Volume . so ".1 . so calculate entropy.5 x 105 Pa ? p2 : Po Vo:3 m3 Vt Vz 1.25 m3 Tt: Tz :390 K 390 K Tutor: T\rtor: Student: it wants. so it's two equations and two unknowns. Now write that down.600 K :3. Pt:oifff #vl/':pili/' fr':'3: v:/' vt:(+)''' vo:(m)''' (B *') bzm3 T\rtor: In the next chapter we'll want to calculate entropy. THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Pt :2. Entropy isothermal processes.
in his book CommonSense Thermodynam'ics.nRmY V. A reversible process is one where the entropy change is zerol so that a positive entropy change means that the process can't be reversed. then any other way to calculate the entropy must give the same result. so AS . They are important because they are easy to calculate. LQ : 0. Unfortunately I don't have such an explanation.0. For an adiabatic process. it is possible to calculate the entropy. Reversible processes happen infinitely slowly (and are therefore no fun to watch). . For an isothermal process. Robert Jones. To decrease the entropy requires work or energy from outside the system.Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics I'd like to explain entropy in a clear. so we find a reversible path that goes from the starting configuration to the final one. intuitive manner. with no volume change ASsolidliquid : I# . And indeed Clausius [one of the pioneers of thermodynamics] himself took 15 years in developing a concept of entropy that satisfied his own doubts. that for any combination of We are typically interested only in changes in the entropy AS. Being a state function also means that if we can find even a single way to calculate the entropy. The change in entropy is As : ln'# nCy m* tt Two important special cases are adiabatic and isothermal processes. the entropy can never decrease. and T there is a welldefined value for the entropy .S.. is divided by the temperature. While usually the change is both easier to calculate and more meaningful. at least without some outside source of energy. which means of heat p. Lengthier calculations include an ideal gas ASia".I/. We don't have a good way to calculate AS for an irreversible process. . So what can we say about entropy? Entropy is a state function.LQ lT. and for a solid or liquid.r gas * . writes: No simple "intuitive reason" can be given to explain why a state functi. then we can calculate the change in entropy for the reversible process. ? is a constant so AS . For a closed syst€D.on results when a quantity .
158
Remember
CHAPTER
20. E I"ROPY AArD THE SECOI\rD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
that Cv is energy per kelvin per mole, and c is energy per kelvin per kg, so these two equations
are very similar.
EXAMPLE
A 30 g ice cube at 5"C is placed in 508 g of 23" C water. Find the change in entropy A,S of the water and ice as the ice melts and the system comes to equilibrium.
T\rtor:
cools,
Student: What's equilibrium?
After the ice has melted, it will be OoC. The melted ice will then warm as the cooled water further until they are all the sarne temperature. Student: What is that temperature? Tutor: We don't know. We have to figure it out. How much energy does it take to warm the ice?
Student:
The mass times the specific heat times the temperature change. Q
 mcLT 
(0.030 kg)(4180 JlkgK)(5
K)

627 J
Tutor:
Student:
Good. You saw that a change of 5"C is the same as 5 K. Yes. Now I need to find the energy to melt the ice. Q
 Lm 
(333 kJlkg)(0.030 ke)
 e.ee J
?
Tutor:
Uh, that's kilojoules.
Oops.
Student:
Q
 Lm 
(333 kJlkg)(0.030 kg)
 e.ee kJ :
eee0 J
Tutor:
Student: I was wondering
Q
why it took so little heat to melt the ice. It's good to see whether your answer makes sense. How much will the water cool while the ice melts?
 mcLT +
(627 + 9990) J
:
(0.508 ke)(4180
Jlke.K)AT > LT:
5K
The water is cooled to 18'C as the ice melts. Good. Now find the equilibrium temperature. The heat that the melted ice gains is equal to the heat that the cooled water loses, until the temperatures are equal. Student: But I don't know the temperature. Tutor: Then make up a variable.
Tutor:
Student:
 Ql  Qz: m2/LT2 (0.030 ks) g  0o) : (0.508 kg)(18'  r) (")(0.030 ks * 0.508 kg)  (0.508 kg)(18") (0.508 kg) (18')ff\\^ / (o.o3o kg * 0.508 kg)  r.o
m1/LT1
T\rtor:
Student: And we still haven't done the entropy. Student:
Now we can. What is the change in_entropy of the ice as Can we use ASrorid,tiquid  TTLCIn fi?
Yes.
it warms to 0"?
T\rtor:
o,"t:":K)
rn
rtrtor:
T\rtor:
How are you going
Student: I must have made a mistake,
."*T
+
?
"j[:ff:::
yes?
Yes. When you found the heat to warm or melt the ice,
it was a temperature
difference. . .
159
Student:
. . . so
I
could use Celsius, but when
I divide temperatures I
need to use kelvin.
AS

(0.030 ks)(4180 Jlkg.K)ln
, ry_5+t
2.32 JIK
T\rtor: I don't have a good explanation for that, just like I don't have a good one for entropy.
Student: Ok y. Then the ice melts,
and that happens at a constant temperature.
Student: What kind of unit
is a joule per kelvin?
AS: 9T
Student: And then the melted
S
ice warms. (0.030 kg)(4180
JIK ry:36.ss 273K
J lks.K), In

IUzs
o+2n 7.58J/K
T\rtor:
Student: And the water cools. Student:
Remember to include the cooling that happens as the ice melts. Oh y€s, the initial temperature of the water was 23".
As

(0.508 kg)(4180 Jlkg.K)
is:
' l' Y23+273
JIK):3.01 JIK
Student:
Then the total change in entropy
As

(2.32 JIK) + (36.5e JIK) + (7.58 JIK) + (43.48
Tutor:
Good.
T\rtor: Correct. Student: But I could put 30 g of the water in the freezer and turn it into ice again, and 23"C is room temperature, so if I leave it sitting out it will warm again. I'll be back where I started, so the entropy will
be the same as it was. That's what being a "state function" means, right? Tutor: AII true. The change in entropy of the water as you move it back to the initial conditions will be 3.01 J lK. But the freezer will use electrical energy, and the water will absorb energy from the room, and if we include that in our system the change in entropy will be positive. You can reduce the entropy only by bringing work or energy in from outside the system. Student: So if I take the water back to the initial conditions, the change in entropy of the freezer and the room must be positive and greater than 3.01 J lK.
Student:
The change in entropy is positive. That means that this process is irreversible.
Tutor:
Yes.
The effect of entropy is to limit the efficiency of thermodynamic processes. In the last chapter, we said that
we could not recover the heat
out. Now we tell why.
First we need to know about reservoirs. A reservoir is an external body at a particular temperature. The reservoir is large enough that we can add heat or take heat out and not change the temperature of the reservoir. Though not perfectly true, it works well for doing calculations. To make a heat engine an engine that turns heat into work requires two reservoirs. Find a liquid that boils at a temperature that is lower than the hotter of the two reservoirs. When the "working fluid" is in contact with the hotter or higher temperature reservoir, it boils into gas or steam. When the working fluid is in contact with the colder or lower temperature reservoir, it either condenses to liquid or is still ges, but lower temperature gas with a lower pressure. If we put a turbine or propeller or fan between the two reservoirs, the higher pressure from the hotter side will spin the turbine. We can connect this turbine to a generator and get electricity, or use the torque directly. If we had only one reservoir, then both sides of the turbine would be at the same pressure and the turbine wouldn't spin or do work.
160
CHAPTER
20, E]VTROPY AATD THE SECOIVD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
The process must lose heat to the lower temperature reservoir. When the working fluid is in contact with the hightemperature reservoir, it absorbs heat from the reservoir. After going through the turbine, the fluid comes in contact with the lowtemperature reservoir, and heat comes from the working fluid to the reservoir. Not all of the heat taken from the hightemperature reservoir can get turned into work.
Heat engine
The efficiency is the ratio of the work out efficiency is
Tr.
to energy in. The highest possible
Tn
:
Ts
 Tr,
Tn
which is obtained
isotherms.
"Carnot cycle," consisting of adiabats and
heat pump takes heat from the lowtemperature reservoir and moves it to the hightemperature reservoir. Heat does not normally flow this w&y, so we need to put energy in to the heat pump in the form of work. The coefficient of performance for a heat pump is the ratio of heat extracted to work supplied, and is also limited by the laws of thermodynamics:
A
r..
. <' r'E  lQrl rHrL [,
Tr
Air conditioners and refrigerators are heat pumps. A refrigerator takes heat out of the colder inside and puts it into the warmer room, typically through coils on the back. An air conditioner moves heat from the
cooler room to the hotter outdoors. To do so takes work, and we use electricity to power an electric motor to do this work.
How can work move heat from a cold reservoir to a hot one? Imagine that you have a box of gas, designed so that you can push in one side to change the volume, and so that heat can flow through the sides of the box. Standing inside, you pull out the side of the box, expanding the gas. As it expands, the gas cools. It is now colder than the room, and heat flows from the room to the box. You now walk outside while pushing in on the box, compressing it. As the gas in the box compresses, it becomes hotter, so that it is hotter than the outside air. Heat now flows from the box to the air. As you walk back inside, you expand the box again, repeating until the inside air is cool enough. The second law of thermodynamics can be expressed in many ways. You can't turn all of the heat into work, heat doesn't go from cold to hot on its own, and AS"roredsyste* 2 0 are just some expressions of the second law of thermodynamics.
EXAMPTE
A solar pond uses salt to trap the heated water at the bottom of the pond, so that the energy does not escape to the atmosphere. Such a pond can achieve
80"C temperature water in this bottom, heated layer. This water is used to make steam out of a working fluid with a suitably low boiling point. Use 450 W l^' for the intensity of solar radiation, with the Sun shining only 6 hours per d.y. How large a solar pond would be needed to make a 1 GW power plant?
T\rtor:
Student:
One gigawatt seems like a lot of power. About enough for an American city of half a million people. Student: Why is the Sun shining for only 6 hours per day? T\rtor: The Sun is not always directly overhead. Take a piece of paper (or this book) and turn it so that
161
you are looking somewhat along the page, rather than normal to the page. The area you see is less than the area of the page. When the Sun is not directly overhead, we need to include a factor of cos 0, wherc 0 is the angle between the Sun's rays and the normal to the surface. It averages out to about 6 hours a day, 7 or 8 in Arizona, S in Ohio. Student: Okuy. If I need 1GW of power, then I need 4 GW for 6 hours aday, because Iget nothing for the other L8 hours a day. T\rtor: You haven't taken the efficiency into account. You can't collect all of the energy that reaches the pond. That comes from the second law of thermodynamics.
Tutor: Multiply the power reaching the pond by the efficiency to see how much power you can get.
P1rrxePo.rt4GW Student:
To calculate the efficiency, I need the high and low temperatures. The high temperature is 80"C,
Student:
So
I
need
to multiply by the efficiency.
but what's the low temperature?
Thtor: Tutor:
Student:
Take something rea.sonable. Okay. The average temperature of the Earth is 15oC.
I'll
use that.
Good choice.
difference.
T\rtor:
Student: And I need to use kelvin because it's not a temperature
Really you only need to use kelvin in the denominator, but
it doesn't
hurt.
e_rr_T,Tn
Tutor:
Probably not even that much.
(80+2Iq) _(15+273) (80 + 273)
_0.18:
t8%
Student: I can get only 18% of the power out?
Pin
x (0.1S):
rn
Pout

4 GW
n^19 0.18
22cw
r!+ L tA!'3 Il9: Y4.exLorm2 A ' I 450W1^'
About 19 square miles. So one of these "solar ponds" could power a city with an area of 4 miles x 5 miles? Ttrtor: Theoretically. There are issues involved with doing so. For example, you're collecting 5.5 GW, or average, but generating 1 GW, so you need a reservoir where you can dump 4.5 GW of waste heat. Student: Do coal and nuclear plants have the same problem? Tutor: Yes, but they operate at higher temperatures and are about 33% efficient, so they only have 2 GW of waste heat to dump. Most power plants are located by rivers or lakes so that they can dump the waste heat into the water. Remember that water has a high specific heat and can store a lot of energy.
T\rtor:
Student:
Chapter 2L
Electric Charge
So far, every force on an object has been exerted by something else in contact with it, except for gravity. There is a second type of force that can act without being in contact, and that is electricity. Eventually
there will be a third such
force
gnetism.
Electric forces occur between two objects that each have a special character about them. For lack of anything better, w€ call this special trait charge. Charge comes in two types, which we call positive and negative. Then a charge (the object) ir an object that has charge (the character trait). We use the word both ways and use the context to determine which way we're using the word each time. When we want to include the charge in an equation, we typically use q or A for amount of charge (the character trait) that a charge (the object) has. Either q or Q is used, but if both occur in the same problem then they refer to different amounts of charge (the trait). While q is a variable that could be positive or
negative,
charge.
*q
implies an unknown amount of positive charge and
q
implies an unknown amount of negative
The most basic charges (the objects) are the proton and the electron. (This is not entirely true but works well until the last chapter of the book.) Protons have positive charge and electrons have the same amount of negative charge. Because the charge of a proton or electron appears so often in physics, we give it a special symbol e. e is the arnount of charge on a proton or electron, so the charge of an electron is e.
Charge is measured in coulombs, abbreviated C. The charge of a proton e is 1.6 x 101e C. Inversely, a coulomb is about 6 x 1018 protons or electrons. The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 101e C.
Any two charges create an electric force on each other. Two charges of the same sign repel each other, while two charges of opposite sign attract each other. The magnitude of the force they create is
,T2
where q1 and q2 are the charges (the amount, or
is
klqrllqrl
trait) and r is the distance between them. The constant k
k
1
4Tes
gxloeN.^, lc,
EXAMPLE
Three charges, of +3 FC,
respectively. Find the total force on the
5 pC, and +7 FC, are arranged
*7 pC charge.
r62
along the
r axis at 0,
10 cffi, and 25 cffi,
163
T\rtor:
Where do we always start when dealing with forces? a freebody diagram. Tntor: What forces are acting on the *7 p"C charge? Student: There is nothing in contact with it, so only gravity and electric forces. Tgtor: Often when there is an electric force we ignore gravity, because the force of gravity is much smaller than the electric force. Student: Then just the electric force. Tntor: What is the force that the *3 p,C charge puts on the *7 p'C charge? Student: Is the *3 ptC charge blocked by the 5 pC charge? Tgtor: If I hold my hand under somethirg, does the mass of my hand block the gravity force from the mass of the Earth?
Student: With
T\rtor:
Student: Student:
No.
So one charge does
The
*3
not block the force from another. pC charge creates a force on the f7 p"C charge that is
(9
r 10e N. ^2 lc')(3 r 106 c)(7 x 106 c) _ ? n N
(0.25 m)2
Tutor:
Is the force to the left or the right? The force is positive, so it's to the right. T\rtor: We haven't chosen axes yet, so there is no positive direction. When we did forces before, w€ used the diagram to get the direction of the forces right, and the equations never told us the direction. Student: They are both positive charg€s, with the same sign, so they repel. T\rtor: If the +3 p,C charge repels the +7 pr,C charge, what is the direction of the force on the +7 p'C
Student:
charge?
T\rtor:
Student:
Away from the *3 p,C charge, or to the right. What is the force that the 5 pC charge puts on the *7 p'C charge? Student: The 5 pC charge creates a force on the *7 p,C charge that is
(9
"
10e
N.
r ^' lc')(5 (0.15
106 c)(7
x 106 c)
)'

14.0 N
Tutor: What is the direction of this 14 N force? Student: The charges have opposite signs, so they attract. The force on the *7 pC charge is toward the 5 pC charge, or to the left. T\rtor: Are there any other electric forces? Student: We did every charge except the *7 ptC charge, so we have all of the electric forces, and there
are no other forces. T\rtor: Now we can finish the freebody diagram.

3N
Tutor:
Now you have to choose an axis.
Student:
Only one axis?
What about gravity? Student: The gravity force is down with a magnitude of mg.3 l. x 106 c)(25 x 106 ^. so they repel. lefb. Tutor: What is the electric force that the left bottom charge creates on the third charge? Student: They are both positive. Where do we start? Student: With a freebody diagram.I t a L . T\rtor: There's the connection. ELECTRIC CHARGE Tntor: All of the forces are colinear. What is the total force on the I'll take left as the positive direction. EXAMPLE Two +15 p.C charge? Student: There is nothing in contact with it. pC charge? *7 N F(+taN) +(3N) :+11 Student: 11 N in the positive direction. lc. What is the mass of the third charge? How is the mass connected to the charge? Never mind that. so it's also 200 N. The force is up and to the T\rtor: Now we can finish the freebody diagram.13 m)2 C) :200N T\rtor: What is the electric force that the right bottom charge creates on the third charge? Student: The distance between the charges is the same as the distance we just did. q7""i @" &lo crr > . We don't know the ma"ss. A third +25 pC charge stays 12 cm above the midpoint of the first two charges.)(15 (0. so gravity and electric forces. lz3 . so ?z? is a variable. Tntor: What are the forces on the +25 p. T\rtor: Student: Since the greater force is to the left.164 CHAPTER 27. and the charges are the same. and the force on the top charge is up and to the right: Tutor: Student: r(g 13cm 10e x N.j at .C charges are fixed 10 cm apart on a horizontal line. or to the left.
6" : 77 N T\rtor: Student: What is the g component of the electric force created by the bottom left charge? The gr component is adjacent to the angle. so it's sine. + (185 N) + (*g) ' 0 (370 N)  ms ttoT= m"'/ .165 Can we add the three forces...mg : 0? Forces are vectors.u  200 N cos 22. T\rtor: What is the angle between the electric force created by the bottom left charge and the g axis? Student: It's the same as the opposite angle.. so it's cosine.9'8 m/s2 38ks EXAMPLE Two charges.  200 N sin 22. + (77 N) + (0) : 0 T\rtor: If the r T\rtor: If Student: But Student: What did we learn from that? forces didn't add to zero. Student: And the acceleration is zero. Tutor: What axes will you use? Student: I'll choose the r axis to the right and the g axis upward. 2 x 200 N . How do we add vectors? Student: We choose axes. then the top charge would have to move. Where can a third charge of +5 pC be placed so that the total electric force on it is zero? .6" : 185 N T\rtor: component of the gravity force? is no r component. the bottom charges weren't equal. r forces have to add to zero because the problem is symmetric. What is the r Student: Gravity is parallel to the y axis.6"  185 N Tutor: Student: What is the r component of the electric force created by the bottom right charge? The r component is opposite to the angle. T\rtor: Student: What is the A component of the electric force created by the bottom right charge? The U component is adjacent to the angle. so it's sine. the EFo (185 N) TTL. of *2 pC and 7 pC. Tutor: Now we can write our Newton's second law equation. so it's cosine. Fl.  200 N cos 22. break the vectors into components. so the cosine of the angle is (12113). so there EF" (77 N) : TTL. It goes to the left so it's negative. FR. are placed along the r axis at 0 and 10 cm. Fn. Tutor: Student: 0  arccos(I2113)  22.. FL. and add the components. the top charge wouldn't be above the midpoint.6" T\rtor: Student: What is the r component of the electric force created by the bottom left charge? The r component is opposite to the angle.
T\rtor: Could it go to the left of the two charges? Student: Then the first charge creates a force to the left. what are the forces on it? Student: The first charge creates a force up. T\rtor: Somewhere in between there must be a spot where the two charges create the same force. there would still be a component to the right. What if the f5 p. (r)' 7(r)' . so it would create a bigger force.1 )2 (r)' matter how big the third charge is. The 7 pC charge would be bigg€r. so it could. so that is where the magnitudes are the :"r. T\rtor: Student: Could T\rtor: forces What if the third charge was above the midpoint between the first two? Student: Then both of them would create forces to the right. We have to put the third charge on the r axis. Student: So that won't cancel and won't add to zero.C charge is a long way to the left? Tutor: Student: then the *2 pC charge creates a bigger The *2 p.C charge would be bigger and closer. Student: So the larger charge would create a larger force. and the second charge creates a force to the right. but the f2 p.c)\WT (r * 0. force.1 rn)2 Tutor: Student: It doesn't We'll see why in the next chapter. But the difference between (100 rn)2 and (100. The forces couldn't add to zero. T\rtor: If the third charge is to the right.j.C charge would be closer.2(r * tffi (r)\/ 0.. T\rtor: Could it go to the right of the two charges? Student: Then the first charge creates a force to the right.121) 1)(") : 0.1 ttt)2 is very small. T\rtor: If the +5 p. above the first charge? Student: Anywhere on the g axis? T\rtor: If the third charge is on the g axis. could the electric forces have the same magnitude? Student: The 7 p. but in opposite directions.5cm J . and the second charge creates a force to the right.1 ttFz tz w7 .1 m)2 0. so no."rt lq2 pc)\bpeT fte p. since it cancels. ELECTRIC CHARGE Where do we start? it be on the y axis.115rrl11.C charge is really close to the +2 ptC charge. T\rtor: Could those forces add to zero? Student: No. and the second charge creates a force down and to the right.C charge would still be closer.166 CHAPTER 21.1 m 1ry  (r + 0. and the second charge creates a force to the left. We've already gotten the forces in opposite directions. How do we decide which is bigger? Tutor: Could it go between them? Student: Then the first charge creates axis. the first two charges will create that aren't colinear. T\rtor: If we put the third charge anywhere other than on the r a force to the right.1 m ) 0. (z pc) (7 pc) (r * 0.
so long as one of the spheres has a negative charge on it. the sphere will become positively charged. but not in an insulating material. but it would be very difficult to get the right amount of charge on each sphere. If we used cubes. That's why we're using spheres.Q. and zero on the spheres? That is. opposite charges will be attracted from ground onto the sphere. the sphere will get some charge on it. If you have a charged conductor and you touch it to ground. attracted by the positive charge. you don't care how big the charges are. T\rtor: And if you connect a sphere to ground with nothing else nearby. EXAMPTE You have three identical conducting spheres on insulating stands. Ground does not itself become charged. What could you do so that you can get charges of 1. But how do I know that the T\rtor: Using symmetry since the spheres are identical. T\rtor: Yes. but if the charged rod is closer to one of the spheres than the other. In dealing with charges. What happens if you connect two spheres together or touch them to each other? Student: Charges can move from one to the other. we often refer to "ground. like ground or another sphere. because ground is SO big that the charge is dispersed too small to detect. The charges will move so that the two spheres are equal. You also have access to ground (the Earth). charge splits exactly in half? . Student: Okuy. Tutor: That would give you two spheres with opposite charges. I disconnect the spheres and then I have two spheres of *q and q. then negative charge will come from ground onto my conductor. Plastic is a good insulator. or connect it to ground through a wire. I disconnect the sphere and move the rod away and the charges are still there. a positively charged insulating rod. Then I connect a second sphere to ground and use the first one to pull positive charges onto it. and a conducting wire. so we make wires out of copper or aluminum. Student: So if I hold the rod nearby a sphere and connect the sphere to ground. Trrtor: Maybe some.r67 The other important thing in this chapter is how charges behave. it will become neutral. T\rtor: The charges can move. Most metals are conductors (made of conducting material)." Ground can supply an infinite amount of charge without becoming charged itself. Do this by connecting each to ground with no other charges nearby. another has twice as much positive charge. Tby a different way of getting some charge on a sphere. Now you need to take the q and split Student: I'll it in half. I connect one sphere to another and put the rod near the first sphere. and the third is neutral. they have to have the same charge after the charges are done moving. then we'd have much more difficulty getting the geometry to be symmetric. so we put it on the outside of wires so that the charges don't go through us. then all of the charge can go from the conductor onto ground. will the spheres be equal? Student: No. T\rtor: it to something with the wire. It is not true that any object connected to ground must be neutral (uncharged). but charge does not move easily off of the insulating rod. Is there another way to get charge onto a sphere? Student: If I rub the rod on one of the spheres. Student: I could Student: connect T\rtor: If you connect a sphere to ground. take the negative sphere and connect it to the third sphere. you need to make sure that they are both neutral beforehand. what happens to the charge on the sphere? The sphere becomes neutral. T\rtor: To make sure that the charges are equal. Not necessarily. _iq. Describe how you could achieve this. If my conductor is connected to ground and a positive charge is brought close to my conductor. Charges can move around in a conducting material. the nearby sphere will have more negative charge than the far one. If the rod or another charge is nearby. Student: So I connect one sphere to ground and use the rod to pull negative charges onto it.
and Lrq. _ iq.168 Student: So now CHAPTER 21. with the other far away. If I connect the third sphere to ground. then it will become neutral. J . ELECTRIC CHARGE charges I have le.
QEF Each of these steps produces a vector. creatirg a force toward the negative charge. In mathematics. Therefore the positive charge creates electric field away from the positive charge. Imagine that a positive charge is creating the electric field. Therefore the negative charge creates electric field toward the negative charge. The force on your charge is proportional to the amount of charge you use. so the total force would be twice as big. the normal force would be tilted. one for every point in space. either field or force.Chapter 22 Electric Fields means that at each point in space there is a vector. This set of vectors would be a field. So the units of electric field are newtons of force for each coulomb of charg€. For each step. so that it was perpendicular to the hill's surface. On a hillside. Imagine walking around and measuring the normal force that the ground puts on you. we need a way to determirre the direction of the vector and an equation to determine the magnitude of the vector. but with a greater charg€. A 3 C charge in a 4 N/C field experiences a force of 12 N. One way to think about electric field is that it is the force you would have on a charge if there was a charge there. Charges create electric field. or N/C. and at each point you measure the electric force on your charge. the force that each other charge creates would be twice as big. This is because the force my charge would experience if I put it nearby would be away from the positive charge. Likewise. If you switched the sign of your charge. the positive charge would repel my charge. all of the forces would switch direction. so the total force would switch direction. is a field. In the previous chapter we had charges creati. the equation only tells us the magnitude of the vector. a field Imagine now that you repeat the process. A point in space has an electric field. On flat ground the force would be the same as your weight and upward (since there are no other forces and no acceleration). then the negative charge would attract my charge. if you imagine that a negative charge is creating the electric field. The set of vectors. twice as big. creating a force away from the positive charge. and a charge at that point experiences a force from the electric field. Imagine taking a single charge and moving it around among other charges. If I were to put a 1 C charge nearby. At each point.rg forces on other charges. and electric field creates forces on charges. The electric field that a char ge Q creates is E _ ke 12 169 . That was a simplification. Just like everything else we've done involving vectors. The field exists whether there is a charge there or not.
then the force on the negative charge is in the opposite direction as the electric field. with the proton to the left of the electron. Like any equation.)(1. It is an externally created electric field. If we have the charge that experiences the electric fieldr w€ Iook at the second step (E + F. lC. If q is negative. That field plus the external field is the total field.m apart in an electric field. Student: How can there be more than one electric field? Tutor: Every charge creates electric field.E. Meaning that it doesn't exist internally? T\rtor: Meaning that it is created by charges that we don't see charges other than the proton. we can do each step backwards if necessary.) Why do we bother with electric fields at all? Electric fields can do things between the time they are created and the time they act on a charge.qE). So we have two ways to calculate electric fields. but not as helpful at this time. Otherwise we might conclude that the charge can push itself. The total electric force on the electron is 4 x 1017 N to the left.I7O When a charge q is placed in this electric field. but ro. right? Tutor: Right. T\rtor: You were correct in saying that we can find the electric field that the proton creates. The proton creates an electric field Student: Thtor: Student: Ep: kQ 12 (9 x loe N. (2 x lo1e ^. electric fields are often 105 N/C or more. Student: So what is there left to find? There is an external electric field. Student: That would be the Q + E step. when we want the field acting on the electron we don't include the field created by the electron. (It is possible to write the first equation as a vector equation. we look at the first step (Q . Tutor: But the force is already given. Student: Okay. . and the electric field creates a force on the electron. then find the force. and the charges we don't see create electric field where the electron is. Student: Do we need to include the field created by the electron? T\rtor: Good question. More on these later. Also. What is the direction of this electric field. If we have the charge(s) that create the electric field. We find the electric field. EXAMPLE A proton and an electron are located 2 p. CHAPTER 22.6 x 106 )2 C) : 360 N/C T\rtor: Student: Is this a big field? No. Student: So are we doing the Q + E step or the E + F step. there are some types of calculations that are only possible with electric fields. E . we get the total field.kQ lr'). in addition to the field created by the proton. ELECTRIC FIELDS it experiences a force of F:qE Notice that this is a vector equation. If we add the fields from all of the charges. F . What are the direction and magnitude of the external electric field? The proton creates an electric field at the electron. The proton creates electric field where the electron is.
Ev*8"*t (+zso N/c)  (+360 N/C) + Ee*t Ee*t: 110 N/C Student: The external field is to the lefrb.6 x 101e C)Etot"r ? T\rtor: You need to be careful about your signs. The charge of the electron isn't a vector. only backwards. Correct.(1. T\rtor: Good. Student: How can I do that? I don't know the externally applied field. F and Etotur will have opposite signs. so it must be negative. What is the external field? Student: The total field is the sum of the proton's field and the external field. but what is the direction of this field at the electron? Away from the proton would be to the right.qE equation. Is ^Eo positive or negative? Student: It was to the right.(1. Now you can find the total electric field acting on the electron. and put it into the F . Or you could define a variable for the external field. It works. The force is to the left. Tutor: Good. so you can find the field at the electron. Student: Which is better? T\rtor: They're the same. so do Student: I include the sign? T\rtor: Yes. Etot^t. Does that make sense? The electron has a negative charge. so it's positive. T\rtor: Yes. so it points to the right. (4 x 10tz N) . It's a matter of personal preference. so the field is to the right. but you know the force on the electron. Yes. Is the force on the electron positive or negative? Student: It's to the left. so the field and force should be in opposite directions. Because the charge q is negative. . indicating that they point in opposite directions. write an equation for the total field. The force on the electron is Student: F:QE (4 x 1012 N) . Student: You mean using the E + F step.6 x 101e C)Etot"r Etot^r  250 N/C Tutor: Student: Student: The total electric field is positive. Tutor: True. EXAMPLE Find the electric field at the center of the square. Student: I'm going to find the total field.17t T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It goes away from the proton. What is your positive direction? How about to the right? T\rtor: Okay.
I\rtor: They add Student: Do the fields from the *4 p. or to the left. and the distances are the same. And last. They cancel. The top *4 p.C charge creates field away from it. The bottom *4 p. We don't. Do they have the same magnitude? Student: The charges are the same. b T\rtor: They are in opposite directions. Tutor: True. Start with a diagram. so the magnitudes same. the *5 p. The 2 p. How can we have the force created by the electric Tutor: Student: field? T\rtor: them up. but we have the charges that I find the field from each one and add T\rtor: Remember to add them as vectors. or upward.172 CHAPTER 22.C charge creates field away from it. Student: Ah. so we need to use either the Q + E step or the E + F step. Student: There is no charge at the center of the square. or up and to the right. Student: Okay. except that instead of drawing forces. Either we have the charges that create the electric field or u/e have the force created by the electric field.C charges cancel? should be the to zero. What about the other fields? . Away from that charge is downward.C charge creates field a\May from it because it is a positive charge. ELECTRIC FIELDS How are you going to start? We want electric field. draw fields. create the electric field. y€s.C charge creates field toward the negative charge.
T\rtor: Student: Now I Er: Ez* Student: Escos 45o_ (7. + (Er).84 x 106 N/C).2x106 N/C Esryv rz Tlrtor: Student: (ex 10e N'.0 x 106 N/C)sin45" : *6. it's further. even if the vectors are electric fields now. So the *5 p.2x 106 N/C) + (9. 106 E_ Tlrtor: Student: It's (8.).urz the magnitudes and add them. the angle is arctan( ):82. J P is a distance  pcC is spread out uniformly over a rod of length L L2 cm. The point 2 cm above the midpoint of the rod. What is the electric field at point P? Q:L2 L .36 x 106 N/C To find the magnitude of the field.T1{c2)(5x 106 (0. _ ItQ _ .C charge is rt x 5 cm from the center.42 x N/C almost the same as the y component./(0. The y component is much bigger than the o component. I need to use the Pythagorean theorem.C charge 5 cm from the center of the square? ' No. m2 lCrXS x 106 C) _ g.0 x 106 N/C)cos 45": 0. that's right. Do I have to find the components like we did back in Chapter 3 or something? T\rtor: Yep. Student: Yeah. Adding vectors hasn't changed.05 m)2 c):18x 106 N/c ? Is the *5 p.m2 lcrx2 x 106 c) _ 7. the hypotenuse is fr times the length of a side. Measured from the ranis. Student: It goes a little left and a lot up. Are the field vectors colinear? Student: No. _lcQ .bo EXAMPLE A charge of fl.84x 106 N/C Eu: *Essin45o  (9. E.L73 Student: I need to find n^ . : .F (g x 10e N. I have to add the components using the Pythagorearr theorem.0 x 106 N/c decide whether to add them or subtract them.urtF (g x 10e N. The angle of the vector should show that.86 x 106 Nnt :6. + (+6. Ttrtor: For a 45o45o909 right triangle.
Student: But there are hundreds of pieces! Wait. ELECTRIC FIELDS How do we find electric fields? We use E . then the charge of each piece is really. but not zero. k dq The . If there were exactly one million pieces. What's dq? dq is typically used to represent the charge of each piece. T\rtor: We need to do all of the pieces at once. Got magnitude of the field is it. Pick an arbitrary piece. really small. so any piece of the same length has the same charge. You can use that to find the charge on each piece. u Then I find the electric field from the piece using r. or 12 x 1012 C. T\rtor: Do all of the pieces have the same charge? T\rtor: Student: Uh. maybe more. What is the length of each piece? Student: Is that dr? T\rtor: It is. T\rtor: Student: T\rtor: Don't panic. s&y.ttQ lr'. What is the charge dq of the piece? Student: Well. r to the right of the middle of the rod. but not the first or the last. Student: Like. r can then be anything from 6 to 6 cm. 1 cm to the right of the middle of the rod. '"T\rtor: Student: @'+d2)2 Picking r from the middle makes the denominator simpler. if there are millions of pieces.174 CHAPTER 22. Student: Why not the first or the last? L Student: So it could be any piece. Student: So the number of pieces is Lf dr. which is dr.C. each so small that we can say that the whole piece is at the same place. How can I tell? The charge is spread "uniformly" over the rod. and the charge q of each piece is . what would be the charge of each piece? Student: The total charge is 12 p. I think so. There'd be hundreds of them T\rtor: Yes. Student: That would have to be really tiny. this is sounding like an integral. and the first and last pieces are special and aren't representative. so a millionth of that. but what do I use for r? T\rtor: That is a problem. you need to divide it into pieces. isn't it? Since not all of the charge is at the same place. Pick one piece. say. The length of each piece is equal to the distance from one piece to the next. Then you find the electric field from each piece and add all the electric fields created by the pieces.. T\rtor: Like.. Tntor: Very small.
find the cosine and sine of the angle. (*' + rdr d2)3/2 . and then the r component is adjacent. do it once for the piece at r and it will be the same for all of them. The fields all point away from the charge but not all in the same direction. that if n is positive. I need to find the angle d. Now you can write down the r conrponent of the electric field. or coulombs per meter. kQr L(*' + d2)tl' dr kQ L r:. so it's cos. If we multiply the coulombs per meter @ I L) by the meters of a piece (dr) then we get the coulombs of a piece @ dr I L). Student: Okay. e T CI 0 r T\rtor: True. Another way to get the same result is by using charge density. T\rtor: Again. just cos 0 and sin d. The charge density is the charge per length.175 dq a number of pieces L I dr a Adr L T\rtor: Very good. F k(Q dr I L) \1 r na@xffi:W Tlrtor: for r? kQ* dr Then the total goes from r component is the sum of all of the individual cm. Student: But there are millions of fields. What are the limits Student: r L .O cm to *6 E. r components. using the lengths of the sides. Look at the triangle you drew to find the arrgle. while the y cornponent is opposite. But you don't really need 0. Do the electric fields created by each piece point irr the same direction? Student: No. Student:Thecosineof0isrdividedby!ffi. Remember then the r cornponent of the electric field is negative. so it's sin.Isthatwhatyoumean? T\rtor: Yep. Tutor: So we have to find the r and g components of each field. Instead of finding the angle. Student: So the field created by each piece is n k(Q drlL) ft:@ T\rtor: That is the magn'itude of the field created by each piece. t::.
r D kQ ["t' LtrLJ_rp@ kQ . Student: Oh. except that it's the opposite over the hypotenuse.o2m) ^'lc')(r2 pC)  8. ELECTRIC FIELDS Tutor: Student: Now we have to do the integral. where we find D 'r' kQd. dn We look in the appendix of the book. f Lt' [dn:r I (*. or some other integral table. + a2)3/2 L J_rp@Now dn kQd. so we can use their answer. L Lffi)_"p I n 1"t' Ldrl@kQ I L 12 ffi L12 Student: I can put in the numbers. yeah. kQ (9 Ey: x 10e N. Llffiaaz)_rp 1 1"t' is the same. You still need to do the A component. rdr + a2)3/2 1 (*t + a2)r/2 This is the same integral that we have.5 x 107 N/C . If I flip the problem left to right. dW (o. Tutor: Look at the symmetry of the problem. We look in the appendix of the book. r d. where we find I T\rtor: I (*. the problem Student: Zero? Isn't there some easier way to do this? Eu: Student: ["'' ryx rL/2ftWf ^ +a2 ry fL/z (*' + a2)r/2 kQd.176 CHAPTER 22. T\rtor: Good. so the answer has to look the same. so it has to be along the y axis. Student: It should be very similar.
and add the results for all of the tiny pieces. multiply times the area of the tiny piece. 177 dirt simple. A closed surface is one with no if you are inside the surface and you want to get out you need to exits pass through the surface. You could reduce this rate by using a smaller bucket.t a positive charge) ot enter somewhere else on the surface. This is Gauss' law. Count the number of electric field lines coming out of each surface. The electric field flux 06 is effectively a count of the number of electric field lines passing through a surface.85 x 1012 C'/N m2. You should find that lr{z : l/1 and Afs .l[a : 0.Chapter 23 Gauss'Law Examine the surface below. Electric field lines start at positive charges and end at negative charges. by going to a place with less rain. Gauss' Iaw works for any closed surface. Remember to count a field line going in as a negative line going out. Qnet is the net charge inside the area. or by tilting the bucket sideways. it's not so bad. For a field line to come out of a surface. Qn dA which says to divide the surface into tiny pieces. The mathematical expression for Gauss' law is QB Snet €g where Q6 is the electric field flux coming out of the area. at each piece find the component of the electric field that is perpendicularly out of the surface (normal to the surface). This is not mere coincidence. We only do the integral when it's when not doing this integral leads to a much nastier integral. Flux would be the rate at which raindrops enter the bucket. What is electric field flux Q n? Imagine that you are out in the rain holding a bucket.8. The surface does not have to be real imagine number of or invent any surface you want and Gauss' law tells you the electric field lines coming out. and es is 4rk . it either has to start inside (. Mathematically. Despite the scary appearance of this integral. .
dA.E d. the area is 4rr2 Qnet €g E(hrr') tr u Qnet Qnet €g 4trr2 es (4nes)r2 12 This is the same thing we got in the last chapter (whew). What we do know is that the the field .side of the imaginary sphere is the same as the field on the field on one other side. so it's equal to the area of the imaginary surface. and the electric field is the same.2 p. Pick any two spots on the imaginary sphere.en Because the surface is a sphere. At any spot on our imaginary sphere the electric field is perpendicularly out of the surface and has the same magnitude. What if we had used a negative charge q . so we'll use a sphere. It has to be because of the symmetry of the proble it looks the same from any angle. CHAPTER Gaussian 23. The goal is to use Gauss' law to calculate the electric field. Gauss' law tells us that the flruc is equal to the charge "enclosed" by the imaginary surface divided by EA.A cosoo .C? Everything would have been the same until we put the negative in and got a negative electric field. is the same everywhere on the imaginary surface so we can pull it out of the integral.EA e6. Because the field is perpendicularly out. never in. To do that we need to know the electric field at each spot on our imaginary surface. so the electric field is the same at any angle. oo UJ E Iad. We want to find the electric field created by a single point charge q away? We can invent any surface we want to use with Gauss' law. symmetry Gauss' law EA:la dA:'r"T . We don't know that's what we're trying to find.Anlat The integral that remains is to add up the area of each tiny piece. GAUSS'LAW We want to do the integral to find the flu>c. so a negative field is inward or toward the negative charge. it could be anything). E.E dA Because the field E is the same everywhere on our imaginary "Gaussian" surface en:lnd. centered on the charge q with a radius of r (r is a variable. We can only do that if the symmetry in the problem lets us do the critical step above the electric field.178 Let's see how it works. whatever it is. We always mea"sure the field out from the surface.
Look at the problem. We divide the area of the surface into tiny pieces. the area increases and the flux increases. Student: So the electric field is the same everywhere? Thtor: Not necessarily. . but why a sphere? Because of the symmetry. We don't know what the electric field is. but the number of field lines doesn't increase. Q""t €g eB EA Student: I thought that we had to do vector dot products and stuff like that.5 cm. If we chose some other shape. and we don't know. write down Gauss' law. did center of mass?). Our result might be a function of r. T\rtor: It is good that you're thinking ahead. multiply by the (tiny) area.E. the area gets bigger. little pieces. '. also has to look the same (remember doing this when we .' is the same. Instead. Therefore. Therefore. then this is the same as EA. If the field is the same everywhere.'\ \ the same everywhere. Student: Okay. so the flux O is equal to EA. T\rtor: Correct.179 EXAMPLE magnitude everywhere. whatever it is. but that's not complicated. the electric field must get smaller so that the flux stays the same. How do we find the electric field? We divide the charge into Student: (as vectors). find the electric field through each. Draw an imaginary sphere that is concentric with the conducting sphere and has radius r.\ \ where? I F a a  \ So that we can calculate the flux. r is the distance to the point where we want the electric field.. This is the key to using Gauss' lawr I choosing a surface where the electric field. and add them. is the same everywhere. but everywhere on a concentric sphere the electric field . the answer . but the resulting integral would be very difficult. and we couldn't say that the electric field is . Tutor: Student: What's r? Isn't it the same as R? R is the size of the sphere. so that at different values of r we get different Student: Ttrtor z electric fields. Then we only have to do the problem once. Student: But we want the electric field everywhere. Is A the area of the conducting sphere or the imaginary Gaussian surface? I\rtor: It's the area of the Gaussian surface 4trr2. the problem would : o . I Student: Why does the field have to be the same every. so E does depend on r. Okay. As r gets bigger." Yes. Once you have chosen your Gaussian surface. and add the electric fields We could do that. Don't we have to pick a value for r? Tutor: We could. Find the electric field T\rtor: Ttrtor: law. Imagine that you want the electric field at a point that is a distance r from the middle of the sphere. but the number of field lines T\rtor: \ doesn't increase. Student: But a"s r gets bigger. " look different. Student: Ah. let's try using Gauss' So we need some kind of "Gaussian surface. but the beauty of leaving it as a variable is that it works for any value. T\rtor: Student: o 'DrDrDlr '\ and the problem looks the same. You can rotate it any way you want around the center. A charge of Q :14 pC is placed on a hollow conducting sphere of radius R . find the electric field from each. when we rotated j the Gaussian surface with the sphere.
180 CHAPTER 23. What if Correct. All of the field is parallel to the normal. Student: That's the same thing we had before! Tutor: Before it was for a point charge. though? T\rtor: As long as you have spherical symmetry. so the integral equals EA. J . T\rtor: Correct. Now it is for a sphere. I know. it means both inside and outside the sphere? Yes.*4 pC. what is the electric field? M':oa: €g E(Anrz) 0 . but we need the field to be at least p'iecew'iseconstant in order to use Gauss' law. parallel to the normal vector? Student: All of it. T\rtor: Yes. Look at the Gaussian surface. 4rr2 . How much of the field is perpendicular to the Gaussian surface. A . Because of the symmetry. Correct. the sphere. You just did the vector dot product. Is the electric field for a sphere the same as a point charge.E(4trr2) r < R? Tutor: Student: All of it.r a iJ@: Keep in mind that the purpose of the example is not to reach such a conclusion.E(4nr') kQ Tutor: r. Correct. At each point on the surface.E(4rr2) E _0 Tutor: Student: There won't be any electric field. Student: Yes. then everything we did works. Ttrtor: If r ) B and the Gaussian surface encloses Student: Then none of the charge is enclosed. then yes. but to be able to use Gauss' law. What about outside the sphere? Q"n' €g . what is the direction of the electric field? from the sphere. and because the field isn't constant. what is the area of the Gaussian surface? Student: The area is the area of a sphere . T\rtor: Student: And by askittg what the field is everywhere. our electric field depended on r. If none if the charge is enclosed. Let's start inside. Student: So any sphere has the same electric field as a point charge? . and all of the charge is enclosed. Now. the field points directly away from the sphere. so the cos d is 1. Student: And the field is the same everywhere. More on that in the next example.Qp: E( nr') 9€6\ . T\rtor: Student: Directly away T\rtor: +How much charge is enclosed? eB . GAUSS' LAW T\rtor: We do.
181 EXAMPLE A long. Now it's time to think about the electric field. I want a Gaussian surface with the same symmetry as the charge. My imaginary cylinder has a radius of r. Of course. concentric with the cylinder of charge. the more charge it has. T\rtor: So Gauss' law becomes ? I\rtor: ends. . cornbined with the difficulty of dividing the charge into little pieces. the charge enclosed is all of it. and that's good because the field wasn't constant as T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Then Student: If r ) it moves out from the cylinder along the R. Student: Then I write down Gauss' law. solid.  QB : E ia * "(2trrL)(1) 8".'d. Yes. which might be more of less than ^R.'r_OE:EA €g Student: The area is the area of my cylinder. The longer the cylinder is.  6 cm has a uniform charge density of ) Student: So the symmetry. insulating cylinder of radius R electric field magnitude everywhere. disappears from the equation. including the ends. Q". We're never entirely sure something will work until we can see the end.. T\rtor: Radially outward. Student: Ok y. but they don't tell us the total charge.. so I choose a cylinder. tips me off to use Gauss' law.d (2trr2)(0) Student: So the 1 and the 0 are the cos 0's? Correct. What is the flux through the top and bottom of the Gaussian surface? Student: There isn't any. which is (2mL) + 2(nr'). T\rtor: Correct. Tntor: Very good. where L is the length of my imaginary Gaussian surface. it tips you off to try Gauss' Iaw. T\rtor: All very good. The field skims the surface but doesn't go through. Eu. What is thgdirection of the electric field? Student: It points outward from the cylinder of charge. The charge is 3 coulombs for each meter of length. Multiply the length enclosed by the charge per length to get the charge enclosed.
Student: Ah. then half of the charge is enclosed. some of the charge is enclosed? T\rtor: Correct. As we move a\May.c 23. so the field increases. so long as we are still inside the cylinder. As we get further ifr<R? T\rtor: Student: 2rr/eo 2Tesr r from the cylinder. GAUSS' LAW Student: : ^L? *enE(2nrL) ETutor: Good. if it wasn't zero j and we rotated the cylinder around its axis. then the charges would move to the surface and that would be true. Tutor: Student: Note that .r. it would be different. so the field is zero. Almost. Tutor: The field increases as we move away from the center. The charge ? enclosed is Q"n. Student: The volurne enclosed is rr2L. . Now the charge is spread throughout the cylinder. the field gets weaker as the field lines spread out. What is the electric field atr:0? Student: It is zero Tutor: Which it has to be because of symmetry. The total volume is rR2L. How much of the charge is enclosed? Student: I don't know. Student: So I find the volume enclosed. Good  EXAMPLE Ad electric field magnitude everywhere. and multiply by the charge? T\rtor: Essentially. the charge enclosed increases faster than the area. the field should go towards the negative charge.r82 CHAPTER So Q. The charge in a volume nR2I is Q"n").Lx# Tutor: Now back to Gauss' law. If the cylinder were made of a conducting material. divide by the total volume to get the fraction enclosed.)x T\rtor: #)x # ^L. Student: So if r 1R. Not true this time. T\rtor: How much of the volume is enclosed? Student: What does that matter? T\rtor: If half of the volume is enclosed. so the field is going into the Gaussian surface. *x(r^rl x #)er E(2nrL) r2 EQrr) + eOR2 L r'J Student: \r 2rregR2 The field increases as we nrove away from the cylinder. What Then the enclosed charge is zero.\ is negative.
T\rtor: The height times the depth is your area A.! € I I : T\rtor: Student: I need a Gaussian Tutor: Does it go in both directions? Student: Can we use symmetry to determine that? If I flip the problem surface that keeps the symmetry of the charge. Nothing side? comes out of the paper or goes into the paper. The area is A. But what is the area of the right T\rtor: It's your Gaussian Student: surface.l2). and the right side is outside the plane? The area is still the same. The field better not depend on the size of your imaginary surfac different surface but that wouldn't change the field. because it skims the surface rather than going through.183 a I a ? ? ? ? o O a a . Q"n' €g eBEA Tutor: What is the area? Student: I only include the area that has field coming out of it. whatever that is. Draw a Gaussian cuboid that starts at the center and goes out a distance tr. I might imagine a rAP €g . Student: Then I write down Gauss' law.l D t. right? T\rtor: Correct. so you get to choose. . Tbtor: Good. T\rtor: Good what's the volume? Student: Thewidth times the height times the depth. It better cancel.eB: EA Student: The area does cancel.f I . and the charge is rAp. Ttrtor: As long as the right side is inside the plane (r < d. '. . lefttoright. so it goes both ways and has to have the same field each way. What is the charge enclosed? Student: It's the volume in meterss times the density in coulombs per meter3. Correct. Okay.12. so the only side that has field is the right side. :+ l*. and the width is r.1  rl I ''. Student: So the volume is frA. What does the electric field look like? Student: It points perpendicular to the plane of charge. or goes up or down the paper. The field at the center is zero.o 't rl . the problem looks the same. Erp€g T\rtor: Tutor: Student: What if r ) d.. but not all of the Gaussian surface contains charge. Yes.
L84 CHAPTER Oh. and Greek rho p (pronounced "row" as in row. Greek lambda . then you use the equation with the 2. and the 2 appears because. GAUSS'LAW Student: (dlz)Ap €g _eB:EA pd 2eo E Student: I saw the equations E . row. . row your boat) for coulombs per meter3. since there won't be an electric field inside the conductor. so the enclosed charge stops increasing once we leave the plane. w€ include only half the charge. but we use Greek letters for charge density. by measuring out from the center. It's a tipoff or reminder of how the charge is distributed. Greek sigma o for coulombs per meter2. then you don't use the 2. 23. If the field goes in only one directior. fs this the 2 inthe equations? Tutor: Somewhat. This happens if you have a conducting plane with charge on the surface.\ is typically used for coulombs per meter. If the field goes in both directions.o f2es. The field here goes in both directions. Student: So what's with the Greek letters ) and p for charge? Tutor: We still use a or q for charge.o l ro and E .
which depends on the position. Can we use conservation of energy and conservation of momentum? Certairly energy and momentum are both conserved. UPEqV (U is often used for potential energy. which is the purpose of physics. The units of gh are ^'l"'or much work it takes to move one kilogram of rock. but can we use them effectively to solve problems? Conservation of momentum doesn't help us because some of the charges are usually "glued down. the potential energy is equal to the product of the size (charge q) of the thing we move times the potential V. while with gravity the mass could only be positive. and then we don't include them in the work term. K4+ PEi+W . Work done by electric force is the other work that is easier to do with potential energy. Gravity pushes in the opposite direction as the motion and does negative work as the potential energy increases. the part that depends on position. How did we use conservation of energy earlier? The energy you start with plus the energy you put in (work) is the energy you end with.) The potential energy in joules is equal to the charge in coulombs times the potential. The work that we do that is stored as potential energy is mgh. Conservation of energy is so effective in dealing with charges that we do it all the time. When we raise a rock we exert a force equal to gravity n'Lg (a little more at the beginning to get it going) while we raise it a height h. One joule per coulomb is a volt and is sometimes called voltage. often without noticing. 1V:1* The only significant difference is that the charge can be negative. How did potential energy from gravity work? Potential energy is work that wetve done that we might get back out. If we tied a string to the rock beforehand and wrapped the other end around a generator. The work that gravity does during the process is the same no matter how we get the rock to the top. Since we push in the same direction as the motion we do positive work.Chapter 24 Electric Potential We've learned to use forces when we deal with charged objects. The potential energy is the product of the size of the rock (*) and somethitrg that depends on the position (gh). With electricity." and we don't know the force on them so we don't know the impulse. 185 .how latter part. then as the rock rolled down the hill we could get electricity to power our stereo and make tunes. or joules per coulomb. If we moved a rock that was twice as big then the potential energy would be twice as big. is the potential. This Jlk1.KEy * PEt The work done by some forces (gravity and springs) is easier to deal with by using potential energy.
Then we add the work we've done (increase in potential energy) for all of the tiny pieces of the path.dfr You might conclude that we're going to be doing lots of integrals. we do negative work (or get work out) while the potential energy decreases (some of the potential enerry is turned into work). To calculate the electrical potential energy we have to find the work we do pushing against the electrical force.q4rcosl Often the electric field is not constant as we move the charge.stant : I E .qE  . When we push a charge against the electrical force we do positive work. There are two cases for which it's rea"sonable to work out the integral and reuse it. Since these come up regularly using potential often keep. When the charge moves on its own and we hold it back. Av: f{ J_8. the amount of charge that we move and somethittg that depends only on the path along which we move it. The part that depends on the path (and not the charge) is the potential. The ca^ses are point charge and constant field.s us from needing to do an integral. but potential and potential energ:f are not the sarne. .186 CHAPTER 24.Ff . ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Remember that potential and voltage are the same thing.AE if the field is created by a point charge.. dfr . Therefore we divide the path into tiny pieces so tiny that we can say that the electric field is constant for the whole tiny path.dfr where ^d . 8.E I is ffi . dfr . aPEot'J piece. increasing the potential energy. but this is not so. If the field is constant..E times the length of the tiny The potential enerry is the product of two pieces. The question then is: how do we determine the potential.E. A location has potential. LPE. then the potential Vpoint charge : kq R This assumes that the potential is equal to zero at infinity. dd is the component of the electric field parallel to the tiny piece d. then the integral becomes A%o. and a charge at the location has potential energy. or the negative work done by the electrical force.
we cut the potential energy in half. and we can calculate how much work it would take to get to infinity. KEt. Both kinetic energies are zero. We don't want to do that. Student: So. Student: T\rtor: Okuy. Good. because the universe is finite. . We need the potential energies. then it would have a positive kinetic energy. Student: So by the time we've moved it three meters. is it? Tutor: The problem doesn't s&y. . of course. Fqievp+w:r$fev* I\rtor: Very good. we've already done 90% of the work needed to move it to infinity? T\rtor: Yes. so that means we'll need to use energy. and half of the remaining to move it the next 160 Student: How do you come up with that so easily? T\rtor: If we double the distance.187 EXAMPLE What is the work needed to move a proton from P to m? 30 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The problem asks for work. Is the proton moving when it gets to infinity? T\rtor: If it was. It takes something like half of the work to move the proton the first 40 cm. and we'd have to do more work. so that implies that it isn't. but we'd never really get Tutor: Student: it there. The potential energy due to electric forces is qV . + PEi +W : KEy * PEt What is the kinetic energy before? The proton isn't moving. Now we need to calculate the potentials at P and oo. and half of the remaining work to move it the next 80 cm. Student: So the kinetic energy before is zero. True. Student: So the kinetic energy afterward is zero. What is the equation for conservation of ener gy? Energy before plus energy in equals energy after. Student: So I find the potential at P due to each charge and add the potentials? . How can a proton move to infinity? T\rtor: It can't really.
so that you got a positive value for the magnitude. you need to include the minus sign so that a negative charge creates a negative potential. Yep.22.C charge is VkQ: r Tbtor: Student: :9x1o4v Correct. A newton times a meter is a joule.3.6 x 101e C) (22. (g 104 Vp: x V) + (1t. it's zero. x 101e c) ( 22.188 T\rtor: Yes. 22.6 x 101e c) ( 22. now (1. CHAPTER 24. and a joule per coulomb is a volt. then the equation for potential would have been more complicated and harder to calculate. Since potential isn't a vector. then you should have used the absolute value of the charge. If we had been doing a vectoq. and then we can't take the potential to be zero at infinity. Student: Okry. for point charges.25 x 104 V) : (1. The values you just found are the potentials created by each charge. the potential is zero at infinity.(1. T\rtor: Yes.b00 V . Student: No vector stuff at all? Great. ELECTHIC POTENTIAL Student: The potential at P due to the v  kQ r  5 pC charge is kl: p? (40 cm)  11.2b x 104 N. If we had picked anywhere else.s kV T\rtor: That's one of the reasons to use potential.(1. The potential at P due to the *5 p.6 x 101e c) )K0 w . Now I need to find the components and add the r and A components together.field. We'll do one of those Tutor: Student: next.6 x 101e C)y* Now I need to find the potential at infinity.5 kV) +W .kQ l. Potential doesn't have direction.6 x 1015 J . and you just add the potentials together. The other common situation is a constant. Student: So the potential is always zero at infinity? T\rtor: Whenever we use V . We chose the potential to be zero at infinity. Tlrtor: No.skv) +w .(1. What is the potential if r is oo? Student: Uh.6 I can find the work. Student: Oh good! Anyway.m/c TUtor: Yes.5 kV) .
and integrate the electric field Student: a^s I come in to C? T\rtor: That would work. We didn't have this problem with a point charge. So if I can't see the charges that create the field. (300 V/*)(0. Volts per meter are equal to newtons per coulombs. You don't need the potential at infinity.{iqvc+w Wlevo T\rtor: You're doing well. In fact. the potential energy is qV. because the field got smaller as we went further away. and the integral converged. that is a problem.eVc . it is important that you integrate from C to D and not from D to C. The problem is that the field is a constant. Student: Oh. big math term. (300 V/*)(0. you need only the difference in potentials between C and D. so the final is D and the initial is C.300V/m *40cm+ Student: It Student: asks for work again.189 EXAMPTE What is the work needed to move an electron from C to D? oC . initial. They are. Also.E x d.E x d. so T\rtor: Student: I thought that the units for electric AV . Student: Ah. W . Fortunately the electric field is constant. and I can't integral the electric field from infinity how can I find the potential at C? T\rtor: It's kind of a trick question. so we'll be using consenration of enerry again.KEf + PEf Again. and the integral is easy. the particle isn't moving before or afber. What is the potential at C? Well. Student: Oh.40 m) : 120 V ? .50 m) : 150 V ? field were newtons per coulomb.D E.eVo .q(Vo Vc) Student: So I have to integrate only from C to D. and integrating & constant over an infinite distance gives an infinite value. K4+ PEi+W . remember that only the part of the displacement that is parallel to the electric field matters. y. and again. right. The potential difference is Because a change is always the final minus the T\rtor: Student: How can you tell? AV . in theory. T\rtor: Correct. Student: So I have to start at infinity. where the potential is zero. Where are the charges that create the electric field? Tbtor: We can't see them.
so it will go there on its own. T\rtor: Not quite. Ttrtor: Student: Student: It's greater than the potential at C. then we can find the potential from each point T\rtor: Student: . and we don't care. Electric field always LV. Tntor: But 4 is greater than 7.E. .a0 m) Another way is to look at the electric field. W  I EXAMPLE A charge of Q . the field outside the sphere is the same as for the hollow sphere.190 CHAPTER 24. then the potential difference is the displacement times the parallel component of the field. and therefore Vo . Student: So 2 must be at a higher potential than C. I won't need to do any work.positive. Because the solid sphere is also spherically symmetric. Find the potential at Nothing about energy. The T\rtor: (300 V/*)(0. Student: The field isn't a constant. Our second way to find a potential is that if the field is created by point charges.*4 p. Student: Okay. We have three ways to do that. and 4 isn't positive. Tntor: Yes.C is spread uniformly over a solid sphere of radius R the center of the sphere. taking the potential to be zero at infinity. and that's what's important.6 x 101e Cxtzl V): 1. Student: . We do know that Vxt ) Vc. As you go from C to D. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Now you need to make sure that you have the sign right. The displacement in the direction of the electric field is 40 cm. so it must be positive So Vo is negative? We don't know. T\rtor: Is the potential at 2 positive or negative? . How do I do that? T\rtor: One way is to follow the math. the displacement is to the electric field is to the left.s the electron moves. just find the potential. T\rtor: Negative work means that we can get work out of the process a. If the field is constant.  5 cm. We found the field in the last chapter. We found the field due to a hollow conducting sphere.Vc is. q(Vo Vc) .(1. so T\rtor: Student: right.Lil 120 v to lower goes from higher potential potential.92x 10t7 J Tutor: Does it make sense that the work you need to do is negative? Student: The electric force will push the electron to the right. . . Yep.. I can finish the problem now.
dfr . T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: Good. Q"n" €g o^e : EA E(4nr2) 1 ( "'J"t ftY"a x (charge of . How much of the electric field is in the direction of the step? Student: They are in the same direction. Student: The only place where we know the potential is at infinity. What is the electric field inside the sphere? Student: We need to use Gauss' law. Only part of the charge is enclosed. ke[:*] : E The field is the same as for a point charge.*i ^v . so we would have an infinite number of point charges. When we add up all of the steps. then it doesn't have direction. we are using r to represent our current position. As we move from ^R to oo. but it isn't zero. T\rtor: It may be really small.191 charge and add the potentials. Student: So the direction of each step. we have to get the displacement from R to oo. How much of the electric field is in the direction of the step? Student: All of it.pr. vn: Ttrtor: Student: l: E dil The field outside the sphere is kQlr2. so I'm going to reverse the limits and add a minus sign."r")) €s \ volume oI Spnere / . T\rtor: Tbue. T\rtor: Yes. picking an imaginary sphere to keep the symmetry of the charge.fr is the infinitesimally small length of the steps that we take as we move out to oo. so the integral of the field is also the same.Yx  f+ [" 8. Student: If it's infinitesimally small. 8.d. What is the direction of the electric field? The field points away from the sphere. T\rtor: So we start there and integrate in. Now we do the same for the field inside the sphere. and integrate the electric field to the point we want.] . so we need to find Q"n" like we did in the cylinder example from the last chapter. small though it is. The third way is to start at a point where we know the potential. Now the potential Vn at R is vn: Tutor: Student: Student: That's the same as the potential for a point charge! I: Edn: I: ydnkel.J vn'. Student: So the field outside the sphere is kQ l12? Thtor: Correct. so 8. Yes. Student: The charge is spread out over the sphere.ilEdn T\rtor: Student: That's how we deal with the vector stuff. T\rtor: Student: Thtor: Yes. What is the direction of dfl Student: What is dtrl T\rtorz d.J* "2! Trrtor: I have trouble with minus signs when integrating from a higher value to a lower one. is outward from the sphere.
Thtor: Yes. We have three ways to find the potential.E .44MV I EXAMPLE A charge Q is spread uniformly over a length center of the line of charge? L.05 m) 1 Vn: 2kQ R .L92 CHAPTER 24. In using Gauss' law to find the field.R. as 0 goes from 0 to .E T "/c'X+a pc) (0. you used r for that distance.I E .#ln'o'l :E.ig .44 x1o6 . we use Tpoint charge : H. but in the potential integral we're using Student: So the field inside the sphere is W when we do the integral. Which way are you going to try here? . ELECTHIC POTENTIAL * (#"4) ' EJ: T\rtor: E(An") #':E(4n") Qrs : 4v^psrz Qr nrop.dfr from someplace where we do know the potential. Tutor: Very good.ET kQr Wonderful. then we use A%oostant . If we can't do either of those. Vo: I"Wdn#*#lo"*dn *'J::8. T\rtor: The field inside the sphere is a function of how far we axe from the center of the sphere. vo:vn* Jn fo .Ir" E dn#* Student: What's wrong with that? Io" W dn ? r.y : r. Nory we can do the potential integral. a distance d away from the L Student: Let me see if I have this right. If the field is constant. If the field is from point charges. What is the potential at P. then we integrate the electric field AV . dn Tlrtor: Agaitr. vo:vn*. because otherwise I'm likely to make a sign error. AE. I prefer to reverse the limits.
so we can't do that. Student: We divide the rod into tiny bits. Or we could integrate the field. Vp: rw (Ll2) + (Ll2) + rn dr vp:ry fr"("+ Vp (t L12) + T\rtor: We can do algebra to simplify this. the variable of integration. As before. an maximum values for r? T\rtor: Student: Can I do the integral now? Sure. but we could divide it into point charges and add the potentials using an integral. everything there is a constant or r.193 Student: The field isn't a constant. What is the potential created by each tiny piece? the charge divided by the distance. It's probably easier to integrate the charge. r/^ [k(Qdrlt') YPJW T\rtor: Student: r What are the limits for the integral? What are the minimum goes from L12 to *L12. but the ph ysics of the problem is done. each dn long. Which way is easier? T\rtor: We can do it both ways for practice. the charge of each piece is dQ: (length of piece) x (charge of rod) (length of rod) f A ? I I I I \ L Ttrtor: Student: k times Good. The charge isn't a point charge. We have to do an integral either way. .
194 CHAPTER 24. As r moves from P to oo. ELECTHIC PO"ENTIAL Vp. we don't have to now. and that means doing an integral.dfr T\rtor: Just because r is the variable you're integrating over doesn't mean that the field depends on tr. But the field does depend on where we are. Student: The electric field is kQlr2. T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: It's easier to get the sign right that way. because we did that in an earlier example. But the field is not created by a point charge. Student: But [ Edfr then you want to integrate the other way.kQ L "'\(Ll2)+ Vp: F7py (Ll2)+@\ (Lt2)+@) vp:Yr^( ) /r vp:'#t"( Tntor: Student: Now you want to integrate the field for practice? Sure. Student: Arrg! We have to integrate over the charge to find the field? Thtor: Yes and no. we have to find the field. Student: True. we need the field at a distance fi. To get the potential at P. integrating the electric field. start at oo and go to ) P. 8. since n is our variable of integration. Yes. No. vp:voo. Ea: kQ .
d was the distance from the rod to the point where we found Student: So we replace d with c. . Er(t) the field. vpkelo*ffi Student: So we get the sarne answers either way.  Ilrtor: Yes. then we let s go from d to oo.195 Student: There's no r. T\rtor3 No.
If you start with a bunch of (equally 196 . After a while (which might be only microseconds) this process slows down and stops. such as cookie sheets. The amount of charge Q that can be stored on a capacitor with capacitance C is QCV Equal amounts of positive and negative charge are stored on the two plates of the capacitor. Then connect the two ends of a battery to the two cookie sheets. and the excess positive charge would go through the bulb.Chapter 25 Capacitance Imagine taking two large flat pieces of metal. and placing them parallel to each other but not touching. and Q is the absolute value of one of these two charges. One way to understand this difference is to imagine stacking books. and meet up with the excess negative charge on the other conductor. going into the negative terminal of the battery and leaving behind a net negative charge. the charges are trapped on the conductors. we can express as a potential energy (Icnp: it l . but the effect is the same).AV This is similar to the equation we had for the potential energy of a charge (U : qV) except for the onehalf. Since this energ"y can all be extracted later. The units of capacitance are farads (F). creating a momentary current. We could now connect the conductors to the two ends of a light bulb. When the positive charges get to the first conductor (cookie sheet). they can go no further so they collect there. It takes work to store charge on a capacitor. What if we were now to disconnect the battery from the cookie sheets? Could the charges on the conductors foresee what we're about to do and rush back into the battery? No. Other positive charges from the second conductor take the place of the previous charges. We have a device for storing small amounts of charge. Positive charge flows out of the positive end of the battery to the first cookie sheet (really it's negative charges flowing out of the negative end of the battery onto the other cookie sheet.
. We could add the work needed for each book. Tutor: Student: So why so many capacitors are mea"sured in microfarads or even picofarads. The second book takes a little work. I guess I can find the capacitance after all. an equation with those three. V. T\rtor: It's true that if you know two of the four. The second charge takes some work. It is not true that any two capacitors must be either in series or parallel.qV for individual charges. Use U . and the last charge takes the most work. The average is the work for the middle book. Q'+ 2u:cv ) ut"r' The next difficulty comes when we have two or more capacitors at the same time. Most capacitors aren't very big. Student: An infinite number of equations would be hard to remember. but use U . since it must be moved up by the thickness of the first book. and t/) and two equations. . don't we come up with another equation? We could . If we know any two of the four variables. EXAMPLE What size capacitor would you need to store 2 mJ when connected to a 12 V battery? Student: If we know any two of the four.L97 sized) books on the floor. We have four variables (C.oo2 J) : ia(12 pC v) Q 333 T\rtor: Student: That seems like a pretty small charge. we can solve for the others. and so on.ieV when each successive charge takes more work than the next. The total work is the charge times the average voltage. V T\rtor: We could come up with an equation for every problem. you can find the others. It's better to remember fewer equations and to combine them when necessary. until the last book takes the most work. or multiply the number of books by the aaerage work for each book. but I need an equation with [/. What can you find? Student: I can solve for the charge Q.. the third more.F Thtor: One farad is a big capacitance. but then there would be an infinite number of equations. Likewise it takes no work to put the first charge on the capacitor because with no charge it has no voltage. which is half of the final voltage. V. They store only a little charge. Q_CV 333 pC : C (12 V) C28p. When two devices are connected so that all of the charge that leaves one must go through the other. Likewise when two devices are connected so that they must have the same voltage. Q. but if they are then we can do something with them. it doesn't take any work to put the first book on the floor. Student: Now that I have the charge. If two capacitors are connected in series or in parallel. then we have ways of dealing with them. we say they are in parallel. but then 2 mJ seems like a pretty small amount of energy. The third book takes even more work. which is lifted to half the height of the pile. we can find the other two using our two equations. and C. we say they are in series. It's also true that we don't have (Jcrp:lO' (o.
The charges through Cz and C3 do not have to be equal. Now try moving your fingers. so that they are geometrically parallel. Aty two capacitors do not have to be either in series or in parallel. then C3 and Ca have the same voltage across them and they are in parallel (they are.198 CHAPTER 2 5. Are Cg and C2 in parallel? We can move a finger from E to D but we can't get from F to C. and you should be able to do this). Even though both are drawn vertically. then they can be treated as if they were a single capacitor. so Cz and C3 are not in series.{ CE How do we determine whether two capacitors are in series? Consid er C1 and Cz above. but only along wires and not across any circuit element. If by doing this you can get your fingers to lie at the two ends of C+. The capacitance of this replacement or "equivalent" capacitor is CpCt*Cz EXAMPLE Find the voltage across each capacitor. Flom there the charges can only go to C and through Cz to D. . they are not electrically parallel. C APACITAI. Take a finger from each hand. Charge passes from A through C1 to B. or by going through the battery and C1 (also not allowed). Cs and Cz are not in parallel. then they can be treated as if they were a single capacitor. The capacitance of this replacement or "equivalent" capacitor is G cr. The voltage difference between your fingers is equal to the voltage difference between the ends of Cs. or the voltage across C3. Ct and C2 are in series because the charges that pass through Ct must then go through Cz.c. Charges that pass through Cz to point D can go either through C3 to F or through Ca to H. and the charges that pass through the two must be equal. If two capacitors are in series. such as a capacitor or battery. We could only do this by jumping from one wire to another nearby wire (not allowed). and place them at each end of Cs. I 111 If two capacitors are in parallel. How do we determine whether two capacitors are in parallel? Consider Cs and Ca above. Therefore.
but we don't know that yet (and it won't be)." The voltage across is the difference in the voltages. T\rtor: Let's check. then it has the same voltage across it as Tutor: Student: the battery does? Yes. The voltage across the 6 pF capacitor is 6 volts. Student: And the 6 pF capacitor isn't in series with the 2 pF capacitor either. A battery creates a potential difference. or could some of it go somewhere else? Student: Some of the charge could go into the 2 pF capacitor. Student: So I can replace the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 pF capacitor with a 10 pF capacitor. then you can replace them with a single capacitor. then it has the same potential across it as the battery does. T\rtor: To be in series. Student: Okay. The top one slides over to the top of the battery. The 5 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. because it's a 6 volt battery? Tutor: Yes. or potentials. Are the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 frF capacitor in series or parallel? Student: They are in series. T\rtor: It isn't necessarily 6 volts. T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. all of which we need to check. Is the 5 pF capacitor in parallel with the battery? Student: Why does it matter? T\rtor: Two things in parallel have the same voltage across them. and that's 6 volts. Student: So the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 pF capacitor aren'tin series." I put one finger on each side of the 5 pF capacitor and try to move them to the ends of the battery. Student: So what can I do? Neither the 2 p. .F capacitor nor the 4 p. T\rtor: That's not enough. How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. and I'm there. Charge goes from the 6 to the 4. Student: So if the 5 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. Is the 6 pF capacitor in parallel with the battery? Student: Here we go again. Tutor: It gets faster with experience. .199 The voltage on the 5 pF capacitor is 6 volts. . Ttrtor: That's not enough. T\rtor: Slow down. and it can't do that. Student: If the 6 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. T\rtor: How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. A 6 volt battery creates a 6 T\rtor: volt potential difference." use "voltage across. The bottom one has to jump over the 2 pE capacitor or the 4 fB capacitor. I put one finger on each side of the 6 pF capacitor and try to move them to the two sides of the battery. Rather than "voltage on. &t the two ends. Student: Nor is the 4 pF capacitor in series with the 2 pF capacitor. Student: So the voltage across the 6 pF capacitor isn't 6 volts. T\rtor: How do you know that the voltage across the battery is 6 volts? Student: Uh.F capacitor is in parallel with the battery either. You just did three steps. T\rtor: Also correct. T\rtor: Correct. The voltage across the 5 pF capacitor is 6 volts. and I slide the bottom one over. . Does all of the charge that comes out of the bottom of the 6 pF capacitor have to go into the 4 pF capacitor. Student: . Tutor: If you can find two capacitors in series or parallel. How do you check? Student: I do the "finger test. Student: So the 6 pF capacitor is not in parallel with the battery. all of the charge from one must go into the other. I slide the top one over. T\rtor: . and the 8 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. Student: So the voltage across the 5 pF capacitor is the same as the voltage across the battery. Thtor: Correct. or voltage difference. It might be 6 volts.
Student: So I can replace the 4 pF capacitor and the 2 pF capacitor with a single capacitor? T\rtor: Yes. and the other from the bottom of the trio to the bottom of the battery.F .200 CHAPTER Correct. What does it mean that the trio is in parallel with the battery? Student: They have the same voltage. T\rtor: Yes. Student: T\rtor: Tbue. but not electrically parallel. One over the replacement capacitor is I 13 p. 111 Cs Cr C. Student: Is the replacement capacitor in series with the 6 pF capacitor? Check. 11111 c*^*. The replacement capacitor is not I 13 p. T\rtor: Right and wrong. but that doesn't mean that the voltage on each capacitor in the trio is 6 volts. but nowhere else. The trio is in parallel with the battery. Student: Now the trio of capacitors is in parallel with the 5 pF capacitor. Earlier you tried to add capacitors that you thought were in series. so the voltage on each of the three capacitors is 6 volts. I'll check to see if the 4 is in parallel with the 6. and try to move them to the two sides of the 6 pF capacitor. T\rtor: T\rtor: CpCr*Cz C+uzCa*Cz(4pF) +(2 pF) 6/rF Good. Sometimes we call it the equivalent capacitance of the trio of capacitors. so the voltage on the trio is 6 volts. but not always. T\rtor: Yes. Often two capacitors that are graphically parallel are also electrically parallel. Student: I don't need to combine the 5 pF capacitor with the other trio? . Student: So I can replace them with a single capacitor. Student: Oops. T\rtor: So the 6 fE capacitor is in series with the replacement capacitor.*(urtt GrrFt 1apE. but do be careful. T\rtor: No. The 6 pF capacitor and the 5 pF capacitor are graphically parallel. so you need to check for electrically parallel. They aren't that hard. but it doesn't affect whether or not the trio is in parallel with the battery. Student: It is. Isn't the 5 pF capacitor in the way? T\rtor: It may be between the battery and the trio. I put one finger on each side of the 4 pF capacitor. Tutor: Student: I had almost forgotten how much I enjoyed fractions. Student: Oh. How can the 4 pF capacitor and the 2 pF capacitor be in parallel when one is vertical and the other is horizontal? I\rtor: There's a difference between electrically parallel and graphically parallel. How do we add capacitors in parallel? Student: We add the capacitances.F So the replacement capacitor is 3 pF. like 116 + 116: IlI2. Student: The charge that comes out of the bottom of the 6 pF capacitor can go into the top of the 4 pF capacitor. or into the left side of the 2 pF capacitor. Student: Okay. but I can't move the other from the bottom of the 4 to the top of the 6. The voltage across the trio is 6 volts. Tlrtor: But you can move them to the two sides of the 2 pF capacitor. but not necessary. or with the 42 pair.cu+ c*r. 25. CAPACITANCE Thtor: T\rtor: Student: Are some of them in parallel? Check. I can move one finger from the top of the 6 to the top of the battery.1opFt * c*^*CpE. 11121 Tntor: . tu rty T\rtor: Be careful that you don't do something silly. I can move one from the top of the 4 to the bottom of the 6.
Student: But EXAMPLE Find the voltage across each capacitor. 111113 co*. So for each charge it's 3 volts plus 3 volts. then I can replace them with a single capacitor. so they have to have the same voltage across them. so I'll check that first. Student: What if the 6 and the 42 pair didn't have the same capacitance? T\rtor: Then they wouldn't have the same voltage. so 12 volts. capacitor. How do we combine capacitors in series? Thtor: When charge comes so they are in series. are in series or parallel. cbcrc.F Student: . L2V 6rlt 12 Student: volts. Good.* Cpair 111 turtt GpF) What is the voltage across the 2 pF pair? The pair is in parallel with the battery.r.F Student: By adding their reciprocals. so it has the same voltage as the battery. so each coulomb of charge leaves the battery with 6 joules of energy. then through the 42 pair (which is also 6 pF). Neither capacitor is in parallel with the battery. out of the 3 p. which is 6 volts. Student: I think that they're in series. so the voltage across the capacitors isn't Tbtor: Good. Why are you asking about the charge? T\rtor:  2 p. Student: But if the capacitors TUtor: Yes.20L One volt is one joule per coulomb. Let's do that in the next example. it has nowhere to go other than into the 6 pF capacitor.F capacitor. Student: How can we be sure that it's 3 and 3? Tbtor: Because the two capacitors (6 and 42 pair) have the same capacitance. How much energy does the coulomb of charge "spend" to get through each capacitor? Student: Does it spend 3 joules and 3 joules? T\rtor: Student: No? T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes. That's 9 volts! Each coulomb of charge goes through first the 6 pF capacitor and then either the 4 pF capacitor or the 2 pF capacitor. then the three capacitors in the trio each have 3 volts across them. First the charges go through the 6 p.cr+ cu: 1e1. T\rtor: What is the charge on the equivalent capacitor? Student: We're trying to find voltage.
ff :".I C Vs:XVo:XThey need to. coming out of the bottom of the first capacitor and going into the top of the second capacitor..202 CHAPTER 25.*r:. but their combined charge would be the same as the 6. they each have all of the charge. so if we know the charge we can : CpaivVpair  (2 pF) (I2 V) : 24 p'C T\rtor: Tntor: Think about what happens to the charge . There it stops. There's a gap.lT:'. Student: The charge on the equivalent capacitor is Qp^i. the 42 pair would have the same charge as the 6? T\rtor: Yes. when the 42 pair wa^s in series with the 6. The 4 and the 2 would not each have the same charge as the 6. T\rtor: True. so the charge can't go any further. : CV.tlllrl: . CAPACITANCE Tlrtor: Because that's how we get to voltage. When capacitors are in series. 24 p. Remember that Q find the voltage. Student: How much of that charge is on each capacitor? Half on each? Ttrtor: Student: So there's 24 p.fi ffi ffi"'iffi . ::T'r:"TL'. QCV v. 24 p. but in series they each get the whole charge. and it stops. Student: Now that we know the charges on the capacitors.C of charge on each capacitor?! Yes. because each coulomb of charge uses up 12 joules a. Student: In the last example. T\rtor: Student: Look! They add up to 12 volts. and different positive charges leave the other plate. T\rtor: Yes.'JIT1T""H:JHilt?#. Student: But you said a moment ago that the charges can't go through a capacitor. Positive charges stop on one plate.C of charge takes it's place. we can find the voltages. and 24 p. Student: So capacitors in parallel share charge.C of charge from the bottom of the second capacitor goes into the bottom of the battery.C of charge comes out of the battery and goes into the first capacitor.s it goes through the two capacitors.T'lf :lif.#H?'. The rules for adding capacitors in series and parallel were invented so that the voltages would add up to 12 volts.
and the current density is equal to the density n of charges times the charge e of each times the average drift velocity 't)4. Resistance is measured in ohms. These two are connected. we know any two of the four variables. i. =1.1 C/t). So far we have simply Not anymore. An electric field in a conducting material causes a current density ? J'. the quicker energy is turned into heat in the resistor. Consider also the energy used in the resistor. we To find the resistance of a wire. The current appears because the valence electrons drift in the conducting material. but an electric field causes current density. or rate of energy used in the resistor. Current is mea.se omega (1 O . V. or 6 joules per coulomb. is P The units of power used earlier work here (1 v)(1 A) iV 1w  volts times amps equals watts. An electric fteld in conducting material causes current moving charges. o is the conductivity of the material. Most of the time we care more about the current than the current density. Of more practical importance is Ohmts law. and p is the resistivity of the material (o . . Each charge uses an energy that depends on the change in the potential is volts. . V:iR The difference in voltage (or potential) between the two sides of a resistor is equal to the current through the resistor times the resistance of the resistor.1 I d. the faster coulombs of charge go through.sured in amperes (1 A .(1 rl$$El"):1 rlrIf We have four variables (n. and P) and two equations. The more current. waited until the charges quit moving and the electric field disappeared.Chapter 26 Current and Resistance So far.1 V/A). So the power. the symbol for ohms is the Greek letter upperca. To avoid confusing an upperca. w€ have not had moving charges or electric fields in conducting materials.se (60" with a zero. J+(ne)da:oE! \ /w p A The current density J is the current i divided by the crosssectional area A. we use R:+ 203 . can find the other two using our two equations.if the voltage difference between the two sides of the resistor 6 then each coulomb of charge uses 6 joules of energly getting through the resistor.
which is not correct. just so long as it has the same cross section over its whole length. but I don't know the current. Student: resistance.iV. You'll need to find the current in order to use Ohm's law.204 CHAPTER 26. Remember that variables are in italics and units in regular type. then put that current back into Ohm's law to find the resistance. I can use Ohm's law V . but after a while the number become too large. Student: I could use P . It to say that V . Tutor: Be careful.83 A)n 12ov r44e R.100Wand V . which is correct.83 A T\rtor: Student: It seems like we could We could. Your first statement said that the potential difference (or voltage) was equal to 120 volts. Icansolvefortheothertwo.0. Iknow P. The power travels through wires with a total resistance of 2 O. I do have two of them. Your second statement said that the potential difference was equal to I20 times the potential difference. current. I'm going to have to be careful. Better to be able to use a few formulas many ways. P iv: (t*) u: # of formulas would Tlrtor: We could invent a formula for euery situation. EXAMPLE A light bulb uses 100 watts of power when attached to I20 volts. invent a new formula for this. so I should be able to find the i_#0.iR. What is the resistance of the light bulb? V : IR and P: IV v2 P D_v v 'uI Plv Rq4g (100 w) seems strange r44e Student: If Iknowtwoof thefour. How much power is lost in the wires? .83A V:iR (120 V) : (0. Ttrtor: tue. CURREATT A/VD RESISTAI{CE where p and A are the resistivity of the material and the crosssectional area above. It is not necessary for the wire to be round or cylindrical. T\rtor: Very good.120V. EXAMPTE A power plant delivers 100 MW of electrical power to the big city at 50 kV. but I can't use it to solve for the resistance. I could use it to find the PiV 100W:i(120V) Yes. and ^L is the length.I20V.
so with three of the four this should be In fact. You know two of the four for the big city. then that would be the current through the wires. are the two resistors in series? T\rtor: We'll handle series and parallel resistors in the next chapter. One is the resistance of the wires to the big city. (i*iruRwire) . The current isn't mentioned.icityV. and Student: I the second is the resistance of the big city. I have the power and I want the power. but don't give up. T\rtor: Is the number of charges passing through the wire equal to the number of charges passing through the big city? Student: You mean. I want the power. But you could find them. and I can't do the Student: problem. What do you know about the T\rtor: Student: The power is 100 MW and the voltage is 50 kV.8 x 106 W . have the power and the voltage and the resistance. I suppose I could. I know only one of the four. that's what I mean. Wire City 50 V kv MW i R 2Q ? 1OO P What happens to the charges after they go through the wire? Student: They go through the big city. Tutor: What do you know about the resistance of the wires? The resistance is 2 Q. Is the voltage 50 KV? T\rtor: 50 kV is the voltage across the resistance of the big city. so you could find the other two if you wanted. T\rtor: So if you found the current through the big city. Student: They are in series.itv 100 MW icity (50 kV) T\rtor: Student: Yes.  ?'city : 100 MW 100 50kV x 106 W 50x103V  2000 A P*ir" : iwireT*ir" : i*ir. Student: I could do that.(2000 A)'Q q .8 MW . You would know two of the four and could solve for the power in the wires. but y€s.i'*rr"Rrvire . P"ity . so what's the problem? T\rtor: The problem is that there are two resistors. Student: So I don't know the voltage across the wires. So the currents are the same.205 easy. T\rtor: It is true that you know only one of the resistance of the big city? four. I don't know the current or the resistance.
like 350 kV. tu_tu d'. T\rtor: It is true that we don't have a value. but we do know something about it. How do you deal with scaling problems? T\rtor: Student: I work out an equation Student: Isn't it just Student: for each case. the current is oneseventh as much. Tlrtor: What is the length of the wire afterward (Lz)? Student: The problem doesn't say. 4prl D dRt:1t'2@ T[tor: The 4 and the zr cancel.r' Student: Excellent. and R2 for the resistance afterward. So my electric bill is 8% higher because of energy lost in the wires? Tutor: To avoid this./ r\ 2 Arr27r(. We change the diameter so that the resistances are the same. then the resistivities are the same.) rd2 use R1 for the original resistance. 4pzLz Student: If the wires are made What do you know about the two resistivities? of the same material. and likewise ev R4PL Student: erything So I'll else. What is the appropriate equation? RT\rtor: Student: PL A Almost. and the power in the wires is L 149 as much or 98% less only 0. Lz:7Lt . CUHREN" AND RESISTANCE About 8 % of the power is lost in the wires. . T\rtor: It is. RtTutor: o_r!rr. Student: EXAMPTE f If the length of a wire is increased by a factor of 7. d2.206 Tlrtor: Student: CHAPTER 26. Rz:'. and divide or substitute equatiorrs..27o is lost. before and afber. by what factor must we change the diameter of the wire so that the resistance remains unchanged? No numbers. the electric company delivers electricity at much higher voltages. Student: We know that the length afterward is seven times the length beforehand. What do you know about the two resistances? They are the same. The area is .That's better. This is one of those "scaling" problems. Very good. At seven times the voltage. You want to get the diameter involved.
1 (7) Fr:@ Ilrtor: Ilrtor: Ilrtor: Student: I still can't d. Lr (7L) with the factor of seven left behind. And that's true regardless of the specific values. Solve for d.. .z rlre:rt d. And we need to multiply it by rt.207 Ilrtor: 4:T So the length cancels.2 anJrway. Student: The question was: by what factor do we need to change the dia. solve and get a rnalue'for d2.meter.
How do we determine whether two resistors are in series? Consider Rr and R2 above. we say they are in parallel. or neither. Flom there the charges can only go to C and through Rz to D. Rt and Rz arc in series because the charges that pass through Rr must then go through Rz. or the voltage across R3. Place a finger at each end of R3. capacitor. The currents through R2 and R3 do not have to be equal. Two resistors in series act the same as a single resistor that has resistance BsRr*Rz Likewise. How do we determine whether two resistors (or capacitors) are in parallel? Consider R3 and . when two devices are connected so that they must have the same voltage. If by doing this you can get your fingers to lie at the two ends of Ra. so ^Rz and R3 are not in series. The voltage difference between your fingers is equal to the voltage difference between the ends of . Now try moving your fingers.Ra above. such as a resistor. or battery. resistors can be in series.Chapter 27 What happens if you have two (or more) resistors in the same circuit? We did this with capacitors. and the currents through the two must be equal. Current passes from A through B1 to B.Rs. but only along wires and not across any circuit element. then Rs and Rq have the same voltage across them and they are in 208 . we say they are in series. or in parallel. Two resistors in parallel act the same as a single resistor that has resistance 111 Rp Rr R. Note that these rules are the reverse of the rules for capacitors. and now we'll do it with resistors. Like before. When two devices are connected so that they must have the same current. Charges that pass through Rz to point D can go either through Rs to F or through Ra to H.
Rs and Rz in parallel? We can move a finger from E to D but we can't get from f' to C.cross the 5 O resistor is 6 volts. T\rtor: How do you know? Student: Because it's in parallel with the 6 volt battery. I slide the top one over. Rs and Rz are not in parallel. How do you check? Student: I do the "finger test. and I slide the bottom one over. I put one finger on each side of the 4 Q resistor and try to move them to the two sides of the battery." I put one finger on each side of the 5 O resistor and try to move them to the ends of the battery. Two resistors do not have to be either in series or in parallel. Are . The top one slides over to the top of the battery.I R) can be applied to any resistor. It's important to keep track of what value applies to what circuit element or group of elements. or voltage difference. T\rtor: How do you know that the voltage across the battery is 6 volts? Student: Because a battery creates a potential difference. Even though both are drawn vertically. Ohm's law (V . but it can also be applied to a pair in series.209 parallel (they are. but it can also be applied to a pair in series. and the techniques involved are very similar. so that they are geometrically parallel. they are not electrically parallel. or by going through the battery and Rr (also not allowed). When doing more complicated circuits. The bottom one has to jump over the 3 C) Tutor: Student: . We have found that Rz and Rs are neither in series nor in parallel. The voltage o. T\rtor: It is a lot like that example. then it has the same potential across it as the battery does. Let's see how much you remember. or to any group of capacitors. we often do the series and parallel thing many times. We could only do this by jumping from one wire to another nearby wire (not allowed). and you should be able to do this). How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. Student: Student: This looks a lot like the capacitor circuit example from a couple of chapter ago. Is the 4 Q resistor in parallel with the battery? Student: Oops. The voltage across the 4 Q resistor is 6 volts. Therefore. T\rtor: That's not enough. T\rtor: All good. The 5 CI resistor is in parallel with the battery. and I'm there. EXAMPLE F Find the voltage across each resistor. If the 4 Q resistor is in parallel with the battery. Likewise Q : CV can be applied to any capacitor. Two things in parallel have the same voltage across them. A 6 volt battery creates a 6 volt potential difference. or to any group of resistors. T\rtor: Yes.
T\rtor: Doing well. T\rtor: True. even if they are not graphically parallel. Yes. or into the left side of the 6 CI resistor. I put one finger on each side of the 3 O resistor. + +60  6o _ 2a The replacement resistor is not I12 O. Student: Like finding the charge in the trio a couple chapters ago. That doesn't mean that the voltage on each of the three resistors is 6 volts. It takes more joules for charges to get through the 4 Q resistor. 2 dl. Student: The current that comes out of the bottom of the 4 0 resistor can go into the top of the 3 resistor. so we can determine the voltage on the trio. and the other from the bottom of the trio to the bottom of the battery. I can move one from the top of the 3 to the top of the 6. The trio is in parallel with the battery. What does it mean that the trio is in parallel with the battery? Student: They have the same voltage. lhtor: Can you find two resistors in either series or parallel? Check to see if the 4 O resistor and the 3 O It can't do that. I can move one finger from the top of the 4 to the top of the battery. T\rtor: To be in series. Tutor: If I can find two resistors in series or parallel. Sometimes we call it the equivalent resistance of the pair of resistors. then I can replace them with a single resistor. and I can move the other from the bottom of the 3 to the bottom of the 6.2r0 resistor or the 6 CI CHAPTER resistor. so the voltage fioules per coulomb) on the 4 Q resistor is higher. but nowhere else. One volt is one joule per coulomb. R. First the charges go through the 4 Q resistor. but the reciprocal. So the voltage across the 4 Q resistor isn't 6 volts. So the 4 Oresistor is not in parallel with the battery. and try to move them to the two sides of the 6 Q resistor.io . but it doesn't affect whether or not the trio is in parallel with the battery. 27. T\rtor: Excellent. all of the charge or current from one must go into the other. so the voltage across the trio is 6 volts. Student: So how do I find the voltage across each of the resistors in the trio? T\rtor: You need to find the current through the trio. T\rtor: So the 4 Q resistor is in series with the replacement resistor. 3 CI R. O Rs:Rt*Rz Rt. Vrio: itrioEtrio . but not necessary. Ttrtor: Correct. Student: I believe that the 3 O resistor is in parallel with the 6 O resistor. Tutor: Check to be sure.R+ * Rsu6 . Student: Then I can replace them with a single resistor. How do we'add resistors in parallel? Student: We add the reciprocals of the resistances. Student: Does aII of the current that comes out of the bottom of the 4 Q resistor have to go into the 3 Q resistor.(4 O) + (2 O) : 6 Cl Student: The trio of resistors has an equivalent resistance of 6 Q. Isn't the 5 O resistor in the way? T\rtor: It may be between the battery and the trio. Rt*T\rtor: Student: 1111131 R. Student: It is. They are in parallel electrically. or with the 36 pair. then through the 36 pair (which is 2 Q). Rsuo . 111 ^Rp R. Student: So the 4 Q resistor and the 3 O resistor aren't in series. resistor are in series. CIRCUITS T\rtor: Correct. so each coulomb of charge leaves the battery with 6 joules of energy.2 Q Student: The replacement resistor is in series with the 4 Q resistor. or could some of it go somewhere else? Some of the current could go into the 6 O resistor. This trio of resistors is in parallel with the 5 CI resistor.
The 4 Q resistor has twice the resistance as the 36 pair. and either way the sum of the voltages is 6 volts. or 6 joules for each coulomb of charge. The node rule: The currents into any point or element in the circuit is the same as the current out of that point or element. T\rtor: Student: So V3 Vo:Vpair:2V. so it must have twice the voltage. because the voltage across the trio is not affected by the presence of the 5 Q resistor. so that the total current from the battery is 2. o The loop rule: The sum of the voltage . They go through the 4 and the 3. T\rtor: Correct. Look at the 4 Q resistor and the 2 Q pair. and then through the 36 pair. Student: Is there a current through the 5 C.2 A. The current through the pair is 1 A. Student: Ct resistor No.2 A. so that the two numbers add up to 6? Tntor: Student: Isn't there some shortcut? T\rtor: Student: Four and two. This is true regardless of the 5 O resistor. Student: What do I do.2LT 6V:itrio(6O) itrio  1A One amp of current goes through the trio. If the numbers are nice. because none of the charges go through all three resistors of the trio. then sometimes. In general. Now you can use Ohm's law to find the voltage across the pair. sometimes you can do and often they aren't even integers. and the current through the pair is 1 A. And it's not a problem that 4+2+2#6. Can you think of two numbers. changes along any closed path in the circuit is zero. so they have the same current. The voltage difference across the pair is the same as the voltage across the 3 and the same as the voltage across the 6 CI resistor. Also. In more complicated circuits. and then through the 36 pair. T\rtor: Now you can find the voltage across the 4 Q resistor. Yes. or through the 4 and the 6. no. va(r T\rtor: A)(4Q) :4V What is the current through the 36 pair? Student: All of the current that goes through the trio goes through the 4Q resistor first. There is a current of I. Vpair :'ipairBpair Vpair  (1 A)(2 Q) : 2V T\rtor: The voltage across the pair is 2 volts. that. When the numbers are nice. Student: Using Ohm's law. Good. one twice as big as the other. The are in series. What is the voltage across the 3 O resistor? Student: Doesn't the 3 Q resistor get all of the 2 volts? Tbtor: It does. equivalent resistance is not enough. The current through the 4 Q resistor is 1 A. now that I know the current through the trio? Tntor: What is the current through the 4 Q resistor? Student: AII of the current that goes through the trio goes through the 4Q resistor first. Kirchhoff has two rules for dealing with circuits: . Usually the numbers aren't nice. We need more powerful tools. the voltage must add up to 6 volts. resistor? T\rtor: Oh yes. Yes. T\rtor: Student: V+: i+Rq.
This is why in a complex circuit the sum of the resistor voltages is not equal to the battery voltage. but we don't have a rule for replacing a battery 3 Q resistor left to right could go down through the 2 Q resistor. When we get back to the starting place. It is not important that our choice be correct negative value indicates that the current is opposite to our choice. adding all of the changes be zero. do you go to a higher or a lower potential? . In practice. and the change is 6 volts. Instead the sum of the voltages along the path that any charge takes adds up to be equal to the battery voltage. we usually come across resistors. and go around a loop adding the voltage changes. T\rtor: The 3 CI resistor is in series with the 6 V battery. when you returned to your starting spot In the process.the sum of the changes would be zero. we follow complete loops adding up the voltage changes. we choose a direction to be positive current through the resistor. Kirchhoff's loop rule says that the energy that each charge has (12 joules for each coulomb if it comes from a 12 volt battery) must be exactly used up by the charge as it goes from the positive to the negative terminal of the battery. We do what we always do in physics when we want to put a value into an equation and we don't have a valu invent a variable. EXAMPLE What is the current through the 5 O resistor? 3 o b Cl Y T\rtor: Are any of the resistors in series or parallel? Student: Is the 3 0 resistor in series with the 2 O resistor? I'll check. The 3 CI resistoris not inserieswitheither the 2Q resistororthe 5 Q resistor. T\rtor: So as you move up over the battery. Student: So we need to use the advanced tools. A complete loop is one where we start and stop at the same place. Current that goes through the it could also go right through the 5 O resistor. Student: Ok y.) in elevation. The voltage across the resistors depends on the current. It is important that we use our choice consistently. Because the current could go in either direction. I don't see anything in series or parallel. the sum of the voltage changes must if you took a mountain hike. This variable or symbol represents the current through the resistor. and we don't know the current. T\rtor: T\rtor: Is the change positive or negative? How do Student: I tell? Which end of the battery is at a higher potential? Student: The end with the longer line on the symbol. (This is essentially conservation of energy . First I go through the 6 volt battery. which is the top end in this circuit.2L2 CHAPTER 27. and the voltage across the resistor is I R. I'll start at the bottom left corner. T\rtor: Pick a point. but and a resistor in series. This is the same idea we have used to say that two devices in series had to have the same current. CIRCUITS Kirchhoff's node rule says that charge cannot collect anywhere.
T\rtor: Careful. +6V(30)i3 QQ)i' o T\rtor: Good. Your choice of axis did not affect the motion of the car. Student: Now I go through the 3 Q resistor. so I need to invent a variable. so no. so the change in potential is negative. determined by the circuit configuration. Student: I'll use i2. First I go through the 2 Q resistor. T\rtor: Is the current through the 2 Q resistor equal to the current through the 3 O resistor? Student: If it is. I don't know the current through the resistor. The voltage across the 3 O resistor is equal to the resistance times the current. then they are in series. We have two variables and one equatior. I choose i to be the current. We're going to have more than one current that we don't know. If you go with the current. and if you go against the current. Student: Wait a minute. How about using i3? Student: The three must be for the 3 O resistor. T\rtor: Good. I need to pick a direction. The voltage across the 2 O resistor is equal to the resistance times the current. So you need to do another loop. Now you're back where you started. Draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit. so the higher potential is at the left and the lower potential is at the right. I draw on the circuit. you got to decide whether the car was moving in the positive or negative direction. T\rtor: So you need a different variable name for the current through the 2 O resistor. with the current. Okay. Thtor: And then the negative value of i3 will make everything work out right. but only the sign you used to represent the motion of the car. Can you solve this equation to find the current through the 5 CI resistor? Student: That current isn't even in this equation. The current is going left to right. The higher potential is at the top and the lower potential is at the bottom. Now do the next circuit element. so it is positive. Is the change positive or negative? Student: I'm not sure. Is the change in potential positive or negative? Student: The change is to increase the potential. Pick either direction. We already determined that they aren't in series. so we'll need more than one current variable. Draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit so that you'll remember what you chose. So the voltage across the 3 CI resistor is (3 Cr)(is). When a car was moving on the highway. I'm moving across the resistor from left to right. Student: Which way is the current going? Tutor: You get to decide. so I'll choose downward as positive iz. You already chose a variable and direction. Student: I go down across the 2 Q resistor. and all I have to do is use the direction I chose consistently.213 T\rtor: Student: I go to a higher potential. so the change in voltage is negative. The current is certainly going one way or the other. you're going to lower potential. T\rtor: Good. What if I'm wrong? T[rtor: Then the value of i3 will be negative. Tutor: Yes. Student: Okay. T\rtor: Good. Student: So I add all of the voltage changes and they have to add up to zero. I'm going downward. need to choose a variable and direction for the current through the 2 Q resistor. I at the bottom middle. solve so we can't Ttrtor: Tutor: it for anything. toward lower potential. the current is going one way or the other. and your choice does not change the actual current but rather the sign you use to represent the current. Student: Okay. Here you are choosing an axis. Is the voltage change positive or negative? Student: The current is going left to right. you're going to higher potential. Yes. But if I choose the current direction wrong then those will be reversed. you go from a lower to a higher potential. they are not equal. from higher potential to lower potential. Student: I'll do the righthand loop. You get to choose which way to call positive. How can I be the one to decide? I\rtor: True. How do I tell? Ttrtor: Current goes from higher potential to lower potential. it doesn't matter as long as you use it consistently. starting .
(5 O)ir . Now I go across the battery. so the change is positive (2 CI) (iz). I'm going with the current. Is i5 what you're trying to find? . so the change in voltage is negative. CIRCUITS T\rtor: No. toward lower potential. 5. The voltage difference across the battery is the same. Now Student: Okry. The voltage difference on the battery is 4 volts. Tutor: Student: T\rtor: Student: But I'd have three equations and three unknowns. I could solve them. Do I need a variable for the current through the battery? No. you have to use the direction you chose earlier. + (2 Q)i. Maybe around the outside. current and toward higher potential. I need to do another loop. but I can't do another loop. T\rtor: Tempting though that might be. Can you solve this equation to find the voltage across the 5 CI resistor? No. Tutor: Correct. so I choose is and left to right is the positive direction. so the sum of the voltage changes is zero. I draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit. When you solved them.Ct b 6V 4V T\rtor: T\rtor: battery. The resulting equation would be the of the loops you've already done . .4 V: o Good. T\rtor: Student: Now I have three equations and three unknowns. where the connection to the 2 Q resistor comes in. Student: Now I go across the 5 Q resistor. Student: You may be getting the hang of this. Going around the outside is the same as doing both 3. Student: I don't get to choose against the for that yet. Look at the spot midway between the 3 O resistor and the 5 O resistor. Tutor: Can you solve the two equations together? Student: Then I have two equations but three different unknowns. T\rtor: Student: How does that work? T\rtor: Student: So i3 in has to equal i2 * is out? ig:'iz*is Correct.6. I'm going toward lower potential. so again I can't solve yet. That wouldn't help. 2. You wouldn't have three 'independent equations. Student: So that's what you mean about using the direction consistently. Charge can't build up there. I'm back where I started. You need to do a "node rule" equation. I can solve for i5. That is your third equation. I'm going upward. it won't help. because there are two unknowns in the equation. regardless of the current through the so the change is negative. you would cancel stuff until you got to something like 6 : 6. I don't have a variable 3 Cl . back through the 2. Student: So I need another equation. so the current going into that spot has to equal the current going out of that spot.2L4 CHAPTER the direction again? 27. 4. same as if we added the two equations you already have. Tutor: Good.
So I'd say that the voltage is really 1. J 2 O 3 o l2v 5C)+8V Student: I need "loop rule" equations around of the nodes. EXAMPLE Find the current through each resistor.c + i.( 3Iol +( lis (5 O)iu . (6. then I can find the voltage. I need the voltage across the 5 O resistor. It's perfectly okay now. T\rtor: Student: Thtor: Correct. Which side of the 5 O resistor is at the higher voltage? Student: The current really goes from right to left.1.3 volts. +6V. There is a tendency to use the most recently learned technique for everything. L3  iz *is z) ?. ig + v( 3\ v .(2 Q)i2 6 (5 CI)iz: o 3 Ifo))i.2Q)i1(5Q)iu 4V:0 o Student: It left. came out negative.26 A That means that the current through the 5 O resistor is really right to T\rtor: Student: I use Ohm's Very good.6 V is : 0.4 V : +(2CI) ( +(5 0) ') +2. with positive is being left to right and i5 having a negative value.g V (30 )xi + 6'l u) . and then "node rule" equations for each Tutor: Slow down. Then you'd get confused over the direction of the current.o + (2 cl)i ( 5(o))iu4v0 2 ?.4V (1 .215 Student: No. But if I know i5. right? T\rtor: Right.(:3iQ )it . It might .(3 o)i5 + (5 0)i 21.3 V Remember that the negative indicates direction. each of the loops.2 0)is : 1. . Vs : isRs .(0. so the right side is at the higher potential.26 A)(5 O) .+ r6 t)i 6V.(2 Q)i. shouldn't I reverse the direction on my drawing? T\rtor: No. What is the voltage across the 5 O resistor? law and the current to find the voltage. Student: Since the current ended up being negative.
: A So if we haven't learned anything new. I can put one finger on each end of the 5 O resistor and move one from the top of the resistor to the top of the battery. Student: So does the 2 Q resistor. We can solve the equation from your loop but not mine. is : it==ipair: Voair 8 V :2 AO E. they have to have the same voltage. CIRCUITS not be necessary. The voltage across the 5 0 resistor is 12 volts. f see. and the other from the bottom of the resistor to the bottom of the battery. What can you tell me about the 3 O resistor and the 1 O resistor? Student: They are in series. All of the current that goes through the 3 O resistor has to go through the 1 Q resistor it has nowhere else to go. T\rtor: What does that mean? Student: Because they are in parallel. That equivalent resistor is in parallel with the 8 volt battery. T\rtor: How many variables are in my loop? Student: One for the 2 Q resistor. T\rtor: Exactly. What about the 2 Q resistor? either the 12 volt battery or the 8 volt battery. the 5 Q resistor. Why are you so excited about your loop rather than mine? T\rtor: How many variables are in your loop? Student: One for each resistor. Tutor: Student: . iz:2 A Tutor: Two down. I can replace them with a single resistor of 4 O. Student: But I can't combine all of the resistors using series and parallel. why did we do this example? To make the point that you don't have to use your "best" tool for every job. Look at the two batteries. Tbtor: But it is in parallel with the 12 volt battery. two to go.(2 Q)i. The 5 Q resistor isn't in series or parallel with any of the other resistors. The current through the 5 Q resistor is 6:+:ry2. Student: So look for series and parallel pieces and simple loops before resorting to lots of loop equations. The batteries and the 2 Q resistor form a loop. and the 8 volt battery. Student: It's not in parallel with +12V(2Q)ir8V:o 4v . so two.4A Rs 5O Ttrtor: T\rtor: One down. Student: It is.216 CHAPTER 27.
The magnetic force on a moving charge is always perpendicular to the magnetic field and is always perpendicular to the velocity of the charged particle. 1f u and the angle between them is zero and there is no magnetic force. then 217 . Imagine a proton moving out of the page in a magnetic field that points left to right.Chapter 28 Magnetic Fields Charges create electric field. Hold your hand so that the fingers point out of the page (as in the figure) keep your fingers pointing out of the page and rotate your hand so that the palm points right curl your fingers from out to right . for each step we need a way to find the direction and a formula to find the magnitude. For magnetic field. and magnetic field creates forces on moving charges. this equation contains both the magnitude and direction information. Also. To determine whether the magnetic force is into the page or out of the page we use the righthand rule. The equation for magnetic force is F'u qd  t a' Because it is a vector equation. This chapter is about finding the magnetic force created by the magnetic field. the magnitude of the magnetic force is Fn  lqlrB sin @ where d it the angle between the velocity of the moving charge and the magnetic field. Instead. B are parallel. the magnetic force a the wire is Fn where Z is the length of the wire. for each step we needed a way to find the direction and a formula to find the magnitude. We don't typically use the vector equation.where does your thumb point? Up the page. When we did electric field. Note that any magnetic force problem must be threedimensional. : iLB sin @ Then we need to find the direction of the magnetic force. Moving charges create magnetic field. The next chapter is about finding the magnetic field created by the moving charges. ' If q is negative. and electric field creates forces on charges. then that reverses the direction of the magnetic force. When lots of charges are moving in a current. Is there any direction that is perpendicular to both out of the page and right at the same time? Only up the page and down the page.
field strong handheld magnet typically produces a magRetic field strength EXAMPLE fA +10 pC charge moves from left to right at a speed of 5 x 106 m/s. Fn : lqlrB sin @ Student: I know the charge. Oh.1 T.218 CHAPTER 28. if the page were a clock.04 T)sin60o : 17. it would be parallel to the velocity. Maguetic field is measured in tesla: 1T1N/Am1Nt/Cm A tesla is a large magRetic of 0. Student: I have to find the direction too? Tbtor: Student: I need to use the righthand rule. Tutor: If the magnetic field pointed to three o'clock. Tlrtor: Now. so the angle is twethirds of the way from 0o to 90o. or 60o. rotate your hand so that the palm points in the direction of the magnetic field. and the magnetic field. the speed.04 T)sin/ What is the angle /? the angle between the velocity and the magnetic field.3 N Thtor: Thtor: What is the direction of the magnetic force? Force is a vector and has direction. How do I do that? Begin by pointing your fingers in the direction of the velocity. There is a 0. like in a 3D movie.rrow coming at trs (O symbol). Here it's less than 90o. Fa: Tlrtor: Student: It's (10 pC)(5 t 106 m/s)(0.04 one o'clock. but drawing one into or out of the page is less so. MAGNETIC FIELDS Drawing a vector up the page or right is easy. What would the angle be if the magnetic field pointed tonrard twelve o'clock? Student: Then it would be 90o. while keeping your fingers pointed in that directior. Fn : (10 pC)(5 x 106 m/s)(0. Student: . T magnetic field toward Tlrtor: Student: How are you going to do this? We have a formula to tell us the magnetic force. So I point my fingers to the right. To describe a vector into the page we lne the tailfeathers of the arrosr going asray from us (8 or x symbol). Find the magnetic force on the charge.01 T to 0. To describe a vector out of the page we use the dot of the a.
then the force would be the other w&y. We can create both of those. Is it? Student: Yes. EXAMPLE so The Earth's magnetic field is about 50 pT northward. Ttrtor: That's the direction of the magnetic force. Yes. and down. Now let's check. T\rtor: It could be a combination. So I have to decide whether it's into the page or whatever? T\rtor: There is no "page" here. Student: Just how far should I curl my fingers? Tutor: Basically 90". but what is the direction of the velocity? Student: Oh. so they can be in any direction. west. up. into the page? T\rtor: Correct. the fingers move. you have to do the velocity first and then the field. T\rtor: Student: If points toward me. relative to the page? Student: It points out of the page. The force is upward. Draw an imaginary line to the right. When we use the compass as our reference. The direction of the magnetic force has to be perpendicular to both the velocity of the charge and the magnetic field. and out of. When we do 3D problems with the page as a reference. down. But nature decides what direction the magnetic force is. Could the velocity be up? Tutor: Student: T\rtor: If the velocity is up. so that you can always get the right answer. . So this time I already know the direction of the magnetic force. They no longer point to the right. could the magnetic Student: How can I decide? force be up? . T\rtor: The rightward component of the magnetic field doesn't create any force. west. our directions are up. so we care only about the T\rtor: Student: If I rotate upward component. Student: So the velocity is either north. Find the velocity that an electron would have to have that the magnetic force balances gravity. and nature makes the force perpendicular to the velocity and the field. into. right. Student: And if the charge wa^s a negative charge. Student: But the magnetic field isn't up. it's up and to the right. east. or you'll get the opposite answer. There are many ways to determine the correct direction of the magnetic force. What now? Curl your fingers toward the magnetic field. Also. south east. B sin / is the component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the velocity of the Tutor: point? Now my palm is up and my fingers point to the right. Ttrtor: Those don't have to be.2r9 my hand. Student: But if I do both . Student: Student: Is that what the sin r/ does? Yes. up. It is important that you have a systematic approach. s&y southeast. until the palm points up. This is the axis that you rotate your hand around. Student: What if I use my left hand? T\rtor: Then you'll get the opposite answer. but the magnetic field and the velocity are not perpendicular. left. What direction does your thumb What direction does your thumb point. T\rtor: charge.. or down. our directions are north. Up compared to north is not the same as up the page. south. This is the way we teach you Tutor: to do it.
T\rtor: Student: Why would . We often ignore gravity if there's a magnetic field around. or northward. That comes up in a later chapter.220 CHAPTER 28. student: r courd use some other angre. MAGNETIC FIELDS No. because we were comparing to gravity. T\rtor: And therefore perpendicular to the velocity. so it causes the electron to change direction. I look up the mass of the electron in the inside back cover of the book. but the velocity has to be east or west. Or Student: down.l:1 l::ll . or westward. Tutor: No. EXAMPTE What magnetic field strength is necessary so that an electron moving with a speed of 5 x 105 m/s travels in a circle of radius 1 m? the electron go in a circle? The magnetic force is perpendicular to the velocity. how do permanent magnets pick up steel? T\rtor: The magnet is made of atoms.. and every atom has little electrons moving inside of it.. Student: So there are two answers? T\rtor: There are many answers. I point my fingers to the east. Let's keep it simple and assume that the velocity is either east or west. The west component would cause a magnetic force that balances the weight..8 mls2) x1o6m/s speed. so the weight would still be balanced.*rent verocity. I need an upward magnetic force. but the westward component of the velocity would be the same. FB Could the velocity be southward? Then the field and the velocity would be parallel. T\rtor: When two vectors point in opposite directions.1 x 1031 ks)(9. A charged particle in a magnetic field goes in a circle._1'1 Tutor: Student: That's a really small (9. T\rtor: tue. the force is perpendicular to the velocity. with my palm to the north. then see if you're right. ms u. so the velocity is the other w&y. and so on. My thumb points up. T\rtor: The force on a positive charge would be up. Then the force is perpendicular to the new velocity. T\rtor: It could be southwest. and the south component wouldn't create any force. so the velocity can't be up. Student: Yep. it's negative. Magnetic forces are much stronger than gravitational forces. What is the charge on an electron? Student: Oh. Student: I'll stick with directly westward. so the force on an electron would be down. Tutor: Now you can find the speed. Student: So if moving charges create magnetic fields that create forces on moving charges. Student: Ok y. I'll guess eastward. When somethirg was going in a circle.ili* . The magnetic force would be zero. we sometimes call them antiparallel. Student: But we couldn't ignore it here. The force is up. what was the direction of the acceleration? Student: In toward the middle of the circle. so the force is up. Yes. Student: Which one is it? Then I curl my fingers toward the magnetic field. Student: Ohy. Tutor: Student: T\rtor: Guess. but the eastwest component is the same for all of them. Steel is also made of atoms with moving electrons.
the circle.6 x 101e C)  2. start by finding the magnetic moment. rotating it clockwise as seen from the top of the page. and in the same magnetic field. What is the force on somethirg going in a circle? Student: Looking way back. but it won't affect the size of the circle. The force on the left side is into the p&ge.8 x 106 T  2.1 field strength B. it's F . because these currents are parallel to the magnetic field.muz lr. toward the center. Then your right thumb points in the direction of the magnetic moment. We can use two that we already have. To find the direction of the magnetic moment vector. in a magnetic field that points to the right. whether I Consider the loop of current shown. and there would be no torque. To find the torque. Not necessarily. What is the magnitude of the magnetic The magnetic force is Fn : quB sin /. . Tna rq x 1031 ks)(5 t 105 m/s) (1 m)(1. so yes. curl the fingers of your right hand around the loop in the direction of the current.Are these equal? Thtor: The force needed to get the particle to go in a circle is provided by the magnetic force.8 p. Magnetic moments are vectors. The magnitude of the magnetic moment of a loop of current is lp]  NiA where a loop of l/ turns of current i has an are a A.T T\rtor: Does it matter what direction the magnetic field is? Student: The direction of the field will determine which way the charge goes around it's clockwise or counterclockwise. B D Magnetic fields do not always create torque on current loops. T\rtor: qaB mu2 qB+ Student: I need to find the magnetic E (9. Let's take Q to be 90o. But they do create a torque on the loop. What if the magnetic field had been out of the page? The magnetic force on each side would be inward. Arything that creates a magnetic field has a magnetic moment. and the force on the right side is out of the page.22L T\rtor: force? Student: Student: So now we need a new formula. There is no force on the top or bottom. With the same length and current. with the magnetic field perpendicular to the velocity. these add to a net force of zero.
A magnetic field of 0. but only at large distances.222 CHAPTER 28. Along the ucis of the current loop.Fa J li U # . which comes out of the Antarctic and toward the Arctic. EXAMPTE A single rectangular loop of wire 14 cm x 20 cm carries a current of 18 A in the direction shown. large means "compared to other distances in the problem. times the component of the second that is perpendicular to the first. or magnetic moment. The magnetic field from the compa"ss comes out of the north pole. found with the sine of the angle between them.B sin0 The direction of the torque is such that the magnetic moment rotates to align parallel to the external field. T . The needle is a small magnet.24 T points vertically up. As alw&ys. at what angle d will the magnetic and gravitational torques cancel? (! . Thus the geographic north pole of the Earth (where Santa's workshop is) is the magnetic south pole of the Earth. and aligns with the magnetic field from the Earth. MAGNETIC FIELDS The torque on a magnetic moment in a magnetic field is iF^E The magnitude of a "vector cross product" is equal to the magnitude of one vector. At what angle / will the loop reach equilibrium? That is. free to rotate. This is how a compass works. Magnetic moments also create magnetic fields." or the radius of the current loop. This equation does not apply close to the current loop.p. the field is ELo 2r < t'L z3 where z is the distance from the magnetic moment. The loop ha^s a ma"ss of 47 grams and is hinged at the upperleft (darker) longer side so that it can rotate up and down. The torque from the Earth's magnetic field causes the compass needle to rotate until it lines up with the Earth's field.
/) The angle 0 . the angle Q in the diagram is 90o. When they are aligned.I{iA r (1)(18 A) [(0.121 Nm)(cos .a. Student: Is that always true? Tntor: It's one of the trig identities. but that upward force is not through the center of mass of the loop. So we Yep.88 : 62o . a is one angle and 90o . and we have the units we expect. Student: The angle / isn't the same angle as 0? Tutor: Tutor: No. so that sine over cosine is tangent.20 m)] : 0. 0  arctan 1. The side that is adjacent to o is opposite to 90o . Tutor: Student: It T\rtor: Tutor: Good. Should we be more interested in force? The end where the loop is attached can provide all the vertical force we need. doesn't it? Trrtor: That's one way to look at it. Now we find the torque from gravity.223 doesn't seem like torque is the issue here.90" .0 aT kg)(9.047 kg)(9. and my thumb points up and to the right. is the other.sln cos / (0.I21 N. so the equation would give maximum torque.0. Student: If there's no current then the loop falls.24T)sin@ ? Ttrtor: In the equation for torque. Ttrtor: F : iLB.14 m)  1. there is no torque. so a newton is an amp meter tesla.121 Nm) (0. The torque from the magnetic fiel the magnetic field.0.*)(cos d). Student: Ol*y. so it causes the loop to turn. In a right triangle. because sin 0o .1a m)( x sin /) Student: Remember Yes.8 T\rtor: ^lr2) (0.8 ^1"2X0. Student: And that turns it counterclockwise. When the magnetic moment is vertically up and aligned with the field.14 m)(0.Bsind  (0. What is the direction of the magnetic moment of the loop? Student: I point my righthand fingers around the loop in the direction of the current. the torque from the magnetic field is (0.50 Am2 The torque is p.50 Am')(O. Student: Then the torque is (0. 0 is the angle between the magnetic moment and the magnetic field. and sin(90o .  (0. p ind tana. The moment arm is 14 cm x sin d. the angle is zero and.121 Am'T)(cos /). Student: Student: Student: just find the two torques and set t The magnetic moment is tL .a) : cos 0. but if it's stationary then we can look at it from a torque standpoint.a. Student: That's nasty. so (0. Thtor: Correct. Yes.88 r. in from gravity.
so we take a few common situations to work it out and remember them.. The vector r is from the tiny piece of current to the spot where we're finding the magnetic field. How long is long? The length of the wire must be much greater than the distance to the wire.ttt 4n 13  4tr x 107 T m/A. Divide the current up into tiny pieces of length dg.0 .dsxr . A single moving charge creates only a tiny magnetic field.Chapter 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents Moving charg€s. The cross product di x r. if you prefer) process. create magnetic fields. the greater the error in pretending that it is infinitely long. Multiply by the other stuff and you get the tiny amount of magnetic field created by that tiny piece of current. The magnetic field created by a long straight wire is B*ir" ttoi 2nR where R is the distance from the wire to the point. a 2 d? :. The shorter the wire is. We need a way to determine the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field created by a current. then the wire would need to be a meter or so long. and so we have to use calculus to do this. If the distance to the wire is 10 cffi. &t least at the beginning. Let's try to explain this. so the t's are silent). dBwhere po lto ?. 224 . so we'll only worry about the fields created by currents. Add up all the tiny magnetic fields (and there's a lot of such tiny pieces) and you get the magnetic field.is found just like we did in the last section. using the righthand rule. We do this with the BiotSavart law (they were Rench. Doing this calculation is a long (or painful. The difference is that each piece of the current is usually a different distance from the spot of interest.[ P dB (into page) Finding electric fields wasn't this complicated. or currents.
Find the magnetic force that the long straight wire exerts on the rectangular loop of current. curl your fingers with the current (counterclockwise) and your thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field in the center of the loop (out of the page).225 How do we find the direction of the magnetic field? Magnetic field lines never end. T\rtor: Okay. and in the same plane as. What's i? Student: Whoa! This looks complicated. Take your thumb. How do we know whether they go clockwise or counterclockwise? We use another righthand rule.*y to do if your pencil is in your right hand). They circle around a long straight wire. as long as you don't use your left hand (. then the magnetic field lines go around the wire counterclockwise.6 < 6A +4lcm+ T\rtor: It's not. The fingers go around the wire in the same direction as the magnetic field. If the wire is coming at you. like you're trying to "hitch" a ride. EXAMPLE A rectangular loop of current 6 A is beneath. out of the page. Another common situation is a circular loop of wire. and point the thumb in the direction of the current. The magnetic field at the center of the loop is Bloop : To get the direction of the magnetic field. a long straight wire with a current of 8 A. Alternatively. What is the magnetic field that the long straight Student: The magnetic field from a wire is B*ire : 1tsil2TR. pick a spot on the wire loop and use the righthand rule: thumb in the direction of the current and curl your fingers. wire creates? . Either method works. but always circle back onto themselves. 10 12.
8 amperes. then the field. r'bottom 2trR . If I pick a different point on the long wire. Fingers to the right with the current. Tutor: Yes. so the angle d is 90o. so you do use 10 cm and 26 cm. Student: Oh. T\rtor: That's the direction of the magnetic field. Student: So my thumb goes with the current. What is the force on the top side of the rectangle? Student: The force is 4oo  (6 A)(0. To find the force on the top of the rectangle. Student: My fingers go into the page.10 m) po(8 A) 2r(0. MAGI. The forces are opposite. and the thumb points down. the fingers point up the page. you need to find the magnetic field at the top of the rectangle. Student: and the thumb points up. T\rtor: When you go to find the direction of the force. Got it. Good. Take your hand the way you had it. and bend into the page. and then when I bend my fingers at the knuckles. The field is into the page. then the distances are even greater.{ETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS wire. D "t'oP 2nR troi D. remember to do the current first. and bend your fingers at the knuckles. T\rtor: What is the force on the bottom? Student: The magnetic field at the bottom is also into the page. the first righthand rule. T\rtor: What about the sides? Student: For the left side. To find the magnetic force. Student: Righthand rule: I point my thumb to the right. . Student: It's Q? Tutor: I don't think you're doing it right. What do I use? l\rtor: We always use the closest point. T\rtor: Student: That's the current in the long straight Student: So ltoi.126 m) Tutor: Yes. so I need to subtract.41 m)Btoo sin@ Tntor: Good so far. You need to use both. and down doesn't go around it.226 CHAPTER 29. and my fingers go down. bend them into the FeB€. I point my fingers to the left. What is the angle between the current and the magnetic field. or shortest distance to the long straight wire. Some of the rectangular loop is 10 cm away and some is 26 cm a\May.L ^ po (8 A) 2n(0. the fingertips point in the direction of the field. The magnetic field goes around the 8 A current. bend them into the page. The force on the top is up. and the 6 A current is to the right. What's R? Student: That's a good question. and my hand goes toward the point where I want the field. and the thumb points . Tutor: So we need to know the direction of the magnetic field. The magnetic field is down. but weaker.
Student: But the wire is split in two. . so we don't need to. T\rtor: Now you can finish adding the forces. What about the right side? Student: The force on the right side is to the right. the dividing point is the closest point on the wire. so the forces are the same. The currents are the same and the lengths are the same.. force? Tutor: How do the magnitudes of the forces on the sides compare? Student: Well. Student: That seems like a small so it's a small force. . They cancel. Taking upward a^s positive. though they change along the length of the sides.. Student: Right. Is each piece exactly onehalf of a long straight wire? "exactly" half? Tutor: If I take a long straight wire and cut it into two equal pieces. What must the current be so that the magnetic field at the center of the loop is 100 p.(0*m))  Buotto"') .. T\rtor: To find those individual forces we would need to do an integral. But the field changes along the length of the side. Student: What do you mean . but .41 m) (Brop F(6A)(041 F *) (ffiffi) . F trioo  Fbottom  (6 A)(0. the two pieces wouldn't be symmetric.. Student: They'll add to zero.227 left.41 m)Btoosing0o  (6 A)(0. EXAMPLE The long wire was a single turn of radius 12 cm.. and we have two magnetic forces that partially cancel. Ttrtor: Magnetic forces are generally weaker than electric forces Student: . the magnetic field from the long straight wire and from the loop and add them.41 ttt)Bbotto. How do I find the magnitude of the Tutor: We'll have to do an integral.4x 10s P force. T\rtor: .T into the page? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: I need to find Correct. .(4n x107 r m/AX6 A)(8 A)(041 ^)+(#) F 2. If I split it somewhere else. . the fields are the same for the left and right.but stronger than gravity.rsin90o F (6 A)(0.
Magnetic field lines never end. Student: And I have threequarters of a loop. Magnetic field is a vector . and the fingers bend out of the page. Student: I know that the magnetic field from a full loop is Bloop : ffi. for the whole loop. it is possible to use field lines to envision an electric field. What is the direction of the magnetic field created by the long straight wire? Student: What direction is the current going? The problem doesn't say. I can use +ffi to find the field from each of them. they point out of the page. T\rtor: Now you have to deal with the loop. When I bend my fingers at the knuckles. T\rtor: Each piece of the loop contributes the same magnetic field.rhrR ttoi ttoi(3 1\ D_3ttoi _ E 4n.r2"R Tutor: Student: ? o You have the right idea. My fingers bend into the page. . So I need to find the direction of each piece and add components. hand to the left. T\rtor: So pick a direction as positive. and symmetric field  half of a long Student: Okay. . clockwise around the loop. but go in loops. When we did electric fields.) B 100x106TStudent: That seems like a Gn x 107 w . I point my thumb to the right with my hand toward the top of the page.228 CHAPTER is good? 29. The field lines get further apart a^s we move away from the current Just as because the field gets weaker. Student: To do the upwardgoing current. and find the direction from there. All pieces of the loop create field in the same direction. Foi * 3 ltoi 1 Foi rhrR.4n. Tutor: Something like that. I point my thumb up. You're simply choosing an axis for the current. so they are each lralf of a long straight wire. Student: Like doing circuits. because I want the field to the right of the piece of wire.1 4n. To find the field from the rightward current. and this is the other way. T\rtor: Good. The figure shows the magnetic field lines from a current that goes into the page. and up out of the page. Student: I see. but you're skipping a step. Now I add the two fields. Student: I choose positive current to be in from the left. Student: I pick the left edge of the loop. T\rtor: It's more than you'd have in a household  they typically top out at 20 amps. The equivalent with magnetic fields is Ampere's law.hrR: 2R \A . *lFoi *l Foi B!pot 227tR. Each of the two halflong wires ends at the closest point along the line. . I point my thumb up the page and hold my hand to the right. If you have half a loop. T\rtor: Or anything in physics where you have a direction. You've picked the field you want to be positive field. MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS Tutor: If the two pieces are symmetric. it is possible to use field lines to envision magnetic a field. and if you end up with a negative current then the current is really the other way. so the field that the loop creates is positive. so the field is out of the page.r 44/' circuit Tm lNi lot of current. Tutor: Yes. any spot. you have half the field. so I have threequarters of the field. but I don't have a full loop. How do I do the loop? T\rtor: Pick a spot on the loop. and is negative. we had Gauss' law. then they each create the same magnetic straight wire.
we got a total that was related to the charge inside the surface. long straight wire with current i. Take the component of the magnetic field ^d ttrut is parallel to your next step ds. Ampere's law says that you get ps times the current enclosed by the loop. This is good to know.229 Wre with ctrrrent into the page When we calculated the electric field flux. Ampere's law uses a closed loop. start somewhere and go anywhere so long as you end where you started (using f instead is a way to say use a closed path). Let's see how this works. When you add up the product for all of the steps. w€ only do the integral when it's dirt simple. This is not the current going along the path. so the magnetic field flux through any closed surface is always zero. : Pick any closed loop PoLen" that is. from the righthand rule this magnetic field will be parallel to the path. As you travel along this route. but it doesn't help us find the magnetic field strength. Also. This is because electric field lines start and end at electric charges.and multiply them. at each point find "f / the magnetic field. but passing through the surface of which the path is the edge. As with Gauss' law. The problem has symmetry if I rotate the problem along the axis of the wire it looks the same the magnetic field is the same everywhere on the imaginary path (if the wire was bent rather than straight then this would not be true). . We want to find the magnetic field created by . Instead of using a closed surface. We draw an imaginary "Amperian loop" around the wire at a distance r. Magnetic field lines don't start and end.
This is the length of the path. so that the inner radius is 40 cil.s . There are fewer geometries where Ampere's law is useful than there are for Gauss' Iaw.230 CHAPTER 29.FoI"n:Foi BLike Gauss' Iaw.ds: a d.L. but we can profitably use it only when there is symmetry in the problem.BL . Ampere's law is always true. symmetry BL:f f B + dg:Foi"n Amperets law EXAMPLE An extruded rectangle is curved into a toroid. so f ds . MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS i (o= o) J I a. . and the height is 15 cm.s Ampere's law tells us that this integral is equal to Foi"n". the outer radius is 50 cffi. . ds : f a . A wire is wrapped evenly 140 times around the toroid and carries a current of 7 A. Find the magnetic field inside the toroid.u f f o. so B(2rr). fe . Because we've already dealt with the vector part (the magnetic field is parallel to the path) it is the length of the steps and not the displacement of the steps.B(2nr) d. The last integral f ds is the sum of the lengths of each step for all steps.B JI a.
so the answer has to look the same. Student: Like this? T\rtor: Uh. We use symmetry to say that the magnetic field. Even if we did. Student: And B is constant. &s vectors. the field is the same everywhere? T\rtor: Use symmetry to explain how.23r How can you do this? We can find the magnetic field from each of the 140 loops and add them.radius inside and outside edges. we'd have L40 fields to add. "Constant" means that it doesn't change with time. T\rtor: Correct. oops.Bd. T\rtor: Student: . Tutor: How much of the magnetic field is parallel to your Amperian path? Student: All of it. What is the direction of the magnetic field inside the toroid? the inside. Student: So r is the radius of my path. Ttrtor: Very good.B2trr Is r the inside or outside radius of the toroid? Look at how you used it. T\rtor: Careful. J 4 e . the same everywhere along the path. is the same everywhere. so the field 'ins'ide the toroid is constant. Draw an Amperian loop around the toroid.B t' a' . ds : f f B d. We need to find a path where the magnetic field is the same everywhere on the path. the magnetic field has to be the same all around the toroid. T\rtor: True. Student: So I can use Ampere's law. whatever it is. Student: Ouch. Student: If I rotate the whole toroid. I\rtor: Yes. you get to choose r. to find the length of your path. Student: But we don't know the magnetic field. because the symmetry still holds. it looks the same. But at the same from the center. So if I draw my path through the middle of the inside of the toroid. so it comes out of the integral. dg . The magnetic field inside the toroid isn't necessarily uniform it could be different along the . "Uniform" means that it's the same everywhere. So E .s.B(tength of path) . no. T\rtor: We don't know how to find the field from a loop at a spot off of the axis. Student: That sounds familiar. Student: Can r be less than 40 cm or more than 50 cm? Tutor: Sure.s . T\rtor: Student: f f Trrtor: Student: It goes around B'di: Foi"n. Presumably we can use the symmetry and Ampere's law.
Ttrtor: The wire goes through the loop 140 times.232 CHAPTER Okay. even inside the toroid. Student: So the inside and outside currents cancel?! T\rtor: Student: And if r Tutor: Yes. Yes. so they count as negative currents. We have to use symmetry to argue that the magnetic field perpendicular to your path is also zero. What if 40 cm ( r 150 cm? Student: Then the wire goes through the loop. means that the magnetic field is zero. T\rtor: The inside currents are still enclosed. Student: So the only place where there is a field is inside the toroid. . and the enclosed current is 7 A. And that field is B2nr:Fo(140x7A) B  Po(140)(7 A) 2rr Student: So the field gets weaker a^s I go further out. then there is no enclosed current. because your path becomes longer but the enclosed current stays the same. The magnetic field parallel to your path is zero. Student: So the enclosed current is 140 x 7 A. then the enclosed current is 280 x 7 A. the current is going the other w&y. T\rtor: Student: And the field is zero if r > 50 cm. is greater than 50 cffi. Yes. Student: Do I count every time that the wire goes through the loop? Student: What is the enclosed current? Student: That T\rtor: T\rtor: Tutor: Yes. Ampere's law has given me 29. MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURREN"S Student: B2trr : Foi"n Ttrtor: If you pick r to be less than 40 cm. Tutor: Yes. On the outside of the toroid. Student: So it would be 140 x 7 A.
and as you move it away from the coil there will be a current in the coil. If the loop moves down. where the magnetic field itself doesn't cause a current but a movement in the magnetic field does. However. as you move the magnet into position near the magnet there will be a current in the coil. This is similar to the magnet and coil. They push a current counterclockwise around the loop. you will find that no matter how strong the magnet there is no current in the coil.Chapter 30 Induction and Inductance If you connect a coil of wires to an ammeter (a currentmeasuring device) and place a magnet nearby. and the result is no net current. the positive charges along the bottom of the loop experience a force to the right. What's happening? XXXXX XXXXX B XXXXX XXXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX Imagine a loop of wire on the edge of a magnetic field. BX XX If the loop is entirely in the magnetic field (rather than partly in the magnetic field) then the positive charges at the top of the loop also feel a force to the right. 233 .
multiply times the area of the tiny piece. into the magnetic field. then the fingers curl in the direction of the current (counterclockwise). An induced current is caused by a change in the magnetic flux. One way is to point your thumb in the direction that you want the magnetic field through the loop to go (out of the page). Typically. so constant field magnetic field is the same oB . in this case). by going to a place with less rain. there will be an induced current in the direction that causes a magnetic field to pass through the loop out of the page. but my doing so will make some physicists cringe.234 CHAPTER 30.) Imagine that you are out in the rain holding a bucket. Then the thumb goes around the fingers in the direction of the current (counterclockwise). and add the results for all of the tiny pieces. This clearly can't be true. Mathematically.J B .) or delta (A) indicates that it is not magnetic field that creates an induced voltage or current. the it is). Despite the scary appearance of this integral. This voltage causes a current closed (complete). and so on until we got back to the original spot. I]VDUCTIOI{ A]VD I]VDUCTA]VCE The voltage induced in a loop by u magnetic field is t dQB Aos dt Lt if the loop is where Qs is the magnetic field flux passing through the loop. What is flrur? (If you remember this from Gauss' law then this is a repeat. The loop "wants" to keep the same flux it had (zero. You could reduce this rate by using a smaller bucket. As we move the loop down. at each piece find the component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the surface (normal to the surface). so it creates magnetic field out of the page. That is. The magnetic field flux is effectively a count of the number of magnetic field lines passing through a surface. The minus sign in the equation is a reminder. We typically use EMF t (electromotive force) for an electric field like this. o": Jf B. or by tilting the bucket sideways. The direction of the induced current is opposite to the change in the magnetic flux. which had a higher voltage than the next. The other is to point the fingers in the direction that you want the magnetic field through the loop to go. Flux would be the rate at which raindrops enter the bucket. and may bring to mind Escher's waterfall. dA which says to divide the surface into tiny pieces. Initially the flux through the loop is zero since there is no magnetic field where the loop is. How does this work? Consider our loop on the edge of the magnetic field. created by a changing situation. the magnetic flux into the page increases. The use of the word voltage here is somewhat misleading. everywhere on the surface (or we'll pretend it's not so bad. In which direction would this current be? There are two ways to figure it out using the righthand rules from the magnetic field section. . We could say that one point in the loop had a higher voltage than the next. and reserve the word voltage for static EMFs. dABA f definition of flux The derivative (d. I'll use the word voltage.
Student: So the coil creates magnetic flux into the page? Tutor: Yes. put my hand up toward the coil. The coil wants to keep the same flux. I point my thumb to the left. T\rtor: It will be helpful here if you specify a direction. T\rtor: It is the change in magnetic flux that matters. . We create less flux into the page. we create less magnetic flux into the page. Student: It's as easy as that? T\rtor: Field into p&Be. and bend my fingers into the page. "Less magnetic flux into the page. opposite to the magnetic flux. The field that the coil creates is called the induced field. and the total flux stays the same. By that you mean. T\rtor: So the magnetic flux is into the page. The magnetic field goes into the page. so the coil creates flux into the page. Student: Even though the flux is into the page. in what direction must the current in the coil go? Student: That's the second righthand rule again. The effect of moving the coil is to create less magnetic flux into the page. Student: You said that. the field also gets weaker. and the coil creates field into the page. to replace the flux that isn't there anymore. What happens to the magnetic flux through the coil? Tutor: You will be.t /z +3 l4 # T\rtor: Constant i What is the direction of the magnetic field that the long straight wire creates where the coil is? Second righthand rule. so that the field through the coil is weaker. T\rtor: So the coil tries to replace the flux that was there and isn't anymore. As the coil moves away from the wire. If the coil wants to create an induced field into the page. the coil moves to a place where the field is weaker. Student: I'm sure that's what I meant. T\rtor: Yes. because it's the change in flux that matters. For the second direction.235 EXAMPTE Find the direction of the induced current as the coil is moved in each of the directions shown. By moving the coil. so the loop tries to create magnetic field in which direction? Student: Out of the page. flux into page. so there's less flux into the page. Happy? . what happens to the magnetic Student: field? T\rtor: Tutor: Student: The field gets weaker. right? Student: It gets smaller." Student: Ok y. replacing the lost flux. T\rtor: Yes. Student: Ok^y.
then point the bent fingers in the direction of the field. and there is no As the coil rotates onefourth of the way around. Student: Fingers out. Because the magnetic field lines don't go through the coil? Tutor: Correct. T\rtor: Correct. The radius cr. How many turns must there be in the coil? Student: If the coil rotates induced voltage. / IDUCTIOI{ Al{D 0\rDUCTAIVCE T\rtor: Tutor: Tutor: the coil. what is the induced current? Student: There isn't one. The loop needs to rotate at 60 Hz and generate an average voltage of 120 V. then the flux is back to what it started at. so the flux doesn't change.4 i(# l)(0. and the thumb follows the hand counterclockwise. Student: Into the page. In the third direction." T\rtor: Student: And outside the coil? T\rtor: T\rtor: Excellent. the period? Student: The frequency is 60 per second. But we care only about the field in the middle of the coil.rR2 r20V _ )' s) 0. The period is one over o ('' T\rtor: Student: n(o. Tutor: If there is no change in the flux. each 50 cm in diameter. the field doesn't change. The field comes out of the page. Bend your fingers like you usually do. Very good. No matter how big the flux is.25 . The original flux is BA. completely around. Student: In the fourth direction. Student: It At least in the middle of The magnetic field circles around. in a 0.1e6 ') . the flux drops to zero. if it doesn't change then there is no induced current. and the final flux is zero. So a clockwise current in the coil creates a magnetic field into the page. Student: Ok y. Student: Ok^y. We're not interested in the direction of the induced current.236 CHAPTER 30. c _ nrA(D" 'At 'J nrO . the coil moves to a stronger magnetic field. hand go? Yes. Student: Okay. following your thumb. What's 60. so the change is "more flux into the page. Which way does your goes clockwise. So let's look at onefourth of a rotation. only the rnagnitude of the is 25 1 (# s) induced voltage.4 T magnetic field. Student: The coil creates magnetic field out of the page to opposite the increase in the magnetic flux.4 T)A Is it my imagination or are we being sloppy with minus signs here? We are. A so the area is 7r(0.^r(0. The change happens in onefourth of T\rtor: Student: a period. EXAMPLE A circular coil consists of an unknown number of turns of wire. ir since each turn induces a voltage and the voltages add. since magnetic field lines never end.BA T\rtor: We need to include the factor l/.196 m2 . Now keep them there and move your hand in a circle.
Shouldn't the number of turns be an integer? I\rtor: It should. Student: So it's the big loop. Student: It shouldn't EXAMPLE A small circular loop (8 cm diameter) of 100 turns sits in the plane of and inside a large loop (28 cm diameter) of 100 turns. So I need a factor of 100.4 T)(0. should it? No.237 ^Ar  (120 vXiX# s) (0. What is the voltage induced in the inner loop? r/t >D Student: The induced voltage is A ('' L dQn dt T\rtor: Good. We would have to change one of the other parameters so that N came out to be an integer. TUtor: What is the magnetic field? Student: We can use the magnetic field from a loop. T\rtor: Which r? Student: . Bloop T\rtor:  ltsif 2R ? That's the magnetic field from each turn. A tesla meter squared is flux.4 T\rtor: T\rtor: What are the units for l/? have &ry. Is R the big loop or the small loop? Ttrtor: It's the radius of the loop that is creating the magnetic field. What's the magnetic flux Qa? Student: It's the magnetic field times the area. Student: So the units all cancel.196 m2) :6. and there are 100 of them. The current in the outer loop is 5 A and is increasing at a rate of 180 A/s. T\rtor: Now what's the magnetic flrur through the small loop? Student: It's the magnetic field times the area Trr2 . divided by a second is a volt.
then the induced voltage is tBLu ^L is the length at the edge. Student: But we don't know that.. the quicker the flux changes.l: ( !!) t . 9B. T\rtor: So put the equation for the field into the equation for the induced voltage. Tutor: Yes. and the size of the change in current that determines the magnitude of the induced voltage. it's the area of the inner loop. so you can pull them out of the derivative too.0 4 . and the faster the motion. so it is constant.T m/A) 2(0. s(#) T\rtor: Student: But I can't pull i The current out. # is how fast the magnetic field is changing. and an induced voltage. Use clockwise induced current as corresponding to positive induced voltage. where EXAMPLE Plot the induced voltage as a function of time for the single rectangular loop.14 m) ) / (180 A/r) (zr(0. and R are constants.1 x 103 v : 4.27 XXXXX XXXX XXXXX XXXXX .( \ (100)(4?r x 10?.t) T\rtor: Student: . so r is the radius of the inner loop. The change in current causes t .238 CHAPTER 30.1 mv When the flux changes because of motion. T\rtor: Student: Good. The longer the length at the edge. (*')@") a change in magnetic field.42): 4. t(*") A(*. Fo. i in the outer loop is changing. Student: So it's the change in the current that causes an induced voltage in the inner loop.IVDUCTION AND INDUCTANCE Uh.W@") T\rtor: l/ . and the greater the induced voltage. I. We know what the field is. 30 cm XXXXX 15 cm B=0. We can pull the area outside of the derivative? The area isn't changing.d9P: dt dt \d. a change in magnetic flux.
Is the flux increasing more rapidly att . And which side is L? T\rtor z L is the width where the flux is changing. of a straight line? Student: It would be constant. the flux will increase at a constant rate until the loop is inside the field. It enters Student: Thtor: Student: DolusetBLu? Yes.3 s? Student: No. so the loop creates flux into the page to . T\rtor: The magnitude will be the same. the result is less flux into the page. the change is more flrur into the page. what is the induced voltage? it takes 5 seconds.0 there is no flux and the flux isn't changing either.12 s until t . as the loop travels through the magnetic field? Student: The flux is constant.239 T\rtor: What's the induced voltage when time begins? Student: There's no flux. T\rtor: What's the slope of a constant rate. Tutor: Good. When moving into the field.03 m/s) :3. The induced voltage is a constant as it enters the magnetic field. What is that constant? Ttrtor: T\rtor: has to travel 15 cm to fully enter the magnetic field. and the 6 cm is in So the induced voltage is ^L. It doesn't start to change untilt2s. Student: The 3 cm/s is in u. so 2 s until t . and the greater the voltage. More flux does not correspond to more voltage.6 s than att . against the change in flux. T\rtor: Yes. the area of the loop with magnetic field in it would increase by how much? Student: T\rtor: Student: By3cm/sx6cm. so there's no induced voltage. there is no induced voltage. As it exits. What is the induced voltage between t . How would you get an induced voltage that increased as it entered the field? I'd use a triangular loop.36 mV positive or negative? Student: I need to find the direction of the induced Student: t r r Oh. What matters is how fast the flux is changing. Student: Okay. at 3 cm/s.L2 s. or negative. for the entire time that the loop is entering the magnetic field. current. the greater the flux. Since it isn't changing.BLu T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: (0. I\rtor: Very good. If I waited one second. then there will be an induced voltage. so the induced current is counterclockwise.36 mV Yes. How long does it take for the loop to enter the magnetic field? Student: It from t The further into the field it goes. At t .36 mV. t .7 s and t . Student: Ok y. As it enters the magnetic field. Tutor: It is possible to have an induced voltage without a magnetic flux. Tntor: So the voltage is 0. Good.17 s.7 s and exits from t .06 r")(0. The loop tries to create field out of the page. so that L increased as it got further into the field. I x ( { ( ( ( x t t t t { T\rtor: Yes.6 x 104 V  0. If the flux is zero.2 T)(0. but check the direction. but changitrB. Is the 0. What is the induced voltage as it exits the magnetic field? Student: It will b" just the opposite as when it enters.
and to create flux into the page the loop needs a clockwise current. The it exits the field.240 voltage is +0.36 mV as CHAPTER 30. +t(s) . INDUCTIONAND INDUCTANCE replace the flux that's disappearing.
The voltage across an inductor is Vt': L# (Some physics sources have a minus sign. but it is incorrect to have one for an inductor. left over from induced voltag€s. the current through the inductorcapacitor circuit oscillates with a frequency When we studied oscillators.lR (ra  cera is the forcing frequency and t*is the amplitude of the forcing voltage. The only possible steady state is zero no voltage. and that induces a voltage. because a nonzero voltage indicates that the current is changing. What if an inductor and a capacitor are placed in the same circuit? If the current is steady.L is measured in henries. If the circuit is ever to reach a steady state. and the amplitude of the current of the oscillation is Iwhere tn t. the magnetic field chang€s. then at resonance 24r . As the charge changes. Instead. This is true of electric oscillators. Consider a circuit with an inductor. so does current. If R w) this becomes infinite. and no charge. A steadystate situation is one in which none of the currents or voltages are changing. the voltage. we saw that a forced oscillator would oscillate at the forcing frequency. then the voltage across the inductor must be zero. rather than the natural frequency. then that current through the capacitor causes the charge on the capacitor to change.) The inductance . the greater the amplitude of the oscillation. As the current changes. The closer the two frequencies were to each other.  0. but the resistance of the circuit won't ever be zero.Chapter 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current A coil in a circuit is called an inductor. and so does the voltage on the inductor.
6 o) I. and u . So LIR has units of seconds. We're given the resistance R. But if I don't know one."t.8 x 105 H . Do I just . Student: The difference is 0.26 x 106 sl  4. Student: # of that.w2? T\rtor: Careful. The driving frequency crra is the frequency of the next station over.48 p. that's right. and Hz is ll". the unit for L.2 MHz So make one up? Tlrtor: The frequency / is 108. 0.2 mHz. T\rtor: Student: It's t*lR. mHz is millihertz instead of meg ahertz E \ .H Student: Now I can find the capacitance C. I can't get the other.2n x 108.ob3 pF C (a.6 Q.(raw)(ra+w) = (waw)(2r) x (210. Tutor: There are other criteria to match.8 x 105 H)(2r x 108 tt)'  b.\r. we haven't made any assumptions The units don't seem right.2 MHz)(2rr00 MHz) L ( (2n0. They are merely disguised. and are 0. n2 E\ / 'W IU I fi{2"0. Student: So far. so the left side is unitless.  2tr x 108 sl x 1014 F : o. is equal to O times a second. E (r'26 T . Student: Student: How am I supposed to do this? There are no numbers. r+ ('3")':104 ! R2 \ u4 ) rL' t= xI02 rv 'r'r ) Student: Is 100 MHz the natural frequency u or the driving frequency ua? T\rtor: The natural frequency c^r is the frequency of the radio station that you want to hear. (r'or'\ @3w2) .2 MHz)(2rI00 MHr) \ ^ . ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCLLATIOIVS A]VD ALTER]VATING CURRENT EXAMPLE Choose approximate values for ^L and C for an FM radio so that the amplitude of the next station amplitude of the "tuned" station. Student: Okay.. you need the amplitude to be So the denominator must be 100. x 106 rt) = 102 (10.)(0.3 .2rf Student: Oh.242 CHAPTER 37. t\t L) L. given that the circuit has a resistance of 0.2 MHz) x Loz T\rtor: Tntor: A henry. So h . I need e) : h to be 108.2 MHz.2 MHz either higher or lower. What's the amplitude of the current at resonance? So if wa . that weren't in the problem. but how do I get wl .u is 0. ir # the Tlrtor: apart. FM stations have frequencies of about 100 MHz.
Student: Is this how a radio works? l]rtor: It's one way. Only one of them has a frequency that matches the circuit's frequency. but in Europe is 240 volts. then take the square root and invert is 1 over seconds. ve v" At lve Transformers cannot create energy. the output current must be less. take the inverse to get second/ohm. VoIr:PpP":V"1" Why do we use ^[ here for current instead of i? Because . EXAMPLE Electric power in the United States is 120 volts. Always? transformers are used to decrease the voltage for neighborhoods. You would need to control the "stray" capacitance at this level to tune the radio properly." The voltage out. We typically call the first wire the "primary" and the second. LC is (ohm second)(second/ohm) ir second2. Ttrtor: It is a small capacitance. so there is a voltage induced in the other wire. and not with direct current... so the power out is equal to the power in.I is not the instantaneous current but the ampli. The magnetic field stores energy and the power out will increase and decrease as the instantaneous current chang€s. If the current in one changes. or current amplitude /. so all of the others produce much smaller amplitudes. Every circuit has some capacitance.tude of the oscillating current. if the output (secondary) voltage is greater. Student: Tbansformers change the voltage in a circuit. But over a complete cycle. he may take a travel transformer. like T\rtor: No. The magnitude of the induced voltage increases if there are more turns in the second wire. Student: Okay. which is a farad .243 How do you get farads out of that? T\rtor: A henry is an ohm times a second. If the current is 100 times less.rl. or output wire. Student: So the lower voltage is the second ary? T\rtor: "Stepup transformers" are used for longdistance transmission and highvoltage equipment. the power in and out are the same. Maximum current in the primary and secondary do not occur at the same time. then the power is 104 less and down by 40 dB. Student: Yes. taking energy stored in the magnetic field. divided by two factors of seconds is an ohm/second. This is not true at every instant. the "secondary. which allows him to use his American devices in Europe. transformers only work with alternating current. All of the radio stations in the area broadcast their signal. but usually we are interested in the maximum current. When an American traveler goes to Europ€. or secondary voltage. two wires wrapped around the same space. Imagine two coils wrapped together that is. "Stepdown" Student: Isn't it? . The instantaneous current is i(t) . whether you put a capacitor in or not. the magnetic field through each changes. How many turns must be on the primary and secondary sides of such a transformer? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: I need to use V"lVp: N"lNo. Therefore. but which is the primary and which is the second arv? The higher voltage is the secondary. and all of the signals arrive at your antenna and try to "force" your circuit. is determined by the ratio of the number of turns. That seems like a small capacitance. Because it is the change in the magnetic field that causes a voltage in the other coil. and in the home for dimmer switches and model trains.isinc.
.2N".s on the So it could be 200:100. T\rtor: And the voltage that the transformer has to work with is 240 volts. it's not likely to be 2:L. That's what it can get out of the wall. that there are twice as many turns on the primary a. So that's the primary.. or 2:I? Well. Student: So which is which? Tbtor: The device is designed to work in America. ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCLLATIONS AND ALTERNA"ING CURRENT mosquito zappers. 120V 1 Np Ve 240 \I . so it must need a voltage of . . T\rtor: Student: ((in" to the transformer.. or 60:30. AL V. Ttrtor: T\rtor: Student: But I still don't know Student: No. the Yes. Student: But it's not important to know how many turns there are? T\rtor: Only the ratio of turns. . Tntor: So the transformer has to output L20 volts.L20 volts. Student: That's the secondary. The magnetic field created in the transformer would be so weak that it wouldn't work as well. but you know that Np secondary. Student: . .244 CHAPTER 31. how many turns are on either side.
" When current passes through a capacitor. Magnetism of Matter All of electromagnetism is summed up in Maxwell's equations. This is because magnetic field lines never end.E) The first equation is Gauss's law. so every magnetic field line that enters a surface has to leave it somewhere. just like a current would. even though no real current passes through the capacitor.Chapter 32 Maxwell's Equations. 245 . plus the piece in parentheses called the "displacement current. eB:f E. This is because electric field lines start at positive charges and end at negative charges. The induced voltage is the sum of the electric field around the loop. But the changing electric field between the capacitor plates creates a magnetic field. The fourth equation is a modified version of Ampere's law. Gauss's law for magnetic fields. There is also a magnetic field around the capacitor. says that the magnetic flrur coming out of a closed surface is zero. dg: Fo. the current causes a magnetic field. a fifth is often included with the group: Fn(E+6. #rrr) While not one of Maxwell's equations." * ps (.dAT fe . seen in the next chapter. It also leads to electromagnetic waves.. The second equation. The sum of the magnetic field around a loop is proportional to the current through the loop.. charging the capacitor. The flux coming out of a closed surface is proportional to the enclosed charge.i"r. The third equation is Faraday's induced currents.
That . Now for inside the capacitor. We need to find the electric field flux inside the capacitor. What is the electric field inside the capacitor? Student: There is a constant field between the two plates.03 )  26. MAXWELL. We need the change in the electric flux. Tutor: Constant means that it doesn't change with time. T\rtor: Correct.7 pT T\rtor: T\rtor: Ttrtor: Student: Student: Excellent. Uniform means that the field is the same at all Student: No. 6 cm in radius and 1 mm apart. Find the magnetic field magnitude 3 cm from the wire. lr' \i Tutor: The surface is the area surrounded by the loop. Can we use Gauss's law? What is the surface you are using? What is the loop you are using? Student: I'm drawing a circle around the center of the capacitor with a radius of 3 cm. Do you remember that? Student: I think so. but finding an equation for the flux is a step in that process.po(4 A) (4n x 107 T m/AX4 A) 2r(0. id this just like what we did with Ampere's law? Tutor: Yes.S EQUATIOIVS. The magnetic field is the same everywhere on the circle. The enclosed current is 4 A. and 3 cm from the center of the capacitor. rl ti tt i. so Student: Isn't that the circle passes di: BL: B(2rr).246 CHAPTER 32. We draw a circle around the wire with a radius of 3 through our point. A current of 4 A passes through the capacitor. B(2rr) . MAGNETISM OF MATTER EXAMPLE A capacitor is made of two parallel circular disks. Is this a closed surface? means no Gauss's law.
*? It's a uniform field near a plane of charge. so onefourth of the flux. We call these materials paramagnetic. T\rtor: Yes. Tutor: Student: It's just A magnet in a magnetic fteld tries to rotate is how a compass works with the Earth's field.r. ( !^). dg: Foi".. esft2" Student: The change in the charge is the current. The flux is OB . but not the area of the capacitor. This makes the magnetic field even stronger. If such a magnet is heated then the energy put into the magnetic can demagnetize the material.onnB . Good. meaning that they act like tiny magnets. Good. When the external magnetic field is removed.R is 6 cm. So I take the derivative.s+Irni. Iron and some alloys of iron are ferromagnetic materials and are used to make permanent magnets. I don't need to know the charge. T\rtor: Yes. *#r) (2nr) . Student: Oops. That's because your loop enclosed onefourth of the area. This  so that its magnetic field is parallel to the existing the compass is a small magnet and it rotates so that its field lines up Many atoms and molecules have magnetic moments. only the current.po(o) * t o(. the atoms align randomly. The atoms remain aligned because they have less energy aligned than when their magnetic fields are random. so that they tend to cancel each other out and they no longer create a net magnetic field.[ EdA: EA. . or : EA . then we would have gotten the same answer. z rr2 is the area of your surface. What's the electric field? Student: Can we use E . fil# i r. or: EAQl("R') €g T\rtor: Student: (nrr) ' t 9( ryTR2eg eoR2 !r'. overcoming the energy from being aligned. Student: If my loop had enclosed all of the flux. onefourth of what we had before. The area of the capacitor is rR2. except that the atoms can remain aligned after the external magnetic field is removed. called the displacement current. with the field going only one T\rtor: Student: I meant there way T\rtor: Very good.o 1nr2) €g T\rtor Student: o is the charge Q divided by the area rr2. What is the area A? Student: The area of my surface." * ps f 'rr\ (.r. / B(2nr) B . field. right? It's n'(3 cm)2. the atoms are free to "rotate" so that their field becomes parallel to the external field. In some materials. The increasing flux acts like a current. Ferromagnetic materials are similar to paramagnetic. The Curie temperature is the point at which a magnetic becomes demagnetized.247 points inside the region is a uniform field between the two plates. where . What we really want is the change in the flux. Lr'dQ d^n_ d9r' dto dtesR2 eoR2 dt / f + ..
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields. How do I find But that's not the magnetic field. T\rtor: I remember teslas by using F : iLB.meter. rather than attracted.meter.^rX Tutor: Nicely done. .Nt p"  (6. but the external field changes the orbits of the electrons in the atoms.6 x 1021)(2 t 1023 JIT) . T\rtor: Good. . Is this the same as teslas? Student: A joule is a newton meter. We get a magnetic field of 1 tesla.13JlT (o. so it's newtons per amp.?'lilry66x1021 moment of each atom. Then I divide by the mass of a single atom. That's the magnetic moment. Student: I multiply by the magnetic . the magnetic field? The magnetic field from a magnetic moment is E_ttoF= 2r z3 Tutor: This is the field along the axis of the magnetic moment.meteris a tesla.tesla.oo3 m)3 0'96 J lL'm2 Shouldn't the units be teslas? We typically measure magnetic field in tesla. with its own magnetization. I can find the mass of the magnet. MAGNETISM OF MATTER Materials that are neither paramagnetic nor ferromagnetic are diamagnetic. Diamagnetic materials develop a small magnetic field opposite to the external field.0. EXAMPLE A coinshaped piece of iron has a thickness of 1 mm and a diameter of 1 cm. How will you find the number of atoms? Student: Well. MAXWELL. Student: Then a newton per amp. so a newton is an amp. Iron has a density of 7900 and an iron atom has a magnetic moment of 2 x 1023 J lT. if I use the density and find the volum€. The atoms are not free to rotate. I find out how many atoms there are and multiply by the magnetic moment. What is the maximum magnetic field strength that this magnet can create 3 mm above its surface? kg/*t Student: Each atom acts like a magnet. So Student: B_4rxI07Tml 2n T\rtor: Student: A0.S EQUATIOIIS.248 CHAPTER 32. Now # ry tL n(o"i#]i{].rJ JIT T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Oh.
To find the average or RMS intensity. then the change in the electric field would create a magnetic field.'l 'ExE lto The magnitude of the Poynting vector is equal to the intensity. E and B arc always in The instantaneous intensity is given by the Poynting vector ji. and electromagnetic waves are no exception. The solutions to the wave equation are waves. c lM 3x108m/s it is given its own symbol c. phase with each other and perpendicular to each other. We can replac e B with E I from above. I power area cFo Remember that the RMS is maximum divided by t[2. and so on. visible light. The solution also gives the speed for the wave. Because the speed of light shows up so much in physics. so it would create an electric field.Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell's equations show that a changing electric field creates a magnetic field. and the direction of the vector gives the direction of travel of the wave. we need a factor of two. Because the rate at which the electric field is changing is changing (it has a second derivative too). and Xrays. B 249 . and a changing magnetic field creates an electric field. and these electromagnetic waves are radio wave. The result is a wave equation involving E and B. Remember that the intensity of " any wave is proportional to the amplitude squared. the magnetic field would be changing. fn we were to create an electric field that varied like sine.
and the next horizontal.A2 : 8. E? rms Er.75 N/C T\rtor: Student: It worked.75 N/C  12. We can polarize light by putting it through a polarizer. Student: And we want the amplitude. The rest is turned into heat.N/s.soNA. Thewaylrememberteslasiswith FiLB.  24. Tntor: It's the average electrical Student: Is 100 watts the maximum intensity Tutor: A .6 m2 Student: 0. One "photon" of light may have its electric field vertical. meaning that the electric field is perpendicular to the direction that the wave travels. because the cross product has to be perpendicular to vectors that are cross products. This is clear mathematically from the Poynting vector. only 5% of the electrical energy is turned into light. What we have now is the RMS value of the electric field. ELECTROMAGNB"IC WAVES EXAMPLE A 100 watt light bulb is 1.4 m.n  ERu rth  8.250 CHAPTER 33. When we put unpolarized light through a polarizer. The light bulb is 5% efficient.'r:8.4 rn)2 What's the average intensity? Intensity is power per area.*).4 m away.T.m. For a typical incandescent light bulb. Student: So you get four times the light.75 (N. What is the light power from the bulb? Student: It's 0. T\rtor: Over how much area is that power spread? Student: If it radiates uniformly.203 Wfm2  (3 x 108 m/s) (4n x 107 T m/A) E?^":76.N/r' : 8.rr" : 8.m.4nr2 . Most light that you see is not polarized. You can save on your lighting bills by using compact fluorescent bulbs. then over a sphere of radius 1. which are about 20% efficient. half of it comes through: IIurrr' 1"nOlariZed 2 1_ I .4 N/C Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. Light is polarized when all of the light is oriented the same way.4n(1. Envs E. Student: The 5To means that the light power is not the same as the electrical power. The intensity is the power per square meter. T\rtor: Or the same amount of light with onefourth the electricity.5 w'T lr'A or V/m. To describe the direction in which the electric and magnetic field oscillate. Ttrtor: Correct.75 W.75@ I\rtor: Student: I'm not sure about the units.m. and the next somewhere in between.75  8. They ought to be N/C True. we use polarization. E .05 x 100 W or 5 watts. What is the amplitude of the electric field oscillation? or the average intensity? power.and1T 1N/A..
At Brewster's angle. then cos90o . T\rtor: Correct. the amount that comes through is T\rtor: I 12 fpolarized cos2 P Student: Wouldn't that just be 700 W lm2? T\rtor: It would. How much light comes out of the third polarizer? 40o.25L but the light that does come through is now polarized parallel to the orientation of the polarizer. not the polarizer and the reference axis. one of the polarizations is not reflected at all. the reflected light will be unpolarized. Student: Since it is polarized. Student: Is there a way to depolarize light? T\rtor: Sure. What is the direction of polarization of the light that reaches the second polarizer? Student: It's not 0o. Is: T\rtor: Student: I2cosz 25"  (287 W l^') cos2 650 : 51 W l^' Now if the angle was 90o. The three polarizers are oriented at angles of 15". half of what went in: (ZOO W l^') . EXAMPLE 700 W l^'of sunlight goes through three polarizers. isn't it? T\rtor: Yes. When we put polarized light through a polarizer. so no light would get through. T\rtor: How much light goes into the second polarizer? Student: What comes out of the first one: 350 W l^'. This is why polarizirg sunglasses work they remove half of unpolarized sunlight. Is this light polarized? Student: Natural sunlight isn't polarized no. to use when it goes through the third polarizer is 65o. but they can remove much more than half of glare from reflective surfaces. The . Correct. the fraction that comes through is I Ipor. one polarization is reflected better than the other. Tutor: How much comes out of the second? Student: The light going into the second one is polarized. So the angle Correct. so only the other polarization remains. right? It matches the first polarizer. because it has gone through a polarizer. and 105o from the common reference axis. So the angle d is 25o.350 W l^'. Light can also be polarized when it is reflected.  I1cos2 40o ? T\rtor: Why 40"? Because that's the angle of the polarizer. T\rtor: How much light intensity goes into the first polarizer? . 0 is the angle between the light and the polarizer.I1 cos2 25"  (350 W l^') cos2 25"  287 W l^' T\rtor: Student: Student: And this light is parallel to the second polarizer. When light reflects from a surface at an angle (not normal incidence). They are especially effective at glare from water.0.rized cos2 d where d is the angle between the polarizer and the polarization of the light.first polarizer? How much light comes through the Student: Because the light isn't polarized. or light that reflects off of irregular surfaces like trees. T\rtor: Student: Iz:. none gets through. If you shine polarized light on a wall or anything that isn't mirrorlike. If you try to put horizontal light through a vertical polarizer.
33 1. Because vacuum Some Indexes of Refraction 1 (exact) I water I air I t. We can this refraction. some of the wave is reflected and some is transmitted. it must all be reflected back into material 2. : n is one for vacuum. In the figure. and thus the smaller angle 0. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES component of the electric field in the vertical direction is zero. T\rtor: True. called total internal reflection. then 01 would reach 90o. material 2 has the smaller angle (measured from the normal). all of the light is reflected. is a general principle of waves that when a wave encounters a change of medium. Our first and last polafizers were 90o apart.252 CHAPTER 33. ^ n1 sin 91  rl2sin d2 This important thing to remember is that we always measure angles from the normal to the surface. If the angle 02 was to increase. so it rnust have the larger index of refraction. Because some gets through the second one. a's shown on the right side of the figure. This is true regardless of the material that the light starts in. light only goes slower as it goes through material. Since the light still more. It We characterize the speed of light in a material with the index of refraction of the material n. Note that there would be some light reflected anyw&Y.5 glass I One effect of the change in speed is that the transmitted light is deflected. then dr would be unsolvable . and now that light has a nonzero component in the direction of the third polarizer. never the surface itself. This can lead to an interesting situation. in which the wave would go a different speed. If 02 increased sine of h would have to be more than one.0003 1. Reflected light is always reflected at the same angle as the incident angle.  Whichever material has the larger n has to have the smaller sin 9. it has no units. . some light gets through. Student: Strange. Student: But if you stick another polarlzer in between them. This is true of light as well. This can only happen when the refracted (outgoing) angle is larger than the incident (incomitts) angle. and the eouation that we use is Snell's law. or when the light is going into a material with lower n. but when the incident angle is too large.the can't exit. and increases from ther n is the ratio of two speeds.
(1.0003) sin02 :arcsin (ffi ) o.80" .00 : 42.38. w€ often use L anyway. T\rtor: Very good.0o. Student: So. So I need to use 0t :90o  15o : 75o . nr sin0r  Tt2sin02 (1. Student: The bottomleft angle of the triangle is 90o .57) sinflz T\rtor: Student: Even though the index of refraction of air isn't exactly 1. Tutor: Use the geometry of the triangle.0o.48. T\rtor: Student: Student: Then The angle isn't measured compared to the normal.57) from air as shown.048) 1? Tbtor: Student: T\rtor: How do you take the arcsine of a number greater than You don't. oz:arcsin fry)sin75"\ \ $. Whatever.52.T):38'oo Tlrtor: Now you need to do the second surface.0o.57) sin42.rcsin(1. Find the marked angle.0o : 52.0o : n1 sin 01 oz Student: But what's the angle? n2sin 0z (1. The bottomright angle of the triangle is 180o . . Then the incident angle at the second surface is 90o .253 EXAMPTE Light enters the glass block (n  1.00 : 48. does that mean there is total internal reflection? Yes.0003) sin 75"  (1 . it isn't the angle that you need to use.
. is about 1011 Hz to 1015 Hz.) The reason for the different names is that electromagnetic waves of different frequencies interact with matter in different ways. Visible light is the relatively narrow range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm. and we use 700 because it's about right. but as you go further into the infrared your well. Therefore you have to use different techniques to generate and detect infrared waves than you use for ultraviolet waves.eye works less that your eye can see 699 nm but not 70I rffi. Infrared. for example. There is not a distinct cutoff where a technique stops working it is not true . ELECTROMAGI{ETIC WAVES We use names for ranges of electromagnetic frequencies. (W" use wavelengths for visible light and higher frequency electromagnetic waves.254 CHAPTER 33.
One myth that persists about mirrors is that they reverse left and right. Your reflection is not at the mirror. Someone looking put at nose in the mirror will really be looking at a spot behind the mirror. we locate the image. the sticker on the mirror will not be. 255 . Instead. The object is not there. and in doing so left and right would not be switched. Iocated behind the mirror. but all of the light that we see from the mirror is the same as if it were there. The location of this image is behind the mirror. and pretend that the object of our attention is indeed there.Chapter 34 Images When light reflects off of a mirror. This allows us to deal with mirrors without working out all of the reflected angles. The mirror reverses . This is not true. You could flip it upside down. but behind it. Imagine that you are reading this book and decide that you want to read its reflection in a mirror. of course. To view the book in the mirror. This results in the creation of an image. the reflected angle is equal to the incident angle. and you find that all of the light that leaves the nose and then reflects off of the mirror appears to come from one spot. in which case you also could see the text. because you didn't switch them.the book front and back. so to see the text of you have to turn it around. the same distance from the mirror as the object but on the other side. You can try this yourself a sticker or tape a paper onto a mirror and then look at yourself in the mirrorl when your reflection (your image) is in focus. you turn the book around you reverse left and right by turning the book. Examine the figure below. and vice versa.
but there's an easier way. We could. Anyone looking at Betty's reflection will see it at the same place. it's the same as if Betty was there. just as if she was there and the mirror wasn't. and lenses have one on each side. Thtor: I felt that way for years. But I've learned that it works because images work that way the image. The math is nearly the same for mirrors and lenses. Where is the image of Betty? Student: Doesn't that depend on where Joanne is? T\rtor: No. the location of the image. and then set up similar triangles. Student: Is that 2 m behind the mirror? Tutor: Yes it is. they are deflected so that they all hit the focal point. Tutor: Student: What if the mirror is curved? There is still an image. Student: It feels like cheating. so we'll deal with them together. When parallel beams of light reach the mirror or lens. but the location of the image is different than if the mirror was flat. IMAGES EXAMPTE Joanne (at the bottom) wants to take a picture of Betty's reflection.256 CHAPTER 34. How far is it from Betty's image to Joanne? Student: In a straight line? T\rtor: Student: 7. because I first saw this "solution" in a book of brain f the light behaves as if it comes from teasers. The equation that tells us where to find the lmag els 11 fp f. and it would work. I' 1 111 or j:E+a .8m o a a a' Is that it? Yes. All of the light from Betty appears to come from there. to not do an extensive calculation. How far away does Betty (at the top) appear to be from Joanne (what focal length must she use for the camera lens)? 6m / We could draw the path of the light. The same is also true of lenses. Every curved mirror has a focal point. Once we know where the image is. somehow.
Concave mirrors and convex lenses are converging.257 / is the focal length. and i is the distance from the mirror/lens to the image (many books use dr). h' . i. or converge less rapidly. and there are meanings attached to each. Each of f . and n'L) we can find the other two. The magnification is the ratio of the size of the image to that of the object where : h'i np Of TTL : ho h.r :__ d. lf (a) Ff (c) . p. i) rn) A common stumbling block in dealing with mirrors/lenses is in handling the minus signs. Convex mirrors and concave lenses are divergirg. A converging mirror/lens causes the light beams to converge more rapidly. A diverging mirror/lens causes the light beams to diverge more rapidly. p is the distance from the mirror/lens to the object (many books use do). porx m f converging real diverging virtual flipped upside down not flipped horhl A mirror/lens can be either right side up converging or diverging. do If we know any two of / . or distance from the mirror/lens to the focal point. p.r. and h can be positive or negative. and have positive focal lengths. and have negative focal lengths. or diverge less rapidly.
and so is the image. There is a similar but more difficult equation for lenr. it positive I12 or negative I12? The image needs to be upright. it is a real image." if you have more than one mirror/lens. Whatever direction the light goes when it leaves the mirror/lens is the positive direction for measuring the image distance. so that you can see more. For I\rtor: the magnification to be positive. if the image is where the light goes.slide so that the image is right side up. Whatever direction the light comes from as it reaches the mirror/lens is the positive direction for measuring the object distance. and if it is less than one. so it's +I12.the object might be upside down and the image right side up. What is the radius of the mirror. it is a virtual image. That means that the magnification is positive. Rearview mirrors with the warning "objects in mirror are closer than they appear" create smaller images. The last piece before we start sorne examples is how to make a mirror. If a mirror has a radius of curvature r ) then the focal length is f +. A negative magnification corresponds to a flipped image. IMAGES If you can hold a sheet of paper up where the image should be. then it's right side up. so the magnification Tn: I12.r. You can still see a virtual image looking at the mirror/lens. but may distort your mental perception if you do not account for the demagnification. A negative magnification does not mean an upside down image . If the absolute value of the magnification is greater than one. A positive magnification not mean does that the inrage is upright. the height h' needs to be positive. The object car is right side up. Therefore.then it is a virtual image with a negative image distance. Student: Aren't you being a little picky? If the image isn't flipped. and is it convex or concave? T\rtor: Student: Is The image is half as big. and see the image on the piece of paper. meaning a "virtual object. projectors flip the image. Virtual image 1 f It l is also possible to have a negative object distance.258 CHAPTER 34. Student: Okay. If you can't . so the image isn't flipped. right? T\rtor: The object really could be upside down. Key to this is knowing which way is the positive direction for measuring the image distance. so the magnification is positive. Student: T\rtor: Good. then the image is larger than the object. You can only have a negative object distance. seeing the light that comes from it. then the image is smaller than the object. . then it is a real image with a positive image distance. If the you have to be image is where the light doesn't go. or right side up. which we won't deal with here. so the slide must be inserted upside down Sometimes the image is flipped . EXAMPLE The side mirror on a car is designed so that an upright truck 100 m behind the car will appear upright and half as big when viewed in the mirror.
Yes. 111 Ip?' ^t I 1 f *1oom 5om 100m f . Student: Negative focal length means diverging mirror. If p is positive and / is negative. and the truck is 100 m from the mirror. so the object distance p has to be positive. it true that a negative focal length causes a negative image distance so that a diverging mirror virtual image? T\rtor: Not necessarily. If he looks backward. so the object distance is 100 m. there is only one mirror or lens. would there be an image on the T\rtor: No. so it's +100 m. it's coincidence. . besides.259 Student: I need another one.100 m 1oom T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Is there a connection between the 100 m to the truck and the 100 m focal length? No. Tutor: Yes.mirror is Student: So a divergirg a convex mirror. *100m  i50m What does the negative image distance mean'? The table says that it's a virtual image. The driver looks forward to see the image of the truck. p t '2 Tutor: Student: 1?. If you have a virtual object. The image distance is positive. Seriously. so that's the positive direction for the image. think about where parallel incoming beams of light would go would they converge or diverge? . We'll Is always creates a Student: do one of those later. and the light that bounces off of the mirror goes toward the back of the car. T\rtor: If there was a screen or piece of paper screen? Student: Student: Oh. f . Student: How do you remember convex and concave? T\rtor: A concave mirror/lens is one in which the bear can hide. this is how I learned to remember the shapes. T\rtor: Positive or Student: The light comes from behind the car. TTL AIso. 50 m in front of the car. The object is the truck. A diverging lens is a concave lens. : ?. T\rtor: Good. Now you should be able to solve. the light bounces off of the mirror and doesn't go there. Student: I can find the image distance. then i has to be negative. it's 100 m. so the image is 50 m toward the front of the car. then find the focal length. To remember that a concave mirror is converging.. T\rtor: Yes. and the truck is behind the car. Student: If the image distance was +50 m. he wouldn't see the light that reflected off of the mirror. That's why it's a virtual image. but the opposite for lenses. Correct. T\rtor: Where is the image? Student: 50 meters from the mirror. so your statement is true if the object is a real object. T\rtor: But on which side? Which way is the positive direction for measuring the image? Student: The mirror faces the back of the car. then your statement might not be true. and then the radius. but he couldn't see it. would he look behind him to see the image? T\rtor: The image would be 50 m behind the car.
11 > z:p The light bounces off of the mirror. 6pL t r 0 . What do you know about the object and image distances? Student: That I can solve for them. T\rtor: Student: Do I need to convert the 36 cm to meters? No. and that's the point around which the mirror is centered. Tutor: Student: That EXAMPLE I Find the object distance necessary for a *36cmfocallength lens to form a real image three times as large as the object.2f :2(100 m) : 200 m seems like a big radius. so it's a real object with a positive object distance p. but that doesn't mean that the magnification is positive. the same distance behind the mirror that the object is in front of it. m is T\rtor: Good. so it must be positive. then you'd need a negative i. The focal values. Is the magnification positive or negative? Student: It doesn't s&y. Good. The magnification is TTL : ! pp . length / is +36 cm and the magnification is 3. even if the problem didn't come right out and say so.1 3+1 (+SO cm) p ' 3p 3p 4 3p z.*. !plpl' and :?' 1 *I D3p +i3p 1 1. and p4 . T\rtor: It may not say explicitly. TTL: 3. Now you can do the problem. and the virtual image is behind the mirror. then m must be negative. It does help if you have common units for f . Now look at the equation for magnification m Student: If p and i are both positive.260 CHAPTER 34. (+s0 cm) : *48 cm T\rtor: Signs are important. so it's positive. but sometimes they aren't explicit. The radius of a plane mirror is infinite the mirror gets flatter as the radius increases. so you could only determine two possible sets of Tutor: Student: I have to know two of the four. We can explain a plane mirror using the same equations. T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: There is only one lens. Pick a point 2 football fields in front of the car. and we increase the radius until the mirror is completely flat. The problem says that the image is real. If you wanted a virtual image. It's not a lot of curvature. Tbtor: But you don't know what the magnification is. IMAGES r . p.
Is the object distance for the second lens +39 cm? No. That's where the light . The light comes from the left. 24 cm behind the convex lens is a 10 direction for measuring the object.26r so the image is the same size and unflipped. so we might have a negative object distance. and the same distance away as the object it is at the object. Again. We can likewise examine a flat piece of glass. The virtual image is on the opposite side of the glass that the light goes. The object is on the left. p and 111 Ip?' al I I 11 *10 1 1 cm 1 goes lrr . so I can solve for the other two. I have two of the four. so the object distance p is positive 15 cm. What is the size of the final image? in front of a +10 cm convex lens. Now we do the second lens. so the image from the first +30etr lens is 30 cm to the right of the first lens. 'lTL1 . i . Student: Okay. the first lens.4mmhigh object is 15 cm cm concave lens.nt .  EXAMPTE A 2. Take the lenses one at a time. Tn: ?. The focal length is *10 cm.7 32 1 1 i Student: *10 cm *15 cm 30 cm 30 cm i*30cm The light that leaves the first lens to the right of the first lens. so the left is the positive Student: We have two lenses.p arrd m: *1. The object for the second lens is the image created by the first lens. T\rtor: Correct. The focal length of a flat piece of glass is infinite. but the same side that it comes from.!p +I\*ftr o 2 T\rtor: Tutor: Student: So far so good.
Tutor: And the light into the second lens comes from the left. but going to a spot 6 cm to the right of the second lens. Student: So I multiply. IrL2  !p  +r:ffir Aefrr  +2.5 and the second image The first image is is 2. Student: But the image from the first lens is on the right side of the second lens. The light into the second lens doesn't appear to be coming from a spot.S.5x the second object. _ 12 mm Student: And the negative height means that it's upside down. T\rtor: Student: How do I combine the magnifications? 2x the first object.4 mm) x (2) x (+Z. T\rtor: Student: So the object distance for the second lens is Yes. 15 cm to the right of the second lens where the light goes when it leaves the second lens. then it becomes the second object. 6 cm? 1 i 1 35 2 cm cm 10 6 30 cm 30 cm i*15cm right because that's 1 111 10cm 6cm =i Student: The final image is a real image. Ttrtor: Very good. so it's a negative object distance. IMAGES into the second lens appears to come from.262 CHAPTER 34. (2. .
then it looks the same as the first wave and they again add to give a wave twice as large. we have constructive interference.) behind the first. a. and the sum is zero. so one is behind the other because it has a greater distance to travel.L 'J\(+*)r where m is an integ€r.Chapter 35 Interference When we looked waves and sound. . . For light. We don't care what the two distances are. identical except that one is half a wavelength behind the other. 2. they add and you get one wave that's twice the size. If you have two identical waves travelling sidebyside.[y^ constructive interference destructive interference 263 . but we do care what the difference in the two distances AI is.5. If the second wave is a halfinteger (0.5. Interference takes place when two waves add.5. If two waves are identical except that one is one wavelength behind the other. or half a period in time. or nearly so. any integer. The general idea is that if one wave is an integer number of waves behind the first. This is like adding 3 and 3. If you have two waves. then we have destructive interference. and the sum is twice the amplitude. There are many geometries we can use to create the difference in the two path lengths. 1.. we encountered interference. but regardless of geometry. this usually involves two beams of light that are parallel. then they add to zero. . + Typically the two light waves start at the same time.
so we moved 31. the light from the two slits goes the same distance. there are fringes due to slight differences in the paths to the telescope.1 _ 3) : I. but it does  When the light goes straight through. So dsino_ L. When this difference reaches LL . Student: We saw six fringes. \ /\. Student: Student: Do I just move one of the mirrors or both? Typically one mirror is fixed and we move the other. the pattern shifts by 6 fringes. spread out as it goes through the slits. So one fringe cor T\rtor: Yes. What is the wavelength of the light? T\rtor: In reality. Student: So the difference LL would increase by responds to moving one mirror by X. If you move one mirror out by a wavelength. Maxima (plural of maxirnum) occur when we go further. one mirror by 6 x .264 CHAPTER 35.lX. When the T\rtor: T\rtor: . We call this a bright fringe or a maximum. then you should expect the result to be in that range.L{H+})r constructive interference destructive interference To find the position A on the screen of the maxima and minima. We call this a dark fringe or a minimum. Movable Yes. so that LL ^. the fringes shift by one. and minima at LL . we use trigonometry: A . and the light goes through them. If we get to another maximum. difference in the path length changes by one wavelength.(m + i)f. the difference is zero. Two narrow slits are made in an opaque surface. LL m). and the light is bright. Visible light goes from 400 nrn to 700 nm.  The difference in the two path lengths for this geometry is LL  dsin 0 where d is the distance or separation between the two slits. Do I move it a wavelength? The light has to go out and back.407 um rx 1 3 10ox : 1n llltl Student: And it is. It may seem strange that the light would see Huygens's principle.Dtan? . When one of the mirrors is nroved by 1. One of the most common geometries for interference is Young's doubleslit experiment.407 pm.407 pm 469 w l0_t ) Tutor: It's handy to remember the wavelengths of light.. IIfTERFERE/VCE EXAMPLE A Michelson interferometer is shown below. 2. As you go a little ways away from the center. light from one of the slits has to go further than light from the other.\. If you're using visible light. then that path increases by two wavelengths and the other T\rtor: doesn't change. the two lights cancel and there is no light. Student: So the question is: What do I have to do to change the path length difference by a wavelength? Student: Shouldn't the waves either cancel or not? The viewer should see bright or dark.
L v where D is the distance to the screen. check for either less than. Yes.0. with m . where ( typically means 100 times EXAMPLE T Light of wavelength 562 nm is incident on two slits with slit spacing 80 plm. 0 : 0o .265 D+ T I Path length differen ce L.. LL .0.+ There is a minimum there.0. On a screen 2. The central maximum is the "zeroth" one. and m . Student: Student:  So the first minimum occurs at m . and ine third at AL  .0 and LL .L: Tutor: Tntor: ixz Student: . and the second maximum is at m .(m++)) for a minimum.(0 + +)^.. T\rtor: Okay.2. What's m for the first maximum? Student: The central maximum isn't the first one? T\rtor: No. or a K D. Student: So the first maximum is at TTL :1. between the zeroth and first muima? Student: m has to be an integer. The central maximum is at LL _ 0 and the first maximum is at AL Student: I use dsin0 .AL .6 m away. What is at m . Student: At L.(2+ 1)f. .3 for the third one. so we can use tan? l << d when 0 is small To check whether the angle is small. Often in doubleslit experiments the d(in radians) = sin 0 x angle 0 is small. T\rtor: Yes. What is at So that's what you mean by m . how far from the central maximum is the third minimum? T\rtor: What is m for the central maximum? the center. T\rtor: Good. And the second minimum is at LL (1 + *)f. with TrL. What would you call it the first minimum? Sure.\.
. _ (19 ry_mXt) : (0.order Zsothorder maximum maxlmum' / maximum \ t/ . you get larger angles.m. INTERFERENCE order First. is the angle small? How small? T\rtor: Small enough to use sin0 = tan?. Student: is 90". d is 80 pm. What would the angle be if we used No.rl . You would need to find an angle such that the sine of the angle is greater than You can't have a sine greater than 1. be a limit? As you go to higher values of m.266 Second CHAPTER 35.562 /rm) 33.33. Eventually you get to an angle that you Ttrtor: Student: You mean past 90o? Yes. nz has to be an integer. Student: Of course.8 T\rtor: ^ so we round. Student: .6 m) :0'0457m45'7mm EXAMPLE Light of wavelength 562 nm is incident on two slits with slit spacing 19 Ltm. How high would m have to be so that the angle 0 is 90o? m _ dsing0o dsin0ALm).8. If m . T\rtorz rrl does have to be an integer. so .r{ {J x ut q o .il O rl q . or 0. 1. the angle I fTL :34? Student: It would be more than 90o. How many interference ma. T\rtor: Student: + *xo aN? :sing nY tan o # *(0.J sl il o Third minimum I Center of pattern.\ is less than a hundredth of d. Tutor: So the angle is small. as in ) << d.rima are there in the whole pattern? Tntor: cantt Student: Why should there use.\ is 562 ril.562 pr.562 pm)(2. 0o Student: Then the angle is dsin0AL(z+*) I Before doing the arcsine.
If a beam of light strikes a piece of glass. Yes. If both waves or neither wave is flipped. Find all wavelengths of visible light for which the reflection is especially bright. where t is the thickness of the glass. Light reflects normally off of the film.34. so the greatest path length difference we can get is 33. EXAMPLE A thin film of soap is stretched across a coat hanger. . using the wavelength in the film. The slits here are only 33. so you can't get the 34th interference Tutor: Student: maximum. the wave is flipped.24. and vice versa. When a wave reflects off of a surface in which it would go slower than it would in the medium it is in. You can't get a path length difference of 34 wavelengths. We get the So the lst through 33rd interference maxima on each side. The film is 575 nm thick and has an index of refraction of 1 . despite the figure. Student: So we truncate rather than rounding. One beam goes 2t further than the other. So you can't use m . We will a.ssume that the light hits at normal incidence. Remember that a general principle of waves is that when a wave reaches a change of medium. So if the material that the wave bounces off of has a greater n. \n:: So 2t: AL : constructive interference destructive interference There is one more change in thin films. you need light from one slit to be 12 wavelengths behind the other.267 T\rtor: Ttrtor: m 0.81. plus the central maxima for Student: total is 33+1+33:67 Is there some reason? To get the 12th interference maximuil. we need the extra distance to be equal to an integer number of wavelengths. the wave is flipped. (Most glass is too thick and doesn't have a uniform enough thickness we usually observe this with much thinner films. But if one is flipped and the other isn't.) Because the extra distance occurs in the film. some of the light is reflected from both the front and the back surfaces of the glass. then what would have been constructive interference becomes destructive. then nothing changes. some of the wave is transmitted and some is reflected.8 wavelengths apart.
means constructive interference. with rr:1. but make a quick drawing.5 1426 nm 1. Tutor: You need to determine whether the waves flip on reflection. so a quick drawittg is important.00. Ttrtor: T[y it. The transmitted light isn't flipped as it moves into the second medium. Student: Okuy. Student: I start with 2tAL+) * constructive interference destructive interference Tutor: Okay. Student: One of the waves is flipped and the other isn't. The thing it bounces off of has a greater n than what it's in. The light is in air. which T\rtor: All of them. Tutor: No. It bounces off of soap. the light is travelling in soap. Student: Is the transmitted light also flipped? Student: Really? it is flipped.5 . Student: What value do I use for m? Student: All? That could take a while. It bounces off of air.00. with n_ 1. At the second surface. with n : I.268 CHAPTER 35. Student: Okay.I. The thing it bounces off of has a lesser n than what it's in. 2(1. Student: I want brighter light. il* ffi ffi destructive interference constructive interference Tbtor: Good.24. so it is not flipped. regardless of whether the reflected light is flipped. IN?ERFERENCE the formula. with n . so Ttrtor: Very good. T\rtor: Good.24)(575 nm) 1426 nm (* + Lr) m0 mI + (*+ : 2852 nm 951 nm *) )) L426 nm 0.24. so the equations switch.
The light from the top and bottom of the top surface interfere constructively or destructively. As m gets even bigger. Like the twoslit experiment. when using 632 nm light. Yes. and it's already too small for visible EXAMPLE Two pieces of glass are placed with a thin wire separating them at one end. when we move away from the center of the pattern. of the wire have to do with fringes? The light reflects off of the top and bottom of each piece of glass. The light that reflects off of the bottom of the top piece of glass. Do you need to keep going? Student: No. Find the diameter of the wire.5 1426 nm 3. .5 : : 570 nm 407 nm 317 nm TUtor: Which of these correspond to visible light? Student: The first two are infrared. T\rtor: Student: What does the diameter Thtor: Student: So the changing interference causes fringes.5 1426 nm 4. or something in between. This interference will change from constructive to destructive to constructive and so on as the thickness of the "air gap" increa^ses. and the light that reflects off the top of the bottom piece of glass. and the last one is ultraviolet. but whatever it is it doesn't change. a total of four surfaces.269 )^ 1426 nm 2. also interfere. There are LL4 bright fringes between the left end and the wire. the path length difference increases and we see fringes. the wavelength will get smaller. Only 570 nm and 407 nm are visible light. T\rtor: light.
270
CHAPTER 35. I]VTBRFERE]VCE
So the first thing
Student:
I do is write down the
( mL
equation. constructive interference destructive interference
2t: L,L:
Student:
Then
t r#*
+)*
I
make a
little drawing.
glar3
Student: The top beam is traveling in glass (n = 1.5) and bounces off of air (n * 1.0), so it is not flipped. The bottom beam is traveling in air and bounces off of glass, so it is flipped. One is flipped and the other is not, so the equations are flipped.
Mdestructive 2t: L,L: [ ** . (constructive + \ +)* ffi T\rtor:
Student: That
interference interference
Doing well. At the far left end, is it dark or bright? would be the top equation, so it's dark. f'm not sure that makes sense. T\rtor: The second beam goes no extra distance, so there is no change from that. One of the beams is flipped, so the two beams are opposites and add to zero. Student: Now I need to relate the fringes to the thickness f, which is equal to the diameter. T\rtor: The first dark fringe is at TrL  0 and f  0. Where is the first bright fringe? Student: At m equation.
2t:
T\rtor:
Student: What value should I use for n? Student: Air. So I use n t
1.0.
(113 +
ili
What material is there where the extra distance takes place?

*tt13.5)^

*tt13.5)(632 nm) :35866 nm:35.9 pm
Chapter 36
Diffraction
In the previous chapter we examined interference from two sources. It is possible to have interference from
more than two sources.
A diffraction grating (ot interference grating) is a series of slits, so that there is interference from 100 or more sources. If the slits are evenly spaced, then the math is the same as with two slits. If the light from the second slit is one wavelength behind that from the first, then light from the third is one wavelen$h behind that from the second, and so on. The maxima are in the same place, but are narrower because, if you go a little ways off from the maximur, there are more sources and they cancel each other out sooner.
A more interesting question is what to do with a single slit. It may seem that with only one source, there should be no interference. But light from the far edge of the slit has to go a little further than light from the near edge of the slit. To deal with one slit properly, we need to divide it into an infinite number of slits.
When the interference is from different points in the same slit, we call
it diffraction.
Consider the point in the middle of the slit. If the light from here goes half a wavelength further than light from the near edge, then they will cancel. Working across the slit, light from each point in the near half is canceled by light from a point in the far half of the slit. All of the light cancels, and we get a minimum. This occurs at fisin 0  , *here a is the slit width. In general, the diffraction minima occur at
osin0m),
This equation is similar to the one used in twoslit interference, except then more slit) maxima, and here it is for diffraction (one slit) minima.
it
was for interference (two or
27r
272
CHAPTER 36. DIFFRACTIO]V
Totally destmctive interference
Pr
Central axis
Path length difference
Viewing
screen
Incident
wave
C
EXAMPLE
Light of wavelength 570 nm goes through a slit of width 30 pm. What is the width of the central diffraction maximum on a screen 1.5 m away?
What's the "central diffraction maximum?" At the middle of the pattern on the screen, light from all points in the slit travels the same distance, so they all interfere constructively, and the light is the brightest. If you move away from the center to the spot where o sin 0  ), then the light from the bottom half of the slit cancels the light from the top half and
Tutor:
Student:
there is a minimum.
Student: Wait aminute. Insingleslit diffraction,
the minimaoccur at osin0
so shouldn't there be a minimum in the center of the pattern?

rn),.
If m 0 then 0:0,
T\rtor: A good question. In diffraction the minima occur at every integer value of m ercept m  0. There has to be a maximum there because all of the light travels the same distance. Because there is no minimum at m  0, the central maximum is twice as wide as the others. Student: So there is a maximum at 0  0, which is m  0. How do I determine the width of this central
diffraction maximum? T\rtor: The edge of the maximum is where the minima are. Student: So I need to find the minimum corresponding to m
T\rtor:

I?
Yes.
Student: And they are at
a sinfl
:fr^I
T\rtor:
Student:
Yes. There is one on each side, the same distance away from the center. So I can find one and double it. To find the distance on the screen I use
A
 Dtan?
Is the angle small enough to use d(in radians) = sin I x tan?? How do you check? Student: With twoslit interference, w€ compared the wavelength to the slit separation d. T\rtor: So with singleslit diffraction, compare the wavelength to the slit width a. If ,\ ( a, then sin 0 is
T\rtor:
small.
Student:
273
Student:
So the
ratio ),la is
T\rtor: Tfy it both ways and see.
Student: It needs to be 1/100 or less, doesn't it? Student: If I make the approximation, then
A: Da
width
::ffi
tan 0 =sinO

]
57 mm

za
m)  2^D  2(0'57#,')(1t5  0 .xsl rD 
T\rtor:
Student:
What if you don't do the u*lo*rl,,onrtto*' Then I have to use arcsine to find the angle.
sino
e
 la
30pm

arcsin(0.019) :1.0887"
width
 2y:2Dtan 0 
2(1.5 )(0.0190034)

0.0570103
rrl
57.0103 mm
So the difference is that with the approximation, the width is 57.0 mm instead of 57.0103 mm. Correct. 57.0103 mm is the true width of the central diffraction minimum. Student: So I didn't need to be worried that the angle was too big? Tntor: It depends on how much precision you want. The difference between sine and tangent reaches ITo at about 8" or 0.14 radians. If two significant figures is enough, then you need * < 0.I4. To keep the error below 0.I%, you need an angle less than 0.04 radians. Your angle was less than 0.02 radians. Student: So if the slit width is 110.04  25 times as large as the wavelength, then I can use the approximation and my error will be less than 0.I%? Tutor: Yes, using 1/100 is more restrictive than you need to be.
T\rtor:
Student:
Having determined the location of the minima, we now ask what the intensity is at any spot on the screen. For two slits, each of width a and separated by d,, the intensity is given by
r(o)
where
_ro,(ry)'{.",2
B)
affsinl and P!rr^e
I,n is the maximum intensity, found at the center of the pattern (P  0). This may seem mysterious, but is not that bad.
The cos2 B factor is the effect of the interference of the light from the two slits. At the center of the pattern,
p0andcos2p
interference minimum. This happens at
7trd1 ;: 0:^sin0
> ;^ 
dsin?
That is, cos2 p goes to zero at the angle where we know the first interference minimum is. The first interference minimum always occurs when cos2 P T12,, regardless of the wavelength and slit separation, because P uses the ratio of these two. Interference maxima occur wherlever cosz p 1, or at P

274
CHAPTER 36. DIFFRACTION
2,
71 3n
dsin0
dsin0],1,$,f,...
The
T, T'
5n
''
', which is at
minimum. This happens at
(Y)' factor is the effect of diffraction of each of the slits. At the center of the pattern, a (%")' 1(asalimit). Whena  7r, sin a_ 0, sotheintensityis zero) corresponding to the first diffraction
7TATrCL
sind >
^ know the first diffraction That is, sin o goes to zero at the angle where we minimum is. The first diffraction minimum always occurs when sin a  7r ) regardless of the wavelength and slit widths, because a uses the ratio of these two. Diffraction minima occur whenever sin a asin 0 The diffraction maxima are close to a t,+,+,..., but not at exactly these spots. Consider a point in the pattern where cos2 P  1 and sino0. The cos2 p part says that the point is an interference maximum that the light from the two slits is in phase, because light from one slit goes an integer number of wavelengths further than light from the other. The sin a part says that the point is a diffraction minimum that for each slit the light from part of the slit cancels the light from the other part, so that there is no light from the slit. The light from the two slits would interfere constructively, except that there is no light from either slit. The intensity is I  1,.(0lax1)  0. The a in the denominator causes the pattern to lose intensity as we move away from the center of the pattern. In the first diffraction maximuffi, light from the middle third of the slit cancels light from the top third, and only light from the bottom third remains. In the second diffraction maximuil, light from the second fifth of the slit cancels light from the top fifth, Iight from the fourth fifth cancels light from the third fifth, and only light from the bottom fifth remains. As we continue, each diffraction maximum is less intense than the one
before.
^osin0
^,2^,...
since no light would go through such a narrow slit, becomes zero regardless of the angle, and (Y)'
In the last chapter, we treated the slits as being infinitesimally narrow. This is a practical impossibility, but it works well mathematically. When o  0, then a
all directions. We had to take only interference into account.

1 regardless of the angle. Light diffracts out evenly in
EXAMPLE
Light of wavelength 614 nm goes through two slits with slit width 73 pm and slit separation 214 prr^. What is the intensity of the second interference maximuffi, compared to the intensity at the center of the pattern?
and p. p? T\rtor: There's an easier way. What's Student: Don't I need to know the angle? T\rtor z p is zero at the center and r at the first interference maximun, regardless of d, Student: So 0 2r. T\rtor: Yes. What's a? Student: Presumably you'll say I don't need the angle for that one either. T\rtor: Yes, you don't. What's the ratio of p la? So
Student:
I find the angle 0, then calculate c
I, or 0.
Student:
Most of the stuff cancels.
p_a
ff
t' sind :
sinO
d a
T\rtor:
You can use the ratio to find c.
a]e: P*^Qd_
2.r4r
275
Tlrtor: If you know one of o and p, then you can use the ratio to find the other.
must mean something. does. The ratio dlo tells us what the last interference maximum inside the central diffraction maximum is. The ratio here is 214173  2.93, so the second interference maximum is inside the edge of the central diffraction maximun, but the third interference maximum just misses. This is true regardless of wavelength. If we increased the wavelength, the pattern would get narrower but would keep the same shape and intensity ratios, the whole pattern getting narrower together. Student: Interesting. Now I can calculate the intensity.
Student: That was easy. Does it Student: That
always work like that?
Tntor: It
r(o)
r*(ry)'{.""2p)
*:(ffi)'{."s21zzr;)
T\rtor: Tlrtor:
When you take the sine of o, remember to have your calculator in radians mode.
Student:
Is that important?
Yes. The equation was derived with o and 0 in radians. Student: Does d have to be in radians, if we had found d? T\rtor: It can be in whatever you want, and have your calculator in the correct mode. A hint that a and B are in radians is the zr in the equation for them. (0.3e2)' (r.0)
:
0.154

15.4%
Student: So the second interference mucimum has 15% of the intensity of the central interference maximum, regardless of the wavelength of the light. Ttrtor: Yes. It is determined by the ratio dlo.
EXAMPLE
The figure shows intensity as a function of angle (0" in the center) for a number of slit arrangements. Which figure corresponds to
o a single narrow (a << ^)
slit?
3a)?
o two slits with slit separation three times the slit width (d : o many narrow (o < A) slits?
Because the slit is less than a wavelength wide. If a > topright graph? lfrtor: T\rtor: Yes. Student: So the leftmiddle is two slits and the bottomright . We can't solve for the first diffraction minimum. Student: And when they're about the same. sin0 . Student: The leftmiddle graph looks like interference.276 CHAPTER 36. DIFFR ACTIO]V J\ ll It tl lt tl tl lt II i) tt /l t! t\ /t t'l /'r of evil bonehead question is this? meant to see if you can distinguish between interference and diffraction. When the slit is very narrow. One Student: There's nothing to calculate. Is it two slits or many slits? Student: How can I tell? T\rtor: Compare the leftmiddle graph with the bottomright graph. and because the central maximum is twice as wide as the others. The central maximum is the same size as the others and they don't get much smaller as we go out.m). but the maxima in the bottomright graph are much narrower. the diffraction minima move way in.(1)l a Student: If a ( ). Tutor: There isn't one. If a { ). Yes. we get the topleft figure. where is the first diffraction minimum? Student: The diffraction minima are at Tutor: Student: What kind asin 0 . The first diffraction minimum occurs when light from one side of the slit goes a wavelength further than light from the near side. Tntor: You might find a little. then the right side is greater than one. Student: So is that the topmiddle graph? T\rtor: Yes. then light spreads way out. there isn't room for this to happen. T\rtor: Good. You can tell that the minima are caused by diffraction rather than interference because each minimum is so much smaller than the previous one. is many slits. Tutor: That's what you get when you have many slits narrower bright spots. Student: And when the slit is wide. Student: They're similar.
so Student: 0xtan0_ D Y Tutor: Student: where g is the length of the nose and D is the distance to the nose. Student: The middle graph has the second interference maximum missing. The small angle approximation applies. Rayleigh's criterion for being able to tell the two objects apart is that the center of the second object has to be outside the first diffraction minimum of the first object. 100 m away. Excellent. Iike the hole. This diffraction minimum depends on the size of the hole through which we view the object. When light travels through a circular hole rather than a slit. objects that are close together but far from us. Student: Is this the same angle 0 as in the previous equation? Yes. Student: Is that the difference between the rightmiddle and the bottommiddle graphs? They look the same but with narrower slits.Od .r. 3 cm long? T\rtor: Student: Why do I want to see his nose? To see if his opponent broke it. EXAMPLE An athlete is at the far end of a sports field. Okay.4a.wherea<. What about the bottomleft Student: The fourth interference maximum is missirg. but still smaller than a wavelength. T\rtor: Very good. but there is no light from either slit due to diffraction. The light from one slit travels three wavelengths further than light from the other. How large a telescope would be needed to distinguish the athlete's nose. The slits in the bottomright graph are wider than those in the leftmiddle. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What wavelength should I use? The problem Pick one in the visible light range.277 Ttrtor: Student: Yes. but the intensity is zero there. Notice that the third interference maximum in each is missing. T\rtor: Yes. and d is the diameter of the hole. so d . they may appear to be a single object. so they're like the topmiddle graph. doesn't say. . it again forms a diffraction pattern. and get weaker in intensity as you go further out.\. There is a third interference maximuil. The angle to the first diffraction minimum is 0 . and there's no diffraction minimuil. and d  3a for the rightmiddle and bottommiddle graphs. The diffraction minima and maxima are circular in shape. Student: Is that because there is a diffraction minimum there? T\rtor: Yes. How wide are the slits? There isn't much diffraction. If we look at two 0n: I'224 d.22I where 0 is in radians and the small angle approximation applies (d = sin 0 x tan 0) . So d graph? T\rtor: graph? Yes.
but not tell the shape of the nose.03 m t9n m)(100 m) : 0.0020 m :2. If.22xD A !'22(500 "0. Student: Let's see.22) d  r. but diffraction limits you to just barely seeing a nose.0mm That's about the size of the pupil of the human eye. T\rtor: Student: . But what if the binoculars are 7x binoculars? T\rtor: If the limiting factor is diffraction.there you from seeing the nose. Tbtor: So you should just be able to see that there is a nose. If you use 25mm{ia.meter binoculars. then it's the ratio of the diameters that matter. DIFFNAC"ION Like 500 nm? Tbtor: Student: Sure. then you can see details 12 times smaller. This is assuming that diffraction in the eye is what limits your eyesight are other things that could keep .278 CHAPTER 36. So I should be able to see the nose. #=01. d goes up. then y goes down.
This is not because of the delay in my seeing the events. but the PingPong ball will continue nroving forward. One of the points of relativity is that there is no "standittg still" frame of reference.Chapter 37 Relativity When two people are moving compared to each other. nor is one right and the other wrong.by the side of the road .01 seconds for the light of the event to travel to ffi€. The issues begin when you need to change from one frame of reference to another. Flom your standpoint. they measure the world differently. Both of us are right. with a PingPong ball on your hand. What is a noninertial frame of reference? Imagine that you are in a car.as moving toward the rear of your car at 60 mph. I believe that they are not simultaneous. the PingPong ball accelerated forward without any horizontal forces on it. The important thing to remember is that nothing in relativity changes what we've covered so far. and these lead to some interesting results. I get c. you see the car not moving. all of a sudden. holding out your hand. compared to which all measurements are made. Forexample. If you drive by me at 60 miles per hour. in our own frame of reference. the car will slow. You believe that two events happened simultaneously. I realize that it took 0. if I shine a laser beam and measure the speed of the light. you get the same speed c. The second postulate is that the speed of light is the same for all observers. Note that we don't say that one is standing still and the other is moving. If an event happens somewhere in my frame of reference other than in front of me. If you are moving compared to me. But you see yourself as station&ry. This is not because one of them is less competent. The most immediate result of these two postulates is that two frames moving compared to each other will not agree on whether two events are simultaneous or not. so that the event really occurred at t . An inertial frame of reference is one in which Newton's laws apply. and measure the speed of the same light beam. As I move compared to you and look at the same events. you were just sitting there when. If the driver of the car steps on the brakes. In particular. I believe that I am standing still and that you are moving. all of physics works just fine. All 279 . The world is just different to two people who are moving compared to each other. rather than c * u or c . I subtract off the travel time of the signal to determine when the event happened.0. As long as you stay in one frame of reference. Note that any frame of reference that moves with a constant velocity compared to an inertial frame of reference is also an inertial frame of reference. There are two basic postulates that we start with in relativity. The first postulate is that the laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame of reference.u. Noninertial frames of reference typically involve acceleration that causes objects to accelerate without forces. and you see me .01 s. If I see sornething at t0 but 3 x 106 m awayfromffi€.
Everyone is correct for their own frame of reference. T\rtor: Being on Earth does not mean that he isn't moving. where proper is a name and not a description. and will get different values. T\rtor: Student: If we can use proper time and proper length. or the time between two events. A second result from these two postulates is that two observers. To convert spacetime coordinates between frames of reference. Captain Krank travels at 0. Krank isn't moving and McClay is moving to the left at 0.866 c 26 lt Yt Yes. These are never the same Person r Lo ll and At : . u. then that will be easiest? Student: .u At) t L.280 CHAPTER 37.866c. and the proper time is not the correct time. but this does not explain the effects of relativity. it is still true that d ut. moving compared to each other. . RELATIVITY observers are considered smart enough to compensate for the travel time of the signals. we use the Lorent z transform. The person who sees the two ends stationary measures the proper length.y Lto EXAMPTE Captain Krank leaves Earth to go to Vapid to visit Smerk while McClay stays behind on Earth. as measured by Krank? K 0. Many of the most important effects of relativity can be understood in terms of proper time Ato and proper length Ls. Student: How do we tell who is moving and who is standing still? Tntor: There is no "standing still." Each person is standing still in their own frame of reference. but they have different values of d.866c and Vapid is 26 It yr away. both as measured by McCIay. Who measures the proper length for Krank's trip? McClay is not moving. one frame of reference measures the "proper length" Lo. . and everyone else is moving. where proper is a name and not a description.(A. and t. For each.r' Lt'"y(AtbA") t ^l where ? is the Lorentz factor and u is the velocity between the two frames of reference. One frame of reference measures the "proper time" Ato. and the proper length is not the correct length. From Krank's point of view. The person who sees both events (start and end) happen directly in front of them measures the proper time. can me&sure the distance between two points. Similarly. How long does Krank's trip take. so he is the one measuring proper time and length.
Very good. . LLoll T\rtor so + trKr"rrk  LM.866c lt yrf yr  1g. tM.. the proper time is measured by the person who is at Earth when Krank leaves Earth. And what is this "proper length" ? e T\rtor: Student: Student: 26 lt yr.". T\rtor: Correct. I get the time measured by Kratrk.clavf ^f Student: What is 7 ? zj comes from the difference in speeds between the two frames of reference.866c? dl'e: deA. right? Tutor: Right. so it's the time measured by McCIay.866c ltYr. So Student: +d t'a 26 lt yr 0. Ttrtor: Correct.ct^vf "l  (26 lt yr) l@  13 It yr T\rtor: I\rtor: Student: tick questio Krank isn't Student: Student: Yes. What is the distance measured by Krank? Student: It isn't 26 lt yr. w€ can use the KrankMcClay according to Krank. you can do that. How fast is Krank going according to Krank? Is it just 0. but not yet. How fast is Krank going according to McClay? Ttrtor: I\rtor: So I need a minus sign. 0.sures a different length. Student: So McCIay measures the proper length for the trip because the planets are not moving in his frame of reference. There are some times when the sign of the velocity matters.866)2 T\rtor: How far is the trip according to Krank? Student: Since McClay measures the proper length. Gamma is not negative. and is Student: Wouldn't that be McClay.k 1to find the distance : LM.866 It yr /yr 3oyr 26 T\rtor: That is the distance measured by McClay and the velocity measured by McClay.y ^rrvvral : 26 It yr 26 lt vr  uMcClay 0.866c  30 yf T\rtor: Tutor: Who measures the proper time? since he measures the proper length? No.281 T\rtor: Student: But I can use d : ut. "Y 11 1 (0. Student: Okay. The Good. trK. It is always a positive number greater than 1. Student: And if I take the distance measured by Krank and the velocity measured by Krank.r Lv r L Thtor: We could also have found the time according to McClay and converted the time into Krank's frame. moving according to Krank. 'r 0.Cluy : du"cl.. Now we calculate how long the trip takes according to Krank. Earth and Vapid are stationary. from relative motion still works. McClay sees the proper length because the endpoints aren't moving in his frame of reference. To him.866 tKrank: dK""k _ t=t]ll' :g uKrank 0. right? Fbr each person and each frame of reference. When we square the negative velocity the sign disappears. What is the length as measured by Krank? He mea.
At : ".uf c2 in one frame and u' is the velocity  u. How long does Krank's trip take K 0. so they will also measure velocities differently.'k   (30 yr) I Q) : 15 yr Student: goes away and comes back. Scootie according to Scootie? leaves Earth toward Vapid at 0. Now I've heard of this socalled "twin paradox. EXAMPLE In the previous example. which is shorter. We use relativity to change measurements from one frame of reference to another. RELATIVITY T\rtor: Student: That Correct. Student: But if McClay measures proper length and Krank measures proper time.866 c 26 lt Yt . When the rocket ship turns around. but their measurements are correct for their frame of reference. Just as two observers will measure lengths and times differently. would be Krank. To transform a velocity from one equation into another. This never happens to the twin on Earth. so he is younger when they get back together. and in each piece the twin in the rocket ship experiences the proper time..282 also at Vapid when Krank arrives at Vapid. When the twin in the rocket turns around.. Each frame of reference measures things and gets different results." where one twin stays on Earth and the other Can't we say that the one in the rocket stays put while the one on Earth goes away and comes back? T\rtor: Good question. There is no "correct" frame of reference. This moment of noninertial frame of reference is the difference.ut as long as all three are measured in the same frame of reference. Student: So I can use d . we u use where u is the velocity measured 1+ u. the velocity between the twins changes. if only from positive to negative. everything in the rocket ship that is not bolted down picks itself up and flies against the front of the ship. CHAPTER 37. So we have to do the problem in two pieces.f Ato Atu"c Atu"clay uv 11 : I Ltxrank Atx. which one is the correct frame of reference? T\rtor: Neither. The equations we use in this chapter assume a constant velocity between two frames of reference.+u measured in the other.943c.
In the numerator. the world looks like this. and everyone else measures a longer time. so Af . According to Scootie.42)2  1.943c. With 0. ^l is always more than 1. Then. it is negative in the denominator? Then I find 7 from this velocity. can find the time. We would find the proper time.e43c)(0 .10 Student: Now if I used T\rtor: 2 and 3 to 1. shouldn't he see a shorter time? T\rtor'.10? 0.943c0. I got 2.866c (0. Student: Could we have done the calculation in Scootie's frame of reference? T\rtor: Yes. one going 86.42c T\rtor: Student: Student: So if one of them is negative in the numerator. Now I At Not really.7 mph. Student: So we need to use the complicated formula.943c and found 7. Student: Krank measures the proper time.077c ? a McClay sees Scootie gaining on Krank. do what you already did. I'd get 3.943c 0.s43\(0. Whoever measures the . just use them in the denominator. Precisely.866c) lc2  ? Tutor: More like this.283 Can we use At 1 Ltg? We can. proper time measures the shortest time. Student: So I take the speed between Krank and Scootie . T\rtor: Good.6 mph and the other chasing it at 94. T\rtor: Student: T\rtor: I\rtor: Which is? Student: Student: 0. so any other time is longer than the proper time. The equations in relativity are highly nonlinear. If you sa\M two cars on the highway.5 yr Student: Since Scootie is going faster. but Tutor: That is the speed at which it is still in McCIay's 1 + 0. Student: Like this? velocities. you would say that the second was gaining on the first at 7. "Y 1  (0. : ^f Lto Ats"ootie : I Ltxrank  (1. Is there some way to go trom Student: Ok y.866A l/  0.866c. .15 yr. (0. Can I subtract? 0.e43c) 1+ + (0. Now we need 7 between Krank and Scootie. . That's the speed between McClay and Scootie. and then find the gamma factor 7 between the frame with the proper time and Scootie's frame.866c) (o. whatever values you used in the numerator. It is the difference of two frame of reference. How do I keep u and u' and u straight? Ttrtor: It's possible.866c0. but not necessary.10)(15 yr)  16.3 mph.
0. Which flash does Helen observe first.le ruDcoof. According to McCluy. according to Scootie."ct^yll  (26 lt yr)l(3) : 8. but Scootie is gaining on Vapid faster than he is gaining on Krank. Because of rounding in intermediate steps. and 7 between Scootie and McClay is 3. Also at n . trscootie : Ly. Helen races by Ashley at . G T\rtor: Student: It's not quite the same. What is that distance according to Scootie? Student: McClay measures the proper length.7 lt yt The question for Scootie is: how fast is Vapid gaining on Krank? Student: So Krank is facing toward the right but moving toward the left? T\rtor: Everyone sees Krank facing toward the right. that's 26 lt yr.ootie is the speed Student: Is that uscootie : at which Vapid gains on Krank. according to Scootie.Lt. EXAMPLE Ashley obserttes two flashes. _ lt yr lyr 16. That is. . T\rtor: Very good.943c  0. RELATIVITY 0. both at t .284 CHAPTER 37. Ar rruDcoof. but Scootie sees Krank moving toward the left in the picture. and by how much? f : 0.6 y.  0. one red and one blue.r.0.7 lt yr T\rtorr T\rtor: us.523c? Afs"ootie : AdS"ooti" Uscootie 0. Scootie is gaining on Krank.le : T\rtor: AdS"ootit uscootie  T\rtor: Student: What is Adscootie? Student: How much distance Vapid must gain on Krank.5c.523 g. 0.42c Yes.42 c + 8.
We do know fn. fr7. But she concludes that. So neither of them measures the proper time. Student: So which of Helen and Ashley mea"sures the proper time? T\rtor: Which one is at the red light when it goes off and at the blue light when it goes off? T\rtor: Student: What do we mean by "observes?" T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Neither. To use the Lorentz transform. not antiparallel. they really happened at the same time. andu' are measured by Helen. a At) I At'"y(AthA*) T\rtor: Student: Does it have to be that way? t. Her "observation" is that they happened at the same time. She sees the red one first. Take Helen as the "primed" frame. Now I can find the times according to Helen. Student: u is the velocity of Helen as measured by Ashley. because the blue light had to travel further. and fs is the time of the red flash as measured by Ashley. Student: Ok"y. and u.y(A. ts. T\rtor: Correct. fr. she might conclude that the one she "saw" first really happened second.:r(r3") 11 1. Does that mean u' is negative? T\rtor: It does. so that t. so that t'. Is u positive or negative? T\rtor: According to Ashl"y. measured by Ashley because it is unprimed. For both of them . I\rtor: They might be the same. and then the blue one 1 ps later. Student: Does that mean that we need to use the Lorentz transform? Yes. Ttrtor: Yes. but y€s.155 . x'. No. So u is positive. and u are mea. I Ar'. Student: We don't know that. t : tt fi : r' :0 at the moment that the one passes the other. but if we didn't then the equations would be messier. Like when we chose the potential of a point charge to be zero at infinity didn't have to. andt'e is the time of the red flash as measured by Helen. frR. after she subtracts off the travel time of the signals. Student: Then ta : 0.285 H ele Ashley l*100 m 3oom# Blue Ashley does not see the light of the flashes at the same time. which is different from which one she ttseestt first. Student: And we want to know which one Helen "observes" first. Tlrtor: Take Ashley as the "unprimed" frame.sured by Ashl"y. is Helen moving in the positive or negative direction? Student: Positive. both people must have there raxes parallel. but not doing so would lead to messier equations. once she corrects for the travel time of the signal.
In Ashley's frame of reference.000 electron volts.bc)(0)) ." T\rtor: An interesting point. there would not be time for the red flash to "cause" the blue one. For example. a 100 keV electron is one with a kinetic energy of 100.a ar)  Student: So she concludes Helen sees the flashes 346 m apart. which the blue time is more negative. Here E is the total energy.lmd "y For objects moving much slower than the speed of light. the energy that something has even when it isn't moving.770ps) .0. that one couldn't have caused the other. then there is no frame in which the red one happened first. that we have always had. They happened at the same time in Ashley's frame of reference. because one can't cause the other in Ashley's frame of reference. For a third person that Ashley sees going in the opposite direction as Helen. If the red flash happened after the blue one in Ashley's frame. it happens first.92x107s0. Often nuclear physicists will describe particles with their kinetic energy. Note that 8.155)(+aoo m) 2(3 x 108 /s) Helen "observes" both of the flashes before she passes Ashley. K lmu2.I92pts t'B :. Tutor: It happens Student: And because (1.. This is the rest energy. The second one already happened before the light or signal from the first one arrived.(0. and mc2 all have units of energy. so that Helen concludes that the blue one could not have caused the red one. It is possible to show that. first in Helen's frame of reference.rs2r')) ..173 m I l L. . Another useful equation involving energy is x E2: @")r+(*"r). that person would observe the red flash first. . RELATIVITY t'R: t (t" 3"") t'n Y 2(3 (+1oom)) rll (. but in the time between them light could only travel 173 m.1bb) (tsoo m) .. Student: Let's check. I Energy and momentum also have relativistic values. The momentum is pi .^t(A" .r' (1.mc2. Student: So if I find the distance between the flashes in Helen's frame. long enough after (> 1 ps) that the blue one could have caused the red one. (r" 3 "")  (1 lbb) Y(+aoo*)) : T\rtor: The negative times me isatt:0. Student: So one observer might say that "the bomb went off before the fuse was lit.286 CHAPTER 37.346 m d . or vice versa. it will be greater than the time difference between the flashes in Helen's frame times the speed of light? T\rtor: Yes.(0 . pc. (+1oo 1 ) x 108 /r) I. it can't cause the other in any inertial frame of reference. E1mc2:mc2+K For slow speeds .ct (3 * 108 /s) (f. = 1 and we get the same equation for momentum One of the most well known equations from relativity is E . The total energy is E_ ^ymc2 The difference between the total energy and the rest energy is the kinetic energy K. Therefore two observers can observe different orders for the events.
called the work energy O. when light interacts with light. is typically a few electron volts. The stunning observation is that light shows this indivisibility feature. But an atom can absorb only one photon.Chapter 38 Photons and Matter Waves In the last few chapters. Given sufficient enersy. You can't take half of a photon's worth of energy from a beam of light. we would know that this something was a particle. Any excess energy that the photon has above the work function shows up as kinetic energy of the electron after it escapes. I can always reduce the amplitude. then the electrons can't escape at all. I cannot continue to reduce baseballs I . and small particles like electrons show interference behavior. and the other units that you've become familiar with. what kind of behavior is a characteristic behavior of particles? If we could identify such a behavior. Consider what happens when light hits a metal. In particular. it behaves like a wave. no matter how intense the light. More intense light is more photons. meters. such as electron volts ("V) and 287 . When light interacts with matter like atoms. and anything that demonstrates interference and diffraction is acting like a wave. This is called the photoelectric effect. > O. or E. Interference and diffraction are wave behaviors. showing indivisibility.eventually get to one baseball and I can't go any further. People knew about the photoelectric effect. but not greater energy photons. If the photons do not have enough energy. Light behaves like little particles called photons. we have examined how light acts like a wave. In this way light is indivisible and behaves like a stream of particles. So if a single photon has enough energy. it behaves like particles. Therefore light sometimes acts like particles and electrons sornetirnes act like waves. and then found something that showed this behavior. It is easier to use units of about the right size. When does light behave like a wave and when does it behave like particles? In general. Now we ask the question.hf :X where h amount of energy that can be taken from light has to be an integer multiple of the photon energy. It is possible in these next few chapters to do the calculations in joules. electrons can escape from the atoms in the metal. If I want to reduce the power of a wave. but it took Einstein to explain it using photons. an atom can absorb only one photon and therefore only the energy of one photon. The energy in each photon is E. then an electron can escape from the metal. showing interference. The energy needed. The characteristic behavior of particles is that they can't be arbitrarily divided.
Ehf:y Student: And for the 4I0 nm photons. When a hardertoremove electron is ejected.(e)(1 V) :1.c2 Value 1240 nm. T\rtor: Ttrtor: Yes. So 3.000 eV 938 MeV .0. Student: But the work function is still the same. Remember that 1eV .54 eV. T\rtor: Yes. that would help.16 eV.48 eV .54 V. Student: That seems like a strange way to do things. because the work energy does not change.48 eV must be the work function.470 nm strikes a metal. So the stopping voltage is the kinetic energy divided by the charge of the electron. Student: And I use hcl ).54 eV must be energy left over to become the kinetic energy of the electron.02 eV . and substitute the value in the right column. electrons are ejected with a maximum kinetic energy of 0.2. The work function is the energy needed to remove the easiest electrons. ^ 470 nm EY l T\rtor: Student: 410 nm Is the kinetic energy of the electrons proportional to the photon energy? No. What is the stopping voltage and the speed of the ejected electrons when 410 nm light is used? Tutor: Student: I need to know the energy Yes. "maximum kinetic energy?" Some electrons are easier to remove from the atom than others. Ttrtor: It Student: I see.0.2. And comes from the way . PHOTOIfS A]VD MATTER WAVES nanometers. there is less energy left over for kinetic energy.eV 511 keV .0. Student: Why do they talk about the what's this "stopping voltage" about? in which the experiment is done. Now the 410 nm light hits the metal.511. but hard to detect it's velocity. try to turn it into the combination in the middle column. Look for h TTLe Thrn into hc TfL. And after the atom absorbs the energy from the photon. Student: So 2.64 eV .938 x 106 eV EXAMPLE When light of.6 x 101e J and that 1 nm . If the kinetic energy is 0.eV mp ffipc2 p U pc ulc ke2 k momentum in energy units velocity parameter 1. to find that.16 eV is left over and goes into kinetic energy of the electron. So we use an electric field to slow it down until it stops. We create a potential difference and gradually increase the potential difference until the electrons can't make it any more. look for the item in the left column. In particular.44 nm. Student: Then what can I do? T\rtor: Can you find the work energy? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: How do I do that? Don't I need a formula? How much energy is in the 470 nm photon? 2.10e m. of the photons. then the stopping voltage is 0.64 eV.16 eV . It's easy to detect the presence of an electron.288 CHAPTER 38.
A common mistake is to use electron. T\rtor: You can. then you're safe with p . KE:)*r' Trrtor: Yes.00I45c 0. Student: So the way to tell is to compare the energy to the rest energy. You are blindfolded and can't see them.n'LU. So I use the kinetic energy to find the speed. but there's an easier way.! i*o' and prrla + ptffi . Student: Is this the "combinations" thing? .0. When they do so. Also.f. The potential energy of a basketball where your hand was when you quit feeling them tells you about the maximum energy of the basketballs. ^. But I need to find the momentum. and solve for the speed.000  0. T\rtor: If we find the speed from the energy. Tutor: You could do that. ^ Good. mc2. just like in the last example.mu.E 1. If K K.289 T\rtor: Imagine that some people are tossing basketballs in the air. but you want to know what the greatest energy is of any of the basketballs. I . So you hold out your hand and keep moving it up until you don't feel any more basketballs hitting it. Just as light can act like a particle. I have the kinetic energy of the electron in electronvolts. the electron is going much slower than the speed of light. Student: Correct. you don't really need the speed. I can convert that to joules.00145(3 T\rtor: " 108 /s)  4. do you? That's just an intermediate step.p EXAMPLE What is the de Broglie wavelength of a 14 eV electron? L This equation is also true regarding the momentum of a photon. put in the mass of the electron.36 x 105 m/s The advantage to this is that you aren't dragging big exponents all over the equations. Student: Ok y. so you could use p . Then I use the speed and p . Because the kinetic energy of our electron is so much less than the rest energy. T\rtor: That's one way. Student: I need to find the momentum.E for  for the electron because the electron has mass. Student: So when we look at electrons we're blindfolded. their wavelength is the de Broglie wavelength. we get Tutor: Student: I can't use .00145 u . T\rtor: In the sense that we can't just know everything about them. and put the speed into the momentum.{*"') G)' (:)' u c 2(0. matter like electrons can act like waves. This equation does not work for anything that has mass it only works for photons.54) 511.1mu to find the momentum.
which states that the uncertainty with which the position and momentum are measured must have a minimum value. .eV) 2(511. /^ pc 2(mc2)K Student: I need to use (1240 nm.IVS AND MATTER wAvES Is there a reason that we're using K for kinetic energy now instead of K E? Because we have a total ener gy E that we didn't have before. and add one factor of c to the left.\ffi Ttrtor: Then you can find the wavelength.tffit<. so we can't determine the wavelength as well. we need to shrink the width of the wave packet (shown horizontally). But then the wave packet will consist of fewer waves. This effect is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. use E2 (p")2 + (*"')' to find the combin ation pc. It works out perfectly.ppc@  0. and get pc.hcf pc to find the de Broglie wavelength. Student: Okay. To improve the determination of the position of the electron.328 nm  328 pm Student: What's a pm? T\rtor:Apicometer. T\rtor: and use Student: What if the speed isn't slow? Then we find the total energy E . There's more algebra involved. 000 eV) (r4 eV) . so I have p . Remember that the de Broglie wavelength of the electron is connected to the momentum of the electron.hlp .hhchc .290 T\rtor: Student: CHAPTER 38. with shorter wavelengths corresponding to greater momentum. I Student: I put two factors of c inside the square root to get mc2. Yes. and the wavelensh tells us the momentum.r Lp* )h: h 2n We cannot determine the position of an electron exactly without losing all information on its velocity. Two interesting questions to ask are: where is the electron and how fast is it going? Because of the width of the "wave packet." it is hard to say exactly where the electron is. Now that we know that an electron acts like a wave. L.K + mc2.or10_12m. so someone might get confused and think K E was the product of two values. PHOTO.Mrequiredthat the speed be slow. Tutor: It will be much easier. I want to do this combinations thing.Justrememberthatourearlierstepthatledto. w€ can show you a picture of an electron. . p. but the idea is ^ the same.
r ) hc 1240 nm. Then he must not know where I am. spread out over more distance. Student: So the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is not going to keep me from getting a ticket. 000 ev)(25 lQ x 10t)) : 4634 nm  4. J . T\rtor: Sure there is. or 0. w€ need the wave packet to contain more "wavestt so that we can better determine the wavelength. Tbtor: Can you spot the combinations in the equation? Student: You mean like h . That makes the wave packet longer. so he claims to know your speed 50 times better than our electron. For an electron moving with a speed of 5 x 105 m/s. Student: Why don't we see the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in larger objects? When a policeman pulls me over for speeding.29r EXAMPTE tr An electron has a speed 10 1450 +.6 pm Where does the 1450 m/s go? The minimum uncertainty in the position depends on the uncertainty in the velocity.005%. this is an error of 0. The narrower the wave packet. Nothing else we've done has required a minimum A. What is the minimum uncertainty in its position? T\rtor: How did you decide that? Student: Because it asks for minimum uncertainty. but not while mea"suring its velocity to a precision of 25 mls. not the velocity itself. To know the momentum better. and the uncertainty in the position is 50 times worse.25 m/s.25 mm. In a previous example. Tlrtor z 25 m/s is about 50 mph. Student: So there's no way to measure the position of an electron to better than 4. he says he knows my speed to 1 mph. so that the minimum uncertainty in the position of the car is about 1034 m while knowing the velocity to the T\rtor: Student: nearest I mph. Student: I need to use Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Student: I would think that a slowmoving electron would be easier to pin down than a fast one. But the mass of the car is much bigger. So this is a very slow moving electron. uncertainty. then the wave packet will be wider. less than 1 eV of kinetic energy gave an electron a speed of half a million meters per second.hc? A' > Ar (*"') c2r A. so that you know the wavelength better.r Ap* ) h: h 2" h ArmAur> h.6 pr.eV 2r(mcz)(Au lc) 2n(511. the more wavelengths you need. If you use fewer different wavelengths.m. T\rtor: The way you make a wave packet is by adding waves of difference frequency or wavelength.
The allowed wavelengths of the electron are 2LlI.rl\n This is the Bohr model of the atom. The potential energy doesn't change throughout E . and all other values don't work.2Lf 3.2L12. . Flom these we can find the allowed momenta. For an electron in a similar situation.6 eV n2 Why is the energy negative? Remember that the potential energy <rf the proton and electron when they are far apart is zero. . w€ take away some of its kinetic energy. When the electron makes one complete orbit. only specific values of the energy are allowed.. We call this a onedimensional infinite square well. What happens when an electron acts like a standing wave? In a standing wave. As the electron approaches the proton.2L13. so the total energy is negative. h h hn P2Lln 2L ^the box. A similar thing happens inside an atom. w€ treated a moving electron as a traveling wave. A hydrogen atom consists of an electron orbiting a proton. but the potential energy is more negative than the kinetic energy is positive.Chapter 39 More About Matter Waves In the previous chapter. The tube is so skinny that we worry about the motion of the electron in only one direction. it must form a standing wave with a node at each end. While the electron is close to the proton. so if the energy together 292 . 13. . only specific energies are allowed. The electron can move in only one dimension. the distance it travels must be an integer number of wavelengths of the electron 2rrn . it gains kinetic energy and loses potential energyr so that the potential energy is negative.r* (h)' : *: * (#) There are specific values of the energy of the electron that work. or square. The kinetic energy is positive and the potential energy is negative. and the potential energy is "flat" within the well. and the result was that only specific frequencies would work. This means that we would have to do work to move the negative charge away from the positive charge and back to an infinite distance apart. it is possible to determine the allowed energies. It is a general principle that the energy of anything that is stable is less than the energy that the pieces have when they are apart.I*. so the energy is the kinetic energy. FYom this. Because the electron behaves like a wave. Because only specific values of the wavelength are allowed. we forced nodes at particular places. where the electrons orbit the positively charged nucleus. it takes an infinite energy to get past the ends of the tube.. Imagine an electron in a long skinny tube. Things tend to move toward lower energy.
493 eY 12. but whether the energy of the atom after absorbing the photon matches an allowed energy. The energy of the photon must be equal to the difference of the energies of the initial and final states.739 eV En: 13. or higher energy. If the energy of the photon is not exactly right. or lower energy.255 ril.eV 99. Student: Ah. or perhaps a single egg. buy you can't bry 1.255 nm 1240 nm. Not all quantized things are microscopic. Student: T\rtor: What's the starting energy? The hydrogen atom is in the ground state. so eggs are quantized. then the atom can't absorb the photon and can't make a transition.39 eBBS.255 rffi. so ground beef is not quantized. The question isn't whether the photon energy matches 13. So the initial energy is 13. square well are was positive. This is the principle behind spectroscopy. When you bry eggs you can buy a dozen. and the next lowest state is the first excited state.6 eV divide d by n2 . T\rtor: Tlrtor: Yes.493 eY ? o Thtor: What are you trying to do? Student: I need to find out if the energy of the photon matches solve for one of the allowed energy levels.eV  12. so I need to add the photon energy to the starting energy to find the after energy. and the study of quantized systems is called quantum mechanics.255 nm ^ 13. Because both the initial and final energies are quantized.6 eV n2  12. then the atom can't go there and won't absorb the photon. Negative 13. What value of n gives the lowest energy? Student: n : I. The different allowed values in a quantized system are called states. AE  lEnt*n . or any value you like. Not necessarily. Atoms gain and lose energy by absorbing or emitting a photon of light.hc ) hc Ehc E.6 eV. To move to a lower n value.293 it would tend to move apart. . but is a continuum. and with light of wavelength 90. To move to a higher n value. The lowest energy state is called the ground state. with light of wavelength 97.750 eY 97. You can go to the butcher's store and buy 1. but the energy when the electron is outside the "box" is infinite rather than zero.6 eV.255 nm? The atom absorbs the energy of the photon. Therefore a "quantum leap" is the smallest possible change in a quantized system. or a half dozen.eV 90. to about 8 significant figures. The energies of the onedimensional infinite positive. or energy levels. requires that the atom lose energy.255 nm 1240 nm. To make a quantum leap. If the energy from the photon puts the atom between allowed energy states. or change from one state to another. T\rtor: Your idea is partially correct. The smallest possible value that a quantized system can have is called a quantum. EXAMPLE What happens to a hydrogen atom in the ground state when it is illuminated with light of wavelength 99. requires that the atom gain energy. T\rtor: Student: E. the photon must have exactly the right amount of energy. then A system that can have only specific values is said to be quantized. in a hydrogen atom involves moving to a different energy.T 1240 nm. Student: So I need to see whether the photon has the right amount of energy.Eto*l: E.39 pounds of ground beef. So I'll n and see if it's an integer. and be unstable.
that is a sign that the energy of the incident light matches a transition energy.3 or n. right? T\rtor: That doesn't happen.6 eV + 12. T\rtor: So a positive energy is more than enough for the electron to leave the proton. It's possible to cause effects similar to that to happen. but we call it ionization. Student: Could the hydrogen atom absorb a photon and go up to n: 3? T\rtor: The photon has too much energy.255 nm light on a hydrogen atom.107 eV  1. With 97.850 eV  0. Something does happen.255 nm light. right? T\rtor: Right.511 eV. like 10 or 20 ns. either n . it jumps to a lower state. the energy afterward is 13. so we can't shine 99 .1. Student: Cool. .493 eV En 13.255 nm light. Student: The atom wants to be in the lowest possible state. by changing the wavelength of the incident light until they see light coming off? T\rtor: A simplistic but substantially correct explanation. This photon goes off in a random direction.739 eV n2 13. but the atom doesn't absorb any of the photons.750 eV 13. It has to lose energy in the process so it emits a photon with the appropriate energy.00 the photon and jumps to the rr  4 state.6 eV n2  1. so it works. Student: But the atom could emit a photon with the excess energy.850 eV T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: n is an integer. Oh. so nothing happens.51 is not an integer. What happens at energy equals zero? Student: The hydrogen atom has zero energy when the electron and proton are separated. With the first photon. The atom absorbs Good.6 ev * En 13. ev * 12.13. Then what happens? 4. The ionization energy is the energy needed to extract an electron. Student: Not the energy of the n . l]rtor: Yes. Student: Okay. not necessarily the same direction as the incident photons.139 T\rtor: Tntor: Student: Student: How am I supposed to take the square root of a negative number? You aren't.2 or n.6 eV n2 0. So nothing happens. So if we see photons going off in other directions.6 eV +0.51 3. and then it would be ohy. MORE ABOUT MATTER WAVES Oops. Student: Like the photoelectric effect. but that's for advanced quantum mechanics and we won't get into that stuff. Student: I don't know. So it jumps back down to the ground state? Ttrtor: After a while. There are no values of n for which the energy of the hydrogen atom is positive. Student: Is that how scientists do spectroscopy. w€ can shine the light on a hydrogen atom. remember.3 or n . Es: 1.107 eV : T\rtor: Student: 3.294 Student: CHAPTER 39. Now with 90.2 or n of the two states. .
so a series is transitions with photon wavelengths that are close together. Student: So the names Balmer and Paschen mean the level at which the transition ends. When we put the hydrogen atom in n stays there for only a short time.6 ev level the transition finishes at.5 state can also drop ton . except that we use the work function only for metals. it only applies to the hydrogen atom. An electron in the Tl state can drop ton . What are the allowed positive energies? Any positive energy is allowed. It's not easy to go up from n . it appears as lines. Shorter wavelengths correspond to what? . like a diffraction grating. but an electron in the n. For example. Student: What about other atoms. For oneelectron atoms with greater charg€s.295 T\rtor: It isn't really. with an energy of hc l24o "ry ET: 4o5rT\rtor: Student: But I don't know what :30. When we view this light through a spectrometer. When we get to high values of n. so Z  T\rtor: They mean the lowerenergy level of the two.3. and so on. So sometimes we call the photons "lines. What is the longest wavelength in the series? 3 and the energies are 13.3. Also.2 to n ." Student: Ok y. Student: What's a "line?" T\rtor: When we excite an atom into higher energy states and it decays. like the helium atom. like 10 or 20 rs. For atoms with more than one electron. which is the ending level when photon emission takes place. and what's a "series" ? T\rtor: A series is em'iss'ion l'ines from transitions that end with the same n.3. the problem becomes extremely difficult to solve.3. it gives off photons.t have energies > have photon wavelengths in the infrared. EXAMPLE The shortest wavelength in a series of Li++ is 40. Above zero energy. in hydrogen all of the transitions that end at n .5 nm. Once the electron is free of the atom. A helium ion H e+ is similar to a hydrogen atom. At what level does it start? Student: The problem doesn't say that either.5 nm photon. it can have any kinetic energy it wants. I have a 40. Look at the other end. before going back down to n emission lines are all of the ones available but the absorption lines are only the ones that start at n . Student: What about up to n . Okay. do we have a name for that? T\rtor: No. the allowed energy levels are Student: Student: How is the ionization energy different from the work function? T\rtor: E. 7z lr'.3. Student: Lithium has a charge of 3.6 eY lnz for a particle in a onedimensional box. like helium? T\rtor: When there are two electrons in an atom.6 eV . But I don't know initial the or final levels. because it has one electron. The Paschen series in hydrogen is all transitions down to n . T\rtor: The problem does say that you have the shortest wavelength in the series. the energy of the hydrogen atom is a continuum.1 (ot the ground state).13'6eY\22 TL' T\rtor: where Z is the charge of the nucleus. someone has already measured them so we look them up in a book. the states have energies that are close together. Student: And the photons have energies equal to the difference between the energies of the initial and final states. right? T\rtor: Yes. remember to not use 13.
For the n . Yes. A wavefunction iI. What's the longest wavelength in the series? Student: Longer wavelengths are lower energies. To solve these and other problems properly we use the wavefunction.1 state that is the most likely place for it to be. so I want the smallest transition energ. the integral of the square of the wavefunction is the sum of all the probabilities of finding the electron everywhere.eV 17 eV : 17 eV :72. If this is the shortest wavelength and greatest energy.z)eiutt. is the initial energy higher or lower? Student: It would be the highest starting energ"y.6 eV. it is hard to hold atoms together when n gets to be 100 or so. but for the n .Ezl : l(13.6 eV) . That would be when the electron goes to n . momentum.@) l'in(T") These resemble the amplitude of a standing wave.sty. and often the value of the wavefunction is a complex number.). Thtor: Student: En:Tutor: Student: (tg'6 eY)(32) : 30. so it must be equal to 1. .y.rywu(*)t$:o The significance of the wavefunction is twofold.(30. the chances of finding the electron very close to the end of the onedimensional box are nil.9 nm The solutions that we've presented are overly simplistic. Student: So I can take zero as the starting energy.y. How big can n get? Thtor: As big as you can make it.6 ev  lDs . and the energy of the final state is 30.E (ts'o eYXg2) 32  13. Experimentally.6 eV)l 1240 nm. and transition probability between levels. Also. where working means to satisSr the Schrodinger equation #. For the electron in the onedimensional infinite square well. Therefore. Ground state I tt excited state n=3 n= 4 . the probability of finding the electron at a given spot is proportional to the square of the wavefunction t/2 at that spot. but the math gets na.2 state. Only specific wavefunctions work.t) . MORE ABOUT MATTBR WAVES Greater energies. or the biggest n. Es:Et: A. Using the wavefunction we can calculate energy levels. Good. the wavefunctions that work are 'b. The energy gets too close to zero.h is zero at the middle. so the electron is never there.296 CHAPTER 39.z. A.rh(fi. To solve a quantum system we have to find the wavefunctions. angular momentum. is a function of both position and time tU(r.3.6 ev > n  2 The series is all transitions O"# to n . Because the wavefunction is zero at each end.
What are the energies for the onedimensional Student: Oh. . the wavefunction extends past the walls of the well. I know the energy. The probability is the square of the wavefunction. The electron has an energy of 76. What is the probability of finding the electron in the leftmost 0. yes? Mostly correct. You want to find the probability of the electron being at each spot in that region. How can you tell the states apart? Student: They have different energies. Otherwise known as the first excited state.n2 'o 76. we divide the region into pieces so small that we can treat the probability a^s being the same throughout the region. Student: Ok y.76 eV (19. even though the electron doesn't have enough energy to get out. EXAMPLE An electron is in a onedimensional infinite square well of width 0. Ttrtor: Student: En: 13. and a longer wavelength.19 n2 76. F (h")'  2(mc2)L' .2 state.02 ril. The electron has enough energy to get to both the left and right parts of the energ. so if the electron is there it must have less kinetic energy.76 eV ? T\rtor: The square well?  13 . There is a nonzero chance of finding the electron outside of the well.297 to get out of the well without an infinite amount of energy. Also. that's right. Tlrtor: Yes.14 nm. Because the probabilities are not uniform. Less kinetic energy means less momentum.y well but not enough to get out.02 nm of the infinite well? So I need to find the wavefunction and integrate it from 0 to 0. The wider lines represent the potential well it is possible The potential energy on the right side is greater. and it takes energy to get from the left side to the right.76 eV eY)nz + n : 2 T\rtor: Student: The electron is in the n . so I can find the state that has the right energy. The sinusoidal line is one of the wavefunctions. Consider the onedimensional finite well shown. Student: Infinitesimally small pieces.6 eV n2 :76.76 eV.6ln' applies only for the hydrogen atom. Which state n is the electron in? T\rtor: You need to determine that. The horizontal line represents the energy of one of the wavefunctions. This is a purely quantum mechanical effect that doesn't happen in the old "classical" physics.
Now that I know that n .02 Student: Then the probability of finding the electron between bilities.2.i" (+")l:"nm Student: The chances are .53T0. The square of the wavefunction gives you the relative probability. nm is the sum of all the proba T\rtor: Yes.in'(7") dn T\rtor: Student: Or just look To find the integral.I can write down the wavefunction. . nm loo" l.in'(7") d*:?l.hz(*) Tlrtor. probability  kbr("))' d* : 7 2. MORE ABOUT MATTER WAVES n has to be an integ€r.f . or an integral. sm (7")dn 0 and 0. Student: What if I hadn't gotten an integer for n? Student: : T\rtor: What is the probability that the electron is in an infinitesimal piece of width dn? Student: That's the square of the wavefunction. I replace the sin2 with the trigonometric identity. but nothing in your equation is infinitesimally small. probability : kbz("))2  Tbtor: The probability of finding the electron in any infinitesimally small piece has to be infinitesimally small. l.. but to get the probability for a given piece you need to multiply by the width of the piece. it up in a book.298 CHAPTER 39. J2 nm looo' ["in'ar? sin2ar :?ry3"*"(ffi")l :8fB *""(+"):oo6b3 6. For an infinitesimally small piece this is infinitesimally small. so either you or the problem author made an error.
But the z component can be + ot + (from the minimum to the maximum in steps of 1). TTL1. fa we create the periodic table (located at the end of the book). ++ }. 0. has to be an integer between l and l. l:Ii. An electron in an atom is specified by the quantum numbers { rL. As the number of electrons in an da atom increases.andcontinueswithgandh. Previously.3 / can be 0 or 1 or 2.2 state.2 is called 4d. letterrsol0iss. and the third ir { 2.Sothestaterr2.) The z component could be all of the angular momentum. 0. (Itr quantum mechanics. ro we don't bother writing it. l. and m" is the z component of the electron's spin. The Pauli exclusion principle says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers. By filling up the levels from the lowest energy. w€ use z as the first axis chosen. state. The angular momentum of the spinning is always s *. + }. and the energy of 2p is slightly 'Jgreater than 2s. 4. they have more effect on each other. or none of it.0. A configuration of 1s2 2sz 2p6 3s2 4sr would be aluminum in an excited state. trll is the z component of this angular momentum. I 5n ft4d The Pauli exclusion principle still says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers. and  But there are more quantum numbers than just n. The energy of 3d is greater than the energy of 3p 3p is greater than the energy of 3s. 299 . mt) ms } I is the orbital angular momentum of the electrorl. because the n . is the z component of l. The 2s electron configuration of aluminum (Z : 13) is !s2 2s2 2pu 3s2 3p'. For the 3p state. we could write ls2. l3is/. As the electron orbits the nucleus. orbits the nucleus The preferred way to distinguish between states of the same n is by the angular momentum. The # is the number of electrons in the nl level. or even in the z direction. and call them by the first called 2s. m1 could be 1 or 0 or +1.. the next electron must go into the n . . As the electron it has orbital angular momentum. 0. so for n . I0is . so 2s is filled first. The idea is that once one electron is in the n 7. 0. it also spins on its own axis. The first electron is in the state { 1. 0.  One way to write the electron configuration of an electron is nl#. The quantum number I has to be an integer between 0 and n.Chapter 40 All About Atoms so on. the energies of the states depended only on n) so that 2s and 2p have the same energy. so much so that the energy of 3d is greater than the energy of 4s (in some atoms). This is not entirely true. the E second ir { 1. So m. We attach names to the values of l. ++ }.1.f level is f s filled. The next quantum number. rather than r.p. and the state n l:2isd. So after two electrons.
I. and 3 levels first. Student: Does that mean that there can be 6 electrons in any p level? T\rtor: Yes.18 is twice I.2 and 18in n.1. Arsenicis5electronspast n3. 0." With more than one electron the energy becomes very difficult to in an atom a . There are three possibilities for m7. Because there is one electron in the n . Student: And there can't be one in the lp state. We take an atom and bombard it with highenergy electrons.2. so As is one electron past 32. } and { 1.6 eV x Z'lr'for the energy of the electron. right? Correct.1 we call it a Kp photon. 9. and 2+ 6 . and then 3dr0.8. so 2n2. Tntor: Careful.4 before finishing n .300 CHAPTER 40. but you need to fill the n . This was applied to a single electron electron atom. When an electron drops from a higher level to a lower one. .1 level (the other has been knocked out). This photon typically has a high energy and is in the xray spectrum. Student: There can be2 electrons in 1.3. ALL ABOUT ATOMS EXAMPLE What is the electron configuration of arsenic (Ar. When an electron drops from n . so m7 can be 1 or 0 or 1.3 to n. so you start n . The energy of the photon must equal the difference in energy of the two levels. An electron from a higher level comes down to fill the lower energy level. and I need 15 more. w€ use the combined charge of the nucleus plus the ls electron. Previously we used 13. and for each of them there are two possibilities for m". T\rtor: That's the lowest energy place for them to go. We also get photons of other energies. right? Correct. because p means I Student: That's Student: 5s is lower than 4d.2to n ."one calculate. 0. + }.3is28. and 2+ 6+10:18 in n3.4 level. 0." Student: And the last three go into 4p. +L.8 inn2. Sometimes the incoming electron knocks out one of the electrons. Student: So how can there be six electrons in the 2p state? T\rtor: Because I . Z  33) in the first excited state? T\rtor: Ttrtor: Student: .1 we call it a Ko photon. T\rtor: There can be 32 electrons in the n . rs2 2s2 2p6 3s2 Bpu 4s2 Jdro 4p' 5s1 We use an xray spectrum to identify the nucleus of an atom. Sometimes you'll see a level called a "shell. For the first excited state. 4s has lower energy than 3d. rs2 2s2 2pu Jsz Jpu 18. Student: Oops. but we can get an estimate. When an electron drops from n. so I fill the 3d level.2innI andSin n. So there can be only two electrons in the ls state.6. Student: 2(4)2 . move one of them up to the next highest level. Is there some easy way to determine how many can fit in an n level? T\rtorz 2. 4. giving off the extra energy as an emitted photon. 0. and 10 in any d level. { 1. Then comes 4s2. up to a maximum equal to the energy of the incoming electron. I\rtor: Yes. and 3 x 2 . it emits a photon with a characteristic energy.1 and / has to be less than n. Student: Ok y..32.
301 EXAMPLE What are the minimum wavelength and K p wavelength for cesium (Ct. Thtor: And the largest energy is the shortest wavelength. Student: But I use Z . then the difference energies is the energy of the K p photon.2 pm How do I get the minimum wavelength? What's the most energy that you could possibly get from a 42 keV photon? Student: 42 keY. I find the energy of the two states. T\rtor: Very good.66 kev 4. )min Student: : YE t?10.4I keV)l : Tntor: Student: What if the incoming electron doesn't have 39.o2sbnm  2e. Student: So the minimum wavelength photon is the one with an energy of 42 keV.66 keV of energy.1. o.b pm .3 to rr .E . L/n' in the D (13.( 4.l(39.66 keV) .6 eV)  (Z .251 eV Tutor: T\rtor: Good.41 keV 35.o3b2 nm:3b. Student: So the wavelength of the K B photon is \p:y_ E ry: 35.000 eV ll':Y  o . Then it wouldn't be able to knock the electron out of the n . 42.I to find the energies of the states.D' n2 E1: Es (13'6 evX55 12  1)2 1)2 :  39.25 keV : (13'6 eVx55 32 Et : A. Z keV photons?  55) when bombarded with 42 Student: Kp means from rr .I level.
one does a difference calculation and gets a difference result. they change their energies just a little. they are very close to each other. (For comparison. bo Band GoP b r{ material is n(E) ry. The Pauli exclusion principle says that no two electrons can be in the same state. because nanometers are much smaller than the typical solid. but the location of the empty chair moves. leading to a density about 3000 times smaller. of course. with one empty chair and one person in the middle of the circle.n 8t[2r(^"')tt' ttr (h")t  (0. In the camp game "shuffie your buns. as each electron waits for its turn to move. The conduction of electric current in a solid depends on whether the energy states in these bands are filled. But if half of the chairs were empty. the units conceal a large density. For a (1 mm)3 sohd. electrons need room to work. with many energies very close together. such as a very thin film. To avoid overlapping electrons being in the same state.) When atoms are this close. Because there is but a single empty chair. The ((it" person in the middle tries to sit down.Chapter 4L Conduction of Electricity in Solids When atoms form a solid. about 0. and you have virtually no current at all. the energies become energy bands. None of the chairs move. the movement is relatively slow. then each electron could constantly be in motion.1 nm away from each of their nearest neighbors. and the next person shuffies into the chair the first one vacated. To move rapidly. the electron wavefunctions begin to overlap. How close together are these energy levels? The density of energy levels in a 3D I >. but one of the people next to the empty chair "shuffies" over into the chair.81/eV. in a gas at room temperature they are about 2 nm away from each other. the energy levels are about 101e eV apart. The result is that instead of discrete energy levels.nm3) El$ (For a 2D material.) While this number may look small. Imagine a single empty chair among 1023 electrons. Semiconductor 302 . This is about the same size as an individual atom. In this way the people shuffie one way and the empty chair shuffies the other way." a couple dozen people sit in a circle of chairs. and without it they can move only slowly.
or about I eY 111. the energy band is only half full. as in lower energy.tmp to the next band is relatively small.600 K. but the j. and a current could flow. but that requires a considerable energy. Semiconductors have a completely filled band. the density of valence electrons is the same. so there are available states at nearly the same energy. the energy band is completely full. This corresponds to atoms where the outer shell of electrons is completely filled. and plenty of room to move about.v) n2/s To the right is a semiconductor. Student: I need the density n. It's better. How could an electron hope to jump 1 eV to the next energy band at only room temperature? Though the probability is small. For a semiconductor like silicon. You could start by findittg the Fermi energy. Metals are typically conductors. At higher temperatures. 3d. and very little current can flow. to fill the 3d shell than the 4s shell. The probability of an energy level being filled by an electron is P(E) _ e@Er') /kr + 1 k? is the typical energy available to electrons. so the current can increase. more electrons have the energy to move to higher levels. where k is the Boltzmann constant of 1. the number of electrons is very large. Student: I thought that 4s had lower energy than . There is no room for electrons to move around. Only the last electron is available to move around. corresponding to increased resistance. One of the interesting result of this temperature dependence is that the resistance of semiconductors decreases with temperature. For metals. perhaps 1 eV or less. &trd the density of electrons in the higher conduction band increases. Some of the electrons might get enough energy to move to the next band. a^s the temperature increases. perhaps 3 eV or more. and the power turned to heat increases. (+ nm2 . More energy is lost in the collisions. The Fermi energy Ep is the energy of the highest occupied state when all lower states are filled. and there is plenty of room to move around.5 eV requires a temperature equal to the temperature of the Sun. Each copper atom contributes 1 electron. where they would have plenty of room to move around. Each metal atom has one or more electrons in a partly filled shell. To get a value of kT of even 0.38 x 1023 JlK. Electrons would have plenty of room to move around if they could jnp up to the next band.I x 1028 l^t. EXAMPLE For a 1 cm copper cube. higher temperature means more available energy. In the conductor shown in the middle. Remember from thermodynamics that temperature is a measure of internal energy. For semiconductors. the density of charges in the higher energy band is about 1016r so that only a trillionth of the electrons have the energy to make it. how much more energy than the Fermi energy is the most energetic electron likely to have? this out from only that information? far we can get. the rate of collisions for the moving electrons increases. Is that something that I need to look up? Tutor: You can find it from the density. Shouldn't it be 4s2 3ds? Multiple electrons in an atom cause the energy levels to change.303 In the insulator shown to the left of the figure. but the number of electrons trying to make it is much more than a trillion. Student: So if I know the density of copper atoms. For a conductor like copper the density of "valence electrons" n . T\rtor: Student: That's it? I'm supposed to be able to figure Let's see how T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: How do you know that it's one? The electrons in the ground state are in Is2 2s2 2pu 3s2 3p6 3d10 4sL.
To find the highest energy electron. and shares one of them with each of its four neighbors. or one electron over a whole electronvolt. we could go until the density times the probability was about 1.') x (1 c)3 x (+*)':1.Er :srkT: 51 v^ ( :"u (E \ rr.ln (t. I need to find where e@Ep)/kr +1 T\rtor: I think you can safely neglect the *1 on the left.e6) . COI. P(E)  1. and all of the electron shells are filled. T\rtor: Well. .5 x r02z1" .{DUCTIOIT OF ELECTRICITY II{ SOLIDS You look up the density (8.18/eV nm3 We're more interested in the density p So Student: I multiply by the volume? n(r) T\rtor: Student: (ra l"yr.02 x10") (#) (8..304 T\rtor: CHAPTER 41. T\rtor: Student: Now I can find the Fermi energy. /kr "(EEr')  1. You already have the electrons per atom. Doping means to replace a small fraction of the atoms of the original substance with atoms of a difference substance. Student: So above that the probability is small enough that there are no electrons.8x 1022 Student: Oh.. because the e@Er') /kr is so much bigger.a x r0"): 51 \ (3oo K) E .54 g/mol).81/eV. Avogadro's number.8 x 1022 .. T\rtor: About 2 electrons. and you know the number of atoms per mol.) 1'3 ev T\rtor: At that energy.8.2. the density Student: Close enough for me. Then each atom has eight electrons around it. of states is a little higher. Now. Student: Oh. about how many electrons would be in an electronvolt? Student: 1000 x 211000 . Each silicon atom has 4 valence electrons.03 ev We can also find the density of states lr(E') ffi : nt) volt. but the probability of a state being filled was 21L000. We could do a calculation to find the expected number of electrons with even higher energies.Ep)lkT .nm3) ro22I "^r)r/r(*)' ev)/(t : 7.(+ nm (0. if the energy level spacing was such that there was 1000 state per eV. very few if any electrons. electr_ons cm3 (6 electrons mor q x ry x '\ atom mol g x ag n  (1) .96 gl" 3) and the atomic mass (63. Ep: Tutor: T\rtor: (+ nm2 "v) n2/s . In practice. but only about I0%. semiconductors are "doped" with another material. so there would be 2 electrons.8 x 1022 l"y The energy levels are spaced 1022 eV apart? They are 1022 eY apart. ooo K. Be careful with nm and cm and m. Student: No thanks. That would involve integrating the probability times the density of states. because it's a probability. . so that there are about 1022 eV of them over a space of 1 eV.
so that there are enough to fill all of the electron shells. We saw earlier that only about a trillionth (1 in 1012) of the atoms in a semiconductor contribute an electron to the conduction band. Thansistors allow us to control one current with a second current or voltage. So the density of phosphorus atoms needs to be 1021 l^t. T\rtor: Almost all. The vast majority of the silicon is still siliconr so the volume is determined by the silicon.. If only a millionth of the semiconductor atoms were replaced with something with an additional electron. moves EXAMPLE How much phosphorus must be added to 2 grams of silicon to create a doped semiconductor with a charge carrier density n . Vm: p l/p : ^:0. Essentially all of the conduction electrons would be from the doping. We use transistors to make amplifiers and computer logic circuits. It wouldn't take much to mess up the production of a semiconductor. cm) 8. so the doping must do all of the rest. plus one extra electron. Tutor: Student: That's really small! .6 x 1014 r. Student: If I knew the volume of the phosphorus. One way to dope silicon is with phosphorus.305 For each silicon atom that is replaced with something that has one more valence electron.1021 l^t? Student: The silicon itself contributes a density of 1016 l^t.p(80x1014. I could multiply by the density to get the number of phosphorus atoms. Ail of the conduction electrons come from the phosphorus. This gives us good control of the density of conduction electrons when manufacturing doped semiconductors.33'r. T\rtor: Yes.!=^ \to. But 1021 .86 cm3)(10" \t : l^. the extra electron to the conduction band. T\rtor: The phosphorus atoms are scattered among the silicon atoms. Student: I can live with that. these additional electrons would completely outnumber the conduction electrons from the semiconductor.86cm3 glcm5 2.) ( . Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons.1016 is nearly the same as 1021. (#) (*'q)  44x1o8s Semiconductors are made in "clean rooms" to reduce the chances of contamination. Student: So I find the volume of 2 grams of silicon and multiply by the density of phosphorus to find the number of phosphorus atoms. The error in saying ((all" is in the sixth significant digit. Student: Why are semiconductors so important? Tntor: When we put semiconductors together we can form a transistor. (0.
We write a nucleus or isotope nt.008665 lH fin tn" tu'c !8p" . which is the number of protons and neutrons. "'. Where El is the chemical symbol for the element. We convert from atomic ma. The atomic mass number A is the number of nucleons. Some Nuclear Masses f e 0. Therefore. Nuclear physicists have measured these and we look up their results. times c2.902089 eb.ss units (u) to kg. remember that anything stable must have less energy together than apart. is how much energy we would have to put in to separate the nucleus into individual nucleons.r tSrt 239. El and Z are redundant and Z is sometimes omitted.00782b 1. the mass of the nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of the pieces. The mass of the 37nU nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of 37 protons and 40 neutrons. We can combine all of these factors into c2 :931. the electric force tries to push the protons apart. multiply by and convert to megaelectron volts (MeV). Because Z determines El. Because everything wants to have less energy.Chapter 42 Nuclear Physics We now examine the nucleus. we need to find this difference in ma.go 6124 4. Because there are only positive charges in the nucleus. Which element an atom is is determined by the charge of the nucleus or atomic number Z. but only at short distances of about 1015 m. The neutrons are necessary to create more space between the protons. otherwise it would fall apart.000549 1. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons.oooooo bb. Then we find the ma^ss of the nucleus itself.o4aggo .88u 2g8. For example.es4esl t83Y t83cr 39Rb 306 I 1o1.ss of electrons) . located at the center of the atom. STnU is rubidium with 37 protons and 40 neutrons.002608 12. We add up the ma^sses of the pieces of the nucleus.gaabb8 186.oboz88 '8?P. Atoms of the same element but with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. To find the binding energy.05 2164 1go.es42T2 (includes ma.5 MeV/u.ss.88u zt. The difference in mass.s. so that the strong nuclear force will be greater than the electric repulsion. equal to the number of protons. while 85Rb is rubidium with 37 protons and 38 neutrons. The strong nuclear force holds the protons together. and is called the binding energy.
So the binding energy is 1.008665 u)  23e.007825 u) + (146)(1. But we don't typically measure compared to all separate pieces. but y€s. which includes the binding energy of that nucleus. T\rtor: Hydrogen was 13.934202 u)(931. w€ would have one or two now. We're about to subtract a number that's pretty close to the number we have. a beta is the same as an electron. and others are radioactive. but what difference? Student: I add up the mass of g2 protons and 238 neutrons.050788 u  I. an antielectron with the same mass but a positive charge: a . I\rtor: A '88U nucleus has 92 protons and 238 nucleons.8r  highenergy photon . Student.) B.5. and l particles. Student: The binding energy is the difference in the ma"ss. Do we really need a new unit? Tutor: It's handy to have a unit that's about the size of the thing that we're measuring. Student: (1. Is the binding energy negative? Some nuclei are stable.6 €V. and gamma is a highenergy photon.6 eV. Student: So there are only 238 . I multiply by 931. The standard for an atomic mass unit is L. Beta decay can also be the emission of a positron. and occasionally neutrons.of the mass of a t'C nucleus. An alpha particle is the same as a helium4 nucleus. Those were 13. Note that some nuclei have more and some less mass than the atomic mass number A.934202 u T\rtor: If we had only kept three or four significant figures. T\rtor: Correct. EXAMPLE Find the binding energy of '88U. Tty it. Student: Student: And the ma^ss of the pieces is (e2)(1. Then I subtract the mass of a '88U nucleus. Student: What's a nucleon? Tutor: A nucleon is a proton or neutron in the nucleus. Student: When we did atoms. The energy here is much greater than for an atom.92 .934202 u. Radioactive nuclei emit e. the energy was negative.307 The mass of a nucleus is not equal to the atomic mass number. while we did mea^sure the atom compared to all of the electrons removed. &s always. Nuclear reactions involve much more energy than chemical reactions.!e or +1"* "y .934202 atomic mass units.5 MeV/")  1802 MeV Tutor: It's true that the binding energy is how much less energy the nucleus has than if the parts were separate. The sum of the masses of the pieces minus the ma"ss of the nucleus is Tutor: 239. sometimes called mass defect. T\rtor: Student: Ok y. and greater charge in the nucleus led to greater energies. That's one reason to use nuclear energy. Just keep track of your units.984990 u  238. Because a proton and a neutron each have mass of about 1 u.146 neutrons. It's normal to specify binding energies as positive. but not 238 neutrons.ss difference. We'll work on nuclear energy in the next chapter. Student: To get the binding energy. Because the binding energies of the various isotopes is different. but is approximately the same. this is much more.tH"*' P . is I. Student: Okay. the deviation away from A is different for each isotope.e84ee0 u Is there a reason to keep so many significant figures? Yes. the mass of the nucleus (in atomic mass units u) is about equal to the number of nucleons. The ma. When we do that. we'll get a much smaller number with two or three fewer significant figures. T\rtor: The binding energy is proportional to the difference.
just like the electrons in orbit around the nucleus do. based on 2. The mass number is also conserved in a nuclear reaction. By adding the Z's on each side. This is not the same as the mass being conserved. like a variable. Sometimes we write a nucleus in an excited state with an asterisk. The energies in the nucleus are much greater than for the electrons.83 is Bi for bismuth.rtgBi. Student: Now the bismuth2l5 decays by gamma radiation. Student: But I don't know what comes out.rtei8r +t? T\rtor: It's a photon. So if you've recently had a nuclear medical procedure done. like the At.308 CHAPTER 42. So. Student: Student: Student: How can the radiation particle have no mass and no charge? Photons don't have mass or charge.  ta +'rt!? Tutor: Student: What element is Z : 83? T\rtor: Look it up in a periodic table. lhtor: Nuclei have excited states. The binding energies before and after will be different. Z . What isotope remains Tutor: Student: I don't know where to start. %t$si*8r+2rlfBi How can you get gamma decay? Nothing happens. so radioactive material can be detected from these gamma rays. Student: Okay. Trrtor: Leave it blank. There's no way to derive or deduce the symbol just learn them or look them up. we can determine one that is missing. the charge is conserved. Since A and Z of the 7 photon are zero) the isotope afber should be the same as before.{UCLEAR PITYSICS When a nucleus decays. emitting a photon.rt$. and after a short time it decays. followed by after the decays? f decay. . a highenergy photon. *8r+2r1$Bi Student: What's so interesting about gamma decay? Why do we care? T\rtorr l rays will penetrate most things.rt$At tc. so again we can determine any one missing mass number if we know the rest. . or 215? so Student: 219:4+A. Likewise8S . write down the first reaction. An a or P decay can leave the nucleus in an excited state. EXAMPLE F Astatine2l9 ('ltAt) decays by a decay. since the mass is not exactly equal to the mass number.. I. The charge is expressed with the atomic number Z. right? The total A for each side is the same. Z 83. Good. . So that mean that A is 2I9. the same as a tnu nucleus. you 'ltAt tc. followed by B decay.+2r1$Bi Student: Is alpha decay always a fa? T\rtor: Yes. you might . All o particles are two protons and two neutrons. and this will cause the mass afterward to be different from the mass before.+2? Does T\rtor: Student: And the A's have to be the same. & B&mma ray. and A2I5. But the mass number A is conserved.qt 2+2. or are carrying kitty litter with you. so the photon is very high energy. so Z must be the same before and after.
It has small amounts of radioactive Student: Isn't that dangerous? Student: say.nndc. L rrtSgi L %tfpo g %Ltpu LrJrtBi 3 rgln. with each nucleus "deciding" independently when to decay. it is not true that after precisely 1. if the decay rate .gou/wallet/ on the Web. F_1 Tt/z ^ ln2 . . Lrglu Lrgtrpa T\rtor: Within four hours. assume B.309 set off a security detector. T\rtor: At the nuclear wallet card. found at http://wluw. Ttrtor: It has a halflife of 1. In beta decay. of course).bnl.tr. Trrtor: T\rtor: If you swallow it. and has nothing to do with wavelength (*" just the Greek letter).Ar reuse If we solve the ensuing differential equation. your chances Tntor: If it doesn't this information. but the disintegration constant does not change. On to the beta decay. of getting cancer will increase slightly. Student: 8t Student: What about 2]feot Where does it end? .\ is the disintegration constant or decay constant. which is the time needed for half of the sample to decay. The units of ) are l/time.s\t : et/r :2t/Trt. ^. The result of this is that the rate at which the nuclei decrease in number R is proportional to the number of nuclei l[. A lethal dose of 'rtlPo is only T\rtor: Student: about 10e kg. typically l/seconds but not always. or whatever element you want. including 'rtiPo. Well. Is it p+ or p7 Student: But how do you know? T\rtor: I know because I looked it up. or that after 3. You can also find it at Wikipedia by searching forisotopes of polon'ium. As the number of nuclei decrease. isotopes in it. I'm not going to do that.8 milliseconds. Nuclear decay is a random process. so does the number that decay per time. Student: Kitty litter? Yes. This may be expressed as . R we get exponential decay.8 milliseconds half of the polonium2l5 turns into lead2l1.6 milliseconds all of the polonium2I5 will be gone. Nuclear physicists are very good at compiling and disseminating 'rt5Bi > ?e + 2t ) ?P + 'rtiPo The atomic number goes up? "tfBi Yes.8 milliseconds.t?At g retSgi. The meaning of r is that.R remained the same (it won't. then all of the nuclei would decay in one natural lifetime (R: Nl"). where l/6 is the size of the initial sample and Rs is the initial decay rate in nuclei per time. Because these three forms of exponential decay are identical. all of the astatine2I9 will have turned into \ead207. When we said above that polonium2l5 has a halflife of 1. R  . T is the mean life or natural lifetimg. And where do you find all of this information. the atomic number can go up. nearly Thtor: Student: Student: No. Do alpha and beta decay always alternate like that? just coincidence here. We often use the halflife Tr/z instead. Emitted gammas can be used to detect radioactive material. are highly radioactive. Student: Is polonium2l5 stable then? Tutor: Most isotopes of polonium.
the decay rate does not stay constant.2):111 ms .WU has ahalflife Student: That seems fast. If the rate was negative. so does the decay rate. Tt/2. R^Ir # Student: I'll try to find have a mass of 215 grams. R. with a halflife of 1. then you could find the time. Student: +r. Yes. right? Because of the short halflife. A single cell has around 1012 to 1014 atoms. Ttrtor: Student: That Tt/z 1. Student: Okay. Only a very small fraction of the uranium decays every second. T. 1 mole of polonium2l5 would  (100 x r0o s) t/ x f 6'01:10'?3) \ x 1012 atoms 2LbS / 2. T\rtor: Consider that you have between 1027 and 1028 atoms in you. If you knew the initial decay rate Ro. /\r0 2t/rr/z the initial decay rate from the initial number N0. We won't get a negative time. Where do we start? Are there any that you know? Student: The halflife Tt/z is 1.389 /t mean? T\rtor: It means that a fraction of 0. T\rtor: Very good.781 rate has dropped to 20 decays/second? ils. What's 20 decays/second? Ttrtor: Student: That's the final decay rate. 100 tlg of polonium2l5 has 2. Yes.781 ms In2 Student: What does 0.4f0  (389 liQ.781 milliseconds. Student: It just seemed like a big number. Of course. so it's .R. seems like a lot.I multiply the initial number Ab by ). Student: Ah! R < Ro. and ). because there are fewer atoms to decay. they would all decay 389 times in a second. But as the number of atoms decreases.h("t) :#h(ffi) In2 (1. of about 5 billionyears.8 x 1017 atoms. True. how long must you wait until the decay T\rtor: Tutor: There's l/. NUCLEAR PHYSICS EXAMPLE Given a 100 pg sample of polonium2l5.2t/r.rz h(*) \ Ro ) +'2 trr/z' /nr Tutor: Are you bothered by the minus sign? Is it because the number of atoms is decreasing? Tutor: No.389. and 1017 isn't that much.8 x 1017 atoms)  1. decays in a time of 1 millisecond.\= 5 x 101E ls. and the log of a number less than one is negative./. if it continued. As the number of atoms declines.281 ms) (62.9%.\ Ttrtor: It's averyshort halflife. Now to find the initial rate Ro. No. t/z *.9007o decays in a second. but 100 /rg is really small. Student: And I need to find when it drops to only 20 per second. or the final number N.8 Yes. i. or 38.09 x 1020 atoms/s T\rtor: Student: That's a lot. Student: But then 389 per second means that 389% decays in a second! T\rtor: It means that 38. Ro. so .310 CHAPTER 42. the sign would disappear when we divide the two rates. the decay rate is such that. this will eventually drop. fto: ^.
. then the thing died one halflife ago. where 1 rad . but the halflives are very short. The modern unit is the sievert. Because the damage from alphas is localized and more extensive. does it? So how does this carbon dating work? People have carbon in their bodies.000 years &Bo. which is stable and doesn't decay. Of course. then add one natural lifetime. The quality factor for gammas is 1.\^nf Student: Student: ^nf Student: It only takes 111 milliseconds? How many atoms are left when this happens? or find the decay from the original number N0. more or less. So what does this mean? Remember that even a single atom would have a decay rate of 389 decays per second. so the new unit is l gray . and grays times quality factor is sieverts. No. T\rtor: Correct. and dump all of their energy in a small volume. but for alphas it is 1020. How long would it take until all of them have decayed? You can't say for sure when that happens. To get the rems. there is so little carbon left that it is hard to measure. + h .  Ns2t/Trr.01 JlkS of flesh. tr  Ab2 t/rrrz . Because gammas interact weakly. Student: How dangerous is radiation? We measure the energy that the radiation deposits in the body. so it's the expected life of a single atom. decays Tt/z 1.311 T\rtor: It takes 62 halflives. yourself from a beam you would want to block them with the whole book.781 ms Student: 103 + 2. Anythirg old will be in rads and rems. multiply the rads by the quality factor. we use rems rather than rads to describe the damage.of betas. where more or less means it could be a few milliseconds more or less. this energy is measured in rads. can you? No. they penetrate much better. Because they interact strongly. T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: So you couldn't even get a decay rate of 20 per second. When we find something organic that died.6 . while gammas have no charge and interact weakly.106 ms for them to all decay. all units should be 1. of course.100 rad). Some radiation does more damage than others. alphas interact with the first thing they can. T\rtor: For things that died last week. Tbaditionally.0. Student: I can use R.1J/kg (t Gy . we can measure the ratio of carbonl4 to carbonL2. To block a beam of gammas. _ (Z. Student: Why a natural lifetime instead of a halflife? T\rtor: That's the time it takes for all of them to decay once at the current rate. are quantized. Find the time that it takes to get to one atom. If the ratio of carbonl4 to carbonIz is half what it would naturally be. and some of it is carbonl4. Ttrtor: T\rtor: that fast. and anything new and from the government will be in grays and sieverts.g x 10tt) 202. They also don't penetrate very far you could defend yourself from a beam of alphas with one page of this book.0b T\rtor: T\rtor: How can you have less than one atom? You can't. Atoms.2 : 0. For things that died 50. Alpha particles have more charge and mass and interact more strongly. To defend .Tt/' In2 (#) _loams _ oA b#h(#) rlrr2 Student: But not everything No. so little of the carbon has decayed that carbon dating isn't useful. but you can get a reasonably good estimate. you would need a couple inches of lead. Student: But the halflife of carbonl4 is 5700 years.
T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: So the question is.001 1 *rua radx 0. so it's only 30 millirads. we can find the number of decays. 400500 rem in a short period of time is fatal it kills off the white blood cells and the victim dies of infection over . 1 rem is 0. I need to know the kilograms. Student: If we divide by the energy in each decay.83 x 1010 decays T\rtor: Student: Remember that this is per year. Higher the next couple of months.s.019b J Radiation does damage at the molecular level. to proteins and DNA. One rad is 0.3 MeV. how much 'z$fU would cause a dose of 300 millirems? Yes. Student: Now I need to know how many decays it takes to get that much energy. J"U r. Long halflives are not the greatest danger.6xfu x ffi 1 Mev . Student: And each decay produces 4. EXAMPLE 'zfllV has a halflife of 4. 30 mrad x 0.AIDS. I\rtor: Estimate. The EPA has a Web site where you can estimate your annual dose (http : / / w'tlt D. g o u / ra di ati o n / stu d ent s / calculat e . It's about 10. I. but also short enough that it decays before you die of other causes. How much does a typical adult weigh? Student: And Student: Oh. because we want the 300 millirems to be in a year.o1e5 J) x . So I need to convert it into seconds.01 J lk1.01 J llr5. Good. NUCLEAR PHYSICS How much radiation is too much? A person typically gets 300400 millirem per year of radiation.1'22x 1011 MeV T\rtor: Student: Is that a lot of MeV? That's why we do the math.) Uranium in the ground decays through a string of decays into radon gas. T\rtor: Student: That's not a lot of energy in a year. even LCD wristwatches. Student: Is an extra 300 millirems dangerous? T\rtor: The 300 millirems we get can't be too dangerous. It's impossible to avoid radiation altogether. What is the quality factor of the alphas? Student: Oops. For somethittg with a much longer halflife. It doesn't take many joules to break molecular bonds.22 x 1011 MeV 4. . Radon has a halflife of 4 days long enough to breathe it. htmQ .01 J lks x (65 kg)  ffi 0. (o. you die of something else before most of the nuclei have decayed. About half of the 300400 millirems is from radon ga.3T2 CHAPTER 42. and we want to know how much is dangerous.3 MeV. Doubling this dose shouldn't be too dangerous.5 billion years and decays via o emission with an energy of 4. like plutonium. or we would all be dead. The effect of small doses is incredibly hard to measure. because the effects are so small that they are indistinguishable from other effects. Estimate how much t88U you would have to swallow so that the added radiation dose would effectively double your annual dose. T\rtor: Yes. (Other sources include medical xrays. ep a.3 MeV  2. increased cosmic rays during air travel. much like doses can cause other bodily malfunctions. about 65 kg.
and about 0. so it doesn't change too much. or Avogadro's number. and years is a perfectly good unit of time. and it goes into the air.tot='/{t .gx1020atoms What's the weight of a uranium238 atom? 238 grams per mole. In a nuclear power plant the radiation is contained. it is followed by two beta decays.?= x 10e yr  1 . but they have low energ"y.8x1020atoms)x ' 6. .073g:73mg T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: So don't go swallowing more than 70 milligrams of uranium.'flt. . The average person gets 40 millirem from food each year. and 99 times less of it. Student: What about nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs? About 1 millircmf year from all past bomb tests.\ .!:. Yes.ro ly.54 x 10. 1.naturally occurring uranium is z$lV. But we have the halflife in years. lt. (1. But it's only seven times shorter. I can find N. Student: I'm not going to swallow anything radioactive! Many foods contain trace amounts of radioactive isotopes. Student: Now that I have R and ). because there are trace radioactive isotopes in the coal. like potassium4O. need Student: R)N Tutor: Student: T\rtor: It + N.313 Tutor: You could.01 milliremf year from nuclear power plants. so very little of this will decay before we get hit by a truck or otherwise perish.yTt/z 4. Uranium234 has a halflife of a quarter of a million years. and it ends up as uranium234. Should we be worrying about other isotopes? is true that about I% of.5 . so that we to include that as well? TUtor: Excellent thinking.02 x 1023 atoms :0.b4 x 10. Coal plants release more radiation than nuclear plants.\ 1.ro ly. What about other decays? Doesn't uranium238 turn into something radioactive. .. and that this isotope has a shorter halflife.
Most of the energy that we use is chemical energy.. If the two pieces formed are more stable. it would take They would then "nrrry. The pieces then form into new nuclei. The maximum for binding energy per nucleon occurs at !8p". Because the number of nucleons does not change. then more energy would be given off than we put in to start the reaction. we call it fission. If a large nucleus splits into two pieces that are closer to iron56. stable than the old ones. and comes from the chemical reactions of fossil fuels. Consider the reaction when we burn methane: CHa + 2O2 ' COz * 2HzO reaction. and energy is given off. then more energy comes off than we put in to start the process. where a large nucleus splits into two pieces. and energy is given off.) If we were to break the molecules into their pieces. from an energy point of view. seek lower energies. Each molecule has a binding energy. The binding energy of the large nucleus is the energy that we have to put in to separate the nucleus into its pieces. much like extracting energy from fossil fuels. w€ call it fusion. so positive energies are possibl. w€ measure stability in binding energy per nucleon. than the initial nucleus. so about 8 eV of energy is given off every time we do this Now consider the process of nuclear fission. This is the energy that we would have to put in to separate the molecule into its pieces. 314 . Carbon dioxide (COz) and water (HzO) are relatively stable molecules. If the new molecules wer. *or.Chapter 43 Energy from the Nucleus How do we extract energy from the nucleus? The process works. If two small nuclei merge into one larger piece that is closer to iron56. and release energ"y. form new molecules. (The energies in chemistry are not defined the same way as in physics. and have lower energy or more binding energy.
bo lra {. Student: Ais  onthe left.5 MeV/") .315 oCd l{tp. so I37+A+3 236. So? Student: The energy of burning methane was 8 electron volts.Lm. [n + 'z$fiv '$Ic' + T\rtor: Very good. >. and a chain reaction that keeps the process going. EXAMPTE Determine the missing "fission fragment" and the energy released in the reaction [n + .rr.043930 u  136. just like previous chapter. find the masses? ?q Rb + 3 fin w€ find the difference in masses.37 up in the periodic table. qJ bo L. The energies involved in nuclear reactions . like previous chapter.t) t Am Lm E . Notice that the energy is L72 rnega electron volts. Student: To find the energy. L. This process results in two smaller pieces. These extra neutrons can smack other nuclei.185239 u)(931. +0:92. and it's rubidium. A TJ \/ o U u F. d ta h LI o t*Dy . 95 !r.008665 u + 235. We look Z . so55+ Z 37. causing more fissions.}Eu Tutor: and Z + '$Ic'+ t? +3[n Student: Figuring out the missing piece is just matching the A's and Z's. and A96. plus two or three loose neutrons. .907089 u * 95. ori d \J  F 100 Mass number A tr .r  How do we split a large nucleus? We smack it with a neutron. Where do we T\rtor: They are conveniently located in the previous chapter.008665.934272 u * 3(1. Z \s g2ontheleft.172MeY T\rtor: Tutor: Student: So what's new? Nothing. s2 0. right? 236 Yes.185239 u : (0. 1.
for the capability to enrich uranium from I% U235 to g0% in substantial quantities. months.6 x 1025 MeV. Yes. because they have long halflives so they decay slowly.any death is a tragedy. there are many neutrons around and the chain reaction happens very fast. To achieve a substantial chain reaction. But we have many more deaths from other causes.7 g 1 . EXAMPLE The bombs used in World War II had energy yields of about 13 kilotons. gets eaten by cows.tor) ( 6. there were perhaps 2000 more due to cancer. But the most dangerous materials were the fission fragments with halflives of days.. Radioactive isotopes of iodine. Student: Only 9 people died in Chernobyl? T\rtor: The United Nations did a study and concluded that the death toll wa^s about 60. Uranium238 does not fission well.38 x 1026 MeV) lQ00 MeV) then we need I. so this number is not substantially worse than what we already suffer. So to get the same amount of electricity. There are hundreds of possible fission reactions. but we need 4% 28tU for a reactor an d 90% '88U for a highly enriched uranium bomb. Student: But what about the nuclear waste? T\rtor: The uranium and plutonium aren't the problem.316 CHAPTER 43. (1. but about 40. goes into milk. any death is Student: . E]VERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS are 100 million times larger. 235 x l024. In an HEU bomb. Don't get me wrong . but there could be others. (3. There were about 8000 additional thyroid cancers in the area because of the accident. That many people die on American roads every month. w€ need to have one onehundred millionth as many nuclear reactions. Each mole is 235 grams. is drunk by people. Fortunately thyroid cancer is treatable.7 x 1024 fissions How many kilograms is that? Student: If all of the U235 is fissioned. we need to use the isotope uranium235. The smaller pieces. and there were only 9 deaths due to thyroid cancer.. with much shorter halflives. are the problem.000 of the surrounding population would be expected to die from cancer anyway. 13 kilotons is Student: (13) (2. once a neutron causes one fission. including coalburning power plants. and then the iodine collects in the thyroid gland. for T\rtor: Student: What about Chernobyl? example. Student: Isn't this a little morbid? Student: Ok y. we need to know how much material is significant. How much enriched uranium would you need to make such a bomb? T\rtor: Again.02 x 1023 atoms )(ffi) 066kg . Student: And by using nuclear power. and strontium are the worst. Also. Wasn't there a lot of radioactive material released? There was. Radioactive iodine lands on the grass. so 2000 more is hard to detect. called fission fragments.6 x 1025 MeV)  3. One kiloton is 2.38 x 1026 MeV T\rtor: Tutor: The fission above gave I72 MeV. cesium.7 x 1024 atoms. They are highly radioactive.atragedy. The average is about 200 MeV per fission. or years. T\rtor: But reasonable estimates are that an invasion would have resulted in 50 times as many deaths as the explosions. More important. Uranium235 comprises about I% of naturally occurring uranium. Student: So this is what the CIA looks for? Tntor: Yes. w€ use 107 to 108 times less fuel. to prevent proliferation of bombs now.
too many neutrons leak out the side before causing more fissions. the enrichment process is very challengiDg. md the chain reaction doesn't turn into an explosion. so building a bomb sounds easier than it is. Flortunately. that isn't . We have to find another way to keep them from ever being used again.317 enough to make a working bomb. With a piece that size. Ah. Student: That's a good thing. Can't we just ban them or something? T\rtor: The knowledge of how to build them is too widespread to ever do that science works that way sometimes. Ttrtor: Student: That's not a lot! No it isn't.
An antiproton is made of two antiup quarks and an antidown quark (uud). funny you should ask. 318 Student conception of a muon. named after an obscure literary reference. and they are paired with the other leptons. charm. but only in groups. so that we call them the electron neutrino. (Ashley Hopkins) . neutrons.Chapter 44 auarks. . then we need to add energy. and atoms &re made out of protons. for example. If we want to separate a proton into its constituent pieces. Quarks are never seen alone. The typical method of doing this is to take a proton and something else. Other leptons include the muon and the tau. bottom. Things are made out of molecules. strange. seriously. which features No. and the Big Bang None of these things really exist. Neutrinos interact very weakly. Every particle also has an antiparticle. The six quarks are called up. Particles made of quarks are called hadrons. so let's save a little time and go straight some funny pictures and a mindbending plot twist. There are three neutrinos. and top. An antielectron. Most of the neutrinos from the Sun pass through the Earth without interacting. These particles have short lifetimes. They are one of a group of particles called leptons. and the tau neutrino. We do this hoping that the kinetic energy will change to internal enerry and free the pieces of a proton so that we can examine them. they are not made of anything else. perhaps another protoD. Groups of one quark and one antiquark are called gl@11g. The standard model of particle physics has been developed to explain these exotic particles. and include protons (uud) and neutrons (udd). and molecules are made out of atoms. so that they are hard to detect. they have less energy together than apart. before learning that muons are subatomic particles. and protons are made out of . so we don't encounter them very often and haven't needed them until now. and slam them together at high speed. Leptons. There are also elusive leptons called neutrinos. The other six elementary particles are the quarks. because otherwise they wouldntt stay together. as well as protons and electrons. to the appendix. and electrons. Groups of three quarks are called baryons. Over the last couple of decades it has been remarkably successful in interpreting the results of particle collisions. . Electrons are (currently believed to be) elementary particl that is. But whatever the pieces of a proton are. the muon neutrino. The most obvious result of slamming microscopic particles together is to create unusual particles like pions and kaons and exotic baryons. down. is a positron e*.
so if the ma. Student: Ah. then the reaction can't happen. and also the tautype leptons.319 Some Hadrons Baryons Mesons proton p neutron uud udd uuct antiproton p antineutron n ___.i p+ 5o udd uus uds dds USS E_ FO kaon 6+ kaon Ko kaon Ro kaon K pion zrUd pion zro uu or dd pion zr+ ud uS ds sd s[ There are many things that are conserved in all particle reactions. Student: Ok"y. but no leptons on Student: . but there could be energy somewhere else. and the number of muontype leptons has to be the same. Neither of the things on the left is a lepton. Even if the rest ma^ss afberward is greater. if the two initial particles are moving fast enough then there would be enough energy. So charge is okay. The energy shows up as ma. and the charge afberward is *1 because of the positron e*. Student: So the positron counts a^s 1 lepton? and the T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes. conservation laws does the following reaction violate? Fix the reaction so that violate any of the conservation laws. lhtor: Good. The charge beforehand is *1.ss. and the positron is an antielectron. Almost. The electron is a lepton. Some ParticlePhysics Conservation Laws energy momentum charge leptonf (in families) baryonf strangeness EXAMPTE Which. so there are two on the right. so it's okay. the conservation laws one by one and check to see whether they're okay. we don't have the momentums so we can't check that one. Student: First is energy. What about momentum? Student: How do I check momentum? T\rtor: While momentum is conserved. but the positron neutrino up are leptons. if any. The "in families" means that the number of electrontype leptons has to be the same. it doesn't n*P+ e* *up+Eo *ro T\rtor: Student: I go through Okay. Student: Now we check leptonf . T\rtor: Good thinking. kinetic energy. T\rtor: Partially correct.ss on the right is more than the ma"ss on the left. Then the number of leptons on the right is 1 plus *1 equals 0. Student: So there is 1 electrontype lepton and +1 muontype lepton on the right. Ttrtor: Yes.
it will fix the baryonf T\rtor: But then you'll have 2 strangeness on the right. T\rtor: A baryon has three quarks. Student: And last is strangeness. that's right. For example. a I0 ? That will have *1 strangeness. . Now I'll add two kaon K0 to the left so that the strangeness will be 2 on each side. Tutor: You need to add one baryon and one antistrange quark to the right side. This is one of many areas of research that continue in physics today. why do they keep studying it? Tutor: There are limits to what we know. Student: Okay. and to have a role in creating mass. so the reaction can't happen. It is very difficult to get more than two things to collide all at once. without adding charge. There are two baryons on the left. Baryonff it can't happen? is next.320 cHAprER 44. Student: And if I find the Higgs boson . T\rtor: You can't have more than two things on the left. and on the right only the 2o is a baryon. Student: I'll add a E0 to the right to fix the baryon number. n * p+ * e* * u"+2to + ro +2Ko Yes. Student: The leptons will be fixed if I change the u* to a L/e) won't they? T\rtor: Yes. . Thtor: . T\rtor: So to fix the reaction. Tutor: Correct. but now I have 2 strangeness on the right. LEprO_n\IS. A strange quark has strangeness of . the Higgs boson is thought to exist. with strangeness 1. you need to get the leptons conserved in families. Student: None of the baryons listed have strange quarks. and you need to add one baryon and +1 strange to the right. Student: What if I add an antiEo on the right. but no one has ever observed one in an experiment. Student: The only strange quark is in the E0 on the right. We would need another baryon on the right. This is one of many reactions that are possible when a highenergy neutron and proton collide. AIVD THE BIG BAIVG the left. so having an antistrange quark makes it an antibaryon. . and T\rtor: Correct. But then the baryon number on the right becomes zero. QUARKS. Thtor: Student: And if I add another E0 to the right. Student: So I need to add two kaons K0 to the right.1. There are fewer baryons afterward. Student: If physicists understand all of this so well. T\rtor: Just count the number of strange quarks on each side. I\rtor: You'll receive the Nobel Prize in physics. Student: Oh.
DrrI ' \ ...h*' +f.r_ . cosn. ln(l  .  (1+ r)31 *3r*3r2+.1 *2r * 12 e* :1+ r***'+#"t+.1)*' +.3 +..n(n.2sin2 0 sin(o + 0: sinocos P + cos asinB cos(o + P) .t" (+) (ry) .1 .o.1 *nr + f...hypotenuse tan0opposite adjacent Quadratic equation: If Thigonometry an2*br*cQ then nry sin20 identities: )sin g cos 0 cos 20 ("H) . +b2 "2 sin2 0+cos2 0 .1.": ..1. (1 + *)L tansr* t"t +?u*' +.1 +*"t*' +#"t+... .r4+.o. ...*rt+..  (1 + n)2 12r*Br24rs +. I tt + *)' .r :l . *cos B2cos cos (+) a cos B 2 sin (ry). (1 + n)n *r) nL*' +irt+.  (1 + n)L/2 ..coso cos 0 +sino sinB cos2 0 ff) cos... sina*sin po^..no tan 0 k adjacent sinp:ghypotenuse cos0...Mathematical Formulas Righttriangle: o2 r. Some Common Taylor Series ..2cos2 1 ...sin2 0 . I tt *r)Llz 32r ..Lz**t*' .1n*12 r. sinr n*n3+*ru+..
560 ft2 104 m2 CA.mzf s a.Some Useful Constants and Data gravity g 9.6605 x 1027 kg .Jl.626 x 1034 J.s 1 gallon (US)  1 eV .529 x 1010 m Bohr radius Ep 13.013 x 105 N/' or pascals 1 cal .8542 x 1012 C2/N.0 x 106 m) lQ") radius of Earth's orbit AU 1.98 x 1024 kg mass of Earth radius of Earth B@ 6.s hc 1239.s W .JIC .m'lr'.T.24 mph 1 acre  r x 107 s kilogram newton l* N .3807 x 1023 J lK elementary charge e L6022 x 101e C universal gas constant R 8.s .I.W.6704 x 108 W l^'.2.999 eY f c2 proton rnass mp L6726 x 1027 kg .938 .510.674 x 1011 N.45 = 0.N.565 MeY f c2 Tnu 1.).4.99 x 10e N.eV hc for photon energy permeability constant Fo 4n x 10z a.109 x 1031 kg .931 .vlA N/C Ylrrr' FClvs/o T t hp 1 Tesla  746W  104 gauss inductance magnetic field HV.54 cm (exact) I ft 0.494MeY f c2 atomic mass unit M@ 5.37 x 106 ID .136 x 1015 eV.m2 lC' Coulomb's law StefanBoltzmann constant o 5.2.84 nm.(a0."astronomical unit") speed of sound in 20"C air 343 m/s acceleration of speed of light in SI Prefixes E P T G M k c m p n p f exa peta tera giga mega 1018 1015 1012 10e 106 103 kilo centi milli micro nano pico femto 102 103 10o LOe 1010 12 15 Conversion Factors 1 mile : 5280 ft (exact) 1 in .s/A:f.8. .mlA permittivity constant €s 8.Nek Planck constant h 6.m2 as 0.50 x 1011 m (AU .K .m/s: V'A force enerry power charge joule watt coulomb ampere 360' t hectare 1 pound  43.kg.1868 J 3.80665 mf s2 vacuum c 2.m2 lk1' Avogadro's constant I{n 6.N m: kg.3145 J/mol.998 x 108 m/s Newton's gravitation G 6.m/s2 J .y+ electron mass me 9.3048 m 1 Units length meter second  1609 m time MASS y :365.606 eV Rydberg energy k Il(aneg) .4.939.m circle: C 2rR sphere: A .022 x 1023 f mol Boltzmann constant k 1.1.4nR2 322 .2425 d = 1 m/s .786 liter N 4.s  N/A.27 MeY l"' neutron mass mn L6749 x 1027 kg .A CI.4536 kg  electric field current potential resistance capacitance volt ohm farad henry tesla ACl":YlQ V .602 101e J 1 atm .
1 2 H 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 He 10 Li 11 Be 12 B 13 C 14 N 15 0 16 F 17 Ne 18 Na 19 Mg 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Al 31 Si 32 P 33 S 34 CI 35 Ar 36 K 37 Ca 38 Sc 39 Ti 40 V 41 Cr 42 Mn 43 Fe 44 Co 45 Ni 46 Cu 47 Zn 48 Ga 49 Ge 50 As 51 Se 52 Br 53 Kr 54 Rb 55 Sr 56 Y Zr 72 Nb 73 Mo 74 Tc 75 Ru 76 Rh 77 Pd 78 Ag 79 Cd 80 In 81 Sn 82 Sb 83 Te 84 I 85 Xe 86 Cs 87 Ba 88 * ** 57 Hf 104 Ta 105 W 106 Re 107 Os 108 Ir 109 Pt 110 Au 111 Hg TI Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Rf 58 Db 59 Sg 60 Bh 61 Hs 62 Mt 63 Ds 64 Rg 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 * ** La 89 Ce 90 Pr 91 Nd 92 Pm 93 Sm 94 Eu 95 Gd 96 Tb 97 Dy 98 Ho 99 Er 100 Tm 101 Yb 102 Lu 103 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr .